Name

Pathway Commons Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Pathway Commons

protein-protein interactions from low-throughput or high-throughput studies aggregated by Pathway Commons from the following databases: Reactome, NCI Pathways, PhosphoSite, HumanCyc, HPRD, PANTHER, DIP, BioGRID, IntAct, BIND, Transfac, MiRTarBase, Drugbank, Recon X, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, and KEGG

Biocarta Pathways Dataset

From Biocarta

sets of proteins participating in pathways

HumanCyc Pathways Dataset

From HumanCyc

sets of proteins participating in pathways

KEGG Pathways Dataset

From Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes

sets of proteins participating in pathways

PANTHER Pathways Dataset

From PANTHER

sets of proteins participating in pathways

PID Pathways Dataset

From Pathway Interaction Database

sets of proteins participating in pathways

Reactome Pathways Dataset

From Reactome

sets of proteins participating in pathways

Wikipathways Pathways Dataset

From Wikipathways

sets of proteins participating in pathways

Hub Proteins Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Hub Proteins

sets of proteins interacting with hub proteins

NURSA Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

protein-protein interactions inferred from membership in complexes

Virus MINT Protein-Viral Protein Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viral and human proteins manually curated from literature

COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by manual literature curation

COMPARTMENTS Experimental Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by integrating experimental data

COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

gene-cellular compartment co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

CORUM Protein Complexes Dataset

From CORUM

proteins participating in complexes by manual literature curation

Guide to Pharmacology Protein Ligands of Receptors Dataset

From Guide to Pharmacology

ligand-receptor interactions curated by experts

HPA Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

semiquantitative protein expression profiles for tissues

HPM Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Proteome Map

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types

InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations Dataset

From InterPro

protein domains predicted for gene products based on sequence similarity to known domain signatures

LOCATE Curated Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins from low-throughput or high-throughput protein localization assays

NURSA Protein Complexes Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

proteins identified in complexes isolated from cultured cells

ProteomicsDB Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Proteomics Database

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types reprocessed from many proteomics datasets

SILAC Phosphoproteomics Signatures of Differentially Phosphorylated Proteins for Protein Ligands Dataset

From SILAC Phosphoproteomics

phosphorylation levels of proteins in cell lines following ligand treatment

TISSUES Curated Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by manual literature curation

TISSUES Experimental Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by integrating experimental data

TISSUES Text-mining Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

gene-tissue co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

Virus MINT Protein-Virus Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viruses and human proteins manually curated from literature

LOCATE Predicted Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins by sequence similarity to localization sequences

HPA Cell Line Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for cell lines

HPA Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissues

HPA Tissue Sample Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissue samples

RIC3 Gene

RIC3 acetylcholine receptor chaperone

The protein encoded by this gene promotes functional expression of homomeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the cell surface. It enhances currents generated by these receptors by expediting receptor transport to the cell surface and by increasing receptor number. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

SLC18A3 Gene

solute carrier family 18 (vesicular acetylcholine transporter), member 3

This gene is a member of the vesicular amine transporter family. The encoded transmembrane protein transports acetylcholine into secretory vesicles for release into the extracellular space. Acetylcholine transport utilizes a proton gradient established by a vacuolar ATPase. This gene is located within the first intron of the choline acetyltransferase gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PLAA Gene

phospholipase A2-activating protein

PLA2G7 Gene

phospholipase A2, group VII (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, plasma)

The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of platelet-activating factor to biologically inactive products. Defects in this gene are a cause of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase deficiency. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

WSPAR Gene

WNT signaling pathway activating non-coding RNA

GPR37 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 37 (endothelin receptor type B-like)

This gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. The encoded protein contains seven transmembrane domains and is found in cell and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. G protein-coupled receptors are involved in translating outside signals into G protein mediated intracellular effects. This gene product interacts with Parkin and is involved in juvenile Parkinson disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

PLA2R1 Gene

phospholipase A2 receptor 1, 180kDa

This gene represents a phospholipase A2 receptor. The encoded protein likely exists as both a transmembrane form and a soluble form. The transmembrane receptor may play a role in clearance of phospholipase A2, thereby inhibiting its action. Polymorphisms at this locus have been associated with susceptibility to idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

NSMF Gene

NMDA receptor synaptonuclear signaling and neuronal migration factor

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in guidance of olfactory axon projections and migration of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons. Defects in this gene are a cause of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

RGS7BP Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 7 binding protein

This gene encodes a protein that binds to all members of the R7 subfamily of regulators of G protein signaling and regulates their translocation between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. The encoded protein could be regulated by reversible palmitoylation, which anchors it to the plasma membrane. Depalmitoylation localizes the protein to the nucleus. Polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with risk of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

RGS9BP Gene

regulator of G protein signaling 9 binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene functions as a regulator of G protein-coupled receptor signaling in phototransduction. Studies in bovine and mouse show that this gene is expressed only in the retina, and is localized in the rod outer segment membranes. This protein is associated with a heterotetrameric complex, specifically interacting with the regulator of G-protein signaling 9, and appears to function as the membrane anchor for the other largely soluble interacting partners. Mutations in this gene are associated with prolonged electroretinal response suppression (PERRS), also known as bradyopsia. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

GPRASP2 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family that regulates the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The encoded protein has been shown to be capable of interacting with several GPCRs, including the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and the calcitonin receptor. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GPRASP1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the GPRASP (G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein) family. The protein may modulate lysosomal sorting and functional down-regulation of a variety of G-protein coupled receptors. It targets receptors for degradation in lysosomes. The receptors interacting with this sorting protein include D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), delta opioid receptor (OPRD1), beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) and cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R). Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

RAMP1 Gene

receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of the RAMP family are expressed. In the presence of this (RAMP1) protein, CRLR functions as a CGRP receptor. The RAMP1 protein is involved in the terminal glycosylation, maturation, and presentation of the CGRP receptor to the cell surface. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

RAMP3 Gene

receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of the RAMP family are expressed. In the presence of this (RAMP3) protein, CRLR functions as an adrenomedullin receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAMP2 Gene

receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of the RAMP family are expressed. In the presence of this (RAMP2) protein, CRLR functions as an adrenomedullin receptor. The RAMP2 protein is involved in core glycosylation and transportation of adrenomedullin receptor to the cell surface. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105372412 Gene

phospholipase A2 inhibitor and Ly6/PLAUR domain-containing protein-like

SGSM3 Gene

small G protein signaling modulator 3

RGS4 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 4

Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family members are regulatory molecules that act as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) for G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins into their inactive GDP-bound forms. Regulator of G protein signaling 4 belongs to this family. All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed the RGS domain. Regulator of G protein signaling 4 protein is 37% identical to RGS1 and 97% identical to rat Rgs4. This protein negatively regulate signaling upstream or at the level of the heterotrimeric G protein and is localized in the cytoplasm. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS5 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 5

This gene encodes a member of the regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) family. The RGS proteins are signal transduction molecules which are involved in the regulation of heterotrimeric G proteins by acting as GTPase activators. This gene is a hypoxia-inducible factor-1 dependent, hypoxia-induced gene which is involved in the induction of endothelial apoptosis. This gene is also one of three genes on chromosome 1q contributing to elevated blood pressure. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

RGS6 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 6

This gene encodes a member of the RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) family of proteins, which are defined by the presence of a RGS domain that confers the GTPase-activating activity of these proteins toward certain G alpha subunits. This protein also belongs to a subfamily of RGS proteins characterized by the presence of DEP and GGL domains, the latter a G beta 5-interacting domain. The RGS proteins negatively regulate G protein signaling, and may modulate neuronal, cardiovascular, lymphocytic activities, and cancer risk. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms with long or short N-terminal domains, complete or incomplete GGL domains, and distinct C-terminal domains, have been described for this gene, however, the full-length nature of some of these variants is not known.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

RGS7 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 7

RGS1 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 1

This gene encodes a member of the regulator of G-protein signalling family. This protein is located on the cytosolic side of the plasma membrane and contains a conserved, 120 amino acid motif called the RGS domain. The protein attenuates the signalling activity of G-proteins by binding to activated, GTP-bound G alpha subunits and acting as a GTPase activating protein (GAP), increasing the rate of conversion of the GTP to GDP. This hydrolysis allows the G alpha subunits to bind G beta/gamma subunit heterodimers, forming inactive G-protein heterotrimers, thereby terminating the signal. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS2 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 2

Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family members are regulatory molecules that act as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) for G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins into their inactive GDP-bound forms. Regulator of G protein signaling 2 belongs to this family. The protein acts as a mediator of myeloid differentiation and may play a role in leukemogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

RGS3 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 3

This gene encodes a member of the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) family. This protein is a GTPase-activating protein that inhibits G-protein-mediated signal transduction. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Long isoforms are largely cytosolic and plasma membrane-associated with a function in Wnt signaling and in the epithelial mesenchymal transition, while shorter N-terminally-truncated isoforms can be nuclear. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

RGS8 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 8

This gene is a member of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family and encodes a protein with a single RGS domain. Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are regulatory and structural components of G protein-coupled receptor complexes. They accelerate transit through the cycle of GTP binding and hydrolysis to GDP, thereby terminating signal transduction, but paradoxically, also accelerate receptor-stimulated activation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS9 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 9

This gene encodes a member of the RGS family of GTPase activating proteins that function in various signaling pathways by accelerating the deactivation of G proteins. This protein is anchored to photoreceptor membranes in retinal cells and deactivates G proteins in the rod and cone phototransduction cascades. Mutations in this gene result in bradyopsia. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

LOC100421121 Gene

small G protein signaling modulator 1 pseudogene

RGSL1 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling like 1

RGS16 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 16

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the 'regulator of G protein signaling' family. It inhibits signal transduction by increasing the GTPase activity of G protein alpha subunits. It also may play a role in regulating the kinetics of signaling in the phototransduction cascade. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS17 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 17

This gene encodes a member of the regulator of G-protein signaling family. This protein contains a conserved, 120 amino acid motif called the RGS domain and a cysteine-rich region. The protein attenuates the signaling activity of G-proteins by binding to activated, GTP-bound G alpha subunits and acting as a GTPase activating protein (GAP), increasing the rate of conversion of the GTP to GDP. This hydrolysis allows the G alpha subunits to bind G beta/gamma subunit heterodimers, forming inactive G-protein heterotrimers, thereby terminating the signal. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS14 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 14

This gene encodes a member of the regulator of G-protein signaling family. This protein contains one RGS domain, two Raf-like Ras-binding domains (RBDs), and one GoLoco domain. The protein attenuates the signaling activity of G-proteins by binding, through its GoLoco domain, to specific types of activated, GTP-bound G alpha subunits. Acting as a GTPase activating protein (GAP), the protein increases the rate of conversion of the GTP to GDP. This hydrolysis allows the G alpha subunits to bind G beta/gamma subunit heterodimers, forming inactive G-protein heterotrimers, thereby terminating the signal. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS12 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 12

This gene encodes a member of the 'regulator of G protein signaling' (RGS) gene family. The encoded protein may function as a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-activating protein as well as a transcriptional repressor. This protein may play a role in tumorigenesis. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. Other alternative splice variants have been described but their biological nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS13 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 13

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family. RGS family members share similarity with S. cerevisiae SST2 and C. elegans egl-10 proteins, which contain a characteristic conserved RGS domain. RGS proteins accelerate GTPase activity of G protein alpha-subunits, thereby driving G protein into their inactive GDP-bound form, thus negatively regulating G protein signaling. RGS proteins have been implicated in the fine tuning of a variety of cellular events in response to G protein-coupled receptor activation. The biological function of this gene, however, is unknown. Two transcript variants encoding the same isoform exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS10 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 10

Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) family members are regulatory molecules that act as GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) for G alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. RGS proteins are able to deactivate G protein subunits of the Gi alpha, Go alpha and Gq alpha subtypes. They drive G proteins into their inactive GDP-bound forms. Regulator of G protein signaling 10 belongs to this family. All RGS proteins share a conserved 120-amino acid sequence termed the RGS domain. This protein associates specifically with the activated forms of the two related G-protein subunits, G-alphai3 and G-alphaz but fails to interact with the structurally and functionally distinct G-alpha subunits. Regulator of G protein signaling 10 protein is localized in the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS11 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 11

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) family. Members of the RGS family act as GTPase-activating proteins on the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric, signal-transducing G proteins. This protein inhibits signal transduction by increasing the GTPase activity of G protein alpha subunits, thereby driving them into their inactive GDP-bound form. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and four transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

RGS18 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 18

This gene encodes a member of the regulator of G-protein signaling family. This protein is contains a conserved, 120 amino acid motif called the RGS domain. The protein attenuates the signaling activity of G-proteins by binding to activated, GTP-bound G alpha subunits and acting as a GTPase activating protein (GAP), increasing the rate of conversion of the GTP to GDP. This hydrolysis allows the G alpha subunits to bind G beta/gamma subunit heterodimers, forming inactive G-protein heterotrimers, thereby terminating the signal. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS19 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 19

G proteins mediate a number of cellular processes. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the RGS (regulators of G-protein signaling) family and specifically interacts with G protein, GAI3. This protein is a guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein that functions to down-regulate Galpha i/Galpha q-linked signaling. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein isoform have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASIP Gene

agouti signaling protein

In mice, the agouti gene encodes a paracrine signaling molecule that causes hair follicle melanocytes to synthesize pheomelanin, a yellow pigment, instead of the black or brown pigment, eumelanin. Pleiotropic effects of constitutive expression of the mouse gene include adult-onset obesity, increased tumor susceptibility, and premature infertility. This gene is highly similar to the mouse gene and encodes a secreted protein that may (1) affect the quality of hair pigmentation, (2) act as a pharmacological antagonist of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, (3) play a role in neuroendocrine aspects of melanocortin action, and (4) have a functional role in regulating lipid metabolism in adipocytes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAVS Gene

mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein

This gene encodes an intermediary protein necessary in the virus-triggered beta interferon signaling pathways. It is required for activation of transcription factors which regulate expression of beta interferon and contributes to antiviral immunity. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

RGS17P1 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 17 pseudogene 1

WISP2 Gene

WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the WNT1 inducible signaling pathway (WISP) protein subfamily, which belongs to the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) family. WNT1 is a member of a family of cysteine-rich, glycosylated signaling proteins that mediate diverse developmental processes. The CTGF family members are characterized by four conserved cysteine-rich domains: insulin-like growth factor-binding domain, von Willebrand factor type C module, thrombospondin domain and C-terminal cystine knot-like (CT) domain. The encoded protein lacks the CT domain which is implicated in dimerization and heparin binding. It is 72% identical to the mouse protein at the amino acid level. This gene may be downstream in the WNT1 signaling pathway that is relevant to malignant transformation. Its expression in colon tumors is reduced while the other two WISP members are overexpressed in colon tumors. It is expressed at high levels in bone tissue, and may play an important role in modulating bone turnover. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WISP3 Gene

WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 3

This gene encodes a member of the WNT1 inducible signaling pathway (WISP) protein subfamily, which belongs to the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) family. WNT1 is a member of a family of cysteine-rich, glycosylated signaling proteins that mediate diverse developmental processes. The CTGF family members are characterized by four conserved cysteine-rich domains: insulin-like growth factor-binding domain, von Willebrand factor type C module, thrombospondin domain and C-terminal cystine knot-like domain. This gene is overexpressed in colon tumors. It may be downstream in the WNT1 signaling pathway that is relevant to malignant transformation. Mutations of this gene are associated with progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia, an autosomal recessive skeletal disorder, indicating that the gene is essential for normal postnatal skeletal growth and cartilage homeostasis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WISP1 Gene

WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the WNT1 inducible signaling pathway (WISP) protein subfamily, which belongs to the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) family. WNT1 is a member of a family of cysteine-rich, glycosylated signaling proteins that mediate diverse developmental processes. The CTGF family members are characterized by four conserved cysteine-rich domains: insulin-like growth factor-binding domain, von Willebrand factor type C module, thrombospondin domain and C-terminal cystine knot-like domain. This gene may be downstream in the WNT1 signaling pathway that is relevant to malignant transformation. It is expressed at a high level in fibroblast cells, and overexpressed in colon tumors. The encoded protein binds to decorin and biglycan, two members of a family of small leucine-rich proteoglycans present in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue, and possibly prevents the inhibitory activity of decorin and biglycan in tumor cell proliferation. It also attenuates p53-mediated apoptosis in response to DNA damage through activation of the Akt kinase. It is 83% identical to the mouse protein at the amino acid level. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

SGSM2 Gene

small G protein signaling modulator 2

SGSM1 Gene

small G protein signaling modulator 1

RGS22 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 22

RGS21 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 21

Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are regulatory and structural components of G protein-coupled receptor complexes. RGS proteins are GTPase-activating proteins for Gi (see GNAI1; MIM 139310) and Gq (see GNAQ; MIM 600998) class G-alpha proteins. They accelerate transit through the cycle of GTP binding and hydrolysis and thereby accelerate signaling kinetics and termination.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2008]

RGS20 Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 20

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins, which are regulatory and structural components of G protein-coupled receptor complexes. RGS proteins inhibit signal transduction by increasing the GTPase activity of G protein alpha subunits, thereby driving them into their inactive GDP-bound forms. This protein selectively binds to G(z)-alpha and G(alpha)-i2 subunits, and regulates their signaling activities. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

GPSM2 Gene

G-protein signaling modulator 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of proteins that modulate activation of G proteins, which transduce extracellular signals received by cell surface receptors into integrated cellular responses. The N-terminal half of this protein contains 10 copies of leu-gly-asn (LGN) repeat, and the C-terminal half contains 4 GoLoco motifs, which are involved in guanine nucleotide exchange. This protein may play a role in neuroblast division and in the development of normal hearing. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB82).[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

GPSM3 Gene

G-protein signaling modulator 3

GPSM1 Gene

G-protein signaling modulator 1

G-protein signaling modulators (GPSMs) play diverse functional roles through their interaction with G-protein subunits. This gene encodes a receptor-independent activator of G protein signaling, which is one of several factors that influence the basal activity of G-protein signaling systems. The protein contains seven tetratricopeptide repeats in its N-terminal half and four G-protein regulatory (GPR) motifs in its C-terminal half. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

ADGRA1-AS1 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor A1 antisense RNA 1

GPRC6A Gene

G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 6, member A

Members of family C of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, such as GPRC6A, are characterized by an evolutionarily conserved amino acid-sensing motif linked to an intramembranous 7-transmembrane loop region. Several members of GPCR family C, including GPRC6A, also have a long N-terminal domain (summary by Pi et al., 2005 [PubMed 16199532]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

GPR146 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 146

GPR142 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 142

GPR142 is a member of the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) (Fredriksson et al., 2003 [PubMed 14623098]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GPR143 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 143

This gene encodes a protein that binds to heterotrimeric G proteins and is targeted to melanosomes in pigment cells. This protein is thought to be involved in intracellular signal transduction mechanisms. Mutations in this gene cause ocular albinism type 1, also referred to as Nettleship-Falls type ocular albinism, a severe visual disorder. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome Y. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

GPR148 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 148

GPR149 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 149

GPR165P Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 165 pseudogene

GPR152 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 152

GPR150 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 150

GPR157 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 157

ADGRL4 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L4

ADGRL2 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L2

This gene encodes a member of the latrophilin subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein participates in the regulation of exocytosis. The proprotein is thought to be further cleaved within a cysteine-rich G-protein-coupled receptor proteolysis site into two chains that are non-covalently bound at the cell membrane. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

ADGRL3 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L3

This gene encodes a member of the latrophilin subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Latrophilins may function in both cell adhesion and signal transduction. In experiments with non-human species, endogenous proteolytic cleavage within a cysteine-rich GPS (G-protein-coupled-receptor proteolysis site) domain resulted in two subunits (a large extracellular N-terminal cell adhesion subunit and a subunit with substantial similarity to the secretin/calcitonin family of GPCRs) being non-covalently bound at the cell membrane. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADGRL1 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L1

This gene encodes a member of the latrophilin subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Latrophilins may function in both cell adhesion and signal transduction. In experiments with non-human species, endogenous proteolytic cleavage within a cysteine-rich GPS (G-protein-coupled-receptor proteolysis site) domain resulted in two subunits (a large extracellular N-terminal cell adhesion subunit and a subunit with substantial similarity to the secretin/calcitonin family of GPCRs) being non-covalently bound at the cell membrane. Latrophilin-1 has been shown to recruit the neurotoxin from black widow spider venom, alpha-latrotoxin, to the synapse plasma membrane. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

GPR89B Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 89B

GPR89A Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 89A

GPR89A is a nearly identical copy of the GPR89B gene (MIM 612806).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

LOC100996333 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 125 pseudogene

ADGRD2 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor D2

ADGRD1 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor D1

The adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including GPR133, are membrane-bound proteins with long N termini containing multiple domains. GPCRs, or GPRs, contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins (summary by Bjarnadottir et al., 2004 [PubMed 15203201]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

GPR65 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 65

GPR62 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 62

GPR63 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 63

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

GPR61 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 61

This gene belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. G protein-coupled receptors contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is most closely related to biogenic amine receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR68 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 68

HTR1D Gene

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1D, G protein-coupled

HTR1B Gene

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1B, G protein-coupled

The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) exerts a wide variety of physiologic functions through a multiplicity of receptors and may be involved in human neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, or migraine. These receptors consist of several main groups subdivided into several distinct subtypes on the basis of their pharmacologic characteristics, coupling to intracellular second messengers, and distribution within the nervous system (Zifa and Fillion, 1992 [PubMed 1359584]). The serotonergic receptors belong to the multigene family of receptors coupled to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins.[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

ADGRL3-AS1 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L3 antisense RNA 1

ADGRF5P2 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor F5 pseudogene 2

ADGRF5P1 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor F5 pseudogene 1

GPR119 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 119

This gene encodes a member of the rhodopsin subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors that is expressed in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. The encoded protein is activated by lipid amides including lysophosphatidylcholine and oleoylethanolamide and may be involved in glucose homeostasis. This protein is a potential drug target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

P2RY14 Gene

purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 14

The product of this gene belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors, which contains several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor is a P2Y purinergic receptor for UDP-glucose and other UDP-sugars coupled to G-proteins. It has been implicated in extending the known immune system functions of P2Y receptors by participating in the regulation of the stem cell compartment, and it may also play a role in neuroimmune function. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

P2RY10 Gene

purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 10

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors, that are preferentially activated by adenosine and uridine nucleotides. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein isoform have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

P2RY11 Gene

purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 11

The product of this gene belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors. This family has several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity, which overlaps in some cases, for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor is coupled to the stimulation of the phosphoinositide and adenylyl cyclase pathways and behaves as a selective purinoceptor. Naturally occuring read-through transcripts, resulting from intergenic splicing between this gene and an immediately upstream gene (PPAN, encoding peter pan homolog), have been found. The PPAN-P2RY11 read-through mRNA is ubiquitously expressed and encodes a fusion protein that shares identity with each individual gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

P2RY12 Gene

purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 12

The product of this gene belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors. This family has several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity, which overlaps in some cases, for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor is involved in platelet aggregation, and is a potential target for the treatment of thromboembolisms and other clotting disorders. Mutations in this gene are implicated in bleeding disorder, platelet type 8 (BDPLT8). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

P2RY13 Gene

purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 13

The product of this gene belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors. This family has several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity, which overlaps in some cases, for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor is activated by ADP. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

HTR1E Gene

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1E, G protein-coupled

HTR1F Gene

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1F, G protein-coupled

HTR1A Gene

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1A, G protein-coupled

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), and belongs to the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subfamily. Serotonin has been implicated in a number of physiologic processes and pathologic conditions. Inactivation of this gene in mice results in behavior consistent with an increased anxiety and stress response. Mutation in the promoter of this gene has been associated with menstrual cycle-dependent periodic fevers. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

LOC100420413 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 141 pseudogene

GRK6 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors thus initiating their deactivation. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRK7 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 7

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is specifically expressed in the retina and the encoded protein has been shown to phosphorylate cone opsins and initiate their deactivation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRK4 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors thus initiating its deactivation. This gene has been linked to both genetic and acquired hypertension. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

GRK5 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors thus initiating their deactivation. It has also been shown to play a role in regulating the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRK1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates rhodopsin and initiates its deactivation. Defects in GRK1 are known to cause Oguchi disease 2 (also known as stationary night blindness Oguchi type-2). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADGRA1 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor A1

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the adhesion family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Members of this family function in several sensory systems and regulate blood pressure, immune responses, food intake and development. A similar protein in rodents is thought to play a role in in the regulation of neuronal signaling pathways. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

ADGRA3 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor A3

This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This membrane protein may play a role in tumor angiogenesis through its interaction with the human homolog of the Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor gene. This gene is mapped to a candidate region of chromosome 4 which may be associated with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

ADGRA2 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor A2

GPR15 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 15

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor that acts as a chemokine receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2. The encoded protein localizes to the cell membrane. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GPR12 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 12

GPR19 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 19

GPR18 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 18

HTR2A Gene

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2A, G protein-coupled

This gene encodes one of the receptors for serotonin, a neurotransmitter with many roles. Mutations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and are also associated with response to the antidepressant citalopram in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). MDD patients who also have a mutation in intron 2 of this gene show a significantly reduced response to citalopram as this antidepressant downregulates expression of this gene. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

HTR2C Gene

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C, G protein-coupled

This gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor. The encoded protein responds to signaling through the neurotransmitter serotonin. The mRNA of this gene is subject to multiple RNA editing events, where adenosine residues encoded by the genome are converted to inosines. RNA editing is predicted to alter the structure of the second intracellular loop, thereby generating alternate protein forms with decreased ability to interact with G proteins. Abnormalities in RNA editing of this gene have been detected in victims of suicide that suffer from depression. In addition, naturally-occuring variation in the promoter and 5' non-coding and coding regions of this gene may show statistically-significant association with mental illness and behavioral disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple different transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

HTR2B Gene

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2B, G protein-coupled

This gene encodes one of the several different receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) that belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Serotonin is a biogenic hormone that functions as a neurotransmitter, a hormone, and a mitogen. Serotonin receptors mediate many of the central and peripheral physiologic functions of serotonin, including regulation of cardiovascular functions and impulsive behavior. Population and family-based analyses of a minor allele (glutamine-to-stop substitution, designated Q20*) which blocks expression of this protein, and knockout studies in mice, suggest a role for this gene in impulsivity. However, other factors, such as elevated testosterone levels, may also be involved. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GPR50 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 50

This gene product belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Even though this protein shares similarity with the melatonin receptors, it does not bind melatonin, however, it inhibits melatonin receptor 1A function through heterodimerization. Polymorphic variants of this gene have been associated with bipolar affective disorder in women. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

GPER1 Gene

G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1

This gene is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family and encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. The protein binds estrogen, resulting in intracellular calcium mobilization and synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate in the nucleus. This protein therefore plays a role in the rapid nongenomic signaling events widely observed following stimulation of cells and tissues with estrogen. Alternate transcriptional splice variants which encode the same protein have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGR Gene

retinal G protein coupled receptor

This gene encodes a putative retinal G-protein coupled receptor. The gene is a member of the opsin subfamily of the 7 transmembrane, G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Like other opsins which bind retinaldehyde, it contains a conserved lysine residue in the seventh transmembrane domain. The protein acts as a photoisomerase to catalyze the conversion of all-trans-retinal to 11-cis-retinal. The reverse isomerization occurs with rhodopsin in retinal photoreceptor cells. The protein is exclusively expressed in tissue adjacent to retinal photoreceptor cells, the retinal pigment epithelium and Mueller cells. This gene may be associated with autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (arRP and adRP, respectively). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADGRF1 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor F1

ADGRF2 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor F2

ADGRF3 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor F3

ADGRF4 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor F4

ADGRF5 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor F5

GPR45 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 45

This intronless gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Members of this protein family contain seven putative transmembrane domains and may mediate signaling processes to the interior of the cell via activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. This protein may function in the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR42 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 42 (gene/pseudogene)

GPR141 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 141

GPR141 is a member of the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) (Fredriksson et al., 2003 [PubMed 14623098]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GPBAR1 Gene

G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1

This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. This enzyme functions as a cell surface receptor for bile acids. Treatment of cells expressing this GPCR with bile acids induces the production of intracellular cAMP, activation of a MAP kinase signaling pathway, and internalization of the receptor. The receptor is implicated in the suppression of macrophage functions and regulation of energy homeostasis by bile acids. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HTR4 Gene

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 4, G protein-coupled

This gene is a member of the family of serotonin receptors, which are G protein coupled receptors that stimulate cAMP production in response to serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). The gene product is a glycosylated transmembrane protein that functions in both the peripheral and central nervous system to modulate the release of various neurotransmitters. Multiple transcript variants encoding proteins with distinct C-terminal sequences have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GPRC5D Gene

G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 5, member D

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family; however, the specific function of this gene has not yet been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPRC5A Gene

G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 5, member A

This gene encodes a member of the type 3 G protein-coupling receptor family, characterized by the signature 7-transmembrane domain motif. The encoded protein may be involved in interaction between retinoid acid and G protein signalling pathways. Retinoic acid plays a critical role in development, cellular growth, and differentiation. This gene may play a role in embryonic development and epithelial cell differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPRC5C Gene

G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 5, member C

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the type 3 G protein-coupled receptor family. Members of this superfamily are characterized by a signature 7-transmembrane domain motif. The specific function of this protein is unknown; however, this protein may mediate the cellular effects of retinoic acid on the G protein signal transduction cascade. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR17 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 17

ADGRV1 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor V1

This gene encodes a member of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. The encoded protein contains a 7-transmembrane receptor domain, binds calcium and is expressed in the central nervous system. Mutations in this gene are associated with Usher syndrome 2 and familial febrile seizures. Several alternatively spliced transcripts have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR179 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 179

This gene encodes a member of the glutamate receptor subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. The encoded protein has an EGF-like calcium binding domain and a seven transmembrane domain in the N-terminal region of the protein. Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital stationary night blindness type 1E. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

GPR171 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 171

GPR173 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 173

This gene encodes a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. This protein contains 7 transmembrane domains and conserved cysteine residues. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

GPR174 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 174

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These proteins are characterized by the presence of seven alpha-helical transmembrane domains, and they activate or interact with various endogenous or exogenous ligands, including neurotransmitters, hormones, and odorant and taste substances. This family member is classified as an orphan receptor because the cognate ligand has not been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

GPR176 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 176

Members of the G protein-coupled receptor family, such as GPR176, are cell surface receptors involved in responses to hormones, growth factors, and neurotransmitters (Hata et al., 1995 [PubMed 7893747]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2008]

GIT1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting ArfGAP 1

GIT2 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting ArfGAP 2

This gene encodes a member of the GIT protein family, which interact with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and possess ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. GIT proteins traffic between cytoplasmic complexes, focal adhesions, and the cell periphery, and interact with Pak interacting exchange factor beta (PIX) to form large oligomeric complexes that transiently recruit other proteins. GIT proteins regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and participate in receptor internalization and membrane trafficking. This gene has been shown to repress lamellipodial extension and focal adhesion turnover, and is thought to regulate cell motility. This gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing to generate multiple isoforms, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. The various isoforms have functional differences, with respect to ARF GAP activity and to G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 binding. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

GPRC5B Gene

G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 5, member B

This gene encodes a member of the type 3 G protein-coupled receptor family. Members of this superfamily are characterized by a signature 7-transmembrane domain motif. The encoded protein may modulate insulin secretion and increased protein expression is associated with type 2 diabetes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

LOC100418503 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

LOC100418502 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

LOC100418501 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

LOC100418500 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

LOC100418506 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

LOC100418505 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

LOC100418509 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

LOC100418508 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

GPR79 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 79, pseudogene

GPR78 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 78

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor family, which contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins. This is an orphan receptor, which displays significant level of constitutive activity. Association analysis shows preliminary evidence for the involvement of this gene in susceptibility to bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

