Name

GEO Signatures of Differentially Expressed Genes for Kinase Perturbations Dataset

From Gene Expression Omnibus

mRNA expression profiles for cell lines or tissues following kinase perturbation (inhibition, activation, knockdown, knockout, over-expression, mutation)

LINCS Kinativ Kinase Inhibitor Bioactivity Profiles Dataset

From LINCS Kinativ

percent inhibition of kinases by small molecules measured in cell lysates

LINCS KinomeScan Kinase Inhibitor Targets Dataset

From LINCS KinomeScan

kinase inhibitor targets from percent inhibition of kinases by small molecules measured using purified kinases

Pathway Commons Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Pathway Commons

protein-protein interactions from low-throughput or high-throughput studies aggregated by Pathway Commons from the following databases: Reactome, NCI Pathways, PhosphoSite, HumanCyc, HPRD, PANTHER, DIP, BioGRID, IntAct, BIND, Transfac, MiRTarBase, Drugbank, Recon X, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, and KEGG

Biocarta Pathways Dataset

From Biocarta

sets of proteins participating in pathways

HumanCyc Pathways Dataset

From HumanCyc

sets of proteins participating in pathways

KEGG Pathways Dataset

From Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

sets of proteins participating in pathways

PANTHER Pathways Dataset

From PANTHER

sets of proteins participating in pathways

PID Pathways Dataset

From Pathway Interaction Database

sets of proteins participating in pathways

Reactome Pathways Dataset

From Reactome

sets of proteins participating in pathways

Wikipathways Pathways Dataset

From Wikipathways

sets of proteins participating in pathways

Hub Proteins Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Hub Proteins

sets of proteins interacting with hub proteins

NURSA Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

protein-protein interactions inferred from membership in complexes

Virus MINT Protein-Viral Protein Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viral and human proteins manually curated from literature

COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by manual literature curation

COMPARTMENTS Experimental Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by integrating experimental data

COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

gene-cellular compartment co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

CORUM Protein Complexes Dataset

From CORUM

proteins participating in complexes by manual literature curation

Guide to Pharmacology Protein Ligands of Receptors Dataset

From Guide to Pharmacology

ligand-receptor interactions curated by experts

HPA Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

semiquantitative protein expression profiles for tissues

HPM Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Proteome Map

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types

InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations Dataset

From InterPro

protein domains predicted for gene products based on sequence similarity to known domain signatures

LOCATE Curated Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins from low-throughput or high-throughput protein localization assays

NURSA Protein Complexes Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

proteins identified in complexes isolated from cultured cells

ProteomicsDB Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Proteomics Database

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types reprocessed from many proteomics datasets

SILAC Phosphoproteomics Signatures of Differentially Phosphorylated Proteins for Protein Ligands Dataset

From SILAC Phosphoproteomics

phosphorylation levels of proteins in cell lines following ligand treatment

TISSUES Curated Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by manual literature curation

TISSUES Experimental Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by integrating experimental data

TISSUES Text-mining Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

gene-tissue co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

Virus MINT Protein-Virus Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viruses and human proteins manually curated from literature

LOCATE Predicted Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins by sequence similarity to localization sequences

HPA Cell Line Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for cell lines

HPA Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissues

HPA Tissue Sample Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissue samples

KEA Substrates of Kinases Dataset

From Kinase Enrichment Analysis

protein substrates of kinases from published low-throughput and high-throughput phosphoproteomics studies

MKNK2 Gene

MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMK) Ser/Thr protein kinase family, which belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. This protein contains conserved DLG (asp-leu-gly) and ENIL (glu-asn-ile-leu) motifs, and an N-terminal polybasic region which binds importin A and the translation factor scaffold protein eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G). This protein is one of the downstream kinases activated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. It phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), thus playing important roles in the initiation of mRNA translation, oncogenic transformation and malignant cell proliferation. In addition to eIF4E, this protein also interacts with von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL), ring-box 1 (Rbx1) and Cullin2 (Cul2), which are all components of the CBC(VHL) ubiquitin ligase E3 complex. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but the full-length nature and biological activity of only two variants are determined. These two variants encode distinct isoforms which differ in activity and regulation, and in subcellular localization. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

MKNK1 Gene

MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 1

This gene encodes a Ser/Thr protein kinase that interacts with, and is activated by ERK1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, and thus may play a role in the response to environmental stress and cytokines. This kinase may also regulate transcription by phosphorylating eIF4E via interaction with the C-terminal region of eIF4G. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

MKNK2P1 Gene

MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 pseudogene 1

STRAP Gene

serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein

LOC105375252 Gene

serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein pseudogene

LOC344382 Gene

serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein pseudogene

BMPR2 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase)

This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. The ligands of this receptor are BMPs, which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. BMPs are involved in endochondral bone formation and embryogenesis. These proteins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes of two different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in the absence of type I receptors, but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II receptors for ligand binding. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary pulmonary hypertension, both familial and fenfluramine-associated, and with pulmonary venoocclusive disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RIPK1 Gene

receptor (TNFRSF)-interacting serine-threonine kinase 1

RIPK3 Gene

receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 3

The product of this gene is a member of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and contains a C-terminal domain unique from other RIP family members. The encoded protein is predominantly localized to the cytoplasm, and can undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling dependent on novel nuclear localization and export signals. It is a component of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-I signaling complex, and can induce apoptosis and weakly activate the NF-kappaB transcription factor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RIPK2 Gene

receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein contains a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD), and is a component of signaling complexes in both the innate and adaptive immune pathways. It is a potent activator of NF-kappaB and inducer of apoptosis in response to various stimuli. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RIPK4 Gene

receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase that interacts with protein kinase C-delta. The encoded protein can also activate NFkappaB and is required for keratinocyte differentiation. This kinase undergoes autophosphorylation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NIM1K Gene

NIM1 serine/threonine protein kinase

STK11IP Gene

serine/threonine kinase 11 interacting protein

LOC102724428 Gene

serine/threonine-protein kinase SIK1

LOC105371128 Gene

serine/threonine-protein kinase SMG1-like

LOC392226 Gene

serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK1-like

SGK494 Gene

uncharacterized serine/threonine-protein kinase SgK494

DSTYK Gene

dual serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase

This gene encodes a dual serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase which is expressed in multiple tissues. It is thought to function as a regulator of cell death. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

LOC102723432 Gene

serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 2 pseudogene

STK26 Gene

serine/threonine protein kinase 26

The product of this gene is a member of the GCK group III family of kinases, which are a subset of the Ste20-like kinases. The encoded protein contains an amino-terminal kinase domain, and a carboxy-terminal regulatory domain that mediates homodimerization. The protein kinase localizes to the Golgi apparatus and is specifically activated by binding to the Golgi matrix protein GM130. It is also cleaved by caspase-3 in vitro, and may function in the apoptotic pathway. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BUB1 Gene

BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase

This gene encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase that play a central role in mitosis. The encoded protein functions in part by phosphorylating members of the mitotic checkpoint complex and activating the spindle checkpoint. This protein also plays a role in inhibiting the activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome. This protein may also function in the DNA damage response. Mutations in this gene have been associated with aneuploidy and several forms of cancer. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

FASTK Gene

Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase was shown to be activated rapidly during Fas-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat cells. In response to Fas receptor ligation, it phosphorylates TIA1, an apoptosis-promoting nuclear RNA-binding protein. The encoded protein is a strong inducer of lymphocyte apoptosis. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Other variants exist, but their full-length natures have not yet been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK38L Gene

serine/threonine kinase 38 like

STK19 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 19

This gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase which localizes predominantly to the nucleus. Its specific function is unknown; it is possible that phosphorylation of this protein is involved in transcriptional regulation. This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6 and expresses two transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK10 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 10

This gene encodes a member of the Ste20 family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and is similar to several known polo-like kinase kinases. The protein can associate with and phosphorylate polo-like kinase 1, and overexpression of a kinase-dead version of the protein interferes with normal cell cycle progression. The kinase can also negatively regulate interleukin 2 expression in T-cells via the mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 1 pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK11 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 11

This gene, which encodes a member of the serine/threonine kinase family, regulates cell polarity and functions as a tumor suppressor. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the growth of polyps in the gastrointestinal tract, pigmented macules on the skin and mouth, and other neoplasms. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK16 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 16

MTOR Gene

mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of phosphatidylinositol kinase-related kinases. These kinases mediate cellular responses to stresses such as DNA damage and nutrient deprivation. This protein acts as the target for the cell-cycle arrest and immunosuppressive effects of the FKBP12-rapamycin complex. The ANGPTL7 gene is located in an intron of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

STK25P1 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 25 pseudogene 1

BRAF Gene

B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the raf/mil family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. Mutations in this gene are associated with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, a disease characterized by heart defects, mental retardation and a distinctive facial appearance. Mutations in this gene have also been associated with various cancers, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, colorectal cancer, malignant melanoma, thyroid carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of lung. A pseudogene, which is located on chromosome X, has been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PXK Gene

PX domain containing serine/threonine kinase

This gene encodes a phox (PX) domain-containing protein which may be involved in synaptic transmission and the ligand-induced internalization and degradation of epidermal growth factors. Variations in this gene may be associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

STK32C Gene

serine/threonine kinase 32C

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The specific function of this kinase is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK32B Gene

serine/threonine kinase 32B

STK32A Gene

serine/threonine kinase 32A

MASTL Gene

microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase-like

This gene encodes a microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase. Mutations at this locus have been associated with autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia, also known as thrombocytopenia-2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this locus. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

MAST1 Gene

microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase 1

MAST2 Gene

microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase 2

MAST3 Gene

microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase 3

MAST4 Gene

microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase family member 4

This gene encodes a member of the microtubule-associated serine/threonine protein kinases. The proteins in this family contain a domain that gives the kinase the ability to determine its own scaffold to control the effects of their kinase activities. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

STK19B Gene

serine/threonine kinase 19B, pseudogene

STK31 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 31

This gene is similar to a mouse gene that encodes a putative protein kinase with a tudor domain, and shows testis-specific expression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK33 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 33

STK35 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 35

The protein encoded by this gene is a kinase that is predominantly found in the nucleus. However, it can interact with PDLIM1/CLP-36 in the cytoplasm and localize to actin stress fibers. The encoded protein may be a regulator of actin stress fibers in nonmuscle cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK36 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 36

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine kinase family of enzymes. This family member is similar to a Drosophila protein that plays a key role in the Hedgehog signaling pathway. This human protein is a positive regulator of the GLI zinc-finger transcription factors. Knockout studies of the homologous mouse gene suggest that defects in this human gene may lead to congenital hydrocephalus, possibly due to a functional defect in motile cilia. Because Hedgehog signaling is frequently activated in certain kinds of gastrointestinal cancers, it has been suggested that this gene is a target for the treatment of these cancers. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

STK38 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 38

This gene encodes a member of the AGC serine/threonine kinase family of proteins. The kinase activity of this protein is regulated by autophosphorylation and phosphorylation by other upstream kinases. This protein has been shown to function in the cell cycle and apoptosis. This protein has also been found to regulate the protein stability and transcriptional activity of the MYC oncogene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

ILKAP Gene

integrin-linked kinase-associated serine/threonine phosphatase

The protein encoded by this gene is a protein serine/threonine phosphatase of the PP2C family. This protein can interact with integrin-linked kinase (ILK/ILK1), a regulator of integrin mediated signaling, and regulate the kinase activity of ILK. Through the interaction with ILK, this protein may selectively affect the signaling process of ILK-mediated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3beta), and thus participate in Wnt signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK16P1 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 16 pseudogene 1

CIT Gene

citron rho-interacting serine/threonine kinase

This gene encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase that functions in cell division. Together with the kinesin KIF14, this protein localizes to the central spindle and midbody, and functions to promote efficient cytokinesis. This protein is involved in central nervous system development. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with bipolar disorder and risk for schizophrenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

BUB1B Gene

BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B

This gene encodes a kinase involved in spindle checkpoint function. The protein has been localized to the kinetochore and plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), delaying the onset of anaphase and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Impaired spindle checkpoint function has been found in many forms of cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK3 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 3

This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase activated by proapoptotic molecules indicating the encoded protein functions as a growth suppressor. Cleavage of the protein product by caspase removes the inhibitory C-terminal portion. The N-terminal portion is transported to the nucleus where it homodimerizes to form the active kinase which promotes the condensation of chromatin during apoptosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

STK4 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a cytoplasmic kinase that is structurally similar to the yeast Ste20p kinase, which acts upstream of the stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. The encoded protein can phosphorylate myelin basic protein and undergoes autophosphorylation. A caspase-cleaved fragment of the encoded protein has been shown to be capable of phosphorylating histone H2B. The particular phosphorylation catalyzed by this protein has been correlated with apoptosis, and it's possible that this protein induces the chromatin condensation observed in this process. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAF1 Gene

Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase

This gene is the cellular homolog of viral raf gene (v-raf). The encoded protein is a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), which functions downstream of the Ras family of membrane associated GTPases to which it binds directly. Once activated, the cellular RAF1 protein can phosphorylate to activate the dual specificity protein kinases MEK1 and MEK2, which in turn phosphorylate to activate the serine/threonine specific protein kinases, ERK1 and ERK2. Activated ERKs are pleiotropic effectors of cell physiology and play an important role in the control of gene expression involved in the cell division cycle, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are associated with Noonan syndrome 5 and LEOPARD syndrome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK24P1 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 24 pseudogene 1

PASK Gene

PAS domain containing serine/threonine kinase

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine kinase family that contains two PAS domains. Expression of this gene is regulated by glucose, and the encoded protein plays a role in the regulation of insulin gene expression. Downregulation of this gene may play a role in type 2 diabetes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

STK17B Gene

serine/threonine kinase 17b

STK17A Gene

serine/threonine kinase 17a

This gene is a member of the DAP kinase-related apoptosis-inducing protein kinase family and encodes an autophosphorylated nuclear protein with a protein kinase domain. The protein has apoptosis-inducing activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STKLD1 Gene

serine/threonine kinase-like domain containing 1

STK40 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 40

ATM Gene

ATM serine/threonine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. This protein is an important cell cycle checkpoint kinase that phosphorylates; thus, it functions as a regulator of a wide variety of downstream proteins, including tumor suppressor proteins p53 and BRCA1, checkpoint kinase CHK2, checkpoint proteins RAD17 and RAD9, and DNA repair protein NBS1. This protein and the closely related kinase ATR are thought to be master controllers of cell cycle checkpoint signaling pathways that are required for cell response to DNA damage and for genome stability. Mutations in this gene are associated with ataxia telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

ATR Gene

ATR serine/threonine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia. This protein and ATM share similarity with Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3, a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This kinase has been shown to phosphorylate checkpoint kinase CHK1, checkpoint proteins RAD17, and RAD9, as well as tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. Mutations of this gene are associated with Seckel syndrome. An alternatively spliced transcript variant of this gene has been reported, however, its full length nature is not known. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA sites exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BUB1P1 Gene

BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase pseudogene 1

STYK1 Gene

serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1

Receptor protein tyrosine kinases, like STYK1, play important roles in diverse cellular and developmental processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival (Liu et al., 2004 [PubMed 15150103]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

BRSK2 Gene

BR serine/threonine kinase 2

BRSK1 Gene

BR serine/threonine kinase 1

STK25 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 25

This gene encodes a member of the germinal centre kinase III (GCK III) subfamily of the sterile 20 superfamily of kinases. The encoded enzyme plays a role in serine-threonine liver kinase B1 (LKB1) signaling pathway to regulate neuronal polarization and morphology of the Golgi apparatus. The protein is translocated from the Golgi apparatus to the nucleus in response to chemical anoxia and plays a role in regulation of cell death. A pseudogene associated with this gene is located on chromosome 18. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

STK24 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 24

This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that functions upstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The encoded protein is cleaved into two chains by caspases; the N-terminal fragment (MST3/N) translocates to the nucleus and promotes programmed cells death. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome X. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

PIM2 Gene

Pim-2 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase

This gene encodes a protooncogene that acts as a serine/threonine protein kinase. Studies determined the encoded protein functions to prevent apoptosis and to promote cell survival.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

STK33P1 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 33 pseudogene 1

ARAF Gene

A-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase

This proto-oncogene belongs to the RAF subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and maybe involved in cell growth and development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

STK39 Gene

serine threonine kinase 39

This gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase that is thought to function in the cellular stress response pathway. The kinase is activated in response to hypotonic stress, leading to phosphorylation of several cation-chloride-coupled cotransporters. The catalytically active kinase specifically activates the p38 MAP kinase pathway, and its interaction with p38 decreases upon cellular stress, suggesting that this kinase may serve as an intermediate in the response to cellular stress. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIM3 Gene

Pim-3 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and PIM subfamily. This gene is overexpressed in hematological and epithelial tumors and is associated with MYC coexpression. It plays a role in the regulation of signal transduction cascades, contributing to both cell proliferation and survival, and provides a selective advantage in tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