LOC100130649 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 160 pseudogene

GRK6P1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 pseudogene 1

GPR153 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 153

MAS1 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene, G protein-coupled receptor

This gene encodes a class I seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor. The encoded protein is a receptor for angiotensin-(1-7) and preferentially couples to the Gq protein, activating the phospholipase C signaling pathway. The encoded protein may play a role in multiple processes including hypotension, smooth muscle relaxation and cardioprotection by mediating the effects of angiotensin-(1-7). [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

GPR101 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 101

The protein encoded by this gene is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor of unknown function. The encoded protein is a member of a family of proteins that contain seven transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

GPR107 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 107

GPR108 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 108

LGR5 Gene

leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5

LGR4 Gene

leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 4

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play key roles in a variety of physiologic functions. Members of the leucine-rich GPCR (LGR) family, such as GPR48, have multiple N-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and a 7-transmembrane domain (Weng et al., 2008 [PubMed 18424556]).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008]

LGR6 Gene

leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 6

This gene encodes a member of the leucine-rich repeat-containing subgroup of the G protein-coupled 7-transmembrane protein superfamily. The encoded protein is a glycoprotein hormone receptor with a large N-terminal extracellular domain that contains leucine-rich repeats important for the formation of a horseshoe-shaped interaction motif for ligand binding. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR182 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 182

Adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator peptide that exerts major effects on cardiovascular function. This gene encodes a seven-transmembrane protein that belongs to the family 1 of G-protein coupled receptors. Studies of the rat counterpart suggest that the encoded protein may function as a receptor for adrenomedullin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR183 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 183

This gene was identified by the up-regulation of its expression upon Epstein-Barr virus infection of primary B lymphocytes. This gene is predicted to encode a G protein-coupled receptor that is most closely related to the thrombin receptor. Expression of this gene was detected in B-lymphocyte cell lines and lymphoid tissues but not in T-lymphocyte cell lines or peripheral blood T lymphocytes. The function of this gene is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR89P Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 89 pseudogene

GPR22 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 22

This gene is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family and encodes a multi-pass membrane protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR20 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 20

GPR21 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 21

This gene encodes a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor 1 family. G-protein coupled receptors are membrane proteins which activate signaling cascades as a response to extracellular stress. The encoded protein activates a Gq signal transduction pathway which mobilizes calcium. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GPR26 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 26

GPR27 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 27

GPR27 is a member of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), a large family of receptors that have a similar structure characterized by 7 transmembrane domains. Activation of GPCRs by extracellular stimuli such as neurotransmitters, hormones, or light induces an intracellular signaling cascade mediated by heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins, or G proteins.[supplied by OMIM, May 2010]

GPR25 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 25

This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. G-protein coupled receptors are membrane proteins which activate signaling cascades as a response to extracellular stress. This gene has been linked to arterial stiffness. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GPR137C Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 137C

GPR137B Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 137B

GPR32P1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 32, pseudogene 1

ADGRG4 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G4

This gene encodes a G-protein coupled receptor belonging to a large family of diverse integral membrane proteins that participate in various physiological functions. Members of this superfamily are characterized by a signature 7-transmembrane domain motif. The ligand for this family member is unknown, and it is therefore an orphan receptor. This receptor is known to be expressed in normal enterochromaffin cells and in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine carcinoma cells, and it is therefore considered to be a novel biomarker or target for immunotherapy. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GPR151 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 151

GPR156 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 156

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large superfamily of cell surface receptors characterized by 7 helical transmembrane domains, together with N-terminal extracellular and C-terminal intracellular domains.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GPR155 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 155

GPR158 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 158

GPR166P Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 166 pseudogene

HTR5A Gene

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 5A, G protein-coupled

The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) has been implicated in a wide range of psychiatric conditions and also has vasoconstrictive and vasodilatory effects. The gene described in this record is a member of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor family and encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that functions as a receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine and couples to G-proteins. This protein has been shown to function in part through the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100418507 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

LOC100418504 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

ADGRE5 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E5

This gene encodes a member of the EGF-TM7 subfamily of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors, which mediate cell-cell interactions. These proteins are cleaved by self-catalytic proteolysis into a large extracellular subunit and seven-span transmembrane subunit, which associate at the cell surface as a receptor complex. The encoded protein may play a role in cell adhesion as well as leukocyte recruitment, activation and migration, and contains multiple extracellular EGF-like repeats which mediate binding to chondroitin sulfate and the cell surface complement regulatory protein CD55. Expression of this gene may play a role in the progression of several types of cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms with 3 to 5 EGF-like repeats have been observed for this gene. This gene is found in a cluster with other EGF-TM7 genes on the short arm of chromosome 19. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

ADGRE1 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E1

This gene encodes a protein that has a domain resembling seven transmembrane G protein-coupled hormone receptors (7TM receptors) at its C-terminus. The N-terminus of the encoded protein has six EGF-like modules, separated from the transmembrane segments by a serine/threonine-rich domain, a feature reminiscent of mucin-like, single-span, integral membrane glycoproteins with adhesive properties. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

ADGRE3 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E3

This gene encodes a member of the class B seven-span transmembrane (TM7) receptor family expressed predominantly by cells of the immune system. Family members are characterized by an extended extracellular region with a variable number of N-terminal epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains coupled to a TM7 domain via a mucin-like spacer domain. This gene is closely linked to the gene encoding egf-like molecule containing mucin-like hormone receptor 2 on chromosome 19. This protein may play a role in myeloid-myeloid interactions during immune and inflammatory responses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

ADGRE2 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E2

This gene encodes a member of the class B seven-span transmembrane (TM7) subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. These proteins are characterized by an extended extracellular region with a variable number of N-terminal epidermal growth factor-like domains coupled to a TM7 domain via a mucin-like spacer domain. The encoded protein is expressed mainly in myeloid cells where it promotes cell-cell adhesion through interaction with chondroitin sulfate chains. This gene is situated in a cluster of related genes on chromosome 19. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

GPR52 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 52

Members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) family play important roles in signal transduction from the external environment to the inside of the cell.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

GPR55 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 55

This gene belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The encoded integral membrane protein is a likely cannabinoid receptor. It may be involved in several physiological and pathological processes by activating a variety of signal transduction pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

GPR162 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 162

This gene was identified upon genomic analysis of a gene-dense region at human chromosome 12p13. It appears to be mainly expressed in the brain; however, its function is not known. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HTR6 Gene

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 6, G protein-coupled

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family of proteins. The encoded protein couples with the Gs alpha subunit and stimulates adenylate cyclase to activate the cyclic AMP-dependent signaling pathway. This receptor is thought to regulate cholinergic neuronal transmission in the brain. Several antidepressants and antipsychotic drugs have a high affinity for this receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

P2RY10P2 Gene

purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 10 pseudogene 2

P2RY10P1 Gene

purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 10 pseudogene 1

MAS1L Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor

GPR75 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 75

GPR75 is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. GPRs are cell surface receptors that activate guanine-nucleotide binding proteins upon the binding of a ligand.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

GPR3 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 3

This gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and is found in the cell membrane. G protein-coupled receptors, characterized by a seven transmembrane domain motif, are involved in translating outside signals into G protein mediated intracellular effects. The encoded protein activates adenylate cyclase and modulates amyloid-beta production in a mouse model, suggesting that it may play a role in Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

GPR1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 1

GPR6 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 6

GPR4 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 4

P2RY8 Gene

purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 8

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors, that are preferentially activated by adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This gene is moderately expressed in undifferentiated HL60 cells, and is located on both chromosomes X and Y. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

P2RY2 Gene

purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 2

The product of this gene belongs to the family of P2 receptors, which is activated by extracellular nucleotides and subdivided into P2X ligand-gated ion channels and P2Y G-protein coupled receptors. This family has several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity, which overlaps in some cases, for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor, found on many cell types, is activated by ATP and UTP and is reported to be overexpressed on some cancer cell types. It is involved in many cellular functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis and inflammation. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

P2RY1 Gene

purinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 1

The product of this gene belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors. This family has several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity, which overlaps in some cases, for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor functions as a receptor for extracellular ATP and ADP. In platelets binding to ADP leads to mobilization of intracellular calcium ions via activation of phospholipase C, a change in platelet shape, and probably to platelet aggregation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

P2RY6 Gene

pyrimidinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 6

The product of this gene belongs to the family of P2 receptors, which is activated by extracellular nucleotides and subdivided into P2X ligand-gated ion channels and P2Y G-protein coupled receptors. This family has several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity, which overlaps in some cases, for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor, which is a G-protein coupled receptor, is responsive to UDP, partially responsive to UTP and ADP, and not responsive to ATP. It is proposed that this receptor mediates inflammatory responses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

P2RY4 Gene

pyrimidinergic receptor P2Y, G-protein coupled, 4

The product of this gene belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors. This family has several receptor subtypes with different pharmacological selectivity, which overlaps in some cases, for various adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This receptor is responsive to uridine nucleotides, partially responsive to ATP, and not responsive to ADP. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADGRE4P Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E4, pseudogene

This gene is a member of the EGF-TM7 receptor gene family which is thought to play a role in leukocyte adhesion and migration. In other vertebrates, including nonhuman primates, this gene encodes a protein containing N-terminal EGF domains and a C-terminal transmembrane domain. Sequence evidence for the human gene, however, indicates nucleotide deletion in the genomic sequence would result in frameshift and early termination of translation. A protein expressed by this gene would be soluble rather than expressed on the cell surface. As the encoded protein has not been detected, this gene may represent a transcribed pseudogene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

GPR143P Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 143 pseudogene

GPR160 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 160

GPR161 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 161

Upon ligand binding, G protein-coupled receptors, such as GPR161, activate cytoplasmic G proteins (see GNAS, MIM 139320), allowing the receptors to transduce extracellular signals across the plasma membrane into the cell. Phosphorylation of the receptor attenuates signaling (Matteson et al., 2008 [PubMed 18250320]).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008]

GPR53P Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 53, pseudogene

LOC100418499 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

LOC100418498 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

LOC100418497 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

LOC100420482 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 160 pseudogene

LOC100418510 Gene

MAS1 proto-oncogene like, G protein-coupled receptor pseudogene

GPR180 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 180

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This protein is produced predominantly in vascular smooth muscle cells and may play an important role in the regulation of vascular remodeling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADGRG1 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G1

This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and regulates brain cortical patterning. The encoded protein binds specifically to transglutaminase 2, a component of tissue and tumor stroma implicated as an inhibitor of tumor progression. Mutations in this gene are associated with a brain malformation known as bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

ADGRB1 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor B1

Angiogenesis is controlled by a local balance between stimulators and inhibitors of new vessel growth and is suppressed under normal physiologic conditions. Angiogenesis has been shown to be essential for growth and metastasis of solid tumors. In order to obtain blood supply for their growth, tumor cells are potently angiogenic and attract new vessels as results of increased secretion of inducers and decreased production of endogenous negative regulators. BAI1 contains at least one 'functional' p53-binding site within an intron, and its expression has been shown to be induced by wildtype p53. There are two other brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor genes, designated BAI2 and BAI3 which along with BAI1 have similar tissue specificities and structures, however only BAI1 is transcriptionally regulated by p53. BAI1 is postulated to be a member of the secretin receptor family, an inhibitor of angiogenesis and a growth suppressor of glioblastomas [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADGRB2 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor B2

This gene encodes a a seven-span transmembrane protein that is thought to be a member of the secretin receptor family. The encoded protein is a brain-specific inhibitor of angiogenesis. The mature peptide may be further cleaved into additional products (PMID:20367554). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

ADGRB3 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor B3

This p53-target gene encodes a brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor, a seven-span transmembrane protein, and is thought to be a member of the secretin receptor family. Brain-specific angiogenesis proteins BAI2 and BAI3 are similar to BAI1 in structure, have similar tissue specificities, and may also play a role in angiogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR135 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 135

GPR137 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 137

GPR132 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 132

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The receptors are seven-pass transmembrane proteins that respond to extracellular cues and activate intracellular signal transduction pathways. This protein was reported to be a receptor for lysophosphatidylcholine action, but PubMedID: 15653487 retracts this finding and instead suggests this protein to be an effector of lysophosphatidylcholine action. This protein may have proton-sensing activity and may be a receptor for oxidized free fatty acids. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GPR139 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 139

GPR88 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 88

GPR82 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 82

The protein encoded by this gene is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor of unknown function. The encoded protein is a member of a family of proteins that contain seven transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

GPR83 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 83

GPR84 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 84

GPR85 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 85

Members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, such as GPR85, have a similar structure characterized by 7 transmembrane domains. Activation of GPCRs by extracellular stimuli, such as neurotransmitters, hormones, or light, induces an intracellular signaling cascade mediated by heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins, or G proteins (Matsumoto et al., 2000 [PubMed 10833454]).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008]

GPR87 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 87

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor and is located in a cluster of G protein-couple receptor genes on chromosome 3. The encoded protein has been shown to be overexpressed in lung squamous cell carcinoma (PMID:18057535) and regulated by p53 (PMID:19602589). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

GPR37L1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 37 like 1

ADGRG7 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G7

ADGRG6 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G6

This gene, which is upregulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, encodes a G protein-coupled receptor. Variations in this gene can affect a person's stature. Multiple transcript variants encoding different proteins have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

ADGRG5 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G5

ADGRG3 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G3

ADGRG2 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G2

This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family described as an epididymis-specific transmembrane protein. The encoded protein may be proteolytically processed as it contains a motif shown to be a protein scission motif in some members of this family (PMID: 11973329). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GPR39 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 39

GPR31 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 31

GPR33 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 33 (gene/pseudogene)

This gene has been identified as an orphan chemoattractant G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) pseudogene. Studies have shown that the inactivated gene is present as the predominant allele in the human population. A small fraction of the human population has been found to harbor an intact allele.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

GPR32 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 32

This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. The encoded protein binds to resolvin D1 and lipoxin A4 and has been linked to pulmonary inflammation. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 19. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GPR35 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 35

GPR34 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 34

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as GPR34, are integral membrane proteins containing 7 putative transmembrane domains (TMs). These proteins mediate signals to the interior of the cell via activation of heterotrimeric G proteins that in turn activate various effector proteins, ultimately resulting in a physiologic response.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2006]

GPR36 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 36

PLA2G12AP1 Gene

phospholipase A2, group XIIA pseudogene 1

PLA2G12AP2 Gene

phospholipase A2, group XIIA pseudogene 2

PLA2G6 Gene

phospholipase A2, group VI (cytosolic, calcium-independent)

The protein encoded by this gene is an A2 phospholipase, a class of enzyme that catalyzes the release of fatty acids from phospholipids. The encoded protein may play a role in phospholipid remodelling, arachidonic acid release, leukotriene and prostaglandin synthesis, fas-mediated apoptosis, and transmembrane ion flux in glucose-stimulated B-cells. Several transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been described, but the full-length nature of only three of them have been determined to date. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PLA2G5 Gene

phospholipase A2, group V

This gene is a member of the secretory phospholipase A2 family. It is located in a tightly-linked cluster of secretory phospholipase A2 genes on chromosome 1. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to generate lysophospholipids and free fatty acids including arachidonic acid. It preferentially hydrolyzes linoleoyl-containing phosphatidylcholine substrates. Secretion of this enzyme is thought to induce inflammatory responses in neighboring cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but their full-length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PLA2G3 Gene

phospholipase A2, group III

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the secreted phospholipase A2 family, whose members include the bee venom enzyme. The encoded enzyme functions in lipid metabolism and catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the sn-2 acyl bond of phospholipids to release arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. This enzyme acts as a negative regulator of ciliogenesis, and may play a role in cancer development by stimulating tumor cell growth and angiogenesis. This gene is associated with oxidative stress, and polymorphisms in this gene are linked to risk for Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