PIM1 Gene

Pim-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and PIM subfamily. This gene is expressed primarily in B-lymphoid and myeloid cell lines, and is overexpressed in hematopoietic malignancies and in prostate cancer. It plays a role in signal transduction in blood cells, contributing to both cell proliferation and survival, and thus provides a selective advantage in tumorigenesis. Both the human and orthologous mouse genes have been reported to encode two isoforms (with preferential cellular localization) resulting from the use of alternative in-frame translation initiation codons, the upstream non-AUG (CUG) and downstream AUG codons (PMIDs:16186805, 1825810).[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC102725016 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B'' subunit beta

LOC100133326 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

LOC100132773 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

PSTPIP2 Gene

proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 2

PSTPIP1 Gene

proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene binds to the cytoplasmic tail of CD2, an effector of T cell activation and adhesion, negatively affecting CD2-triggered T cell activation. The encoded protein appears to be a scaffold protein and a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. It has also been shown to bind ABL1, PTPN18, WAS, CD2AP, and PTPN12. Mutations in this gene are a cause of PAPA syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100131868 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

LOC100131360 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

LOC100288016 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

LOC102724991 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B'' subunit beta

STYX Gene

serine/threonine/tyrosine interacting protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a pseudophosphatase, able to bind potential substrates but lacking an active catalytic loop. The encoded protein may be involved in spermiogenesis. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for these genes. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

LOC101059962 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 10-like

MAP4K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 1

MAP4K3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase family. The encoded protein activates key effectors in cell signalling, among them c-Jun. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

MAP4K2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. Although this kinase is found in many tissues, its expression in lymphoid follicles is restricted to the cells of germinal centre, where it may participate in B-cell differentiation. This kinase can be activated by TNF-alpha, and has been shown to specifically activate MAP kinases. This kinase is also found to interact with TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), which is involved in the activation of MAP3K1/MEKK1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

MAP4K5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 5

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family, that is highly similar to yeast SPS1/STE20 kinase. Yeast SPS1/STE20 functions near the beginning of the MAP kinase signal cascades that is essential for yeast pheromone response. This kinase was shown to activate Jun kinase in mammalian cells, which suggested a role in stress response. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP4K4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase has been shown to specifically activate MAPK8/JNK. The activation of MAPK8 by this kinase is found to be inhibited by the dominant-negative mutants of MAP3K7/TAK1, MAP2K4/MKK4, and MAP2K7/MKK7, which suggests that this kinase may function through the MAP3K7-MAP2K4-MAP2K7 kinase cascade, and mediate the TNF-alpha signaling pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STYXL1 Gene

serine/threonine/tyrosine interacting-like 1

SIT1 Gene

signaling threshold regulating transmembrane adaptor 1

PKMYT1 Gene

protein kinase, membrane associated tyrosine/threonine 1

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein is a membrane-associated kinase that negatively regulates the G2/M transition of the cell cycle by phosphorylating and inactivating cyclin-dependent kinase 1. The activity of the encoded protein is regulated by polo-like kinase 1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

SRCIN1 Gene

SRC kinase signaling inhibitor 1

MAP3K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase and is part of some signal transduction cascades, including the ERK and JNK kinase pathways as well as the NF-kappa-B pathway. The encoded protein is activated by autophosphorylation and requires magnesium as a cofactor in phosphorylating other proteins. This protein has E3 ligase activity conferred by a plant homeodomain (PHD) in its N-terminus and phospho-kinase activity conferred by a kinase domain in its C-terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

MAP3K10 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 10

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase has been shown to activate MAPK8/JNK and MKK4/SEK1, and this kinase itself can be phoshorylated, and thus activated by JNK kinases. This kinase functions preferentially on the JNK signaling pathway, and is reported to be involved in nerve growth factor (NGF) induced neuronal apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K13 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 13

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase contains a dual leucine-zipper motif, and has been shown to form dimers/oligomers through its leucine-zipper motif. This kinase can phosphorylate and activate MAPK8/JNK, MAP2K7/MKK7, which suggests a role in the JNK signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K19 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 19

MAP3K11 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 11

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase contains a SH3 domain and a leucine zipper-basic motif. This kinase preferentially activates MAPK8/JNK kinase, and functions as a positive regulator of JNK signaling pathway. This kinase can directly phosphorylate, and activates IkappaB kinase alpha and beta, and is found to be involved in the transcription activity of NF-kappaB mediated by Rho family GTPases and CDC42. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K12 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 12

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase contains a leucine-zipper domain and is predominately expressed in neuronal cells. The phosphorylation state of this kinase in synaptic terminals was shown to be regulated by membrane depolarization via calcineurin. This kinase forms heterodimers with leucine zipper containing transcription factors, such as cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and MYC, and thus may play a regulatory role in PKA or retinoic acid induced neuronal differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different proteins have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

MAP3K15 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 15

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. These family members function in a protein kinase signal transduction cascade, where an activated MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) phosphorylates and activates a specific MAPK kinase (MAP2K), which then activates a specific MAPK. This MAP3K protein plays an essential role in apoptotic cell death triggered by cellular stresses. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

MAP3K8 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8

This gene is an oncogene that encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein localizes to the cytoplasm and can activate both the MAP kinase and JNK kinase pathways. This protein was shown to activate IkappaB kinases, and thus induce the nuclear production of NF-kappaB. This protein was also found to promote the production of TNF-alpha and IL-2 during T lymphocyte activation. This gene may also utilize a downstream in-frame translation start codon, and thus produce an isoform containing a shorter N-terminus. The shorter isoform has been shown to display weaker transforming activity. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

MAP3K9 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 9

MAP3K2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase preferentially activates other kinases involved in the MAP kinase signaling pathway. This kinase has been shown to directly phosphorylate and activate Ikappa B kinases, and thus plays a role in NF-kappa B signaling pathway. This kinase has also been found to bind and activate protein kinase C-related kinase 2, which suggests its involvement in a regulated signaling process. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3

This gene product is a 626-amino acid polypeptide that is 96.5% identical to mouse Mekk3. Its catalytic domain is closely related to those of several other kinases, including mouse Mekk2, tobacco NPK, and yeast Ste11. Northern blot analysis revealed a 4.6-kb transcript that appears to be ubiquitously expressed. This protein directly regulates the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathways by activating SEK and MEK1/2 respectively; it does not regulate the p38 pathway. In cotransfection assays, it enhanced transcription from a nuclear factor kappa-B (NFKB)-dependent reporter gene, consistent with a role in the SAPK pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K7 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase mediates the signaling transduction induced by TGF beta and morphogenetic protein (BMP), and controls a variety of cell functions including transcription regulation and apoptosis. In response to IL-1, this protein forms a kinase complex including TRAF6, MAP3K7P1/TAB1 and MAP3K7P2/TAB2; this complex is required for the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. This kinase can also activate MAPK8/JNK, MAP2K4/MKK4, and thus plays a role in the cell response to environmental stresses. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4

The central core of each mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a conserved cascade of 3 protein kinases: an activated MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) phosphorylates and activates a specific MAPK kinase (MAPKK), which then activates a specific MAPK. While the ERK MAPKs are activated by mitogenic stimulation, the CSBP2 and JNK MAPKs are activated by environmental stresses such as osmotic shock, UV irradiation, wound stress, and inflammatory factors. This gene encodes a MAPKKK, the MEKK4 protein, also called MTK1. This protein contains a protein kinase catalytic domain at the C terminus. The N-terminal nonkinase domain may contain a regulatory domain. Expression of MEKK4 in mammalian cells activated the CSBP2 and JNK MAPK pathways, but not the ERK pathway. In vitro kinase studies indicated that recombinant MEKK4 can specifically phosphorylate and activate PRKMK6 and SERK1, MAPKKs that activate CSBP2 and JNK, respectively but cannot phosphorylate PRKMK1, an MAPKK that activates ERKs. MEKK4 is a major mediator of environmental stresses that activate the CSBP2 MAPK pathway, and a minor mediator of the JNK pathway. Several alternatively spliced transcripts encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

MAP3K5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades include MAPK or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), MAPK kinase (MKK or MEK), and MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MEKK). MAPKK kinase/MEKK phosphorylates and activates its downstream protein kinase, MAPK kinase/MEK, which in turn activates MAPK. The kinases of these signaling cascades are highly conserved, and homologs exist in yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells. MAPKKK5 contains 1,374 amino acids with all 11 kinase subdomains. Northern blot analysis shows that MAPKKK5 transcript is abundantly expressed in human heart and pancreas. The MAPKKK5 protein phosphorylates and activates MKK4 (aliases SERK1, MAPKK4) in vitro, and activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) during transient expression in COS and 293 cells; MAPKKK5 does not activate MAPK/ERK. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K6 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 6

This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that forms a component of protein kinase-mediated signal transduction cascades. The encoded kinase participates in the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

MAP3K14 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14

This gene encodes mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14, which is a serine/threonine protein-kinase. This kinase binds to TRAF2 and stimulates NF-kappaB activity. It shares sequence similarity with several other MAPKK kinases. It participates in an NF-kappaB-inducing signalling cascade common to receptors of the tumour-necrosis/nerve-growth factor (TNF/NGF) family and to the interleukin-1 type-I receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NSMF Gene

NMDA receptor synaptonuclear signaling and neuronal migration factor

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in guidance of olfactory axon projections and migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons. Defects in this gene are a cause of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

RGS7BP Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 7 binding protein

This gene encodes a protein that binds to all members of the R7 subfamily of regulators of G protein signaling and regulates their translocation between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. The encoded protein could be regulated by reversible palmitoylation, which anchors it to the plasma membrane. Depalmitoylation localizes the protein to the nucleus. Polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with risk of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

RGS9BP Gene

regulator of G protein signaling 9 binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene functions as a regulator of G protein-coupled receptor signaling in phototransduction. Studies in bovine and mouse show that this gene is expressed only in the retina, and is localized in the rod outer segment membranes. This protein is associated with a heterotetrameric complex, specifically interacting with the regulator of G-protein signaling 9, and appears to function as the membrane anchor for the other largely soluble interacting partners. Mutations in this gene are associated with prolonged electroretinal response suppression (PERRS), also known as bradyopsia. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

TMPRSS11GP Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11G, pseudogene

TMPRSS12 Gene

transmembrane (C-terminal) protease, serine 12

TMPRSS13 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 13

This gene encodes a member of the type II transmembrane serine protease family. Transmembrane serine proteases are regulated by protease inhibitors and known to function in development, homeostasis, infection, and tumorigenesis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

TMPRSS15 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 15

This gene encodes an enzyme that converts the pancreatic proenzyme trypsinogen to trypsin, which activates other proenzymes including chymotrypsinogen and procarboxypeptidases. The precursor protein is cleaved into two chains that form a heterodimer linked by a disulfide bond. This protein is a member of the trypsin family of peptidases. Mutations in this gene cause enterokinase deficiency, a malabsorption disorder characterized by diarrhea and failure to thrive. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMPRSS11CP Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11C, pseudogene

SERTM1 Gene

serine-rich and transmembrane domain containing 1

TMPRSS11A Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11A

TMPRSS11B Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11B

TMPRSS11D Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11D

This gene encodes a trypsin-like serine protease released from the submucosal serous glands onto mucous membrane. It is a type II integral membrane protein and has 29-38% identity in the sequence of the catalytic region with human hepsin, enteropeptidase, acrosin, and mast cell tryptase. The noncatalytic region has little similarity to other known proteins. This protein may play some biological role in the host defense system on the mucous membrane independently of or in cooperation with other substances in airway mucous or bronchial secretions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMPRSS11E Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11E

TMPRSS11F Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11F

TMPRSS9 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 9

TMPRSS2 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 2

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine protease family. The encoded protein contains a type II transmembrane domain, a receptor class A domain, a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain and a protease domain. Serine proteases are known to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes. This gene was demonstrated to be up-regulated by androgenic hormones in prostate cancer cells and down-regulated in androgen-independent prostate cancer tissue. The protease domain of this protein is thought to be cleaved and secreted into cell media after autocleavage. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

TMPRSS3 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 3

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine protease family. The encoded protein contains a serine protease domain, a transmembrane domain, an LDL receptor-like domain, and a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain. Serine proteases are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes, whose malfunction often leads to human diseases and disorders. This gene was identified by its association with both congenital and childhood onset autosomal recessive deafness. This gene is expressed in fetal cochlea and many other tissues, and is thought to be involved in the development and maintenance of the inner ear or the contents of the perilymph and endolymph. This gene was also identified as a tumor-associated gene that is overexpressed in ovarian tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

TMPRSS4 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 4

This gene encodes a member of the serine protease family. Serine proteases are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes, whose malfunction often leads to human diseases and disorders. This gene was identified as a gene overexpressed in pancreatic carcinoma. The encoded protein is membrane bound with a N-terminal anchor sequence and a glycosylated extracellular region containing the serine protease domain. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMPRSS5 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 5

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine protease family. Serine proteases are known to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

TMPRSS6 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane serine proteinase that is found attached to the cell surface. The encoded protein may be involved in matrix remodeling processes in the liver. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

TMPRSS7 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 7

PSKH2 Gene

protein serine kinase H2

PSKH1 Gene

protein serine kinase H1

CASK Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)

This gene encodes a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase. The encoded protein is a MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) protein family member. These proteins are scaffold proteins and the encoded protein is located at synapses in the brain. Mutations in this gene are associated with FG syndrome 4, mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia, and a form of X-linked mental retardation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC100419851 Gene

protein serine kinase H1 pseudogene

CASKP1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family) pseudogene 1

SGSM3 Gene

small G protein signaling modulator 3

RGS4 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 4

Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family members are regulatory molecules that act as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) for G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins into their inactive GDP-bound forms. Regulator of G protein signaling 4 belongs to this family. All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed the RGS domain. Regulator of G protein signaling 4 protein is 37% identical to RGS1 and 97% identical to rat Rgs4. This protein negatively regulate signaling upstream or at the level of the heterotrimeric G protein and is localized in the cytoplasm. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS5 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 5

This gene encodes a member of the regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) family. The RGS proteins are signal transduction molecules which are involved in the regulation of heterotrimeric G proteins by acting as GTPase activators. This gene is a hypoxia-inducible factor-1 dependent, hypoxia-induced gene which is involved in the induction of endothelial apoptosis. This gene is also one of three genes on chromosome 1q contributing to elevated blood pressure. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

RGS6 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 6

This gene encodes a member of the RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) family of proteins, which are defined by the presence of a RGS domain that confers the GTPase-activating activity of these proteins toward certain G alpha subunits. This protein also belongs to a subfamily of RGS proteins characterized by the presence of DEP and GGL domains, the latter a G beta 5-interacting domain. The RGS proteins negatively regulate G protein signaling, and may modulate neuronal, cardiovascular, lymphocytic activities, and cancer risk. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms with long or short N-terminal domains, complete or incomplete GGL domains, and distinct C-terminal domains, have been described for this gene, however, the full-length nature of some of these variants is not known.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

RGS7 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 7

RGS1 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 1

This gene encodes a member of the regulator of G-protein signalling family. This protein is located on the cytosolic side of the plasma membrane and contains a conserved, 120 amino acid motif called the RGS domain. The protein attenuates the signalling activity of G-proteins by binding to activated, GTP-bound G alpha subunits and acting as a GTPase activating protein (GAP), increasing the rate of conversion of the GTP to GDP. This hydrolysis allows the G alpha subunits to bind G beta/gamma subunit heterodimers, forming inactive G-protein heterotrimers, thereby terminating the signal. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS2 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 2

Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family members are regulatory molecules that act as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) for G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins into their inactive GDP-bound forms. Regulator of G protein signaling 2 belongs to this family. The protein acts as a mediator of myeloid differentiation and may play a role in leukemogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

RGS3 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 3

This gene encodes a member of the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) family. This protein is a GTPase-activating protein that inhibits G-protein-mediated signal transduction. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Long isoforms are largely cytosolic and plasma membrane-associated with a function in Wnt signaling and in the epithelial mesenchymal transition, while shorter N-terminally-truncated isoforms can be nuclear. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

RGS8 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 8

This gene is a member of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family and encodes a protein with a single RGS domain. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are regulatory and structural components of G protein-coupled receptor complexes. They accelerate transit through the cycle of GTP binding and hydrolysis to GDP, thereby terminating signal transduction, but paradoxically, also accelerate receptor-stimulated activation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS9 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 9

This gene encodes a member of the RGS family of GTPase activating proteins that function in various signaling pathways by accelerating the deactivation of G proteins. This protein is anchored to photoreceptor membranes in retinal cells and deactivates G proteins in the rod and cone phototransduction cascades. Mutations in this gene result in bradyopsia. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

LOC100421121 Gene

small G protein signaling modulator 1 pseudogene

RGSL1 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling like 1

RGS16 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 16

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the 'regulator of G protein signaling' family. It inhibits signal transduction by increasing the GTPase activity of G protein alpha subunits. It also may play a role in regulating the kinetics of signaling in the phototransduction cascade. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS17 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 17

This gene encodes a member of the regulator of G-protein signaling family. This protein contains a conserved, 120 amino acid motif called the RGS domain and a cysteine-rich region. The protein attenuates the signaling activity of G-proteins by binding to activated, GTP-bound G alpha subunits and acting as a GTPase activating protein (GAP), increasing the rate of conversion of the GTP to GDP. This hydrolysis allows the G alpha subunits to bind G beta/gamma subunit heterodimers, forming inactive G-protein heterotrimers, thereby terminating the signal. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS14 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 14