PLA2G2A Gene

phospholipase A2, group IIA (platelets, synovial fluid)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phospholipase A2 family (PLA2). PLA2s constitute a diverse family of enzymes with respect to sequence, function, localization, and divalent cation requirements. This gene product belongs to group II, which contains secreted form of PLA2, an extracellular enzyme that has a low molecular mass and requires calcium ions for catalysis. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 fatty acid acyl ester bond of phosphoglycerides, releasing free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, and thought to participate in the regulation of the phospholipid metabolism in biomembranes. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants with different 5' UTRs have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

PLA2G2C Gene

phospholipase A2, group IIC

PLA2G2E Gene

phospholipase A2, group IIE

PLA2G2D Gene

phospholipase A2, group IID

This gene encodes a secreted member of the phospholipase A2 family, and is found in a cluster of related family members on chromosome 1. Phospholipase A2 family members hydrolyze the sn-2 fatty acid ester bond of glycerophospholipids to produce lysophospholipids and free fatty acid. This gene may be involved in inflammation and immune response, and in weight loss associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

PLA2G2F Gene

phospholipase A2, group IIF

NAPEPLD Gene

N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D

NAPEPLD is a phospholipase D type enzyme that catalyzes the release of N-acylethanolamine (NAE) from N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) in the second step of the biosynthesis of N-acylethanolamine (Okamoto et al., 2004 [PubMed 14634025]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2008]

PLCD4 Gene

phospholipase C, delta 4

This gene encodes a member of the delta class of phospholipase C enzymes. Phospholipase C enzymes play a critical role in many cellular processes by hydrolyzing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into two intracellular second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. Expression of this gene may be a marker for cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

PLCD3 Gene

phospholipase C, delta 3

This gene encodes a member of the phospholipase C family, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to generate the second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). Diacylglycerol and IP3 mediate a variety of cellular responses to extracellular stimuli by inducing protein kinase C and increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations. This enzyme localizes to the plasma membrane and requires calcium for activation. Its activity is inhibited by spermine, sphingosine, and several phospholipids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PLCD1 Gene

phospholipase C, delta 1

This gene encodes a member of the phospholipase C family. Phospholipase C isozymes play critical roles in intracellular signal transduction by catalyzing the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into the second messengers diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol triphosphate (IP3). The encoded protein functions as a tumor suppressor in several types of cancer, and mutations in this gene are a cause of hereditary leukonychia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

PLA2G12B Gene

phospholipase A2, group XIIB

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes catalyze hydrolysis of glycolipids to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. PLA2G12B belongs to the PLA2 family, but it is catalytically inactive due to an amino acid change in its active site and has altered phospholipid-binding properties (Rouault et al., 2003 [PubMed 14516201]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PLA2G12A Gene

phospholipase A2, group XIIA

Secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) enzymes liberate arachidonic acid from phospholipids for production of eicosanoids and exert a variety of physiologic and pathologic effects. Group XII sPLA2s, such as PLA2G12A, have relatively low specific activity and are structurally and functionally distinct from other sPLA2s (Gelb et al., 2000 [PubMed 11031251]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PLD6 Gene

phospholipase D family, member 6

PLD1 Gene

phospholipase D1, phosphatidylcholine-specific

This gene encodes a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine in order to yield phosphatidic acid and choline. The enzyme may play a role in signal transduction and subcellular trafficking. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants with both catalytic and regulatory properties. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PLD2 Gene

phospholipase D2

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidic acid and choline. The activity of the encoded enzyme is enhanced by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and ADP-ribosylation factor-1. This protein localizes to the peripheral membrane and may be involved in cytoskeletal organization, cell cycle control, transcriptional regulation, and/or regulated secretion. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

PLD3 Gene

phospholipase D family, member 3

This gene encodes a member of the phospholipase D (PLD) family of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids. The encoded protein is a single-pass type II membrane protein and contains two PLD phosphodiesterase domains. This protein influences processing of amyloid-beta precursor protein. Mutations in this gene are associated with Alzheimer disease risk. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

PLCL2 Gene

phospholipase C-like 2

PLCL1 Gene

phospholipase C-like 1

PLA1A Gene

phospholipase A1 member A

The protein encoded by this gene is a phospholipase that hydrolyzes fatty acids at the sn-1 position of phosphatidylserine and 1-acyl-2-lysophosphatidylserine. This secreted protein hydrolyzes phosphatidylserine in liposomes. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

LOC100379236 Gene

patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 4 pseudogene 1

PNPLA4P1 Gene

patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 4 pseudogene 1

PLCG2 Gene

phospholipase C, gamma 2 (phosphatidylinositol-specific)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane signaling enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate to 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) using calcium as a cofactor. IP3 and DAG are second messenger molecules important for transmitting signals from growth factor receptors and immune system receptors across the cell membrane. Mutations in this gene have been found in autoinflammation, antibody deficiency, and immune dysregulation syndrome and familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

PLBD2 Gene

phospholipase B domain containing 2

PLBD1 Gene

phospholipase B domain containing 1

PLA2G4C Gene

phospholipase A2, group IVC (cytosolic, calcium-independent)

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the phospholipase A2 enzyme family which hydrolyzes glycerophospholipids to produce free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, both of which serve as precursors in the production of signaling molecules. The encoded protein has been shown to be a calcium-independent and membrane bound enzyme. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

PLA2G4B Gene

phospholipase A2, group IVB (cytosolic)

This gene encodes a member of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 protein family. Phospholipase A2 enzymes hydrolyze the sn-2 bond of phospholipids, releasing lysophospholipids and fatty acids. This enzyme may be associated with mitochondria and early endosomes. Most tissues also express read-through transcripts from the upstream gene into this gene, some of which may encode fusion proteins combining the N-terminus of the upstream gene including its JmjC domain with the almost complete coding region of this gene, including the C2 and cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 domains. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PLA2G4A Gene

phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)

This gene encodes a member of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IV family. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to release arachidonic acid which is subsequently metabolized into eicosanoids. Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are lipid-based cellular hormones that regulate hemodynamics, inflammatory responses, and other intracellular pathways. The hydrolysis reaction also produces lysophospholipids that are converted into platelet-activating factor. The enzyme is activated by increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels and phosphorylation, resulting in its translocation from the cytosol and nucleus to perinuclear membrane vesicles. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PLA2G4F Gene

phospholipase A2, group IVF

PLA2G4E Gene

phospholipase A2, group IVE

PLA2G4D Gene

phospholipase A2, group IVD (cytosolic)

The phospholipase A2 enzyme family, including PLA2G4D, catalyze the hydrolysis of glycerophospholipids at the sn-2 position and then liberate free fatty acids and lysophospholipids (Chiba et al., 2004 [PubMed 14709560]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

PLA2G1B Gene

phospholipase A2, group IB (pancreas)

This gene encodes a secreted member of the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) class of enzymes, which is produced by the pancreatic acinar cells. The encoded calcium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of the sn-2 position of membrane glycerophospholipids to release arachidonic acid (AA) and lysophospholipids. AA is subsequently converted by downstream metabolic enzymes to several bioactive lipophilic compounds (eicosanoids), including prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs). The enzyme may be involved in several physiological processes including cell contraction, cell proliferation and pathological response. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

LOC100420075 Gene

phospholipase C, epsilon 1 pseudogene

PLCE1 Gene

phospholipase C, epsilon 1

This gene encodes a phospholipase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate to generate two second messengers: inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). These second messengers subsequently regulate various processes affecting cell growth, differentiation, and gene expression. This enzyme is regulated by small monomeric GTPases of the Ras and Rho families and by heterotrimeric G proteins. In addition to its phospholipase C catalytic activity, this enzyme has an N-terminal domain with guanine nucleotide exchange (GEF) activity. Mutations in this gene cause early-onset nephrotic syndrome; characterized by proteinuria, edema, and diffuse mesangial sclerosis or focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

PLA2G15 Gene

phospholipase A2, group XV

Lysophospholipases are enzymes that act on biological membranes to regulate the multifunctional lysophospholipids. The protein encoded by this gene hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine to glycerophosphorylcholine and a free fatty acid. This enzyme is present in the plasma and thought to be associated with high-density lipoprotein. A later paper contradicts the function of this gene. It demonstrates that this gene encodes a lysosomal enzyme instead of a lysophospholipase and has both calcium-independent phospholipase A2 and transacylase activities. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PLA2G10 Gene

phospholipase A2, group X

PLA2G16 Gene

phospholipase A2, group XVI

PNPLA10P Gene

patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 10 pseudogene

GPLD1 Gene

glycosylphosphatidylinositol specific phospholipase D1

Many proteins are tethered to the extracellular face of eukaryotic plasma membranes by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. The GPI-anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a GPI degrading enzyme. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol specific phospholipase D1 hydrolyzes the inositol phosphate linkage in proteins anchored by phosphatidylinositol glycans, thereby releasing the attached protein from the plasma membrane. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PLD5 Gene

phospholipase D family, member 5

PLCH2 Gene

phospholipase C, eta 2

PLCH2 is a member of the PLC-eta family of the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) superfamily of enzymes that cleave PtdIns(4,5) P2 to generate second messengers inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol (Zhou et al., 2005 [PubMed 16107206]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

PLCH1 Gene

phospholipase C, eta 1

PLCH1 is a member of the PLC-eta family of the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) superfamily of enzymes that cleave phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) to generate second messengers inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) (Hwang et al., 2005 [PubMed 15702972]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

LOC102723936 Gene

acidic phospholipase A2 PA-1G-like

LOC100420618 Gene

phospholipase D family, member 5 pseudogene

PLCG1 Gene

phospholipase C, gamma 1

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This reaction uses calcium as a cofactor and plays an important role in the intracellular transduction of receptor-mediated tyrosine kinase activators. For example, when activated by SRC, the encoded protein causes the Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP1 to translocate to the Golgi, where it activates Ras. Also, this protein has been shown to be a major substrate for heparin-binding growth factor 1 (acidic fibroblast growth factor)-activated tyrosine kinase. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100652777 Gene

group 10 secretory phospholipase A2-like

PLCXD3 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, X domain containing 3

PLCXD2 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, X domain containing 2

PLCXD1 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, X domain containing 1

This gene is the most terminal protein-coding gene in the pseudoautosomal (PAR) region on chromosomes X and Y. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PLCB1 Gene

phospholipase C, beta 1 (phosphoinositide-specific)

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This reaction uses calcium as a cofactor and plays an important role in the intracellular transduction of many extracellular signals. This gene is activated by two G-protein alpha subunits, alpha-q and alpha-11. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PLCB2 Gene

phospholipase C, beta 2

PLCB3 Gene

phospholipase C, beta 3 (phosphatidylinositol-specific)

This gene encodes a member of the phosphoinositide phospholipase C beta enzyme family that catalyze the production of the secondary messengers diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate from phosphatidylinositol in G-protein-linked receptor-mediated signal transduction. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PLCB4 Gene

phospholipase C, beta 4

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This reaction uses calcium as a cofactor and plays an important role in the intracellular transduction of many extracellular signals in the retina. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

PLB1 Gene

phospholipase B1

PLD4 Gene

phospholipase D family, member 4

PNPLA3 Gene

patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a triacylglycerol lipase that mediates triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipocytes. The encoded protein, which appears to be membrane bound, may be involved in the balance of energy usage/storage in adipocytes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PNPLA2 Gene

patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2

This gene encodes an enzyme which catalyzes the first step in the hydrolysis of triglycerides in adipose tissue. Mutations in this gene are associated with neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

PNPLA1 Gene

patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the patatin-like phospholipase (PNPLA) family, which is characterized by the presence of a highly conserved patatin domain. PNPLA family members have diverse lipolytic and acyltransferase activities, and are key elements in lipid metabolism. While other members of this family have been well characterized, the function of this gene remained an enigma. However, recent studies show that this gene is expressed in the skin epidermal keratinocytes, and has a role in glycerophospholipid metabolism in the cutaneous barrier. Consistent with these observations, mutations in this gene are associated with ichthyosis in human (autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses, ARCI) and dog. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

PNPLA7 Gene

patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 7

Human patatin-like phospholipases, such as PNPLA7, have been implicated in regulation of adipocyte differentiation and have been induced by metabolic stimuli (Wilson et al., 2006 [PubMed 16799181]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2008]

PNPLA6 Gene

patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 6

This gene encodes a phospholipase that deacetylates intracellular phosphatidylcholine to produce glycerophosphocholine. It is thought to function in neurite outgrowth and process elongation during neuronal differentiation. The protein is anchored to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum in both neurons and non-neuronal cells. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, and the protein is the target for neurodegeneration induced by organophosphorus compounds and chemical warfare agents. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

PNPLA5 Gene

patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 5

This gene is a member of the patatin-like phospholipase family; its encoded protein has been shown to inhibit transacylation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PNPLA4 Gene

patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 4

This gene encodes a member of the patatin-like family of phospholipases. The encoded enzyme has both triacylglycerol lipase and transacylase activities and may be involved in adipocyte triglyceride homeostasis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome Y. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

PNPLA8 Gene

patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 8

This gene encodes a member of the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing protein family. Members of this family are phospholipases which catalyze the cleavage of fatty acids from membrane phospholipids. The product of this gene is a calcium-independent phospholipase. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the X chromosome. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

PINLYP Gene

phospholipase A2 inhibitor and LY6/PLAUR domain containing

PLCZ1 Gene

phospholipase C, zeta 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C family. Members in this family, classified into six isotypes that are tissue- and organ-specific, hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate just before the phosphate group to yield diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. This protein localizes to the acrosome in spermatozoa and elicits Ca(2+) oscillations and egg activation during fertilization that leads to early embryonic development. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

DKK1 Gene

dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. It is a secreted protein with two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its inhibition of the WNT signaling pathway. Elevated levels of DKK1 in bone marrow plasma and peripheral blood is associated with the presence of osteolytic bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SRCIN1 Gene

SRC kinase signaling inhibitor 1

GFY Gene

golgi-associated, olfactory signaling regulator

SOCS5P5 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 pseudogene 5

TWSG1 Gene

twisted gastrulation BMP signaling modulator 1

LOC100420759 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 pseudogene

SIT1 Gene

signaling threshold regulating transmembrane adaptor 1

DKK4 Gene

dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 4

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. The secreted protein contains two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its interactions with the Wnt signaling pathway. Activity of this protein is modulated by binding to the Wnt co-receptor and the co-factor kremen 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DKK3 Gene

dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 3

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. The secreted protein contains two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its interactions with the Wnt signaling pathway. The expression of this gene is decreased in a variety of cancer cell lines and it may function as a tumor suppressor gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TIPRL Gene

TOR signaling pathway regulator

TIPRL is an inhibitory regulator of protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) (see PPP2CA; MIM 176915), PP4 (see PPP4C; MIM 602035), and PP6 (see PPP6C; MIM 612725) (McConnell et al., 2007 [PubMed 17384681]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

CNPY4 Gene

canopy FGF signaling regulator 4

CNPY3 Gene

canopy FGF signaling regulator 3

PRAT4A is associated with the immature form of TLR4 (MIM 603030) and regulates its cell surface expression (Wakabayashi et al., 2006 [PubMed 16849487]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CNPY2 Gene

canopy FGF signaling regulator 2

CNPY1 Gene

canopy FGF signaling regulator 1

Cnpy1 is expressed in the midbrain-hindbrain (MHB) boundary in zebrafish, binds FGFR1 (MIM 136350), and plays a role in FGF signaling (Hirate and Okamoto, 2006 [PubMed 16488878]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2008]

SOCS5P2 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 pseudogene 2

SOCS5P3 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 pseudogene 3

SOCS5P1 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 pseudogene 1

SOCS5P4 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 pseudogene 4

GCSAML Gene

germinal center-associated, signaling and motility-like

This gene encodes a protein thought to be a signaling molecule associated with germinal centers, the sites of proliferation and differentiation of mature B lymphocytes. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

DKK2 Gene

dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 2

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. The secreted protein contains two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its interactions with the Wnt signaling pathway. It can act as either an agonist or antagonist of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, depending on the cellular context and the presence of the co-factor kremen 2. Activity of this protein is also modulated by binding to the Wnt co-receptor LDL-receptor related protein 6 (LRP6). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100420748 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5 pseudogene

ERN2 Gene

endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 2

ERN1 Gene

endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1

The protein encoded by this gene is the ER to nucleus signalling 1 protein, a human homologue of the yeast Ire1 gene product. This protein possesses intrinsic kinase activity and an endoribonuclease activity and it is important in altering gene expression as a response to endoplasmic reticulum-based stress signals. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLAMF1 Gene

signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 1

SOCS5 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 5

The protein encoded by this gene contains a SH2 domain and a SOCS BOX domain. The protein thus belongs to the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family, also known as STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI) protein family. SOCS family members are known to be cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding an identical protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SOCS4 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 4

The protein encoded by this gene contains a SH2 domain and a SOCS BOX domain. The protein thus belongs to the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), also known as STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), protein family. SOCS family members are known to be cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SOCS7 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 7

SOCS6 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 6

The protein encoded by this gene contains a SH2 domain and a CIS homolog domain. The protein thus belongs to the cytokine-induced STAT inhibitor (CIS), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) or STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), protein family. CIS family members are known to be cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The expression of this gene can be induced by GM-CSF and EPO in hematopoietic cells. A high expression level of this gene was found in factor-independent chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and erythroleukemia (HEL) cell lines. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SOCS1 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 1

This gene encodes a member of the STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), family. SSI family members are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The expression of this gene can be induced by a subset of cytokines, including IL2, IL3 erythropoietin (EPO), CSF2/GM-CSF, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene functions downstream of cytokine receptors, and takes part in a negative feedback loop to attenuate cytokine signaling. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of this gene as a modulator of IFN-gamma action, which is required for normal postnatal growth and survival. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SOCS3 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 3

This gene encodes a member of the STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), family. SSI family members are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The expression of this gene is induced by various cytokines, including IL6, IL10, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene can bind to JAK2 kinase, and inhibit the activity of JAK2 kinase. Studies of the mouse counterpart of this gene suggested the roles of this gene in the negative regulation of fetal liver hematopoiesis, and placental development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SOCS2 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 2

This gene encodes a member of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family. SOCS family members are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine receptor signaling via the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activation of transcription pathway (the JAK/STAT pathway). SOCS family proteins interact with major molecules of signaling complexes to block further signal transduction, in part, by proteasomal depletion of receptors or signal-transducing proteins via ubiquitination. The expression of this gene can be induced by a subset of cytokines, including erythropoietin, GM-CSF, IL10, interferon (IFN)-gamma and by cytokine receptors such as growth horomone receptor. The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and is thought to be involved in the regulation of IGF1R mediated cell signaling. This gene has pseudogenes on chromosomes 20 and 22. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

LOC100420885 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 pseudogene

LOC100420800 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 pseudogene

GCSAM Gene

germinal center-associated, signaling and motility

This gene encodes a protein which may function in signal transduction pathways and whose expression is elevated in germinal cell lymphomas. It contains a putative PDZ-interacting domain, an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), and two putative SH2 binding sites. In B cells, its expression is specifically induced by interleukin-4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPRY1 Gene

sprouty homolog 1, antagonist of FGF signaling (Drosophila)

SOCS2P1 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 pseudogene 1

SOCS2P2 Gene

suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 pseudogene 2

PTAFR Gene

platelet-activating factor receptor

This gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor for platelet-activating factor (PAF) that localizes to lipid rafts and/or caveolae in the cell membrane. PAF (1-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine) is a phospholipid that plays a significant role in oncogenic transformation, tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and pro-inflammatory processes. Binding of PAF to the PAF-receptor (PAFR) stimulates numerous signal transduction pathways including phospholipase C, D, A2, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and the phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Following PAFR activation, cells become rapidly desensitized and this refractory state is dependent on PAFR phosphorylation, internalization, and down-regulation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ADCYAP1R1 Gene

adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) receptor type I

This gene encodes type I adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptor, which is a membrane-associated protein and shares significant homology with members of the glucagon/secretin receptor family. This receptor mediates diverse biological actions of adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 and is positively coupled to adenylate cyclase. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

TARM1 Gene

T cell-interacting, activating receptor on myeloid cells 1

HTR7 Gene

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 7, adenylate cyclase-coupled

The neurotransmitter, serotonin, is thought to play a role in various cognitive and behavioral functions. The serotonin receptor encoded by this gene belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors and the gene is a candidate locus for involvement in autistic disorder and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Three splice variants have been identified which encode proteins that differ in the length of their carboxy terminal ends. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

G3BP1 Gene

GTPase activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 1

This gene encodes one of the DNA-unwinding enzymes which prefers partially unwound 3'-tailed substrates and can also unwind partial RNA/DNA and RNA/RNA duplexes in an ATP-dependent fashion. This enzyme is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins and is also an element of the Ras signal transduction pathway. It binds specifically to the Ras-GTPase-activating protein by associating with its SH3 domain. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RASA1 Gene

RAS p21 protein activator (GTPase activating protein) 1

The protein encoded by this gene is located in the cytoplasm and is part of the GAP1 family of GTPase-activating proteins. The gene product stimulates the GTPase activity of normal RAS p21 but not its oncogenic counterpart. Acting as a suppressor of RAS function, the protein enhances the weak intrinsic GTPase activity of RAS proteins resulting in the inactive GDP-bound form of RAS, thereby allowing control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Mutations leading to changes in the binding sites of either protein are associated with basal cell carcinomas. Mutations also have been associated with hereditary capillary malformations (CM) with or without arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and Parkes Weber syndrome. Alternative splicing results in two isoforms where the shorter isoform, lacking the N-terminal hydrophobic region but retaining the same activity, appears to be abundantly expressed in placental but not adult tissues. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

GNAL Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide, olfactory type

This gene encodes a stimulatory G protein alpha subunit which mediates odorant signaling in the olfactory epithelium. This protein couples dopamine type 1 receptors and adenosine A2A receptors and is widely expressed in the central nervous system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia 25 and this gene is located in a susceptibility region for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

GNAO1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide O

G3BP2 Gene

GTPase activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 2

LOC100422338 Gene

GTPase activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 1 pseudogene

RAB3GAP2 Gene

RAB3 GTPase activating protein subunit 2 (non-catalytic)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the RAB3 protein family, members of which are involved in regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters and hormones. This protein forms the Rab3 GTPase-activating complex with RAB3GAP1, where it constitutes the regulatory subunit, whereas the latter functions as the catalytic subunit. This gene has the highest level of expression in the brain, consistent with it having a key role in neurodevelopment. Mutations in this gene are associated with Martsolf syndrome.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

RAB3GAP1 Gene

RAB3 GTPase activating protein subunit 1 (catalytic)

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of a Rab GTPase activating protein. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a non-catalytic subunit to specifically regulate the activity of members of the Rab3 subfamily of small G proteins. This protein mediates the hydrolysis of GTP bound Rab3 to the GDP bound form. Mutations in this gene are associated with Warburg micro syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

ARHGAP44 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 44

ARHGAP40 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 40

TFAP4 Gene

transcription factor AP-4 (activating enhancer binding protein 4)

Transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix-zipper (bHLH-ZIP) family contain a basic domain, which is used for DNA binding, and HLH and ZIP domains, which are used for oligomerization. Transcription factor AP4 activates both viral and cellular genes by binding to the symmetrical DNA sequence CAGCTG (Mermod et al., 1988 [PubMed 2833704]; Hu et al., 1990 [PubMed 2123466]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2009]

SRGAP2D Gene

SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2D (pseudogene)

This locus encodes a member of the SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein family. This human-specific locus resulted from segmental duplication of the SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2B locus. This duplicated locus lacks an internal exon, and thus this gene copy may not be functional. Expression of this locus appears to be much lower than the similar SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2C (SRGAP2C) locus. The SRGAP2C locus has been shown to encode a protein that functions antagonistically to SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2 in cortical neuron development. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

TAGAP Gene

T-cell activation RhoGTPase activating protein

This gene encodes a member of the Rho GTPase-activator protein superfamily. The encoded protein may function as a Rho GTPase-activating protein. Alterations in this gene may be associated with several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, and multiple sclerosis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

LOC440461 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 27 pseudogene

RACGAP1P Gene

Rac GTPase activating protein 1 pseudogene

RANGAP1 Gene

Ran GTPase activating protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that associates with the nuclear pore complex and participates in the regulation of nuclear transport. The encoded protein interacts with Ras-related nuclear protein 1 (RAN) and regulates guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding and exchange. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

ARHGAP16P Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 16 pseudogene

ARHGAP42P5 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 42 pseudogene 5

ARHGAP42P4 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 42 pseudogene 4

ARHGAP42 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 42

RAP1GAP Gene

RAP1 GTPase activating protein

This gene encodes a type of GTPase-activating-protein (GAP) that down-regulates the activity of the ras-related RAP1 protein. RAP1 acts as a molecular switch by cycling between an inactive GDP-bound form and an active GTP-bound form. The product of this gene, RAP1GAP, promotes the hydrolysis of bound GTP and hence returns RAP1 to the inactive state whereas other proteins, guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), act as RAP1 activators by facilitating the conversion of RAP1 from the GDP- to the GTP-bound form. In general, ras subfamily proteins, such as RAP1, play key roles in receptor-linked signaling pathways that control cell growth and differentiation. RAP1 plays a role in diverse processes such as cell proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, and embryogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ARHGAP23 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 23

The RHO (see ARHA; MIM 165390) family of small GTPases are involved in signal transduction through transmembrane receptors, and they are inactive in the GDP-bound form and active in the GTP-bound form. GTPase-activating proteins, such as ARHGAP23, inactivate RHO family proteins by stimulating their hydrolysis of GTP (Katoh and Katoh, 2004 [PubMed 15254754]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ARHGAP22 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 22

This gene encodes a member of the GTPase activating protein family which activates a GTPase belonging to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. The encoded protein is insulin-responsive, is dependent on the kinase Akt and requires the Akt-dependent 14-3-3 binding protein which binds sequentially to two serine residues. The result of these interactions is regulation of cell motility. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

ARHGAP21 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 21

ARHGAP21 functions preferentially as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for CDC42 (MIM 116952) and regulates the ARP2/3 complex (MIM 604221) and F-actin dynamics at the Golgi through control of CDC42 activity (Dubois et al., 2005 [PubMed 15793564]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ARHGAP20 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 20

ARHGAP27 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 27

This gene encodes a member of a large family of proteins that activate Rho-type guanosine triphosphate (GTP) metabolizing enzymes. The encoded protein may pay a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

ARHGAP26 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 26

Interaction of a cell with the extracellular matrix triggers integrin cell surface receptors to begin signaling cascades that regulate the organization of the actin-cytoskeleton. One of the proteins involved in these cascades is focal adhesion kinase. The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase activating protein that binds to focal adhesion kinase and mediates the activity of the GTP binding proteins RhoA and Cdc42. Defects in this gene are a cause of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

ARHGAP25 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 25

ARHGAPs, such as ARHGAP25, encode negative regulators of Rho GTPases (see ARHA; MIM 165390), which are implicated in actin remodeling, cell polarity, and cell migration (Katoh and Katoh, 2004 [PubMed 15254788]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ARHGAP24 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 24

ARHGAPs, such as ARHGAP24, encode negative regulators of Rho GTPases (see ARHA; MIM 165390), which are implicated in actin remodeling, cell polarity, and cell migration (Katoh and Katoh, 2004 [PubMed 15254788]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ARHGAP29 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 29

ARHGAP28 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 28

RABGAP1 Gene

RAB GTPase activating protein 1

TFAP2A Gene

transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that binds the consensus sequence 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3'. The encoded protein functions as either a homodimer or as a heterodimer with similar family members. This protein activates the transcription of some genes while inhibiting the transcription of others. Defects in this gene are a cause of branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS). Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

TFAP2C Gene

transcription factor AP-2 gamma (activating enhancer binding protein 2 gamma)

The protein encoded by this gene is a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor involved in the activation of several developmental genes. The encoded protein can act as either a homodimer or heterodimer with other family members and is induced during retinoic acid-mediated differentiation. It plays a role in the development of the eyes, face, body wall, limbs, and neural tube. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TFAP2B Gene

transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)

This gene encodes a member of the AP-2 family of transcription factors. AP-2 proteins form homo- or hetero-dimers with other AP-2 family members and bind specific DNA sequences. They are thought to stimulate cell proliferation and suppress terminal differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic development. Specific AP-2 family members differ in their expression patterns and binding affinity for different promoters. This protein functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant Char syndrome, suggesting that this gene functions in the differentiation of neural crest cell derivatives. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TFAP2E Gene

transcription factor AP-2 epsilon (activating enhancer binding protein 2 epsilon)

TFAP2D Gene

transcription factor AP-2 delta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 delta)

SRGAP2C Gene

SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2C

This locus encodes a member of the SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein family. This human-specific locus resulted from segmental duplication of the SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2B locus. The encoded protein lacks the GTPase activating protein domain compared to proteins encoded by SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2, and acts antagonistically to these proteins in cortical neuron development. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

ARHGAP42P3 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 42 pseudogene 3

ARHGAP42P2 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 42 pseudogene 2

GSAP Gene

gamma-secretase activating protein

Accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid-beta is a major hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD; MIM 104300). Formation of amyloid-beta is catalyzed by gamma-secretase (see PSEN1; MIM 104311), a protease with numerous substrates. PION, or GSAP, selectively increases amyloid-beta production through a mechanism involving its interaction with both gamma-secretase and its substrate, the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP; MIM 104760) C-terminal fragment (APP-CTF) (He et al., 2010 [PubMed 20811458]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

RAP1GAP2 Gene

RAP1 GTPase activating protein 2

This gene encodes a GTPase-activating protein that activates the small guanine-nucleotide-binding protein Rap1 in platelets. The protein interacts with synaptotagmin-like protein 1 and Rab27 and regulates secretion of dense granules from platelets at sites of endothelial damage. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

ALOX5AP Gene

arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein

This gene encodes a protein which, with 5-lipoxygenase, is required for leukotriene synthesis. Leukotrienes are arachidonic acid metabolites which have been implicated in various types of inflammatory responses, including asthma, arthritis and psoriasis. This protein localizes to the plasma membrane. Inhibitors of its function impede translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane and inhibit 5-lipoxygenase activation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

LOC729945 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 21 pseudogene

ARHGAP42P1 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 42 pseudogene 1

LOC100420534 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 20 pseudogene

LOC643168 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 5 pseudogene

LOC388248 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 23 pseudogene

LOC146880 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 27 pseudogene

ABRA Gene

actin binding Rho activating protein

LOC100287613 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 20 pseudogene

LOC100420586 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 33 pseudogene

SRGAP2B Gene

SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2B

This locus encodes a member of the SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein family. This human-specific locus resulted from incomplete segmental duplication of the SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2 locus. The encoded protein lacks the GTPase activating protein domain compared to proteins encoded by SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2. The functionality of the protein encoded by this locus has been questioned, as several normal individuals with homozygous deletions for this locus have been identified, and the expression of this locus appears to be much lower than the similar SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2C (SRGAP2C) locus. The SRGAP2C locus has been shown to encode a protein that functions antagonistically to SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2 in cortical neuron development. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

LOC102723999 Gene

rho GTPase-activating protein 23-like

AGAP11 Gene

ankyrin repeat and GTPase domain Arf GTPase activating protein 11

RALGAPA1P Gene

Ral GTPase activating protein, alpha subunit 1 (catalytic) pseudogene

RABGAP1L Gene

RAB GTPase activating protein 1-like

LOC105376549 Gene

activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 2 pseudogene

RALGAPA2 Gene

Ral GTPase activating protein, alpha subunit 2 (catalytic)