This gene encodes a member of the regulator of G-protein signaling family. This protein contains one RGS domain, two Raf-like Ras-binding domains (RBDs), and one GoLoco domain. The protein attenuates the signaling activity of G-proteins by binding, through its GoLoco domain, to specific types of activated, GTP-bound G alpha subunits. Acting as a GTPase activating protein (GAP), the protein increases the rate of conversion of the GTP to GDP. This hydrolysis allows the G alpha subunits to bind G beta/gamma subunit heterodimers, forming inactive G-protein heterotrimers, thereby terminating the signal. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS12 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 12

This gene encodes a member of the 'regulator of G protein signaling' (RGS) gene family. The encoded protein may function as a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-activating protein as well as a transcriptional repressor. This protein may play a role in tumorigenesis. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. Other alternative splice variants have been described but their biological nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS13 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 13

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family. RGS family members share similarity with S. cerevisiae SST2 and C. elegans egl-10 proteins, which contain a characteristic conserved RGS domain. RGS proteins accelerate GTPase activity of G protein alpha-subunits, thereby driving G protein into their inactive GDP-bound form, thus negatively regulating G protein signaling. RGS proteins have been implicated in the fine tuning of a variety of cellular events in response to G protein-coupled receptor activation. The biological function of this gene, however, is unknown. Two transcript variants encoding the same isoform exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS10 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 10

Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family members are regulatory molecules that act as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) for G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins into their inactive GDP-bound forms. Regulator of G protein signaling 10 belongs to this family. All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed the RGS domain. This protein associates specifically with the activated forms of the two related G-protein subunits, G-alphai3 and G-alphaz but fails to interact with the structurally and functionally distinct G-alpha subunits. Regulator of G protein signaling 10 protein is localized in the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS11 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 11

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) family. Members of the RGS family act as GTPase-activating proteins on the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric, signal-transducing G proteins. This protein inhibits signal transduction by increasing the GTPase activity of G protein alpha subunits, thereby driving them into their inactive GDP-bound form. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and four transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

RGS18 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 18

This gene encodes a member of the regulator of G-protein signaling family. This protein is contains a conserved, 120 amino acid motif called the RGS domain. The protein attenuates the signaling activity of G-proteins by binding to activated, GTP-bound G alpha subunits and acting as a GTPase activating protein (GAP), increasing the rate of conversion of the GTP to GDP. This hydrolysis allows the G alpha subunits to bind G beta/gamma subunit heterodimers, forming inactive G-protein heterotrimers, thereby terminating the signal. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS19 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 19

G proteins mediate a number of cellular processes. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the RGS (regulators of G-protein signaling) family and specifically interacts with G protein, GAI3. This protein is a guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein that functions to down-regulate Galpha i/Galpha q-linked signaling. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein isoform have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASIP Gene

agouti signaling protein

In mice, the agouti gene encodes a paracrine signaling molecule that causes hair follicle melanocytes to synthesize pheomelanin, a yellow pigment, instead of the black or brown pigment, eumelanin. Pleiotropic effects of constitutive expression of the mouse gene include adult-onset obesity, increased tumor susceptibility, and premature infertility. This gene is highly similar to the mouse gene and encodes a secreted protein that may (1) affect the quality of hair pigmentation, (2) act as a pharmacological antagonist of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, (3) play a role in neuroendocrine aspects of melanocortin action, and (4) have a functional role in regulating lipid metabolism in adipocytes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAVS Gene

mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein

This gene encodes an intermediary protein necessary in the virus-triggered beta interferon signaling pathways. It is required for activation of transcription factors which regulate expression of beta interferon and contributes to antiviral immunity. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

RGS17P1 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 17 pseudogene 1

WISP2 Gene

WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the WNT1 inducible signaling pathway (WISP) protein subfamily, which belongs to the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) family. WNT1 is a member of a family of cysteine-rich, glycosylated signaling proteins that mediate diverse developmental processes. The CTGF family members are characterized by four conserved cysteine-rich domains: insulin-like growth factor-binding domain, von Willebrand factor type C module, thrombospondin domain and C-terminal cystine knot-like (CT) domain. The encoded protein lacks the CT domain which is implicated in dimerization and heparin binding. It is 72% identical to the mouse protein at the amino acid level. This gene may be downstream in the WNT1 signaling pathway that is relevant to malignant transformation. Its expression in colon tumors is reduced while the other two WISP members are overexpressed in colon tumors. It is expressed at high levels in bone tissue, and may play an important role in modulating bone turnover. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WISP3 Gene

WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 3

This gene encodes a member of the WNT1 inducible signaling pathway (WISP) protein subfamily, which belongs to the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) family. WNT1 is a member of a family of cysteine-rich, glycosylated signaling proteins that mediate diverse developmental processes. The CTGF family members are characterized by four conserved cysteine-rich domains: insulin-like growth factor-binding domain, von Willebrand factor type C module, thrombospondin domain and C-terminal cystine knot-like domain. This gene is overexpressed in colon tumors. It may be downstream in the WNT1 signaling pathway that is relevant to malignant transformation. Mutations of this gene are associated with progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia, an autosomal recessive skeletal disorder, indicating that the gene is essential for normal postnatal skeletal growth and cartilage homeostasis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WISP1 Gene

WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the WNT1 inducible signaling pathway (WISP) protein subfamily, which belongs to the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) family. WNT1 is a member of a family of cysteine-rich, glycosylated signaling proteins that mediate diverse developmental processes. The CTGF family members are characterized by four conserved cysteine-rich domains: insulin-like growth factor-binding domain, von Willebrand factor type C module, thrombospondin domain and C-terminal cystine knot-like domain. This gene may be downstream in the WNT1 signaling pathway that is relevant to malignant transformation. It is expressed at a high level in fibroblast cells, and overexpressed in colon tumors. The encoded protein binds to decorin and biglycan, two members of a family of small leucine-rich proteoglycans present in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue, and possibly prevents the inhibitory activity of decorin and biglycan in tumor cell proliferation. It also attenuates p53-mediated apoptosis in response to DNA damage through activation of the Akt kinase. It is 83% identical to the mouse protein at the amino acid level. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

SGSM2 Gene

small G protein signaling modulator 2

SGSM1 Gene

small G protein signaling modulator 1

RGS22 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 22

RGS21 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 21

Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are regulatory and structural components of G protein-coupled receptor complexes. RGS proteins are GTPase-activating proteins for Gi (see GNAI1; MIM 139310) and Gq (see GNAQ; MIM 600998) class G-alpha proteins. They accelerate transit through the cycle of GTP binding and hydrolysis and thereby accelerate signaling kinetics and termination.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2008]

RGS20 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 20

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins, which are regulatory and structural components of G protein-coupled receptor complexes. RGS proteins inhibit signal transduction by increasing the GTPase activity of G protein alpha subunits, thereby driving them into their inactive GDP-bound forms. This protein selectively binds to G(z)-alpha and G(alpha)-i2 subunits, and regulates their signaling activities. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

GPSM2 Gene

G-protein signaling modulator 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of proteins that modulate activation of G proteins, which transduce extracellular signals received by cell surface receptors into integrated cellular responses. The N-terminal half of this protein contains 10 copies of leu-gly-asn (LGN) repeat, and the C-terminal half contains 4 GoLoco motifs, which are involved in guanine nucleotide exchange. This protein may play a role in neuroblast division and in the development of normal hearing. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB82).[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

GPSM3 Gene

G-protein signaling modulator 3

GPSM1 Gene

G-protein signaling modulator 1

G-protein signaling modulators (GPSMs) play diverse functional roles through their interaction with G-protein subunits. This gene encodes a receptor-independent activator of G protein signaling, which is one of several factors that influence the basal activity of G-protein signaling systems. The protein contains seven tetratricopeptide repeats in its N-terminal half and four G-protein regulatory (GPR) motifs in its C-terminal half. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

TSKS Gene

testis-specific serine kinase substrate

This gene may play a role in testicular physiology, spermatogenesis or spermiogenesis. Expression of the encoded protein is highest in the testis and down-regulated in testicular cancer. The gene is localized to the region 19q13.3 among the related RAS viral oncogene homolog (RRAS) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) genes, which are both involved in tumorigenesis pathways and progression. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TSSK1A Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 1A pseudogene

TSSK1B Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 1B

TSSK1 belongs to a family of serine/threonine kinases highly expressed in testis (Hao et al., 2004 [PubMed 15044604]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TSSK2 Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 2

TSSK2 belongs to a family of serine/threonine kinases highly expressed in testis (Hao et al., 2004 [PubMed 15044604]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TSSK6 Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 6

This intronless gene encodes a member of the CAMK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent) serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded kinase has a broad expression pattern but is described as testis-specific due to effects on fertility. Male mice which lack the gene encoding a highly similar protein are sterile and have morphologically abnormal sperm. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

TSSK4 Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 4

This gene encodes a member of the testis-specific serine/threonine kinase family. The encoded protein is thought to be involved in spermatogenesis via stimulation of the CREB/CRE responsive pathway through phosphorylation of the cAMP responsive element binding protein transcription factor. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

TSSK3 Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 3

This gene encodes a kinase expressed exclusively in the testis that is thought to play a role in either germ cell differentiation or mature sperm function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TSSK5P Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 5, pseudogene

DKK1 Gene

dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. It is a secreted protein with two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its inhibition of the WNT signaling pathway. Elevated levels of DKK1 in bone marrow plasma and peripheral blood is associated with the presence of osteolytic bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GFY Gene

golgi-associated, olfactory signaling regulator

SOCS5P5 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 pseudogene 5

TWSG1 Gene

twisted gastrulation BMP signaling modulator 1

LOC100420759 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 pseudogene

DKK4 Gene

dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 4

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. The secreted protein contains two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its interactions with the Wnt signaling pathway. Activity of this protein is modulated by binding to the Wnt co-receptor and the co-factor kremen 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DKK3 Gene

dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 3

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. The secreted protein contains two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its interactions with the Wnt signaling pathway. The expression of this gene is decreased in a variety of cancer cell lines and it may function as a tumor suppressor gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TIPRL Gene

TOR signaling pathway regulator

TIPRL is an inhibitory regulator of protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) (see PPP2CA; MIM 176915), PP4 (see PPP4C; MIM 602035), and PP6 (see PPP6C; MIM 612725) (McConnell et al., 2007 [PubMed 17384681]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

CNPY4 Gene

canopy FGF signaling regulator 4

CNPY3 Gene

canopy FGF signaling regulator 3

PRAT4A is associated with the immature form of TLR4 (MIM 603030) and regulates its cell surface expression (Wakabayashi et al., 2006 [PubMed 16849487]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CNPY2 Gene

canopy FGF signaling regulator 2

CNPY1 Gene

canopy FGF signaling regulator 1

Cnpy1 is expressed in the midbrain-hindbrain (MHB) boundary in zebrafish, binds FGFR1 (MIM 136350), and plays a role in FGF signaling (Hirate and Okamoto, 2006 [PubMed 16488878]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2008]

SOCS5P2 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 pseudogene 2

SOCS5P3 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 pseudogene 3

SOCS5P1 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 pseudogene 1

SOCS5P4 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 pseudogene 4

GCSAML Gene

germinal center-associated, signaling and motility-like

This gene encodes a protein thought to be a signaling molecule associated with germinal centers, the sites of proliferation and differentiation of mature B lymphocytes. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

DKK2 Gene

dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 2

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. The secreted protein contains two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its interactions with the Wnt signaling pathway. It can act as either an agonist or antagonist of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, depending on the cellular context and the presence of the co-factor kremen 2. Activity of this protein is also modulated by binding to the Wnt co-receptor LDL-receptor related protein 6 (LRP6). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100420748 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 pseudogene

ERN2 Gene

endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 2

ERN1 Gene

endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1

The protein encoded by this gene is the ER to nucleus signalling 1 protein, a human homologue of the yeast Ire1 gene product. This protein possesses intrinsic kinase activity and an endoribonuclease activity and it is important in altering gene expression as a response to endoplasmic reticulum-based stress signals. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WSPAR Gene

WNT signaling pathway activating non-coding RNA

SLAMF1 Gene

signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 1

SOCS5 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5

The protein encoded by this gene contains a SH2 domain and a SOCS BOX domain. The protein thus belongs to the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family, also known as STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI) protein family. SOCS family members are known to be cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding an identical protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SOCS4 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 4

The protein encoded by this gene contains a SH2 domain and a SOCS BOX domain. The protein thus belongs to the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), also known as STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), protein family. SOCS family members are known to be cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SOCS7 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 7

SOCS6 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 6

The protein encoded by this gene contains a SH2 domain and a CIS homolog domain. The protein thus belongs to the cytokine-induced STAT inhibitor (CIS), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) or STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), protein family. CIS family members are known to be cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The expression of this gene can be induced by GM-CSF and EPO in hematopoietic cells. A high expression level of this gene was found in factor-independent chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and erythroleukemia (HEL) cell lines. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SOCS1 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 1

This gene encodes a member of the STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), family. SSI family members are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The expression of this gene can be induced by a subset of cytokines, including IL2, IL3 erythropoietin (EPO), CSF2/GM-CSF, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene functions downstream of cytokine receptors, and takes part in a negative feedback loop to attenuate cytokine signaling. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of this gene as a modulator of IFN-gamma action, which is required for normal postnatal growth and survival. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SOCS3 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 3

This gene encodes a member of the STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), family. SSI family members are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The expression of this gene is induced by various cytokines, including IL6, IL10, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene can bind to JAK2 kinase, and inhibit the activity of JAK2 kinase. Studies of the mouse counterpart of this gene suggested the roles of this gene in the negative regulation of fetal liver hematopoiesis, and placental development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SOCS2 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 2

This gene encodes a member of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family. SOCS family members are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine receptor signaling via the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activation of transcription pathway (the JAK/STAT pathway). SOCS family proteins interact with major molecules of signaling complexes to block further signal transduction, in part, by proteasomal depletion of receptors or signal-transducing proteins via ubiquitination. The expression of this gene can be induced by a subset of cytokines, including erythropoietin, GM-CSF, IL10, interferon (IFN)-gamma and by cytokine receptors such as growth horomone receptor. The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and is thought to be involved in the regulation of IGF1R mediated cell signaling. This gene has pseudogenes on chromosomes 20 and 22. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

LOC100420885 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 pseudogene

LOC100420800 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 pseudogene

GCSAM Gene

germinal center-associated, signaling and motility

This gene encodes a protein which may function in signal transduction pathways and whose expression is elevated in germinal cell lymphomas. It contains a putative PDZ-interacting domain, an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), and two putative SH2 binding sites. In B cells, its expression is specifically induced by interleukin-4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPRY1 Gene

sprouty homolog 1, antagonist of FGF signaling (Drosophila)

SOCS2P1 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 pseudogene 1

SOCS2P2 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 pseudogene 2

TDH Gene

L-threonine dehydrogenase (pseudogene)

This gene appears to be an evolving pseudogene of L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase (TDH). In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, TDH catalyzes the first of two steps in one of two L-threonine degradation pathways. However, in human, the single gene with sequence similarity to TDH is not capable of encoding a functional TDH protein; the predicted protein lacks most of the C-terminus and parts of the NAD+ binding motif when compared to other species' TDH proteins. This suggests that the human gene is therefore a pseudogene. Transcripts of this gene are found in all tissues and alternatively spliced transcripts have been described. It is not known if these transcripts are translated, or if the possible protein product provides any functional role. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

THNSL2 Gene

threonine synthase-like 2 (S. cerevisiae)

This gene encodes a threonine synthase-like protein. A similar enzyme in mouse can catalyze the degradation of O-phospho-homoserine to a-ketobutyrate, phosphate, and ammonia. This protein also has phospho-lyase activity on both gamma and beta phosphorylated substrates. In mouse an alternatively spliced form of this protein has been shown to act as a cytokine and can induce the production of the inflammatory cytokine IL6 in osteoblasts. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

THNSL1 Gene

threonine synthase-like 1 (S. cerevisiae)

TASP1 Gene

taspase, threonine aspartase, 1

This gene encodes an endopeptidase that cleaves specific substrates following aspartate residues. The encoded protein undergoes posttranslational autoproteolytic processing to generate alpha and beta subunits, which reassemble into the active alpha2-beta2 heterotetramer. It is required to cleave MLL, a protein required for the maintenance of HOX gene expression, and TFIIA, a basal transcription factor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

THA1P Gene

threonine aldolase 1, pseudogene

TRNAT-AGU Gene

transfer RNA threonine (anticodon AGU)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

TRNAT-CGU Gene

transfer RNA threonine (anticodon CGU)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

LOC105375604 Gene

uncharacterized threonine-rich GPI-anchored glycoprotein PJ4664.02-like

TRNAT-UGU Gene

transfer RNA threonine (anticodon UGU)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

MAPKAPK5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a tumor suppressor and member of the serine/threonine kinase family. In response to cellular stress and proinflammatory cytokines, this kinase is activated through its phosphorylation by MAP kinases including MAPK1/ERK, MAPK14/p38-alpha, and MAPK11/p38-beta. The encoded protein is found in the nucleus but translocates to the cytoplasm upon phosphorylation and activation. This kinase phosphorylates heat shock protein HSP27 at its physiologically relevant sites. Two alternately spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

MAPKAPK3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase functions as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase)- activated protein kinase. MAP kinases are also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This kinase was shown to be activated by growth inducers and stress stimulation of cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that ERK, p38 MAP kinase and Jun N-terminal kinase were all able to phosphorylate and activate this kinase, which suggested the role of this kinase as an integrative element of signaling in both mitogen and stress responses. This kinase was reported to interact with, phosphorylate and repress the activity of E47, which is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor known to be involved in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression and cell differentiation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

MAPKAPK2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase is regulated through direct phosphorylation by p38 MAP kinase. In conjunction with p38 MAP kinase, this kinase is known to be involved in many cellular processes including stress and inflammatory responses, nuclear export, gene expression regulation and cell proliferation. Heat shock protein HSP27 was shown to be one of the substrates of this kinase in vivo. Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422438 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 pseudogene

MAPKAPK5P1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 pseudogene 1

CAMKK2 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. The major isoform of this gene plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade by phosphorylating the downstream kinases CaMK1 and CaMK4. Protein products of this gene also phosphorylate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This gene has its strongest expression in the brain and influences signalling cascades involved with learning and memory, neuronal differentiation and migration, neurite outgrowth, and synapse formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. The identified isoforms differ in their ability to undergo autophosphorylation and to phosphorylate downstream kinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CAMKK1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade. Three transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100996792 Gene

dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3

MAP2K4P1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 pseudogene 1

MAP2K3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is activated by mitogenic and environmental stress, and participates in the MAP kinase-mediated signaling cascade. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK14/p38-MAPK. This kinase can be activated by insulin, and is necessary for the expression of glucose transporter. Expression of RAS oncogene is found to result in the accumulation of the active form of this kinase, which thus leads to the constitutive activation of MAPK14, and confers oncogenic transformation of primary cells. The inhibition of this kinase is involved in the pathogenesis of Yersina pseudotuberculosis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode distinct isoforms have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK2/ERK3. The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. Mutations in this gene cause cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC syndrome), a disease characterized by heart defects, mental retardation, and distinctive facial features similar to those found in Noonan syndrome. The inhibition or degradation of this kinase is also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of Yersinia and anthrax. A pseudogene, which is located on chromosome 7, has been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon wide variety of extra- and intracellular signals. As an essential component of MAP kinase signal transduction pathway, this kinase is involved in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K7 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase specifically activates MAPK8/JNK1 and MAPK9/JNK2, and this kinase itself is phosphorylated and activated by MAP kinase kinase kinases including MAP3K1/MEKK1, MAP3K2/MEKK2,MAP3K3/MEKK5, and MAP4K2/GCK. This kinase is involved in the signal transduction mediating the cell responses to proinflammatory cytokines, and environmental stresses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

MAP2K6 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6

This gene encodes a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which functions as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein phosphorylates and activates p38 MAP kinase in response to inflammatory cytokines or environmental stress. As an essential component of p38 MAP kinase mediated signal transduction pathway, this gene is involved in many cellular processes such as stress induced cell cycle arrest, transcription activation and apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase specifically interacts with and activates MAPK7/ERK5. This kinase itself can be phosphorylated and activated by MAP3K3/MEKK3, as well as by atypical protein kinase C isoforms (aPKCs). The signal cascade mediated by this kinase is involved in growth factor stimulated cell proliferation and muscle cell differentiation. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

MAP2K4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4

This gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. Members of this family act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation, and development. They form a three-tiered signaling module composed of MAPKKKs, MAPKKs, and MAPKs. This protein is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues by MAPKKKs and subsequently phosphorylates downstream MAPK targets at threonine and tyrosine residues. A similar protein in mouse has been reported to play a role in liver organogenesis. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome X. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PACSIN1 Gene

protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 1

PACSIN3 Gene

protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3

This gene is a member of the protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons family. The encoded protein is involved in linking the actin cytoskeleton with vesicle formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PACSIN2 Gene

protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2

This gene is a member of the protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons family. The encoded protein is involved in linking the actin cytoskeleton with vesicle formation by regulating tubulin polymerization. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

MAP2K1P1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 pseudogene 1

LOC407835 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 pseudogene

ROR2 Gene

receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase and type I transmembrane protein that belongs to the ROR subfamily of cell surface receptors. The protein may be involved in the early formation of the chondrocytes and may be required for cartilage and growth plate development. Mutations in this gene can cause brachydactyly type B, a skeletal disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of distal phalanges and nails. In addition, mutations in this gene can cause the autosomal recessive form of Robinow syndrome, which is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with generalized limb bone shortening, segmental defects of the spine, brachydactyly, and a dysmorphic facial appearance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ROR1 Gene

receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1

This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor that modulates neurite growth in the central nervous system. The encoded protein is a glycosylated type I membrane protein that belongs to the ROR subfamily of cell surface receptors. It is a pseudokinase that lacks catalytic activity and may interact with the non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway. This gene is highly expressed during early embryonic development but expressed at very low levels in adult tissues. Increased expression of this gene is associated with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

NUCKS1 Gene

nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1

This gene encodes a nuclear protein that is highly conserved in vertebrates. The conserved regions of the protein contain several consensus phosphorylation sites for casein kinase II and cyclin-dependent kinases, two putative nuclear localization signals, and a basic DNA-binding domain. It is phosphorylated in vivo by Cdk1 during mitosis of the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

SMG1 Gene

SMG1 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase

This gene encodes a protein involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) as part of the mRNA surveillance complex. The protein has kinase activity and is thought to function in NMD by phosphorylating the regulator of nonsense transcripts 1 protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

LOC100422558 Gene

SMG1 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase pseudogene

DTYMK Gene

deoxythymidylate kinase (thymidylate kinase)

CDKL1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 1 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

CDKL2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the cytoplasm, with lower levels in the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PLGRKT Gene

plasminogen receptor, C-terminal lysine transmembrane protein

LOC650293 Gene

seven transmembrane helix receptor

LOC440683 Gene

seven transmembrane helix receptor

TRAT1 Gene

T cell receptor associated transmembrane adaptor 1

LOC105370815 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 3-like

LOC100293704 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 3-like

LOC105373989 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

LOC105379472 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 3-like

LOC105378579 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

CSRNP1 Gene

cysteine-serine-rich nuclear protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that localizes to the nucleus and expression of this gene is induced in response to elevated levels of axin. The Wnt signalling pathway, which is negatively regulated by axin, is important in axis formation in early development and impaired regulation of this signalling pathway is often involved in tumors. A decreased level of expression of this gene in tumors compared to the level of expression in their corresponding normal tissues suggests that this gene product has a tumor suppressor function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CSRNP2 Gene

cysteine-serine-rich nuclear protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CSRNP family of nuclear proteins that share conserved regions, including cysteine- and serine- rich regions, a basic domain, a transcriptional activation domain, and bind the sequence 'AGAGTG', thus have the hallmark of transcription factors. Studies in mice suggest that these genes may have redundant functions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

CSRNP3 Gene

cysteine-serine-rich nuclear protein 3

CLASRP Gene

CLK4-associating serine/arginine rich protein

LOC105369728 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

RNPS1P1 Gene

RNA binding protein S1, serine-rich domain pseudogene 1

LOC105373800 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

LOC105379416 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

LOC105379046 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

LOC729870 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1

TOPORS Gene

topoisomerase I binding, arginine/serine-rich, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a nuclear protein which is serine and arginine rich, and contains a RING-type zinc finger domain. It is highly expressed in the testis, and functions as an ubiquitin-protein E3 ligase. Mutations in this gene are associated with retinitis pigmentosa type 31. Alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding different isoforms, have been observed for this locus. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

LOC101927764 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

LOC102723618 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

CCSER1 Gene

coiled-coil serine-rich protein 1

PNISR Gene

PNN-interacting serine/arginine-rich protein

SSMEM1 Gene

serine-rich single-pass membrane protein 1

RNPS1 Gene

RNA binding protein S1, serine-rich domain

This gene encodes a protein that is part of a post-splicing multiprotein complex involved in both mRNA nuclear export and mRNA surveillance. mRNA surveillance detects exported mRNAs with truncated open reading frames and initiates nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). When translation ends upstream from the last exon-exon junction, this triggers NMD to degrade mRNAs containing premature stop codons. This protein binds to the mRNA and remains bound after nuclear export, acting as a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. This protein contains many serine residues. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

LOC100129098 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 2-like

CCSER2 Gene

coiled-coil serine-rich protein 2

LOC105377064 Gene

aspartate, glycine, lysine and serine-rich protein-like

LOC105371040 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 2-like

LOC101927859 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 2-like

LOC105375305 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

LOC105378193 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 5-like

LOC100130459 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

RSRP1 Gene

arginine/serine-rich protein 1

LOC100127962 Gene

coiled-coil serine-rich protein 2 pseudogene

IRAK1BP1 Gene

interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 binding protein 1

LOC105378176 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK2

GRK6 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors thus initiating their deactivation. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRK7 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 7

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is specifically expressed in the retina and the encoded protein has been shown to phosphorylate cone opsins and initiate their deactivation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRK4 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors thus initiating its deactivation. This gene has been linked to both genetic and acquired hypertension. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

GRK5 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors thus initiating their deactivation. It has also been shown to play a role in regulating the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRK1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates rhodopsin and initiates its deactivation. Defects in GRK1 are known to cause Oguchi disease 2 (also known as stationary night blindness Oguchi type-2). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105379534 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK2

GIT1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting ArfGAP 1

GIT2 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting ArfGAP 2

This gene encodes a member of the GIT protein family, which interact with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and possess ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. GIT proteins traffic between cytoplasmic complexes, focal adhesions, and the cell periphery, and interact with Pak interacting exchange factor beta (PIX) to form large oligomeric complexes that transiently recruit other proteins. GIT proteins regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and participate in receptor internalization and membrane trafficking. This gene has been shown to repress lamellipodial extension and focal adhesion turnover, and is thought to regulate cell motility. This gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing to generate multiple isoforms, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. The various isoforms have functional differences, with respect to ARF GAP activity and to G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 binding. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

GRK6P1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 pseudogene 1

LOC105371179 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK2

LOC102724064 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK13

TMEM129 Gene

transmembrane protein 129, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

LOC101928952 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase small subunit A pseudogene

SRSF9P1 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 9 pseudogene 1

RSRC1 Gene

arginine/serine-rich coiled-coil 1

This gene encodes a member of the serine and arginine rich-related protein family. The encoded protein is involved in both constitutive and alternative mRNA splicing. This gene may be associated with schizophrenia. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 9. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

RSRC2 Gene

arginine/serine-rich coiled-coil 2

PRSS3P3 Gene

protease, serine, 3 pseudogene 3

SDS Gene

serine dehydratase

This gene encodes one of three enzymes that are involved in metabolizing serine and glycine. L-serine dehydratase converts L-serine to pyruvate and ammonia and requires pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor. The encoded protein can also metabolize threonine to NH4+ and 2-ketobutyrate. The encoded protein is found predominantly in the liver. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRSS33 Gene

protease, serine, 33

PRSS37 Gene

protease, serine, 37

PRSS38 Gene

protease, serine, 38

LOC100533678 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 1 pseudogene

SPTLC1P1 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 1

SPTLC1P2 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 2

SPTLC1P5 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 5

SPTLC1P4 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 4

PRSS46 Gene

protease, serine, 46

PRSS43 Gene

protease, serine, 43

SRSF11 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 11

This gene encodes 54-kD nuclear protein that contains an arginine/serine-rich region similar to segments found in pre-mRNA splicing factors. Although the function of this protein is not yet known, structure and immunolocalization data suggest that it may play a role in pre-mRNA processing. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different proteins. In addition, a pseudogene of this gene has been found on chromosome 12.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF10 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10

This gene product is a member of the serine-arginine (SR) family of proteins, which are involved in constitutive and regulated RNA splicing. Members of this family are characterized by N-terminal RNP1 and RNP2 motifs, which are required for binding to RNA, and multiple C-terminal SR/RS repeats, which are important in mediating association with other cellular proteins. This protein interacts with the oncoprotein TLS, and abrogates the influence of TLS on adenovirus E1A pre-mRNA splicing. This gene has pseudogenes on chromosomes 4, 9, 14, 18, and 20. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

SRSF12 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 12

PRSS3P1 Gene

protease, serine, 3 pseudogene 1

LOC100631255 Gene

arginine/serine-rich coiled-coil 2 pseudogene

PROSER1 Gene

proline and serine rich 1

This gene encodes a conserved protein containing proline and serine rich regions. These regions may be important in protein-protein interactions. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

PROSER2 Gene

proline and serine rich 2

PROSER3 Gene

proline and serine rich 3

SPINK9 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 9

SPINK8 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 8 (putative)

SERINC5 Gene

serine incorporator 5

SERINC4 Gene

serine incorporator 4

SERINC1 Gene

serine incorporator 1

SERINC3 Gene

serine incorporator 3

SERINC2 Gene

serine incorporator 2

KAZALD1 Gene

Kazal-type serine peptidase inhibitor domain 1

This gene encodes a secreted member of the insulin growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) superfamily. It contains an N-terminal insulin growth factor-binding domain, a central Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor and follistatin-like domain, and a C-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain. Studies of the mouse ortholog suggest that this gene product may have a function in bone development and bone regeneration. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

PRSS1 Gene

protease, serine, 1 (trypsin 1)

This gene encodes a trypsinogen, which is a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. This enzyme is secreted by the pancreas and cleaved to its active form in the small intestine. It is active on peptide linkages involving the carboxyl group of lysine or arginine. Mutations in this gene are associated with hereditary pancreatitis. This gene and several other trypsinogen genes are localized to the T cell receptor beta locus on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRSS3 Gene

protease, serine, 3

This gene encodes a trypsinogen, which is a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. This enzyme is expressed in the brain and pancreas and is resistant to common trypsin inhibitors. It is active on peptide linkages involving the carboxyl group of lysine or arginine. This gene is localized to the locus of T cell receptor beta variable orphans on chromosome 9. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

PRSS2 Gene

protease, serine, 2 (trypsin 2)

This gene belongs to the trypsin family of serine proteases and encodes anionic trypsinogen. It is part of a cluster of trypsinogen genes that are located within the T cell receptor beta locus. Enzymes of this family cleave peptide bonds that follow lysine or arginine residues. This protein is found at high levels in pancreatic juice and its upregulation is a characteristic feature of pancreatitis. This protein has also been found to activate pro-urokinase in ovarian tumors, suggesting a function in tumor invasion. In addition, this enzyme is able to cleave across the type II collagen triple helix in rheumatoid arthritis synovitis tissue, potentially participating in the degradation of type II collagen-rich cartilage matrix. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

PRSS8 Gene

protease, serine, 8

This gene encodes a trypsinogen, which is a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. This enzyme is highly expressed in prostate epithelia and is one of several proteolytic enzymes found in seminal fluid. The proprotein is cleaved to produce a light chain and a heavy chain which are associated by a disulfide bond. It is active on peptide linkages involving the carboxyl group of lysine or arginine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC392439 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 pseudogene

LOC100129391 Gene

zinc finger (CCCH type), RNA-binding motif and serine/arginine rich 2 pseudogene

SRRM1 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 1

SRRM3 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 3

SRRM2 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 2

SRRM5 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 5

SRRM4 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 4

SRRM4 promotes alternative splicing and inclusion of neural-specific exons in target mRNAs (Calarco et al., 2009 [PubMed 19737518]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

TRNAS-CGA Gene

transfer RNA serine (anticodon CGA)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

SPATS2L Gene

spermatogenesis associated, serine-rich 2-like

PRSS29P Gene

protease, serine, 29, pseudogene

LOC643118 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 pseudogene

PRSS55 Gene

protease, serine, 55

This gene encodes a member of a group of membrane-anchored chymotrypsin (S1)-like serine proteases. The enocoded protein is primarily expressed in the Leydig and Sertoli cells of the testis and may be involved in male fertility. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

PRSS54 Gene

protease, serine, 54

This gene encodes a putative serine-type endopeptidase containing the peptidase S1 domain. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

PRSS57 Gene

protease, serine, 57

PRSS56 Gene

protease, serine, 56

This gene encodes a protein that contains a peptidase S1 domain and possesses trypsin-like serine protease activity. The encoded protein may play a role in eye development, and mutations in this gene are a cause of autosomal recessive posterior microphthalmos. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

PRSS51 Gene

protease, serine, 51

PRSS50 Gene

protease, serine, 50

PRSS53 Gene

protease, serine, 53

PRSS58 Gene

protease, serine, 58

This gene encodes a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. This gene and several related trypsinogen genes are localized to the T cell receptor beta locus on chromosome 7. This gene was previously described as a trypsinogen-like pseudogene, but it is now thought to be a protein-coding gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRNAS-AGA Gene

transfer RNA serine (anticodon AGA)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