ARHGAP11A Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 11A

ARHGAP11B Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 11B

NFAM1 Gene

NFAT activating protein with ITAM motif 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane receptor that activates cytokine gene promoters such as the IL-13 and TNF-alpha promoters. The encoded protein contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) and is thought to regulate the signaling and development of B-cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARHGAP30 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 30

ARHGAP31 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 31

This gene encodes a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). A variety of cellular processes are regulated by Rho GTPases which cycle between an inactive form bound to GDP and an active form bound to GTP. This cycling between inactive and active forms is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GAPs. The encoded protein is a GAP shown to regulate two GTPases involved in protein trafficking and cell growth. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARHGAP32 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 32

RICS is a neuron-associated GTPase-activating protein that may regulate dendritic spine morphology and strength by modulating Rho GTPase (see RHOA; MIM 165390) activity (Okabe et al., 2003 [PubMed 12531901]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ARHGAP33 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 33

This gene encodes a member of the sorting nexin family. Members of this family contain a phox (PX) domain, which is a phosphoinositide binding domain, and are involved in intracellular trafficking. Alternative splice variants encoding different isoforms have been identified in this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

ARHGAP35 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 35

The human glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding factor, which associates with the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (hGR gene), is a repressor of glucocorticoid receptor transcription. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequences show the presence of three sequence motifs characteristic of a zinc finger and one motif suggestive of a leucine zipper in which 1 cysteine is found instead of all leucines. The GRLF1 enhances the homologous down-regulation of wild-type hGR gene expression. Biochemical analysis suggests that GRLF1 interaction is sequence specific and that transcriptional efficacy of GRLF1 is regulated through its interaction with specific sequence motif. The level of expression is regulated by glucocorticoids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARHGAP36 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 36

ARHGAP39 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 39

ARHGAP23P1 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 23 pseudogene 1

RALGAPA1 Gene

Ral GTPase activating protein, alpha subunit 1 (catalytic)

LOC100288365 Gene

activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2 pseudogene

ARFGAP2 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 2

RACGAP1 Gene

Rac GTPase activating protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) family. GAPs bind activated forms of Rho GTPases and stimulate GTP hydrolysis. Through this catalytic function, GAPs negatively regulate Rho-mediated signals. This protein plays a regulatory role in initiation of cytokinesis, controlling cell growth and differentiation of hematopoietic cells, regulating spermatogenesis, and in neuronal proliferation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

NKAPL Gene

NFKB activating protein-like

LOC100420642 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 20 pseudogene

ARFGAP3 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that associates with the Golgi apparatus and regulates the early secretory pathway of proteins. The encoded protein promotes hydrolysis of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1)-bound GTP, which is required for the dissociation of coat proteins from Golgi-derived membranes and vesicles. Dissociation of the coat proteins is a prerequisite for the fusion of these vesicles with target compartments. The activity of this protein is sensitive to phospholipids. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. This gene was originally known as ARFGAP1, but that is now the name of a related but different gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

ARFGAP1 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase-activating protein, which associates with the Golgi apparatus and which interacts with ADP-ribosylation factor 1. The encoded protein promotes hydrolysis of ADP-ribosylation factor 1-bound GTP and is required for the dissociation of coat proteins from Golgi-derived membranes and vesicles. Dissociation of the coat proteins is required for the fusion of these vesicles with target compartments. The activity of this protein is stimulated by phosphoinosides and inhibited by phosphatidylcholine. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GAPVD1 Gene

GTPase activating protein and VPS9 domains 1

LOC643562 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 21 pseudogene

ARHGAP8 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 8

This gene encodes a member of the RHOGAP family. GAP (GTPase-activating) family proteins participate in signaling pathways that regulate cell processes involved in cytoskeletal changes. GAP proteins alternate between an active (GTP-bound) and inactive (GDP-bound) state based on the GTP:GDP ratio in the cell. This family member is a multidomain protein that functions to promote Erk activation and cell motility. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcripts from the upstream proline rich 5, renal (PRR5) gene into this gene also exist, which led to the original description of PRR5 and ARHGAP8 being a single gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

ARHGAP9 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 9

This gene encodes a member of the Rho-GAP family of GTPase activating proteins. The protein has substantial GAP activity towards several Rho-family GTPases in vitro, converting them to an inactive GDP-bound state. It is implicated in regulating adhesion of hematopoietic cells to the extracellular matrix. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARHGAP4 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 4

This gene encodes a member of the rhoGAP family of proteins which play a role in the regulation of small GTP-binding proteins belonging to the RAS superfamily. The protein encoded by the orthologous gene in rat is localized to the Golgi complex and can redistribute to microtubules. The rat protein stimulates the activity of some Rho GTPases in vitro. Genomic deletions of this gene and a neighboring gene have been found in patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

ARHGAP5 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 5

Rho GTPase activating protein 5 negatively regulates RHO GTPases, a family which may mediate cytoskeleton changes by stimulating the hydrolysis of bound GTP. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARHGAP6 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 6

This gene encodes a member of the rhoGAP family of proteins which play a role in the regulation of actin polymerization at the plasma membrane during several cellular processes. This protein is thought to have two independent functions, one as a GTPase-activating protein with specificity for RhoA, and another as a cytoskeletal protein that promotes actin remodeling. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARHGAP1 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 1

This gene encodes a member of a large family of proteins that activate Rho-type guanosine triphosphate (GTP) metabolizing enzymes. The encoded protein contains a SRC homology 3 domain and interacts with Bcl-2-associated protein family members. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

ATF7IP2 Gene

activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2

DLC1 Gene

DLC1 Rho GTPase activating protein

This gene encodes a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that is a member of the rhoGAP family of proteins which play a role in the regulation of small GTP-binding proteins. GAP family proteins participate in signaling pathways that regulate cell processes involved in cytoskeletal changes. This gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene in a number of common cancers, including prostate, lung, colorectal, and breast cancers. Multiple transcript variants due to alternative promoters and alternative splicing have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

ARHGAP17 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 17

RICH1 is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). GAPs stimulate the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis of small G proteins, such as RHOA (MIM 165390), RAC1 (MIM 602048), and CDC42 (MIM 116952).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

ARHGAP15 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 15

RHO GTPases (see ARHA; MIM 165390) regulate diverse biologic processes, and their activity is regulated by RHO GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), such as ARHGAP15 (Seoh et al., 2003 [PubMed 12650940]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ARHGAP12 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 12

This gene encodes a member of a large family of proteins that activate Rho-type guanosine triphosphate (GTP) metabolizing enzymes. The encoded protein may be involved in suppressing tumor formation by regulating cell invasion and adhesion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

ARHGAP10 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 10

ARHGAP18 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 18

ARHGAP18 belongs to a family of Rho (see MIM 165390) GTPase-activating proteins that modulate cell signaling (Potkin et al., 2009 [PubMed 19065146]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

ARHGAP19 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 19

Members of the ARHGAP family, such as ARHGAP19, encode negative regulators of Rho GTPases (see RHOA; MIM 165390), which are involved in cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation, actin remodeling, and G1 cell cycle progression (Lv et al., 2007 [PubMed 17454002]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ATF7IP Gene

activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein

ATF7IP is a multifunctional nuclear protein that associates with heterochromatin. It can act as a transcriptional coactivator or corepressor depending upon its binding partners (summary by Liu et al., 2009 [PubMed 19106100]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

SRGAP1 Gene

SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 1

SRGAP3 Gene

SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 3

SRGAP2 Gene

SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2

This locus encodes a member of the SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein family. The encoded protein stimulates GTPase activity of Rac1, and plays a role in cortical neuron development. This locus has several paralogs on human chromosome 1 resulting from segmental duplication. While this locus itself is conserved among various species, the paralogs are found only in the genus Homo, and not in the genomes of non-human great apes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this locus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

IQGAP1 Gene

IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the IQGAP family. The protein contains four IQ domains, one calponin homology domain, one Ras-GAP domain and one WW domain. It interacts with components of the cytoskeleton, with cell adhesion molecules, and with several signaling molecules to regulate cell morphology and motility. Expression of the protein is upregulated by gene amplification in two gastric cancer cell lines. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IQGAP2 Gene

IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the IQGAP family. The protein contains three IQ domains, one calponin homology domain, one Ras-GAP domain and one WW domain. It interacts with components of the cytoskeleton, with cell adhesion molecules, and with several signaling molecules to regulate cell morphology and motility. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IQGAP3 Gene

IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 3

NKAP Gene

NFKB activating protein

This gene encodes a protein that is involved in the activation of the ubiquitous transcription factor NF-kappaB. This protein is associated with the the histone deacetylase HDAC3 and with the Notch corepressor complex, and it thereby acts as a transcriptional repressor of Notch target genes. It is also required for alphabeta T cell development. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome X, while a related and intronless retrocopy, which has an intact CDS and may be functional, is located on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

SYNGAP1 Gene

synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a major component of the postsynaptic density (PSD), a group of proteins found associated with NMDA receptors at synapses. The encoded protein is phosphorylated by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and dephosphorylated by NMDA receptor activation. Defects in this gene are a cause of mental retardation autosomal dominant type 5 (MRD5). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

NKAPP1 Gene

NFKB activating protein pseudogene 1

RALGAPB Gene

Ral GTPase activating protein, beta subunit (non-catalytic)

UBA6 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 6

Modification of proteins with ubiquitin (UBB; MIM 191339) or ubiquitin-like proteins controls many signaling networks and requires a ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), a ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2), and a ubiquitin protein ligase (E3). UBE1L2 is an E1 enzyme that initiates the activation and conjugation of ubiquitin-like proteins (Jin et al., 2007 [PubMed 17597759]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

UBA5 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 5

This gene encodes a member of the E1-like ubiquitin-activating enzyme family. This protein activates ubiquitin-fold modifier 1, a ubiquitin-like post-translational modifier protein, via the formation of a high-energy thioester bond. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. A pseudogene located on chromosome 1 has also been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBA2 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 2

Posttranslational modification of proteins by the addition of the small protein SUMO (see SUMO1; MIM 601912), or sumoylation, regulates protein structure and intracellular localization. SAE1 (MIM 613294) and UBA2 form a heterodimer that functions as a SUMO-activating enzyme for the sumoylation of proteins (Okuma et al., 1999 [PubMed 9920803]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

UBA3 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 3

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme family. The encoded enzyme associates with AppBp1, an amyloid beta precursor protein binding protein, to form a heterodimer, and then the enzyme complex activates NEDD8, a ubiquitin-like protein, which regulates cell division, signaling and embryogenesis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBA1 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 1

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the first step in ubiquitin conjugation to mark cellular proteins for degradation. This gene complements an X-linked mouse temperature-sensitive defect in DNA synthesis, and thus may function in DNA repair. It is part of a gene cluster on chromosome Xp11.23. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATF6B Gene

activating transcription factor 6 beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor in the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway during ER stress. Either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with ATF6-alpha, the encoded protein binds to the ER stress response element, interacting with nuclear transcription factor Y to activate UPR target genes. The protein is normally found in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum; however, under ER stress, the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain is cleaved from the rest of the protein and translocates to the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

PAFAH1B1P1 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, regulatory subunit 1 pseudogene 1

GARNL3 Gene

GTPase activating Rap/RanGAP domain-like 3

SNAPC3 Gene

small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 3, 50kDa

SNAPC2 Gene

small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 2, 45kDa

This gene encodes a subunit of the snRNA-activating protein complex which is associated with the TATA box-binding protein. The encoded protein is necessary for RNA polymerase II and III dependent small-nuclear RNA gene transcription. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

SNAPC1 Gene

small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 1, 43kDa

SNAPC5 Gene

small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 5, 19kDa

SNAPC4 Gene

small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 4, 190kDa

ATF1P1 Gene

activating transcription factor 1 pseudogene 1

APAF1 Gene

apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1

This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein that initiates apoptosis. This protein contains several copies of the WD-40 domain, a caspase recruitment domain (CARD), and an ATPase domain (NB-ARC). Upon binding cytochrome c and dATP, this protein forms an oligomeric apoptosome. The apoptosome binds and cleaves caspase 9 preproprotein, releasing its mature, activated form. Activated caspase 9 stimulates the subsequent caspase cascade that commits the cell to apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ULK2 Gene

unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 2

This gene encodes a protein that is similar to a serine/threonine kinase in C. elegans which is involved in axonal elongation. The structure of this protein is similar to the C. elegans protein in that both proteins have an N-terminal kinase domain, a central proline/serine rich (PS) domain, and a C-terminal (C) domain. The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

ULK1 Gene

unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1

LOC643711 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, catalytic subunit 2 (30kDa) pseudogene

SNAPC5P1 Gene

small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 5, 19kDa pseudogene 1

TSACC Gene

TSSK6 activating co-chaperone

PAFAH1B1 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, regulatory subunit 1 (45kDa)

This locus was identified as encoding a gene that when mutated or lost caused the lissencephaly associated with Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome. This gene encodes the non-catalytic alpha subunit of the intracellular Ib isoform of platelet-activating factor acteylhydrolase, a heterotrimeric enzyme that specifically catalyzes the removal of the acetyl group at the SN-2 position of platelet-activating factor (identified as 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine). Two other isoforms of intracellular platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase exist: one composed of multiple subunits, the other, a single subunit. In addition, a single-subunit isoform of this enzyme is found in serum. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

PAFAH1B3 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, catalytic subunit 3 (29kDa)

This gene encodes an acetylhydrolase that catalyzes the removal of an acetyl group from the glycerol backbone of platelet-activating factor. The encoded enzyme is a subunit of the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 1B complex, which consists of the catalytic beta and gamma subunits and the regulatory alpha subunit. This complex functions in brain development. A translocation between this gene on chromosome 19 and the CDC-like kinase 2 gene on chromosome 1 has been observed, and was associated with mental retardation, ataxia, and atrophy of the brain. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

PAFAH1B2 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, catalytic subunit 2 (30kDa)

Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAFAH) inactivates platelet-activating factor (PAF) into acetate and LYSO-PAF. This gene encodes the beta subunit of PAFAH, the other subunits are alpha and gamma. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

NAE1 Gene

NEDD8 activating enzyme E1 subunit 1

The protein encoded by this gene binds to the beta-amyloid precursor protein. Beta-amyloid precursor protein is a cell surface protein with signal-transducing properties, and it is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the encoded protein can form a heterodimer with UBE1C and bind and activate NEDD8, a ubiquitin-like protein. This protein is required for cell cycle progression through the S/M checkpoint. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SAE1 Gene

SUMO1 activating enzyme subunit 1

Posttranslational modification of proteins by the addition of the small protein SUMO (see SUMO1; MIM 601912), or sumoylation, regulates protein structure and intracellular localization. SAE1 and UBA2 (MIM 613295) form a heterodimer that functions as a SUMO-activating enzyme for the sumoylation of proteins (Okuma et al., 1999 [PubMed 9920803]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

ADCYAP1 Gene

adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary)

This gene encodes a secreted proprotein that is further processed into multiple mature peptides. These peptides stimulate adenylate cyclase and increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, resulting in the transcriptional activation of target genes. The products of this gene are key mediators of neuroendocrine stress responses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

UBA7 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 7

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme family. The encoded enzyme is a retinoid target that triggers promyelocytic leukemia (PML)/retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) degradation and apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia, where it is involved in the conjugation of the ubiquitin-like interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASCC3 Gene

activating signal cointegrator 1 complex subunit 3

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a family of helicases that are involved in the ATP-dependent unwinding of nucleic acid duplexes. The encoded protein is the largest subunit of the activating signal cointegrator 1 complex that is involved in DNA repair and resistance to alkylation damage. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

ASCC2 Gene

activating signal cointegrator 1 complex subunit 2

ASCC1 Gene

activating signal cointegrator 1 complex subunit 1

This gene encodes a subunit of the activating signal cointegrator 1 (ASC-1) complex. The ASC-1 complex is a transcriptional coactivator that plays an important role in gene transactivation by multiple transcription factors including activating protein 1 (AP-1), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) and serum response factor (SRF). The encoded protein contains an N-terminal KH-type RNA-binding motif which is required for AP-1 transactivation by the ASC-1 complex. Mutations in this gene are associated with Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