SCPEP1 Gene

serine carboxypeptidase 1

SHMT2 Gene

serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (mitochondrial)

This gene encodes the mitochondrial form of a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction of serine and tetrahydrofolate to glycine and 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate. The encoded product is primarily responsible for glycine synthesis. The activity of the encoded protein has been suggested to be the primary source of intracellular glycine. The gene which encodes the cytosolic form of this enzyme is located on chromosome 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SHMT1 Gene

serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (soluble)

This gene encodes the cytosolic form of serine hydroxymethyltransferase, a pyridoxal phosphate-containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of serine and tetrahydrofolate to glycine and 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate. This reaction provides one-carbon units for synthesis of methionine, thymidylate, and purines in the cytoplasm. This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

QSER1 Gene

glutamine and serine rich 1

SRRM1P2 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 1 pseudogene 2

SRRM1P3 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 1 pseudogene 3

SRRM1P1 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 1 pseudogene 1

SPTLC2 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 2

This gene encodes a long chain base subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase. Serine palmitoyltransferase, which consists of two different subunits, is the key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis. It catalyzes the pyridoxal-5-prime-phosphate-dependent condensation of L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA to 3-oxosphinganine. Mutations in this gene were identified in patients with hereditary sensory neuropathy type I. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

SPTLC3 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 3

The SPTLC3 gene encodes an isoform of the third subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT; EC 2.3.1.50), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the de novo synthesis of sphingolipids (Hornemann et al., 2006 [PubMed 17023427]). SPT contains 2 main subunits: the common SPTLC1 subunit (MIM 605712) and either SPTLC2 (MIM 605713) or its isoform SPTLC2L (SPTLC3), depending on the tissue in which biosynthesis occurs (Hornemann et al., 2006 [PubMed 17023427]). There are also 2 highly related isoforms of a third subunit, SSSPTA (MIM 613540) and SSSPTB (MIM 610412), that confer acyl-CoA preference of the SPT enzyme and are essential for maximal enzyme activity (Han et al., 2009 [PubMed 19416851]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

SPTLC1 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1

This gene encodes a member of the class-II pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family. The encoded protein is the long chain base subunit 1 of serine palmitoyltransferase. Serine palmitoyltransferase converts L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA to 3-oxosphinganine with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and is the key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis. Mutations in this gene were identified in patients with hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1. Alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. Pseudogenes of this gene have been defined on chromosomes 1, 6, 10, and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

SDSL Gene

serine dehydratase-like

OSER1 Gene

oxidative stress responsive serine-rich 1

PRSS52P Gene

protease, serine, 52, pseudogene

CORIN Gene

corin, serine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the type II transmembrane serine protease class of the trypsin superfamily. Members of this family are composed of multiple structurally distinct domains. The encoded protein converts pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to biologically active atrial natriuretic peptide, a cardiac hormone that regulates blood volume and pressure. This protein may also function as a pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide convertase. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

SPINT2 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type, 2

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein with two extracellular Kunitz domains that inhibits a variety of serine proteases. The protein inhibits HGF activator which prevents the formation of active hepatocyte growth factor. This gene is a putative tumor suppressor, and mutations in this gene result in congenital sodium diarrhea. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SPINT1 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors. The protein is a potent inhibitor specific for HGF activator and is thought to be involved in the regulation of the proteolytic activation of HGF in injured tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPINT4 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 4

PSRC1 Gene

proline/serine-rich coiled-coil 1

This gene encodes a proline-rich protein that is a target for regulation by the tumor suppressor protein p53. The encoded protein plays an important role in mitosis by recruiting and regulating microtubule depolymerases that destabalize microtubules. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

PRSS27 Gene

protease, serine 27

Pancreasin is a pancreatic tryptic serine peptidase that cleaves peptides after an arginine residue.[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2003]

PRSS21 Gene

protease, serine, 21 (testisin)

This gene encodes a cell-surface anchored serine protease, which is a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. The encoded protein is predicted to be active on peptide linkages involving the carboxyl group of lysine or arginine. The encoded protein localizes to the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane of premeiotic testicular germ cells and may be involved in progression of testicular tumors of germ cell origin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PRSS22 Gene

protease, serine, 22

This gene encodes a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. The enzyme is expressed in the airways in a developmentally regulated manner. The gene is part of a cluster of serine protease genes on chromosome 16. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRSS23 Gene

protease, serine, 23

This gene encodes a conserved member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. Mouse studies found a decrease of mRNA levels of this gene after ovulation was induced. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

TOPORSLP Gene

topoisomerase I binding, arginine/serine-rich like, pseudogene

SERHL2 Gene

serine hydrolase-like 2

LOC644422 Gene

splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6 pseudogene

SRSF10P2 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10 pseudogene 2

SPTSSA Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, small subunit A

Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT; EC 2.3.1.50) catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. SSSPTA is a small SPT subunit that stimulates SPT activity and confers acyl-CoA preference to the SPT catalytic heterodimer of SPTLC1 (MIM 605712) and either SPTLC2 (MIM 605713) or SPTLC3 (MIM 611120) (Han et al., 2009 [PubMed 19416851]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

SPTSSB Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, small subunit B

Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT; EC 2.3.1.50) catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. SSSPTB is a small SPT subunit that stimulates SPT activity and confers acyl-CoA preference to the SPT catalytic heterodimer of SPTLC1 (MIM 605712) and either SPTLC2 (MIM 605713) or SPTLC3 (MIM 611120) (Han et al., 2009 [PubMed 19416851]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

ZRSR1 Gene

zinc finger (CCCH type), RNA-binding motif and serine/arginine rich 1

LOC100506569 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 pseudogene

PRSS3P2 Gene

protease, serine, 3 pseudogene 2

Although this locus appears to encode a protein similar to trypsinogen, the locus is thought to be a transcribed pseudogene. ESTs support its transcription, but expression of its predicted protein has not been observed. Its predicted protein sequence differs significantly from the known functional trypsinogens, including a different amino acid at the conserved residue 122 which is important for autolysis. This pseudogene and several other trypsinogen genes are localized to the T cell receptor beta locus on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421293 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10 pseudogene

LOC401777 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10 pseudogene

SPINK14 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 14 (putative)

SPINK13 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 13 (putative)

LOC100422263 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 2 pseudogene

PRSS36 Gene

protease, serine, 36

PRSS35 Gene

protease, serine, 35

LOC100131114 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 pseudogene

SPTLC1P3 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 3

LOC100500773 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 pseudogene

LOC100128442 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 6 pseudogene

SPINT3 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type, 3

TRNAS-UGA Gene

transfer RNA serine (anticodon UGA)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

PRSS47 Gene

protease, serine, 47

PRSS45 Gene

protease, serine, 45

PRSS42 Gene

protease, serine, 42

PRSS41 Gene

protease, serine, 41

PRSS48 Gene

protease, serine, 48

SPINK7 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 7 (putative)

SPINK6 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor that acts on kallikrein-related peptidases in the skin. Two transcript variants the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

SPINK5 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 5

This gene encodes a multidomain serine protease inhibitor that contains 15 potential inhibitory domains. The inhibitor may play a role in skin and hair morphogenesis and anti-inflammatory and/or antimicrobial protection of mucous epithelia. Mutations may result in Netherton syndrome, a disorder characterized by ichthyosis, defective cornification, and atopy. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPINK4 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 4

SPINK2 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 2 (acrosin-trypsin inhibitor)

This gene encodes a member of the family of serine protease inhibitors of the Kazal type (SPINK). The encoded protein acts as a trypsin and acrosin inhibitor in the genital tract and is localized in the spermatozoa. The protein has been associated with the progression of lymphomas. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

SPINK1 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a trypsin inhibitor, which is secreted from pancreatic acinar cells into pancreatic juice. It is thought to function in the prevention of trypsin-catalyzed premature activation of zymogens within the pancreas and the pancreatic duct. Mutations in this gene are associated with hereditary pancreatitis and tropical calcific pancreatitis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

SRSF1P1 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 pseudogene 1

SRSF11P1 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 11 pseudogene 1

ZRSR2 Gene

zinc finger (CCCH type), RNA-binding motif and serine/arginine rich 2

This gene encodes an essential splicing factor. The encoded protein associates with the U2 auxiliary factor heterodimer, which is required for the recognition of a functional 3' splice site in pre-mRNA splicing, and may play a role in network interactions during spliceosome assembly. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SRSF5 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which constitute part of the spliceosome. Each of these factors contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding RNA and an RS domain for binding other proteins. The RS domain is rich in serine and arginine residues and facilitates interaction between different SR splicing factors. In addition to being critical for mRNA splicing, the SR proteins have also been shown to be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and in translation. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF4 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 4

This gene encodes a member of the arginine/serine-rich splicing factor family. The encoded protein likely functions in mRNA processing. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

SRSF7 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which constitute part of the spliceosome. Each of these factors contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding RNA and an RS domain for binding other proteins. The RS domain is rich in serine and arginine residues and facilitates interaction between different SR splicing factors. In addition to being critical for mRNA splicing, the SR proteins have also been shown to be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and in translation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF6 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 6

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in mRNA splicing and may play a role in the determination of alternative splicing. The encoded nuclear protein belongs to the splicing factor SR family and has been shown to bind with and modulate another member of the family, SFRS12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. In addition, two pseudogenes, one on chromosome 17 and the other on the X chromosome, have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF1 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1

This gene encodes a member of the arginine/serine-rich splicing factor protein family. The encoded protein can either activate or repress splicing, depending on its phosphorylation state and its interaction partners. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. There is a pseudogene of this gene on chromosome 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

SRSF3 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which constitute part of the spliceosome. Each of these factors contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding RNA and an RS domain for binding other proteins. The RS domain is rich in serine and arginine residues and facilitates interaction between different SR splicing factors. In addition to being critical for mRNA splicing, the SR proteins have also been shown to be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and in translation. Two transcript variants, one protein-coding and the other non-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF2 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which constitute part of the spliceosome. Each of these factors contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding RNA and an RS domain for binding other proteins. The RS domain is rich in serine and arginine residues and facilitates interaction between different SR splicing factors. In addition to being critical for mRNA splicing, the SR proteins have also been shown to be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and in translation. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein and one non-coding transcript variant have been found for this gene. In addition, a pseudogene of this gene has been found on chromosome 11. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF9 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which constitute part of the spliceosome. Each of these factors contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding RNA and an RS domain for binding other proteins. The RS domain is rich in serine and arginine residues and facilitates interaction between different SR splicing factors. In addition to being critical for mRNA splicing, the SR proteins have also been shown to be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and in translation. Two pseudogenes, one on chromosome 15 and the other on chromosome 21, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF8 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 8

This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins containing a ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-type RNA binding motif and a carboxyl-terminal arginine-serine-rich (RS) domain. The encoded protein functions as a pre-mRNA splicing factor. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 7. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

SRR Gene

serine racemase

LOC100421235 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 9 pseudogene

SHMT1P1 Gene

serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (soluble) pseudogene 1

LOC100128297 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10 pseudogene

LOC647145 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 8 pseudogene

SPINT5P Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 5, pseudogene

SERHL Gene

serine hydrolase-like (pseudogene)

PRSS12 Gene

protease, serine, 12 (neurotrypsin, motopsin)

This gene encodes a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. Studies in mouse suggest that the encoded enzyme may be involved in structural reorganizations associated with learning and memory. The enzyme is also expressed in Leydig cells in the testis, but its function in this tissue is unknown. Defects in this gene are a cause of mental retardation autosomal recessive type 1 (MRT1). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

PRSS16 Gene

protease, serine, 16 (thymus)

This gene encodes a serine protease expressed exclusively in the thymus. It is thought to play a role in the alternative antigen presenting pathway used by cortical thymic epithelial cells during the positive selection of T cells. The gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6, near the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region. A second transcript variant has been described, but its full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GZMA Gene

granzyme A (granzyme 1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase 3)

Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells share the remarkable ability to recognize, bind, and lyse specific target cells. They are thought to protect their host by lysing cells bearing on their surface 'nonself' antigens, usually peptides or proteins resulting from infection by intracellular pathogens. The protein described here is a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific serine protease that may function as a common component necessary for lysis of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GZMB Gene

granzyme B (granzyme 2, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase 1)

Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells share the remarkable ability to recognize, bind, and lyse specific target cells. They are thought to protect their host by lysing cells bearing on their surface 'nonself' antigens, usually peptides or proteins resulting from infection by intracellular pathogens. The protein encoded by this gene is crucial for the rapid induction of target cell apoptosis by CTL in cell-mediated immune response. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SRSF10P1 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10 pseudogene 1

BPHL Gene

biphenyl hydrolase-like (serine hydrolase)

This gene encodes a member of the serine protease family of hydrolytic enzymes which contain a serine in their active site. The encoded protein may play a role in activation of the antiviral prodrug valacyclovir. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

LOC101929527 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 pseudogene

LOC100129202 Gene

arginine/serine-rich coiled-coil 1 pseudogene

LOC101060825 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 11-like

LOC100128964 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 pseudogene

PRSS44 Gene

protease, serine, 44

SERAC1 Gene

serine active site containing 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a phosphatidylglycerol remodeling protein found at the interface of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticula, where it mediates phospholipid exchange. The encoded protein plays a major role in mitochondrial function and intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Defects in this gene are a cause of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria with deafness, encephalopathy, and Leigh-like syndrome (MEGDEL). Two transcript variants, one protein-coding and the other non-protein coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

PRSS30P Gene

protease, serine, 30, pseudogene

MASP1 Gene

mannan-binding lectin serine peptidase 1 (C4/C2 activating component of Ra-reactive factor)

This gene encodes a serine protease that functions as a component of the lectin pathway of complement activation. The complement pathway plays an essential role in the innate and adaptive immune response. The encoded protein is synthesized as a zymogen and is activated when it complexes with the pathogen recognition molecules of lectin pathway, the mannose-binding lectin and the ficolins. This protein is not directly involved in complement activation but may play a role as an amplifier of complement activation by cleaving complement C2 or by activating another complement serine protease, MASP-2. The encoded protein is also able to cleave fibrinogen and factor XIII and may may be involved in coagulation. A splice variant of this gene which lacks the serine protease domain functions as an inhibitor of the complement pathway. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

MASP2 Gene

mannan-binding lectin serine peptidase 2

The Ra-reactive factor (RARF) is a complement-dependent bactericidal factor that binds to the Ra and R2 polysaccharides expressed by certain enterobacteria. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding two RARF components that are involved in the mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement activation. The longer isoform is cleaved into two chains which form a heterodimer linked by a disulfide bond. The encoded proteins are members of the trypsin family of peptidases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HTRA4 Gene

HtrA serine peptidase 4

This gene encodes a member of the HtrA family of proteases. The encoded protein contains a putative signal peptide, an insulin growth factor binding domain, a Kazal protease inhibitor domain, a conserved trypsin domain and a PDZ domain. Based on studies on other related family members, this enzyme may function as a secreted oligomeric chaperone protease to degrade misfolded secretory proteins. Other human HtrA proteins have been implicated in arthritis, tumor suppression, unfolded stress response, apoptosis, and aging. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

HTRA1 Gene

HtrA serine peptidase 1

This gene encodes a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. This protein is a secreted enzyme that is proposed to regulate the availability of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) by cleaving IGF-binding proteins. It has also been suggested to be a regulator of cell growth. Variations in the promoter region of this gene are the cause of susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration type 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HTRA2 Gene

HtrA serine peptidase 2

This gene encodes a serine protease. The protein has been localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and interacts with an alternatively spliced form of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14. The protein has also been localized to the mitochondria with release to the cytosol following apoptotic stimulus. The protein is thought to induce apoptosis by binding the apoptosis inhibitory protein baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 4. Nuclear localization of this protein has also been observed. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additional transcript variants have been described, but their full-length sequences have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HTRA3 Gene

HtrA serine peptidase 3

TRNAS-GCU Gene

transfer RNA serine (anticodon GCU)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

LOC105370297 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor SR45-like

SPATS1 Gene

spermatogenesis associated, serine-rich 1

SPATS2 Gene

spermatogenesis associated, serine-rich 2

ROS1 Gene

ROS proto-oncogene 1 , receptor tyrosine kinase

This proto-oncogene, highly-expressed in a variety of tumor cell lines, belongs to the sevenless subfamily of tyrosine kinase insulin receptor genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a type I integral membrane protein with tyrosine kinase activity. The protein may function as a growth or differentiation factor receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RYK Gene

receptor-like tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is an atypical member of the family of growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinases, differing from other members at a number of conserved residues in the activation and nucleotide binding domains. This gene product belongs to a subfamily whose members do not appear to be regulated by phosphorylation in the activation segment. It has been suggested that mediation of biological activity by recruitment of a signaling-competent auxiliary protein may occur through an as yet uncharacterized mechanism. The encoded protein has a leucine-rich extracellular domain with a WIF-type Wnt binding region, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. This protein is involved in stimulating Wnt signaling pathways such as the regulation of axon pathfinding. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ABL1 Gene

ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene is a protooncogene that encodes a protein tyrosine kinase involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell division, adhesion, differentiation, and response to stress. The activity of the protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, whereby deletion of the region encoding this domain results in an oncogene. The ubiquitously expressed protein has DNA-binding activity that is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function. This gene has been found fused to a variety of translocation partner genes in various leukemias, most notably the t(9;22) translocation that results in a fusion with the 5' end of the breakpoint cluster region gene (BCR; MIM:151410). Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants, which contain alternative first exons that are spliced to the remaining common exons. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

ABL2 Gene

ABL proto-oncogene 2, non-receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a member of the Abelson family of nonreceptor tyrosine protein kinases. The protein is highly similar to the c-abl oncogene 1 protein, including the tyrosine kinase, SH2 and SH3 domains, and it plays a role in cytoskeletal rearrangements through its C-terminal F-actin- and microtubule-binding sequences. This gene is expressed in both normal and tumor cells, and is involved in translocation with the ets variant 6 gene in leukemia. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

ADRBK1 Gene

adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 1

The product of this gene phosphorylates the beta-2-adrenergic receptor and appears to mediate agonist-specific desensitization observed at high agonist concentrations. This protein is an ubiquitous cytosolic enzyme that specifically phosphorylates the activated form of the beta-adrenergic and related G-protein-coupled receptors. Abnormal coupling of beta-adrenergic receptor to G protein is involved in the pathogenesis of the failing heart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADRBK2 Gene

adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 2

The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G protein-coupled receptors. Overall, the beta adrenergic receptor kinase 2 has 85% amino acid similarity with beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1, with the protein kinase catalytic domain having 95% similarity. These data suggest the existence of a family of receptor kinases which may serve broadly to regulate receptor function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BMX Gene

BMX non-receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a non-receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the Tec kinase family. The protein contains a PH-like domain, which mediates membrane targeting by binding to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3), and a SH2 domain that binds to tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and functions in signal transduction. The protein is implicated in several signal transduction pathways including the Stat pathway, and regulates differentiation and tumorigenicity of several types of cancer cells. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

AXL Gene

AXL receptor tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. The encoded protein possesses an extracellular domain which is composed of two immunoglobulin-like motifs at the N-terminal, followed by two fibronectin type-III motifs. It transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding to the vitamin K-dependent protein growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6). This gene may be involved in several cellular functions including growth, migration, aggregation and anti-inflammation in multiple cell types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

MET Gene

MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase

The proto-oncogene MET product is the hepatocyte growth factor receptor and encodes tyrosine-kinase activity. The primary single chain precursor protein is post-translationally cleaved to produce the alpha and beta subunits, which are disulfide linked to form the mature receptor. Various mutations in the MET gene are associated with papillary renal carcinoma. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MUSK Gene

muscle, skeletal, receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a muscle-specific tyrosine kinase receptor. The encoded protein may play a role in clustering of the acetylcholine receptor in the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital myasthenic syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

DDR2 Gene

discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play a key role in the communication of cells with their microenvironment. These molecules are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. In several cases the biochemical mechanism by which RTKs transduce signals across the membrane has been shown to be ligand induced receptor oligomerization and subsequent intracellular phosphorylation. This autophosphorylation leads to phosphorylation of cytosolic targets as well as association with other molecules, which are involved in pleiotropic effects of signal transduction. RTKs have a tripartite structure with extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic regions. This gene encodes a member of a novel subclass of RTKs and contains a distinct extracellular region encompassing a factor VIII-like domain. Alternative splicing in the 5' UTR results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DDR1 Gene

discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 1

Receptor tyrosine kinases play a key role in the communication of cells with their microenvironment. These kinases are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a subfamily of tyrosine kinase receptors with homology to Dictyostelium discoideum protein discoidin I in their extracellular domain, and that are activated by various types of collagen. Expression of this protein is restricted to epithelial cells, particularly in the kidney, lung, gastrointestinal tract, and brain. In addition, it has been shown to be significantly overexpressed in several human tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

IRAK2 Gene

interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2

IRAK2 encodes the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2, one of two putative serine/threonine kinases that become associated with the interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) upon stimulation. IRAK2 is reported to participate in the IL1-induced upregulation of NF-kappaB. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IRAK3 Gene

interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase protein family. Members of this family are essential components of the Toll/IL-R immune signal transduction pathways. This protein is primarily expressed in monocytes and macrophages and functions as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling. Mutations in this gene are associated with a susceptibility to asthma. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

IRAK1 Gene

interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1

This gene encodes the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1, one of two putative serine/threonine kinases that become associated with the interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) upon stimulation. This gene is partially responsible for IL1-induced upregulation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IRAK4 Gene

interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4

This gene encodes a kinase that activates NF-kappaB in both the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways. The protein is essential for most innate immune responses. Mutations in this gene result in IRAK4 deficiency and recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

TNK2 Gene

tyrosine kinase, non-receptor, 2

This gene encodes a tyrosine kinase that binds Cdc42Hs in its GTP-bound form and inhibits both the intrinsic and GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-stimulated GTPase activity of Cdc42Hs. This binding is mediated by a unique sequence of 47 amino acids C-terminal to an SH3 domain. The protein may be involved in a regulatory mechanism that sustains the GTP-bound active form of Cdc42Hs and which is directly linked to a tyrosine phosphorylation signal transduction pathway. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified from this gene, but the full-length nature of only two transcript variants has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TNK1 Gene

tyrosine kinase, non-receptor, 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the tyrosine protein kinase family. Tyrosine protein kinases are important regulators of intracellular signal transduction pathways, mediating cellular proliferation, survival, and development. This gene is highly expressed in fetal tissues and at lower levels in few adult tissues, thus may function in signaling pathways utilized broadly during fetal development, and more selectively in adult tissues. It plays a negative regulatory role in the Ras-Raf1-MAPK pathway, and knockout mice have been shown to develop spontaneous tumors, suggesting a role as a tumor suppressor gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

ALK Gene

anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily. This protein comprises an extracellular domain, an hydrophobic stretch corresponding to a single pass transmembrane region, and an intracellular kinase domain. It plays an important role in the development of the brain and exerts its effects on specific neurons in the nervous system. This gene has been found to be rearranged, mutated, or amplified in a series of tumours including anaplastic large cell lymphomas, neuroblastoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. The chromosomal rearrangements are the most common genetic alterations in this gene, which result in creation of multiple fusion genes in tumourigenesis, including ALK (chromosome 2)/EML4 (chromosome 2), ALK/RANBP2 (chromosome 2), ALK/ATIC (chromosome 2), ALK/TFG (chromosome 3), ALK/NPM1 (chromosome 5), ALK/SQSTM1 (chromosome 5), ALK/KIF5B (chromosome 10), ALK/CLTC (chromosome 17), ALK/TPM4 (chromosome 19), and ALK/MSN (chromosome X).[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

SRC Gene

SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene is highly similar to the v-src gene of Rous sarcoma virus. This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. The protein encoded by this gene is a tyrosine-protein kinase whose activity can be inhibited by phosphorylation by c-SRC kinase. Mutations in this gene could be involved in the malignant progression of colon cancer. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RYKP1 Gene

receptor-like tyrosine kinase pseudogene 1

NTRK1 Gene

neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1

This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (NTKR) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. The presence of this kinase leads to cell differentiation and may play a role in specifying sensory neuron subtypes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital insensitivity to pain, anhidrosis, self-mutilating behavior, mental retardation and cancer. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been found, but only three have been characterized to date. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NTRK2 Gene

neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2

This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. Signalling through this kinase leads to cell differentiation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with obesity and mood disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

NTRK3 Gene

neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3

This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. Signalling through this kinase leads to cell differentiation and may play a role in the development of proprioceptive neurons that sense body position. Mutations in this gene have been associated with medulloblastomas, secretory breast carcinomas and other cancers. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

ERBB2 Gene

erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This protein has no ligand binding domain of its own and therefore cannot bind growth factors. However, it does bind tightly to other ligand-bound EGF receptor family members to form a heterodimer, stabilizing ligand binding and enhancing kinase-mediated activation of downstream signalling pathways, such as those involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Allelic variations at amino acid positions 654 and 655 of isoform a (positions 624 and 625 of isoform b) have been reported, with the most common allele, Ile654/Ile655, shown here. Amplification and/or overexpression of this gene has been reported in numerous cancers, including breast and ovarian tumors. Alternative splicing results in several additional transcript variants, some encoding different isoforms and others that have not been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ERBB3 Gene

erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This membrane-bound protein has a neuregulin binding domain but not an active kinase domain. It therefore can bind this ligand but not convey the signal into the cell through protein phosphorylation. However, it does form heterodimers with other EGF receptor family members which do have kinase activity. Heterodimerization leads to the activation of pathways which lead to cell proliferation or differentiation. Amplification of this gene and/or overexpression of its protein have been reported in numerous cancers, including prostate, bladder, and breast tumors. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. One isoform lacks the intermembrane region and is secreted outside the cell. This form acts to modulate the activity of the membrane-bound form. Additional splice variants have also been reported, but they have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ERBB4 Gene

erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4

This gene is a member of the Tyr protein kinase family and the epidermal growth factor receptor subfamily. It encodes a single-pass type I membrane protein with multiple cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, a tyrosine kinase domain, a phosphotidylinositol-3 kinase binding site and a PDZ domain binding motif. The protein binds to and is activated by neuregulins and other factors and induces a variety of cellular responses including mitogenesis and differentiation. Multiple proteolytic events allow for the release of a cytoplasmic fragment and an extracellular fragment. Mutations in this gene have been associated with cancer. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LTK Gene

leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ros/insulin receptor family of tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine-specific phosphorylation of proteins is a key to the control of diverse pathways leading to cell growth and differentiation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

KDR Gene

kinase insert domain receptor

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major growth factor for endothelial cells. This gene encodes one of the two receptors of the VEGF. This receptor, known as kinase insert domain receptor, is a type III receptor tyrosine kinase. It functions as the main mediator of VEGF-induced endothelial proliferation, survival, migration, tubular morphogenesis and sprouting. The signalling and trafficking of this receptor are regulated by multiple factors, including Rab GTPase, P2Y purine nucleotide receptor, integrin alphaVbeta3, T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase, etc.. Mutations of this gene are implicated in infantile capillary hemangiomas. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

LOC391600 Gene

transmembrane epididymal protein 1 pseudogene

TMEM200B Gene

transmembrane protein 200B

TMEM160 Gene

transmembrane protein 160

TMEM163 Gene

transmembrane protein 163

TMEM165 Gene

transmembrane protein 165

This gene encodes a predicted transmembrane protein with a perinuclear Golgi-like distribution in fibroblasts. Mutations in this gene are associated with the autosomal recessive disorder congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIk. Knockdown of this gene's expression causes decreased sialylation in HEK cells and suggests this gene plays a role in terminal Golgi glycosylation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

TMEM164 Gene

transmembrane protein 164

TMEM168 Gene

transmembrane protein 168

TMEM255B Gene

transmembrane protein 255B

TMEM255A Gene

transmembrane protein 255A

TMEM167AP1 Gene

transmembrane protein 167A pseudogene 1

LOC100313942 Gene

transmembrane protein 92 pseudogene

LOC440181 Gene

transmembrane protein 98 pseudogene

GHITM Gene

growth hormone inducible transmembrane protein

LOC391020 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 pseudogene

LOC100419882 Gene

transmembrane protein 98 pseudogene

FAM205CP Gene

transmembrane protein C9orf144B pseudogene

TMEM258 Gene

transmembrane protein 258

TMEM257 Gene

transmembrane protein 257

This intronless gene is expressed in the hippocampus and maps close to a candidate region for several X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) syndromes. It is conserved in primates, cow, and horse, but not found in mouse and rat. The exact function of this gene is not known, but on the basis of its physical location and expression pattern, it is proposed to have an important function in the brain. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

TMEM256 Gene

transmembrane protein 256

TMEM254 Gene

transmembrane protein 254

TMEM253 Gene

transmembrane protein 253

TMEM252 Gene

transmembrane protein 252

TMEM251 Gene

transmembrane protein 251

FLRT1 Gene

fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein (FLRT) family. The family members may function in cell adhesion and/or receptor signalling. Their protein structures resemble small leucine-rich proteoglycans found in the extracellular matrix. The encoded protein shares sequence similarity with two other family members, FLRT2 and FLRT3. This gene is expressed in kidney and brain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FLRT3 Gene

fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein 3

This gene encodes a member of the fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein (FLRT) family. FLRTs may function in cell adhesion and/or receptor signalling. Their protein structures resemble small leucine-rich proteoglycans found in the extracellular matrix. This gene is expressed in many tissues. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

FLRT2 Gene

fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein (FLRT) family. FLRT family members may function in cell adhesion and/or receptor signalling. Their protein structures resemble small leucine-rich proteoglycans found in the extracellular matrix. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFITM8P Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 8 pseudogene

TMPPE Gene

transmembrane protein with metallophosphoesterase domain

LOC100419975 Gene

transmembrane protein 192 pseudogene

TMEM247 Gene

transmembrane protein 247

TMEM241 Gene

transmembrane protein 241

TMEM242 Gene

transmembrane protein 242

TMEM185B Gene

transmembrane protein 185B

TMEM185A Gene

transmembrane protein 185A

The protein encoded by this gene is predicted to be a transmembrane protein. This gene is best known for localizing to the CpG island of the fragile site FRAXF. The 5' untranslated region of this gene contains a CGG trinucleotide repeat sequence that normally consists of 7-40 tandem CGG repeats but which can expand to greater than 300 repeats. Methylation of the CpG island leads to transcriptional silencing of this gene, but neither the silencing nor an expanded repeat region appear to manifest itself in a clear phenotypic manner. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

OSTM1 Gene

osteopetrosis associated transmembrane protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that may be involved in the degradation of G proteins via the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway. The encoded protein binds to members of subfamily A of the regulator of the G-protein signaling (RGS) family through an N-terminal leucine-rich region. This protein also has a central RING finger-like domain and E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. This protein is highly conserved from flies to humans. Defects in this gene may cause the autosomal recessive, infantile malignant form of osteopetrosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMEM37 Gene

transmembrane protein 37

TMEM31 Gene

transmembrane protein 31

TMEM33 Gene

transmembrane protein 33

TMEM169 Gene

transmembrane protein 169

GS1-259H13.2 Gene

transmembrane protein 225-like

AMN Gene

amnion associated transmembrane protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane protein. It is thought to modulate bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor function by serving as an accessory or coreceptor, and thus facilitates or hinders BMP binding. It is known that the mouse AMN gene is expressed in the extraembryonic visceral endoderm layer during gastrulation, but it is found to be mutated in amnionless mouse. The encoded protein has sequence similarity to short gastrulation (Sog) and procollagen IIA proteins in Drosophila. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMEM178B Gene

transmembrane protein 178B

LOC100131216 Gene

transmembrane protein 38B pseudogene

LOC642515 Gene

proline-rich transmembrane protein 1-like

LOC442017 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 pseudogene

IFITM5 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 5

This gene encodes a membrane protein thought to play a role in bone mineralization. This gene is located on chromosome 11 in a cluster of related genes which are induced by interferon, however, this gene has not been shown to be interferon inducible. A similar gene, located in a gene cluster on mouse chromosome 7, is a member of the interferon-inducible fragilis gene family. The mouse gene encodes a transmembrane protein described as participating in germ cell competence. A mutation in the 5' UTR of this gene has been associated with osteogenesis imperfecta type V (PMID: 22863190, 22863195). [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

TMEM133 Gene

transmembrane protein 133

There is evidence that this intronless gene is transcribed but the protein is predicted. The gene function is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMEM130 Gene

transmembrane protein 130

TMEM131 Gene

transmembrane protein 131

TMEM136 Gene

transmembrane protein 136

TMEM134 Gene

transmembrane protein 134

TMEM135 Gene

transmembrane protein 135

TMEM138 Gene

transmembrane protein 138

This gene encodes a multi-pass transmembrane protein. Reduced expression of this gene in mouse fibroblasts causes short cilia and failure of ciliogenesis. Expression of this gene is tightly coordinated with expression of the neighboring gene TMEM216. Mutations in this gene are associated with the autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder Joubert Syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

TMEM139 Gene

transmembrane protein 139

LOC100286958 Gene

transmembrane protein 183A pseudogene

TMEFF1 Gene

transmembrane protein with EGF-like and two follistatin-like domains 1

TMEFF2 Gene

transmembrane protein with EGF-like and two follistatin-like domains 2

This gene encodes a member of the tomoregulin family of transmembrane proteins. This protein has been shown to function as both an oncogene and a tumor suppressor depending on the cellular context and may regulate prostate cancer cell invasion. Multiple soluble forms of this protein have been identified that arise from both an alternative splice variant and ectodomain shedding. Additionally, this gene has been found to be hypermethylated in multiple cancer types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

LOC100419853 Gene

transmembrane protein 69 pseudogene

TMEM50B Gene

transmembrane protein 50B

TMEM50A Gene

transmembrane protein 50A

This gene is located in the RH gene locus, between the RHD and RHCE genes. The function of its protein product is unknown; however, its sequence has potential transmembrane domains suggesting that it may be an integral membrane protein. Its position between the RH genes suggests that polymorphisms in this gene may be tightly linked to RH haplotypes and may contribute to selective pressure for or against certain RH haplotypes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMED7 Gene

transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 7

TMED6 Gene

transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 6

TMED5 Gene

transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 5

TMED4 Gene

transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 4

TMED3 Gene

transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 3

TMED2 Gene

transmembrane emp24 domain trafficking protein 2

TMED1 Gene

transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 1

This gene belongs to the TMED (transmembrane emp24 domain-containing) protein family, which is involved in the vesicular trafficking of proteins. The protein encoded by this gene was identified by its interaction with interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1) and may play a role in innate immunity. This protein lacks any similarity to other interleukin 1 ligands. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

TMED9 Gene

transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 9

TMED8 Gene

transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 8

LOC100420062 Gene

transmembrane protein 160 pseudogene

TMED10P1 Gene

transmembrane emp24-like trafficking protein 10 (yeast) pseudogene 1

TMED10P2 Gene

transmembrane emp24-like trafficking protein 10 (yeast) pseudogene 2

TMEM201 Gene

transmembrane protein 201

TMEM202 Gene

transmembrane protein 202

TMEM203 Gene

transmembrane protein 203

TMEM204 Gene

transmembrane protein 204

C16ORF30 plays a role in cell adhesion and cellular permeability at adherens junctions (Kearsey et al., 2004 [PubMed 15206924]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TMEM205 Gene

transmembrane protein 205

TMEM206 Gene

transmembrane protein 206

TMEM207 Gene

transmembrane protein 207

TMEM208 Gene

transmembrane protein 208

TMEM209 Gene

transmembrane protein 209

TMEM65 Gene

transmembrane protein 65

TMEM64 Gene

transmembrane protein 64

TMEM62 Gene

transmembrane protein 62

TMEM61 Gene

transmembrane protein 61

TMEM60 Gene

transmembrane protein 60

TMEM69 Gene

transmembrane protein 69

TMEM68 Gene

transmembrane protein 68

LOC100288935 Gene

transmembrane protein 258 pseudogene

TMEM67 Gene

transmembrane protein 67

The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the primary cilium and to the plasma membrane. The gene functions in centriole migration to the apical membrane and formation of the primary cilium. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Defects in this gene are a cause of Meckel syndrome type 3 (MKS3) and Joubert syndrome type 6 (JBTS6). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

TMEM161BP1 Gene

transmembrane protein 161B pseudogene 1

RNFT1 Gene

ring finger protein, transmembrane 1

TMEM183AP1 Gene

transmembrane protein 183A pseudogene 1

LAPTM4A Gene

lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 alpha

This gene encodes a protein that has four predicted transmembrane domains. The function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, studies in the mouse homolog suggest a role in the transport of small molecules across endosomal and lysosomal membranes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LAPTM4B Gene

lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 beta

LOC100132025 Gene

transmembrane domain-containing protein ENSP00000320207-like

LOC100420074 Gene

transmembrane protein 183A pseudogene

LETM2 Gene

leucine zipper-EF-hand containing transmembrane protein 2

TMEM161A Gene

transmembrane protein 161A

TMEM161B Gene

transmembrane protein 161B

LOC100421730 Gene

transmembrane emp24 domain trafficking protein 2 pseudogene

TMEM179B Gene

transmembrane protein 179B

TMEM132E Gene

transmembrane protein 132E

TMEM132D Gene

transmembrane protein 132D

TMEM132A Gene

transmembrane protein 132A

This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the rat Grp78-binding protein (GBP). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMEM132B Gene

transmembrane protein 132B

LOC645900 Gene

lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 beta pseudogene

LOC100130437 Gene

transmembrane protein 126A pseudogene

TMEM109 Gene

transmembrane protein 109

TMEM108 Gene

transmembrane protein 108

TMEM102 Gene

transmembrane protein 102

TMEM101 Gene

transmembrane protein 101

TMEM107 Gene

transmembrane protein 107

TMEM105 Gene

transmembrane protein 105

TMEM104 Gene

transmembrane protein 104

LOC100113397 Gene

vezatin, adherens junctions transmembrane protein pseudogene

TMEM74B Gene

transmembrane protein 74B

RNFT2 Gene

ring finger protein, transmembrane 2

LETM1P2 Gene

leucine zipper-EF-hand containing transmembrane protein 1, pseudogene 2

LETM1P3 Gene

leucine zipper-EF-hand containing transmembrane protein 1, pseudogene 3

TMEM259 Gene

transmembrane protein 259

TM9SF4 Gene

transmembrane 9 superfamily protein member 4

TMEM150A Gene

transmembrane protein 150A

TMEM150C Gene

transmembrane protein 150C

TMEM150B Gene

transmembrane protein 150B

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the DRAM (damage-regulated autophagy modulator) family of membrane-spanning proteins. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

FAM205BP Gene

transmembrane protein C9orf144B pseudogene

LOC100996337 Gene

transmembrane protein 191B-like

TMEM182 Gene

transmembrane protein 182

TMEM181 Gene

transmembrane protein 181

The TMEM181 gene encodes a putative G protein-coupled receptor expressed on the cell surface (Carette et al., 2009 [PubMed 19965467]; Wollscheid et al., 2009 [PubMed 19349973]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2010]

TMEM180 Gene

transmembrane protein 180

TMEM187 Gene

transmembrane protein 187

This gene consists of two exons and encodes a multi-pass membrane protein. An alternatively spliced transcript variant encoding the same protein has been found, but its biological validity is not determined. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

TMEM186 Gene

transmembrane protein 186

This gene encodes a potential transmembrane protein. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

TMEM189 Gene

transmembrane protein 189

Co-transcription of this gene and the neighboring downstream gene (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1) generates a rare read-through transcript, which encodes a fusion protein comprised of sequence sharing identity with each individual gene product. The protein encoded by this individual gene lacks a UEV1 domain but includes three transmembrane regions. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

TMEM59 Gene

transmembrane protein 59

This gene encodes a protein shown to regulate autophagy in response to bacterial infection. This protein may also regulate the retention of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the Golgi apparatus through its control of APP glycosylation. Overexpression of this protein has been found to promote apoptosis in a glioma cell line. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

TMEM57 Gene

transmembrane protein 57

TMEM54 Gene

transmembrane protein 54

TMEM52 Gene

transmembrane protein 52

TMEM53 Gene

transmembrane protein 53

TMEM51 Gene

transmembrane protein 51

TMEM198B Gene

transmembrane protein 198B, pseudogene

TMEM154 Gene

transmembrane protein 154

PMEPA1 Gene

prostate transmembrane protein, androgen induced 1

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein that contains a Smad interacting motif (SIM). Expression of this gene is induced by androgens and transforming growth factor beta, and the encoded protein suppresses the androgen receptor and transforming growth factor beta signaling pathways though interactions with Smad proteins. Overexpression of this gene may play a role in multiple types of cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

LOC100287335 Gene

transmembrane protein 183A pseudogene

RNFT1P1 Gene

ring finger protein, transmembrane 1 pseudogene 1

RNFT1P2 Gene

ring finger protein, transmembrane 1 pseudogene 2

TMEM55A Gene

transmembrane protein 55A

TMEM55A catalyzes the degradation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2) by removing the 4-phosphate (Ungewickell et al., 2005 [PubMed 16365287]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TMEM55B Gene

transmembrane protein 55B

TMEM55B catalyzes the degradation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2) by removing the 4-phosphate (Ungewickell et al., 2005 [PubMed 16365287]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TMEM30B Gene

transmembrane protein 30B

FITM2 Gene

fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2

FIT2 belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins involved in fat storage (Kadereit et al., 2008 [PubMed 18160536]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2008]

FITM1 Gene

fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 1

FIT1 belongs to an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins involved in fat storage (Kadereit et al., 2008 [PubMed 18160536]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2008]

LOC100420020 Gene

transmembrane protein 55B pseudogene

DCSTAMP Gene

dendrocyte expressed seven transmembrane protein

This gene encodes a seven-pass transmembrane protein that is primarily expressed in dendritic cells. The encoded protein is involved in a range of immunological functions carried out by dendritic cells. This protein plays a role in osteoclastogenesis and myeloid differentiation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

LOC101929203 Gene

RING finger and transmembrane domain-containing protein 1-like

TMX4 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 4

TMX1 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 1

TXNDC1 is a thioredoxin (TXN; see MIM 187700)-related protein with disulfide reductase activity (Matsuo et al., 2001 [PubMed 11152479]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TMX3 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 3

TMX2 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 2

LOC100130176 Gene

transmembrane protein 188 pseudogene

TMEM86A Gene

transmembrane protein 86A

TMEM86B Gene

transmembrane protein 86B

TMEM45A Gene

transmembrane protein 45A

TMEM45B Gene

transmembrane protein 45B

TMEM155 Gene

transmembrane protein 155

TMEM156 Gene

transmembrane protein 156

TMEM158 Gene

transmembrane protein 158 (gene/pseudogene)

Constitutive activation of the Ras pathway triggers an irreversible proliferation arrest reminiscent of replicative senescence. Transcription of this gene is upregulated in response to activation of the Ras pathway, but not under other conditions that induce senescence. The encoded protein is similar to a rat cell surface receptor proposed to function in a neuronal survival pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMEM159 Gene

transmembrane protein 159

LOC100101247 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein pseudogene

LOC100101246 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 pseudogene

TEDDM2P Gene

transmembrane epididymal protein 2, pseudogene

IFITM10 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 10

TMEM213 Gene

transmembrane protein 213

TMEM210 Gene

transmembrane protein 210

TMEM215 Gene

transmembrane protein 215

LOC442389 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein pseudogene

LETM1 Gene

leucine zipper-EF-hand containing transmembrane protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that is localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane. The protein functions to maintain the mitochondrial tubular shapes and is required for normal mitochondrial morphology and cellular viability. Mutations in this gene cause Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, a complex malformation syndrome caused by the deletion of parts of the distal short arm of chromosome 4. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 8, 15 and 19. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

LOC101930080 Gene

GPS, PLAT and transmembrane domain-containing protein FLJ00285-like

TMEM88 Gene

transmembrane protein 88

TMEM81 Gene

transmembrane protein 81

TMEM80 Gene

transmembrane protein 80

TMEM8A Gene

transmembrane protein 8A

TMEM8C Gene

transmembrane protein 8C

TMEM8B Gene

transmembrane protein 8B

TMEM87B Gene

transmembrane protein 87B

TMEM87A Gene

transmembrane protein 87A

IFITM9P Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 9 pseudogene

TMEM52B Gene

transmembrane protein 52B

LOC442309 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 pseudogene

TMEM97P1 Gene

transmembrane protein 97 pseudogene 1

TMEM184A Gene

transmembrane protein 184A

TMEM184B Gene

transmembrane protein 184B

TMEM184C Gene

transmembrane protein 184C

TMEM222 Gene

transmembrane protein 222

TMEM223 Gene

transmembrane protein 223

TMEM220 Gene

transmembrane protein 220

TMEM221 Gene

transmembrane protein 221

LOC646616 Gene

transmembrane protein 183A pseudogene

TMED10 Gene

transmembrane emp24-like trafficking protein 10 (yeast)

This gene is a member of the EMP24/GP25L/p24 family and encodes a protein with a GOLD domain. This type I membrane protein is localized to the plasma membrane and golgi cisternae and is involved in vesicular protein trafficking. The protein is also a member of a heteromeric secretase complex and regulates the complex's gamma-secretase activity without affecting its epsilon-secretase activity. Mutations in this gene have been associated with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 8. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC728048 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein pseudogene

TMEM167B Gene

transmembrane protein 167B

TMEM167A Gene

transmembrane protein 167A

TMEM132C Gene

transmembrane protein 132C

TENM3 Gene

teneurin transmembrane protein 3

TENM2 Gene

teneurin transmembrane protein 2

TENM1 Gene

teneurin transmembrane protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the tenascin family and teneurin subfamily. It is expressed in the neurons and may function as a cellular signal transducer. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

TENM4 Gene

teneurin transmembrane protein 4

TMEM39B Gene

transmembrane protein 39B

TMEM39A Gene

transmembrane protein 39A

LOC100420053 Gene

transmembrane protein 126A pseudogene

IFITM4P Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 4 pseudogene

LOC100420119 Gene

transmembrane protein 132B pseudogene

TMEM200C Gene

transmembrane protein 200C

TMEM125 Gene

transmembrane protein 125

TMEM127 Gene

transmembrane protein 127

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein with 3 predicted transmembrane domains. The protein is associated with a subpopulation of vesicular organelles corresponding to early endosomal structures, with the Golgi, and with lysosomes, and may participate in protein trafficking between these structures. Mutations in this gene and several other genes cause pheochromocytomas. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

TMEM121 Gene

transmembrane protein 121

TMEM123 Gene

transmembrane protein 123

This gene encodes a highly glycosylated transmembrane protein with a high content of threonine and serine residues in its extracellular domain, similar to a broadly defined category of proteins termed mucins. Exposure of some cell types to anti-PORIMIN (pro-oncosis receptor inducing membrane injury) antibody, crosslinks this protein on the cell surface and induces a type of cell death termed oncosis. Oncosis is distinct from apoptosis and is characterized by a loss of cell membrane integrity without DNA fragmentation. This gene product is proposed to function as a cell surface receptor that mediates cell death. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMEM128 Gene

transmembrane protein 128

TMEM35 Gene

transmembrane protein 35

TMEM14E Gene

transmembrane protein 14E

TMEM143 Gene

transmembrane protein 143

TMEM140 Gene

transmembrane protein 140

TMEM89 Gene

transmembrane protein 89

TMEM82 Gene

transmembrane protein 82

OCSTAMP Gene

osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein

LOC100420118 Gene

transmembrane protein 132C pseudogene

TMEM211 Gene

transmembrane protein 211

TMEM217 Gene

transmembrane protein 217

TMEM216 Gene

transmembrane protein 216

This locus encodes a transmembrane domain-containing protein. Mutations at this locus have been associated with Meckel-Gruber Syndrome Type 2, and Joubert Syndrome 2, also known as Cerebello-oculorenal Syndrome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

TMEM214 Gene

transmembrane protein 214

TMEM219 Gene

transmembrane protein 219

TMEM218 Gene

transmembrane protein 218

TMEM78 Gene

transmembrane protein 78

TMEM79 Gene

transmembrane protein 79

TMEM70 Gene

transmembrane protein 70

This gene likely encodes a mitochondrial membrane protein. The encoded protein may play a role in biogenesis of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mutations in this gene have been associated with neonatal mitochondrial encephalocardiomyopathy due to ATP synthase deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

TMEM71 Gene

transmembrane protein 71

TMEM72 Gene

transmembrane protein 72

TMEM74 Gene

transmembrane protein 74

TMEM75 Gene

transmembrane protein 75

LOC121296 Gene

transmembrane protein 132B pseudogene

LOC100129118 Gene

transmembrane protein 167A pseudogene

TMEM63A Gene

transmembrane protein 63A

TMEM63C Gene

transmembrane protein 63C

TMEM63B Gene

transmembrane protein 63B

LOC100996401 Gene

transmembrane protein 191B

TMX2P1 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 2 pseudogene 1

LOC100420008 Gene

transmembrane protein 126B pseudogene

DSPA2D Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 pseudogene

LOC100420909 Gene

transmembrane protein 251 pseudogene

KREMEN1 Gene

kringle containing transmembrane protein 1

This gene encodes a high-affinity dickkopf homolog 1 (DKK1) transmembrane receptor that functionally cooperates with DKK1 to block wingless (WNT)/beta-catenin signaling. The encoded protein is a component of a membrane complex that modulates canonical WNT signaling through lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6). It contains extracellular kringle, WSC, and CUB domains. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLPTM1 Gene

cleft lip and palate associated transmembrane protein 1

TMEM262 Gene

transmembrane protein 262

TMEM198 Gene

transmembrane protein 198

TMEM177 Gene

transmembrane protein 177

TMEM174 Gene

transmembrane protein 174

TMEM175 Gene

transmembrane protein 175

TMEM171 Gene

transmembrane protein 171

TMEM100 Gene

transmembrane protein 100

TMEM191B Gene

transmembrane protein 191B

TMEM191C Gene

transmembrane protein 191C

TMEM191A Gene

transmembrane protein 191A (pseudogene)

LETM1P1 Gene

leucine zipper-EF-hand containing transmembrane protein 1, pseudogene 1

LOC100506400 Gene

transmembrane protein 258 pseudogene

LOC388104 Gene

transmembrane protein 183A pseudogene

TMEM151B Gene

transmembrane protein 151B

TMEM151A Gene

transmembrane protein 151A

TMEM248 Gene

transmembrane protein 248

TMEM249 Gene

transmembrane protein 249

TMEM244 Gene

transmembrane protein 244

TMEM245 Gene

transmembrane protein 245

TMEM246 Gene

transmembrane protein 246

TMEM240 Gene

transmembrane protein 240

This gene encodes a transmembrane-domain containing protein found in the brain and cerebellum. Mutations in this gene result in spinocerebellar ataxia 21. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