ATF5 Gene

activating transcription factor 5

ATF4 Gene

activating transcription factor 4

This gene encodes a transcription factor that was originally identified as a widely expressed mammalian DNA binding protein that could bind a tax-responsive enhancer element in the LTR of HTLV-1. The encoded protein was also isolated and characterized as the cAMP-response element binding protein 2 (CREB-2). The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of DNA-binding proteins that includes the AP-1 family of transcription factors, cAMP-response element binding proteins (CREBs) and CREB-like proteins. These transcription factors share a leucine zipper region that is involved in protein-protein interactions, located C-terminal to a stretch of basic amino acids that functions as a DNA binding domain. Two alternative transcripts encoding the same protein have been described. Two pseudogenes are located on the X chromosome at q28 in a region containing a large inverted duplication. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

ATF7 Gene

activating transcription factor 7

ATF6 Gene

activating transcription factor 6

This gene encodes a transcription factor that activates target genes for the unfolded protein response (UPR) during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Although it is a transcription factor, this protein is unusual in that it is synthesized as a transmembrane protein that is embedded in the ER. It functions as an ER stress sensor/transducer, and following ER stress-induced proteolysis, it functions as a nuclear transcription factor via a cis-acting ER stress response element (ERSE) that is present in the promoters of genes encoding ER chaperones. This protein has been identified as a survival factor for quiescent but not proliferative squamous carcinoma cells. There have been conflicting reports about the association of polymorphisms in this gene with diabetes in different populations, but another polymorphism has been associated with increased plasma cholesterol levels. This gene is also thought to be a potential therapeutic target for cystic fibrosis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ATF1 Gene

activating transcription factor 1

This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper) family. It influences cellular physiologic processes by regulating the expression of downstream target genes, which are related to growth, survival, and other cellular activities. This protein is phosphorylated at serine 63 in its kinase-inducible domain by serine/threonine kinases, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I/II, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk-3). Its phosphorylation enhances its transactivation and transcriptional activities, and enhances cell transformation. Fusion of this gene and FUS on chromosome 16 or EWSR1 on chromosome 22 induced by translocation generates chimeric proteins in angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma and clear cell sarcoma. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

ATF3 Gene

activating transcription factor 3

This gene encodes a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding (CREB) protein family of transcription factors. This gene is induced by a variety of signals, including many of those encountered by cancer cells, and is involved in the complex process of cellular stress response. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. It is possible that alternative splicing of this gene may be physiologically important in the regulation of target genes. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

ATF2 Gene

activating transcription factor 2

This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. The encoded protein may also be involved in cell's DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

LOC100126822 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 5 pseudogene

LOC100422587 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, regulatory subunit 1 (45kDa) pseudogene

LOC341056 Gene

SUMO1 activating enzyme subunit 1 pseudogene

LOC100421465 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 2 pseudogene

LOC100421468 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 2 pseudogene

MADD Gene

MAP-kinase activating death domain

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a signaling molecule that interacts with one of two receptors on cells targeted for apoptosis. The apoptotic signal is transduced inside these cells by cytoplasmic adaptor proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is a death domain-containing adaptor protein that interacts with the death domain of TNF-alpha receptor 1 to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and propagate the apoptotic signal. It is membrane-bound and expressed at a higher level in neoplastic cells than in normal cells. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAFAH1B1P2 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, regulatory subunit 1 pseudogene 2

MAMSTR Gene

MEF2 activating motif and SAP domain containing transcriptional regulator

MNAT1 Gene

MNAT CDK-activating kinase assembly factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene, along with cyclin H and CDK7, forms the CDK-activating kinase (CAK) enzymatic complex. This complex activates several cyclin-associated kinases and can also associate with TFIIH to activate transcription by RNA polymerase II. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

ATF4P2 Gene

activating transcription factor 4 pseudogene 2

ATF4P4 Gene

activating transcription factor 4 pseudogene 4

PAFAH2 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 2, 40kDa

This gene encodes platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 2, a single-subunit intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the acetyl group at the SN-2 position of platelet-activating factor (identified as 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine). However, this lipase exhibits a broader substrate specificity than simply platelet activating factor. Two other isoforms of intracellular platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase exist, and both are multi-subunit enzymes. Additionally, there is a single-subunit serum isoform of this enzyme. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC139957 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, catalytic subunit 2 (30kDa) pseudogene

MASP1 Gene

mannan-binding lectin serine peptidase 1 (C4/C2 activating component of Ra-reactive factor)

This gene encodes a serine protease that functions as a component of the lectin pathway of complement activation. The complement pathway plays an essential role in the innate and adaptive immune response. The encoded protein is synthesized as a zymogen and is activated when it complexes with the pathogen recognition molecules of lectin pathway, the mannose-binding lectin and the ficolins. This protein is not directly involved in complement activation but may play a role as an amplifier of complement activation by cleaving complement C2 or by activating another complement serine protease, MASP-2. The encoded protein is also able to cleave fibrinogen and factor XIII and may may be involved in coagulation. A splice variant of this gene which lacks the serine protease domain functions as an inhibitor of the complement pathway. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

ATF4P3 Gene

activating transcription factor 4 pseudogene 3

ATF4P1 Gene

activating transcription factor 4 pseudogene 1

LOC100533706 Gene

NEDD8 activating enzyme E1 subunit 1 pseudogene

RAG2 Gene

recombination activating gene 2

This gene encodes a protein that is involved in the initiation of V(D)J recombination during B and T cell development. This protein forms a complex with the product of the adjacent recombination activating gene 1, and this complex can form double-strand breaks by cleaving DNA at conserved recombination signal sequences. The recombination activating gene 1 component is thought to contain most of the catalytic activity, while the N-terminal of the recombination activating gene 2 component is thought to form a six-bladed propeller in the active core that serves as a binding scaffold for the tight association of the complex with DNA. A C-terminal plant homeodomain finger-like motif in this protein is necessary for interactions with chromatin components, specifically with histone H3 that is trimethylated at lysine 4. Mutations in this gene cause Omenn syndrome, a form of severe combined immunodeficiency associated with autoimmune-like symptoms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAG1 Gene

recombination activating gene 1

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in activation of immunoglobulin V-D-J recombination. The encoded protein is involved in recognition of the DNA substrate, but stable binding and cleavage activity also requires RAG2. Defects in this gene can be the cause of several diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC11A1 Gene

solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporter), member 1

This gene is a member of the solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters) family and encodes a multi-pass membrane protein. The protein functions as a divalent transition metal (iron and manganese) transporter involved in iron metabolism and host resistance to certain pathogens. Mutations in this gene have been associated with susceptibility to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy, and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn disease. Alternatively spliced variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described but the full-length nature of only one has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC11A2 Gene

solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporter), member 2

This gene encodes a member of the solute carrier family 11 protein family. The product of this gene transports divalent metals and is involved in iron absorption. Mutations in this gene are associated with hypochromic microcytic anemia with iron overload. A related solute carrier family 11 protein gene is located on chromosome 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

LRP8 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8, apolipoprotein e receptor

This gene encodes a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Low density lipoprotein receptors are cell surface proteins that play roles in both signal transduction and receptor-mediated endocytosis of specific ligands for lysosomal degradation. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the migration of neurons during development by mediating Reelin signaling, and also functions as a receptor for the cholesterol transport protein apolipoprotein E. Expression of this gene may be a marker for major depressive disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

ROR2 Gene

receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase and type I transmembrane protein that belongs to the ROR subfamily of cell surface receptors. The protein may be involved in the early formation of the chondrocytes and may be required for cartilage and growth plate development. Mutations in this gene can cause brachydactyly type B, a skeletal disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of distal phalanges and nails. In addition, mutations in this gene can cause the autosomal recessive form of Robinow syndrome, which is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with generalized limb bone shortening, segmental defects of the spine, brachydactyly, and a dysmorphic facial appearance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ROR1 Gene

receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1

This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor that modulates neurite growth in the central nervous system. The encoded protein is a glycosylated type I membrane protein that belongs to the ROR subfamily of cell surface receptors. It is a pseudokinase that lacks catalytic activity and may interact with the non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway. This gene is highly expressed during early embryonic development but expressed at very low levels in adult tissues. Increased expression of this gene is associated with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

NR3C1 Gene

nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor)

This gene encodes glucocorticoid receptor, which can function both as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements in the promoters of glucocorticoid responsive genes to activate their transcription, and as a regulator of other transcription factors. This receptor is typically found in the cytoplasm, but upon ligand binding, is transported into the nucleus. It is involved in inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation, and differentiation in target tissues. Mutations in this gene are associated with generalized glucocorticoid resistance. Alternative splicing of this gene results in transcript variants encoding either the same or different isoforms. Additional isoforms resulting from the use of alternate in-frame translation initiation sites have also been described, and shown to be functional, displaying diverse cytoplasm-to-nucleus trafficking patterns and distinct transcriptional activities (PMID:15866175). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

MC1R Gene

melanocortin 1 receptor (alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor)

This intronless gene encodes the receptor protein for melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). The encoded protein, a seven pass transmembrane G protein coupled receptor, controls melanogenesis. Two types of melanin exist: red pheomelanin and black eumelanin. Gene mutations that lead to a loss in function are associated with increased pheomelanin production, which leads to lighter skin and hair color. Eumelanin is photoprotective but pheomelanin may contribute to UV-induced skin damage by generating free radicals upon UV radiation. Binding of MSH to its receptor activates the receptor and stimulates eumelanin synthesis. This receptor is a major determining factor in sun sensitivity and is a genetic risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Over 30 variant alleles have been identified which correlate with skin and hair color, providing evidence that this gene is an important component in determining normal human pigment variation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INSRR Gene

insulin receptor-related receptor

PPFIA4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 4

PPFIA4, or liprin-alpha-4, belongs to the liprin-alpha gene family. See liprin-alpha-1 (LIP1, or PPFIA1; MIM 611054) for background on liprins.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100422713 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

LOC100422710 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

PTPRCAP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C-associated protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a transmembrane phosphoprotein specifically associated with tyrosine phosphatase PTPRC/CD45, a key regulator of T- and B-lymphocyte activation. The interaction with PTPRC may be required for the stable expression of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LRPAP1 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein associated protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein and facilitates its proper folding and localization by preventing the binding of ligands. Mutations in this gene have been identified in individuals with myopia 23. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

PPFIA2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. It has been proposed that liprins are multivalent proteins that form complex structures and act as scaffolds for the recruitment and anchoring of LAR family of tyrosine phosphatases. This protein has been shown to bind the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family) protein (also known as CASK) and proposed to regulate higher-order brain functions in mammals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PPFIA3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. Liprin family protein has been shown to localize phosphatase LAR to cell focal adhesions and may be involved in the molecular organization of presynaptic active zones. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPFIA1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. This protein binds to the intracellular membrane-distal phosphatase domain of tyrosine phosphatase LAR, and appears to localize LAR to cell focal adhesions. This interaction may regulate the disassembly of focal adhesion and thus help orchestrate cell-matrix interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPN18 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 18 (brain-derived)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, the mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a PEST motif, which often serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may be related to protein intracellular half-live. This protein can differentially dephosphorylate autophosphorylated tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in tumor tissues, and it appears to regulate HER2, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

PTPN13 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 13 (APO-1/CD95 (Fas)-associated phosphatase)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP is a large intracellular protein. It has a catalytic PTP domain at its C-terminus and two major structural domains: a region with five PDZ domains and a FERM domain that binds to plasma membrane and cytoskeletal elements. This PTP was found to interact with, and dephosphorylate, Fas receptor and IkappaBalpha through the PDZ domains. This suggests it has a role in Fas mediated programmed cell death. This PTP was also shown to interact with GTPase-activating protein, and thus may function as a regulator of Rho signaling pathways. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

PTPN12 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 12

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a C-terminal PEST motif, which serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may regulate protein intracellular half-life. This PTP was found to bind and dephosphorylate the product of the oncogene c-ABL and thus may play a role in oncogenesis. This PTP was also shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate, various products related to cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion, such as p130 (Cas), CAKbeta/PTK2B, PSTPIP1, and paxillin. This suggests it has a regulatory role in controlling cell shape and mobility. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

PTPN11 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains two tandem Src homology-2 domains, which function as phospho-tyrosine binding domains and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. This PTP is widely expressed in most tissues and plays a regulatory role in various cell signaling events that are important for a diversity of cell functions, such as mitogenic activation, metabolic control, transcription regulation, and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Noonan syndrome as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

PTPN14 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 14

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal noncatalytic domain similar to that of band 4.1 superfamily cytoskeleton-associated proteins, which suggested the membrane or cytoskeleton localization of this protein. It appears to regulate lymphatic development in mammals, and a loss of function mutation has been found in a kindred with a lymphedema-choanal atresia. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

LOC100421595 Gene

thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 3 pseudogene

IL18RAP Gene

interleukin 18 receptor accessory protein

The protein encoded by this gene is an accessory subunit of the heterodimeric receptor for interleukin 18 (IL18), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in inducing cell-mediated immunity. This protein enhances the IL18-binding activity of the IL18 receptor and plays a role in signaling by IL18. Mutations in this gene are associated with Crohn's disease and inflammatory bowel disease, and susceptibility to celiac disease and leprosy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

LOC105369264 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 20

CNRIP1 Gene

cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the C-terminal tail of cannabinoid receptor 1. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GRID2IP Gene

glutamate receptor, ionotropic, delta 2 (Grid2) interacting protein

Glutamate receptor delta-2 (GRID2; MIM 602368) is predominantly expressed at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell postsynapses and plays crucial roles in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. GRID2IP1 interacts with GRID2 and may control GRID2 signaling in Purkinje cells (Matsuda et al., 2006 [PubMed 16835239]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

NGFRAP1 Gene

nerve growth factor receptor (TNFRSF16) associated protein 1

LOC100422537 Gene

signal sequence receptor, gamma (translocon-associated protein gamma) pseudogene

LOC105379539 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 23-like

IRAK1BP1 Gene

interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 binding protein 1

LOC105378176 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK2

THRAP3P1 Gene

thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 3 pseudogene 1

STRAP Gene

serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein

LRP2 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene, low density lipoprotein-related protein 2 (LRP2) or megalin, is a multi-ligand endocytic receptor that is expressed in many different tissues but primarily in absorptive epithilial tissues such as the kidney. This glycoprotein has a large amino-terminal extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, and a short carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic tail. The extracellular ligand-binding-domains bind diverse macromolecules including albumin, apolipoproteins B and E, and lipoprotein lipase. The LRP2 protein is critical for the reuptake of numerous ligands, including lipoproteins, sterols, vitamin-binding proteins, and hormones. This protein also has a role in cell-signaling; extracellular ligands include parathyroid horomones and the morphogen sonic hedgehog while cytosolic ligands include MAP kinase scaffold proteins and JNK interacting proteins. Recycling of this membrane receptor is regulated by phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic domain. Mutations in this gene cause Donnai-Barrow syndrome (DBS) and facio-oculoacoustico-renal syndrome (FOAR).[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

LRP3 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 3

LRP1 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is an endocytic receptor involved in several cellular processes, including intracellular signaling, lipid homeostasis, and clearance of apoptotic cells. In addition, the encoded protein is necessary for the A2M-mediated clearance of secreted amyloid precursor protein and beta-amyloid, the main component of amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer patients. Expression of this gene decreases with age and has been found to be lower than controls in brain tissue from Alzheimer patients. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

LRP6 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6

This gene encodes a member of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family. LDL receptors are transmembrane cell surface proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoprotein and protein ligands. The protein encoded by this gene functions as a receptor or, with Frizzled, a co-receptor for Wnt and thereby transmits the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling cascade. Through its interaction with the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling cascade this gene plays a role in the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration and the development of many cancer types. This protein undergoes gamma-secretase dependent RIP- (regulated intramembrane proteolysis) processing but the precise locations of the cleavage sites have not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