TMEM243 Gene

transmembrane protein 243, mitochondrial

TMEM97P2 Gene

transmembrane protein 97 pseudogene 2

TMEM176A Gene

transmembrane protein 176A

TMEM176B Gene

transmembrane protein 176B

VEZT Gene

vezatin, adherens junctions transmembrane protein

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein which has been localized to adherens junctions and shown to bind to myosin VIIA. Examination of expression of this gene in gastric cancer tissues have shown that expression is decreased which appears to be related to hypermethylation of the promoter. Expression of this gene may also be inhibited by binding of a specific microRNA to a target sequence in the 3' UTR of the transcripts. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the X chromosome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

TMEM120B Gene

transmembrane protein 120B

TMEM120A Gene

transmembrane protein 120A

KREMEN2 Gene

kringle containing transmembrane protein 2

This gene encodes a high-affinity dickkopf homolog 1 (DKK1) transmembrane receptor. A similar protein in mouse functions interacts with with DKK1 to block wingless (WNT)/beta-catenin signaling. The encoded protein forms a ternary membrane complex with DKK1 and the WNT receptor lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), and induces rapid endocytosis and removal of LRP6 from the plasma membrane. It contains extracellular kringle, WSC, and CUB domains. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

TMEM248P1 Gene

transmembrane protein 248 pseudogene 1

TMEM173 Gene

transmembrane protein 173

This gene encodes a five transmembrane protein that functions as a major regulator of the innate immune response to viral and bacterial infections. The encoded protein is a pattern recognition receptor that detects cytosolic nucleic acids and transmits signals that activate type I interferon responses. The encoded protein has also been shown to play a role in apoptotic signaling by associating with type II major histocompatibility complex. Mutations in this gene are the cause of infantile-onset STING-associated vasculopathy. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

IFITM3 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene is an interferon-induced membrane protein that helps confer immunity to influenza A H1N1 virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus. Two transcript variants, only one of them protein-coding, have been found for this gene. Another variant encoding an N-terminally truncated isoform has been reported, but the full-length nature of this variant has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

IFITM1 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 1

LOC100127982 Gene

transmembrane protein 69 pseudogene

TMEM27 Gene

transmembrane protein 27

This gene encodes a type 1 transmembrane protein that is important for trafficking amino acid transporters to the apical brush border of proximal tubules. The encoded protein binds to amino acid transporters and regulates their expression on the plasma membrane. It also plays a role in controlling insulin exocytosis by regulating formation of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor) complex in pancreatic beta cells. The extracellular domain of the encoded protein may be cleaved and shed from the plasma membrane specifically in pancreatic beta cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

TMEM26 Gene

transmembrane protein 26

TMEM25 Gene

transmembrane protein 25

TMEM225 Gene

transmembrane protein 225

TMEM256P1 Gene

transmembrane protein 256 pseudogene 1

LAPTM5 Gene

lysosomal protein transmembrane 5

This gene encodes a transmembrane receptor that is associated with lysosomes. The encoded protein, also known as E3 protein, may play a role in hematopoiesis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

TMEM212 Gene

transmembrane protein 212

TMEM14D Gene

transmembrane protein 14D (pseudogene)

TMEM14C Gene

transmembrane protein 14C

TMEM14B Gene

transmembrane protein 14B

TMEM14A Gene

transmembrane protein 14A

TMEM147 Gene

transmembrane protein 147

TMEM145 Gene

transmembrane protein 145

TMEM144 Gene

transmembrane protein 144

TMEM141 Gene

transmembrane protein 141

LOC123862 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein pseudogene

TMEM194A Gene

transmembrane protein 194A

TMEM59L Gene

transmembrane protein 59-like

This gene encodes a predicted type-I membrane glycoprotein. The encoded protein may play a role in functioning of the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFITM2 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 2

TMEM229A Gene

transmembrane protein 229A

TMEM229B Gene

transmembrane protein 229B

TMEM98 Gene

transmembrane protein 98

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein. A missense mutation in this gene result in Nanophthalmos 4 (NNO4). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

TMEM99 Gene

transmembrane protein 99

TMEM92 Gene

transmembrane protein 92

TMEM91 Gene

transmembrane protein 91

TMEM97 Gene

transmembrane protein 97

TMEM97 is a conserved integral membrane protein that plays a role in controlling cellular cholesterol levels (Bartz et al., 2009 [PubMed 19583955]).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2009]

TMEM95 Gene

transmembrane protein 95

TMEM88B Gene

transmembrane protein 88B

LOC105369277 Gene

transmembrane protein C16orf54

TMEM261P1 Gene

transmembrane protein 261 pseudogene 1

LOC100101126 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100101127 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 1 pseudogene

TMEM239 Gene

transmembrane protein 239

TMEM238 Gene

transmembrane protein 238

TMEM235 Gene

transmembrane protein 235

TMEM234 Gene

transmembrane protein 234

TMEM237 Gene

transmembrane protein 237

The protein encoded by this gene is a tetraspanin protein that is thought to be involved in WNT signaling. Defects in this gene are a cause of Joubert syndrome-14. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

TMEM236 Gene

transmembrane protein 236

TMEM231 Gene

transmembrane protein 231

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein, which is a component of the B9 complex involved in the formation of the diffusion barrier between the cilia and plasma membrane. Mutations in this gene cause Joubert syndrome (JBTS). Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

TMEM230 Gene

transmembrane protein 230

TMEM233 Gene

transmembrane protein 233

TMEM232 Gene

transmembrane protein 232

TMEM11 Gene

transmembrane protein 11

TMEM17 Gene

transmembrane protein 17

TMEM18 Gene

transmembrane protein 18

TMEM19 Gene

transmembrane protein 19

TMEM194B Gene

transmembrane protein 194B

TMEM200A Gene

transmembrane protein 200A

LOC643058 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 pseudogene

LOC100129133 Gene

transmembrane protein 184C pseudogene

TMEM9 Gene

transmembrane protein 9

TMEM2 Gene

transmembrane protein 2

TMEM5 Gene

transmembrane protein 5

This gene encodes a type II transmembrane protein that is thought to have glycosyltransferase function. Mutations in this gene result in cobblestone lissencephaly. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

TMEM38A Gene

transmembrane protein 38A

TMEM38B Gene

transmembrane protein 38B

This gene encodes an intracellular monovalent cation channel that functions in maintenance of intracellular calcium release. Mutations in this gene may be associated with autosomal recessive osteogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

PRRT4 Gene

proline-rich transmembrane protein 4

PRRT1 Gene

proline-rich transmembrane protein 1

PRRT3 Gene

proline-rich transmembrane protein 3

PRRT2 Gene

proline-rich transmembrane protein 2

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein containing a proline-rich domain in its N-terminal half. Studies in mice suggest that it is predominantly expressed in brain and spinal cord in embryonic and postnatal stages. Mutations in this gene are associated with episodic kinesigenic dyskinesia-1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

TMEM183A Gene

transmembrane protein 183A

TMEM183B Gene

transmembrane protein 183B

This locus was thought to represent a pseudogene of chromosome 1 open reading frame 37 because it is intronless and retains a polyA tail at the 3' end. It does however contain a complete open reading frame that subsequent research has demonstrated to be transcribed in a limited number of human tissues. The encoded protein may represent a transmembrane protein associated with cell membranes and be involved in cell-cell or cell-environment interactions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

TMEM41A Gene

transmembrane protein 41A

TMEM41B Gene

transmembrane protein 41B

LOC100420067 Gene

transmembrane protein 231 pseudogene

LOC100420066 Gene

transmembrane protein 111 pseudogene

TMEM179 Gene

transmembrane protein 179

TMEM56 Gene

transmembrane protein 56

TMEM178A Gene

transmembrane protein 178A

TMEM30A Gene

transmembrane protein 30A

TMEM30C Gene

transmembrane protein 30C

TMEM119 Gene

transmembrane protein 119

TMEM110 Gene

transmembrane protein 110

TMEM114 Gene

transmembrane protein 114

This gene encodes a glycosylated transmembrane protein that plays a role in lens and eye development. Mutations in this gene, including a t(16;22)(p13.3;q11.2) translocation, are associated with congenital and juvenile cataract disorders. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

TMEM115 Gene

transmembrane protein 115

TMEM116 Gene

transmembrane protein 116

TMEM117 Gene

transmembrane protein 117

TMEM170B Gene

transmembrane protein 170B

TMEM170A Gene

transmembrane protein 170A

LOC642975 Gene

transmembrane protein 230 pseudogene

LOC100420116 Gene

transmembrane protein 132B pseudogene

LOC100996634 Gene

transmembrane protein FLJ37396

GAPT Gene

GRB2-binding adaptor protein, transmembrane

LOC100132789 Gene

transmembrane protein 126A pseudogene

TMEM265 Gene

transmembrane protein 265

TMEM263 Gene

transmembrane protein 263

TMEM260 Gene

transmembrane protein 260

TMEM261 Gene

transmembrane protein 261

TMEM190 Gene

transmembrane protein 190

TMEM192 Gene

transmembrane protein 192

TMEM196 Gene

transmembrane protein 196

TMEM199 Gene

transmembrane protein 199

TMEM44 Gene

transmembrane protein 44

TMEM47 Gene

transmembrane protein 47

This gene encodes a member of the PMP22/EMP/claudin protein family. The encoded protein is localized to the ER and the plasma membrane. In dogs, transcripts of this gene exist at high levels in the brain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMEM40 Gene

transmembrane protein 40

TMEM43 Gene

transmembrane protein 43

This gene belongs to the TMEM43 family. Defects in this gene are the cause of familial arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia type 5 (ARVD5), also known as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy type 5 (ARVC5). Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is an inherited disorder, often involving both ventricles, and is characterized by ventricular tachycardia, heart failure, sudden cardiac death, and fibrofatty replacement of cardiomyocytes. This gene contains a response element for PPAR gamma (an adipogenic transcription factor), which may explain the fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium, a characteristic pathological finding in ARVC. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

TMEM42 Gene

transmembrane protein 42

TEDDM1 Gene

transmembrane epididymal protein 1

TMEM126A Gene

transmembrane protein 126A

The protein encoded by this gene is a mitochondrial membrane protein of unknown function. Defects in this gene are a cause of optic atrophy type 7 (OPA7). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

TMEM126B Gene

transmembrane protein 126B

TMEM106B Gene

transmembrane protein 106B

TMEM106C Gene

transmembrane protein 106C

TMEM106A Gene

transmembrane protein 106A

LOC100420011 Gene

transmembrane protein 38A pseudogene

LOC100130326 Gene

transmembrane protein 183A pseudogene

TPRA1 Gene

transmembrane protein, adipocyte asscociated 1

TMEM185AP1 Gene

transmembrane protein 185A pseudogene 1

TMED11P Gene

transmembrane emp24 protein transport domain containing 11, pseudogene

LOC644172 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

MAPK1IP1L Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1-like

MAPKBP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase binding protein 1

MAPK8IPP Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein, pseudogene

PRKCDBP Gene

protein kinase C, delta binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a binding protein of the protein kinase C, delta (PRKCD). The expression of this gene in cultured cell lines is strongly induced by serum starvation. The expression of this protein was found to be down-regulated in various cancer cell lines, suggesting the possible tumor suppressor function of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SKP2 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbls class; in addition to an F-box, this protein contains 10 tandem leucine-rich repeats. This protein is an essential element of the cyclin A-CDK2 S-phase kinase. It specifically recognizes phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B, also referred to as p27 or KIP1) predominantly in S phase and interacts with S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1 or p19). In addition, this gene is established as a protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. Alternative splicing of this gene generates three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

LOC728098 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1-like pseudogene

MAPK8IP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a regulator of the pancreatic beta-cell function. It is highly similar to JIP-1, a mouse protein known to be a regulator of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (Mapk8). This protein has been shown to prevent MAPK8 mediated activation of transcription factors, and to decrease IL-1 beta and MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) induced apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells. This protein also functions as a DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2. RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is reported to repress the expression of this gene in insulin-secreting beta cells. This gene is found to be mutated in a type 2 diabetes family, and thus is thought to be a susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

MAPK8IP2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is closely related to MAPK8IP1/IB1/JIP-1, a scaffold protein that is involved in the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase signaling pathway. This protein is expressed in brain and pancreatic cells. It has been shown to interact with, and regulate the activity of MAPK8/JNK1, and MAP2K7/MKK7 kinases. This protein thus is thought to function as a regulator of signal transduction by protein kinase cascade in brain and pancreatic beta-cells. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

MAPK8IP3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the product of Drosophila syd gene, required for the functional interaction of kinesin I with axonal cargo. Studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that this protein may interact with, and regulate the activity of numerous protein kinases of the JNK signaling pathway, and thus function as a scaffold protein in neuronal cells. The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport possibly by integrating JNK signaling and kinesin-1 transport. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100130500 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

LOC100533949 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418685 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418686 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418687 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

MAPKAP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase associated protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the yeast SIN1 protein, a stress-activated protein kinase. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. Alternate polyadenylation sites as well as alternate 3' UTRs have been identified for transcripts of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100533950 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533951 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

TYROBP Gene

TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein

This gene encodes a transmembrane signaling polypeptide which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in its cytoplasmic domain. The encoded protein may associate with the killer-cell inhibitory receptor (KIR) family of membrane glycoproteins and may act as an activating signal transduction element. This protein may bind zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa (ZAP-70) and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and play a role in signal transduction, bone modeling, brain myelination, and inflammation. Mutations within this gene have been associated with polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL), also known as Nasu-Hakola disease. Its putative receptor, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), also causes PLOSL. Multiple alternative transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

SIDT1 Gene

SID1 transmembrane family, member 1

SIDT2 Gene

SID1 transmembrane family, member 2

TMC5 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 5

TM4SF18 Gene

transmembrane 4 L six family member 18

TM4SF19 Gene

transmembrane 4 L six family member 19

CLMN Gene

calmin (calponin-like, transmembrane)

TMUB1 Gene

transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain containing 1

TMUB2 Gene

transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain containing 2

POM121L4P Gene

POM121 transmembrane nucleoporin-like 4 pseudogene

TPTE2 Gene

transmembrane phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase and tensin homolog 2

TPIP is a member of a large class of membrane-associated phosphatases with substrate specificity for the 3-position phosphate of inositol phospholipids.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

TMCC1P1 Gene

transmembrane and coiled-coil domain family 1 pseudogene 1

TMTC2 Gene

transmembrane and tetratricopeptide repeat containing 2

TAPT1 Gene

transmembrane anterior posterior transformation 1

This gene encodes a highly conserved, putative transmembrane protein. A mutation in the mouse ortholog of this gene results in homeotic, posterior-to-anterior transformations of the axial skeleton which are similar to the phenotype of mouse homeobox C8 gene mutants. This gene is proposed to function downstream of homeobox C8 to transduce extracellular patterning information during axial skeleton development. An alternatively spliced transcript variant encoding a substantially different isoform has been described, but its biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100420252 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 6 pseudogene

VSTM5 Gene

V-set and transmembrane domain containing 5

VSTM4 Gene

V-set and transmembrane domain containing 4

VSTM1 Gene

V-set and transmembrane domain containing 1

LOC100422352 Gene

transmembrane and tetratricopeptide repeat containing 1 pseudogene

LIME1 Gene

Lck interacting transmembrane adaptor 1

This gene encodes a transmembrane adaptor protein that links the T and B-cell receptor stimulation to downstream signaling pathways via its association with the Src family kinases Lck and Lyn, respectively. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

TMBIM6 Gene

transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 6

TMBIM4 Gene

transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 4

TMBIM1 Gene

transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 1

POM121L9P Gene

POM121 transmembrane nucleoporin-like 9, pseudogene

This locus is inferred to be a transcribed pseudogene based on the observation that protein homology is limited to the first of seven exons (indicated by alignment of AL117401.1 to the assembled human genome). This pattern suggests rapid turnover by the nonsense-mediated decay pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POM121L1P Gene

POM121 transmembrane nucleoporin-like 1, pseudogene

This locus appears to be a pseudogene related to DKFZp434K191, which is of unknown function. This pseudogene lies in the immunoglobulin lambda gene cluster on chromosome 22q11.21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POM121L11P Gene

POM121 transmembrane nucleoporin-like 11, pseudogene

POM121L12 Gene

POM121 transmembrane nucleoporin-like 12

POM121 Gene

POM121 transmembrane nucleoporin

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein that localizes to the inner nuclear membrane and forms a core component of the nuclear pore complex, which mediates transport to and from the nucleus. The encoded protein may anchor this complex to the nuclear envelope. There are multiple related genes and pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 5, 7, 15, and 22. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

TM7SF3 Gene

transmembrane 7 superfamily member 3

TM7SF2 Gene

transmembrane 7 superfamily member 2

LRTM2 Gene

leucine-rich repeats and transmembrane domains 2

TMCC1 Gene

transmembrane and coiled-coil domain family 1

TMCC2 Gene

transmembrane and coiled-coil domain family 2

TMCC3 Gene

transmembrane and coiled-coil domain family 3