LRP4 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4

This gene encodes a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein family. The encoded protein may be a regulator of Wnt signaling. Mutations in this gene are associated with Cenani-Lenz syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LRP5 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5

This gene encodes a transmembrane low-density lipoprotein receptor that binds and internalizes ligands in the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis. This protein also acts as a co-receptor with Frizzled protein family members for transducing signals by Wnt proteins and was originally cloned on the basis of its association with type 1 diabetes mellitus in humans. This protein plays a key role in skeletal homeostasis and many bone density related diseases are caused by mutations in this gene. Mutations in this gene also cause familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

PTPN22 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (lymphoid)

This gene encodes of member of the non-receptor class 4 subfamily of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. The encoded protein is a lymphoid-specific intracellular phosphatase that associates with the molecular adapter protein CBL and may be involved in regulating CBL function in the T-cell receptor signaling pathway. Mutations in this gene may be associated with a range of autoimmune disorders including Type 1 Diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and Graves' disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

PTPN23 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 23

PTPN20 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 20

The product of this gene belongs to the family of classical tyrosine-specific protein tyrosine phosphatases. Many protein tyrosine phosphatases have been shown to regulate fundamental cellular processes. The encoded protein appears to be targeted to sites of actin polymerization. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on chromosome 10. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

PTPN21 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 21

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal domain, similar to cytoskeletal- associated proteins including band 4.1, ezrin, merlin, and radixin. This PTP was shown to specially interact with BMX/ETK, a member of Tec tyrosine kinase family characterized by a multimodular structures including PH, SH3, and SH2 domains. The interaction of this PTP with BMX kinase was found to increase the activation of STAT3, but not STAT2 kinase. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested the possible roles of this PTP in liver regeneration and spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRPC4AP Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 4 associated protein

NRIP1 Gene

nuclear receptor interacting protein 1

Nuclear receptor interacting protein 1 (NRIP1) is a nuclear protein that specifically interacts with the hormone-dependent activation domain AF2 of nuclear receptors. Also known as RIP140, this protein modulates transcriptional activity of the estrogen receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NRIP2 Gene

nuclear receptor interacting protein 2

NRIP3 Gene

nuclear receptor interacting protein 3

PROCR Gene

protein C receptor, endothelial

The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for activated protein C, a serine protease activated by and involved in the blood coagulation pathway. The encoded protein is an N-glycosylated type I membrane protein that enhances the activation of protein C. Mutations in this gene have been associated with venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction, as well as with late fetal loss during pregnancy. The encoded protein may also play a role in malarial infection and has been associated with cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

MRAP Gene

melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein

This gene encodes a melanocortin receptor-interacting protein. The encoded protein regulates trafficking and function of the melanocortin 2 receptor in the adrenal gland. The encoded protein can also modulate signaling of other melanocortin receptors. Mutations in this gene have been associated with familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

SSR2 Gene

signal sequence receptor, beta (translocon-associated protein beta)

The signal sequence receptor (SSR) is a glycosylated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane receptor associated with protein translocation across the ER membrane. The SSR consists of 2 subunits, a 34-kD glycoprotein (alpha-SSR or SSR1) and a 22-kD glycoprotein (beta-SSR or SSR2). The human beta-signal sequence receptor gene (SSR2) maps to chromosome bands 1q21-q23. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SSR3 Gene

signal sequence receptor, gamma (translocon-associated protein gamma)

The signal sequence receptor (SSR) is a glycosylated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane receptor associated with protein translocation across the ER membrane. The SSR is comprised of four membrane proteins/subunits: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The first two are glycosylated subunits and the latter two are non-glycosylated subunits. This gene encodes the gamma subunit, which is predicted to span the membrane four times. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

PLGRKT Gene

plasminogen receptor, C-terminal lysine transmembrane protein

LOC442113 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

NR2C2AP Gene

nuclear receptor 2C2-associated protein

GRB10 Gene

growth factor receptor-bound protein 10

The product of this gene belongs to a small family of adapter proteins that are known to interact with a number of receptor tyrosine kinases and signaling molecules. This gene encodes a growth factor receptor-binding protein that interacts with insulin receptors and insulin-like growth-factor receptors. Overexpression of some isoforms of the encoded protein inhibits tyrosine kinase activity and results in growth suppression. This gene is imprinted in a highly isoform- and tissue-specific manner, with expression observed from the paternal allele in the brain, and from the maternal allele in the placental trophoblasts. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

GRB14 Gene

growth factor receptor-bound protein 14

The product of this gene belongs to a small family of adapter proteins that are known to interact with a number of receptor tyrosine kinases and signaling molecules. This gene encodes a growth factor receptor-binding protein that interacts with insulin receptors and insulin-like growth-factor receptors. This protein likely has an inhibitory effect on receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and, in particular, on insulin receptor signaling. This gene may play a role in signaling pathways that regulate growth and metabolism. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

GRINA Gene

glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate-associated protein 1 (glutamate binding)

GRASP Gene

GRP1 (general receptor for phosphoinositides 1)-associated scaffold protein

This gene encodes a protein that functions as a molecular scaffold, linking receptors, including group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors, to neuronal proteins. The encoded protein contains conserved domains, including a leucine zipper sequence, PDZ domain and a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. Alternately spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

PTPRZ2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 2

PTPRZ1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 1

This gene encodes a member of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase family. Expression of this gene is restricted to the central nervous system (CNS), and it may be involved in the regulation of specific developmental processes in the CNS. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

NSD1 Gene

nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 1

This gene encodes a protein containing a SET domain, 2 LXXLL motifs, 3 nuclear translocation signals (NLSs), 4 plant homeodomain (PHD) finger regions, and a proline-rich region. The encoded protein enhances androgen receptor (AR) transactivation, and this enhancement can be increased further in the presence of other androgen receptor associated coregulators. This protein may act as a nucleus-localized, basic transcriptional factor and also as a bifunctional transcriptional regulator. Mutations of this gene have been associated with Sotos syndrome and Weaver syndrome. One version of childhood acute myeloid leukemia is the result of a cryptic translocation with the breakpoints occurring within nuclear receptor-binding Su-var, enhancer of zeste, and trithorax domain protein 1 on chromosome 5 and nucleoporin, 98-kd on chromosome 11. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LRP5L Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5-like

PTPN3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This protein contains a C-terminal PTP domain and an N-terminal domain homologous to the band 4.1 superfamily of cytoskeletal-associated proteins. P97, a cell cycle regulator involved in a variety of membrane related functions, has been shown to be a substrate of this PTP. This PTP was also found to interact with, and be regulated by adaptor protein 14-3-3 beta. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

IL1RAP Gene

interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein

Interleukin 1 induces synthesis of acute phase and proinflammatory proteins during infection, tissue damage, or stress, by forming a complex at the cell membrane with an interleukin 1 receptor and an accessory protein. This gene encodes the interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein. The protein is a necessary part of the interleukin 1 receptor complex which initiates signalling events that result in the activation of interleukin 1-responsive genes. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms, one membrane-bound and one soluble. The ratio of soluble to membrane-bound forms increases during acute-phase induction or stress. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

AMFR Gene

autocrine motility factor receptor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This locus encodes a glycosylated transmembrane receptor. Its ligand, autocrine motility factor, is a tumor motility-stimulating protein secreted by tumor cells. The encoded receptor is also a member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase family of proteins. It catalyzes ubiquitination and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of specific proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

LOC100422495 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (megakaryocyte) pseudogene

LOC100286746 Gene

GABA(A) receptor-associated protein-like 2 pseudogene

NRBP2 Gene

nuclear receptor binding protein 2

NRBP1 Gene

nuclear receptor binding protein 1

PTPN2P2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 pseudogene 2

LOC105379534 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK2

REEP1 Gene

receptor accessory protein 1

This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein that functions to enhance the cell surface expression of odorant receptors. Mutations in this gene cause spastic paraplegia autosomal dominant type 31, a neurodegenerative disorder. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

REEP3 Gene

receptor accessory protein 3

REEP2 Gene

receptor accessory protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the receptor expression enhancing protein family. Studies of a related gene in mouse suggest that the encoded protein is found in the cell membrane and enhances the function of sweet taste receptors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

REEP5 Gene

receptor accessory protein 5

REEP4 Gene

receptor accessory protein 4

REEP6 Gene

receptor accessory protein 6

LOC442263 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

PTPN9 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal domain that shares a significant similarity with yeast SEC14, which is a protein that has phosphatidylinositol transfer activity and is required for protein secretion through the Golgi complex in yeast. This PTP was found to be activated by polyphosphoinositide, and is thought to be involved in signaling events regulating phagocytosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPN2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. Members of the PTP family share a highly conserved catalytic motif, which is essential for the catalytic activity. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. Epidermal growth factor receptor and the adaptor protein Shc were reported to be substrates of this PTP, which suggested the roles in growth factor mediated cell signaling. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. Two highly related but distinctly processed pseudogenes that localize to chromosomes 1 and 13, respectively, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PTPN1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1

The protein encoded by this gene is the founding member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, which was isolated and identified based on its enzymatic activity and amino acid sequence. PTPs catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphate monoesters specifically on tyrosine residues. Members of the PTP family share a highly conserved catalytic motif, which is essential for the catalytic activity. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP has been shown to act as a negative regulator of insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the phosphotryosine residues of insulin receptor kinase. This PTP was also reported to dephosphorylate epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, as well as JAK2 and TYK2 kinases, which implicated the role of this PTP in cell growth control, and cell response to interferon stimulation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PTPN7 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This gene is preferentially expressed in a variety of hematopoietic cells, and is an early response gene in lymphokine stimulated cells. The non-catalytic N-terminus of this PTP can interact with MAP kinases and suppress the MAP kinase activities. This PTP was shown to be involved in the regulation of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling, which was thought to function through dephosphorylating the molecules related to MAP kinase pathway. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PTPN6 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. N-terminal part of this PTP contains two tandem Src homolog (SH2) domains, which act as protein phospho-tyrosine binding domains, and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. This PTP is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells, and functions as an important regulator of multiple signaling pathways in hematopoietic cells. This PTP has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate a wide spectrum of phospho-proteins involved in hematopoietic cell signaling. Multiple alternatively spliced variants of this gene, which encode distinct isoforms, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPN5 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 5 (striatum-enriched)

PTPN4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (megakaryocyte)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This protein contains a C-terminal PTP domain and an N-terminal domain homologous to the band 4.1 superfamily of cytoskeletal-associated proteins. This PTP has been shown to interact with glutamate receptor delta 2 and epsilon subunits, and is thought to play a role in signalling downstream of the glutamate receptors through tyrosine dephosphorylation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRIP1 Gene

glutamate receptor interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the glutamate receptor interacting protein family. The encoded scaffold protein binds to and mediates the trafficking and membrane organization of a number of transmembrane proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GRIP2 Gene

glutamate receptor interacting protein 2

BCAP31 Gene

B-cell receptor-associated protein 31

This gene encodes a member of the B-cell receptor associated protein 31 superfamily. The encoded protein is a multi-pass transmembrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum that is involved in the anterograde transport of membrane proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi and in caspase 8-mediated apoptosis. Microdeletions in this gene are associated with contiguous ABCD1/DXS1375E deletion syndrome (CADDS), a neonatal disorder. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. Two related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosome 16. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

TRAF3IP1 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 3 interacting protein 1

LOC344593 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

LOC102723333 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 pseudogene

DBI Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein)

This gene encodes diazepam binding inhibitor, a protein that is regulated by hormones and is involved in lipid metabolism and the displacement of beta-carbolines and benzodiazepines, which modulate signal transduction at type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors located in brain synapses. The protein is conserved from yeast to mammals, with the most highly conserved domain consisting of seven contiguous residues that constitute the hydrophobic binding site for medium- and long-chain acyl-Coenzyme A esters. Diazepam binding inhibitor is also known to mediate the feedback regulation of pancreatic secretion and the postprandial release of cholecystokinin, in addition to its role as a mediator in corticotropin-dependent adrenal steroidogenesis. Three pseudogenes located on chromosomes 6, 8 and 16 have been identified. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100129526 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, D pseudogene

TRAF6 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 6, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) protein family. TRAF proteins are associated with, and mediate signal transduction from, members of the TNF receptor superfamily. This protein mediates signaling from members of the TNF receptor superfamily as well as the Toll/IL-1 family. Signals from receptors such as CD40, TNFSF11/RANCE and IL-1 have been shown to be mediated by this protein. This protein also interacts with various protein kinases including IRAK1/IRAK, SRC and PKCzeta, which provides a link between distinct signaling pathways. This protein functions as a signal transducer in the NF-kappaB pathway that activates IkappaB kinase (IKK) in response to proinflammatory cytokines. The interaction of this protein with UBE2N/UBC13, and UBE2V1/UEV1A, which are ubiquitin conjugating enzymes catalyzing the formation of polyubiquitin chains, has been found to be required for IKK activation by this protein. This protein also interacts with the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta receptor complex and is required for Smad-independent activation of the JNK and p38 kinases. This protein has an amino terminal RING domain which is followed by four zinc-finger motifs, a central coiled-coil region and a highly conserved carboxyl terminal domain, known as the TRAF-C domain. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding an identical protein, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

TRAF7 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 7, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF; see MIM 191160) receptor-associated factors, such as TRAF7, are signal transducers for members of the TNF receptor superfamily (see MIM 191190). TRAFs are composed of an N-terminal cysteine/histidine-rich region containing zinc RING and/or zinc finger motifs; a coiled-coil (leucine zipper) motif; and a homologous region that defines the TRAF family, the TRAF domain, which is involved in self-association and receptor binding.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

ITPRIPL2 Gene

inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor interacting protein-like 2

ITPRIPL1 Gene

inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor interacting protein-like 1

BCAP31P1 Gene

B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 pseudogene 1

GABARAP Gene

GABA(A) receptor-associated protein

Gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors [GABA(A) receptors] are ligand-gated chloride channels that mediate inhibitory neurotransmission. This gene encodes GABA(A) receptor-associated protein, which is highly positively charged in its N-terminus and shares sequence similarity with light chain-3 of microtubule-associated proteins 1A and 1B. This protein clusters neurotransmitter receptors by mediating interaction with the cytoskeleton. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RTP4 Gene

receptor (chemosensory) transporter protein 4

RTP5 Gene

receptor (chemosensory) transporter protein 5 (putative)

RTP2 Gene

receptor (chemosensory) transporter protein 2

RTP3 Gene

receptor (chemosensory) transporter protein 3

RTP1 Gene

receptor (chemosensory) transporter protein 1

AIPL1 Gene

aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein-like 1

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the most severe inherited retinopathy with the earliest age of onset and accounts for at least 5% of all inherited retinal diseases. Affected individuals are diagnosed at birth or in the first few months of life with nystagmus, severely impaired vision or blindness and an abnormal or flat electroretinogram. The photoreceptor/pineal-expressed gene, AIPL1, encoding aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein-like 1, is located within the LCA4 candidate region. The encoded protein contains three tetratricopeptide motifs, consistent with chaperone or nuclear transport activity. Mutations in this gene may cause approximately 20% of recessive LCA. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

NCCRP1 Gene

non-specific cytotoxic cell receptor protein 1 homolog (zebrafish)

TGFBRAP1 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor associated protein 1

LOC102725179 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 20-like

RAPSN Gene

receptor-associated protein of the synapse

This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins that are receptor associated proteins of the synapse. The encoded protein contains a conserved cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site, and plays a critical role in clustering and anchoring nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at synaptic sites by linking the receptors to the underlying postsynaptic cytoskeleton, possibly by direct association with actin or spectrin. Mutations in this gene may play a role in postsynaptic congenital myasthenic syndromes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

LOC391771 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

LDLRAP1 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a cytosolic protein which contains a phosphotyrosine binding (PTD) domain. The PTD domain has been found to interact with the cytoplasmic tail of the LDL receptor. Mutations in this gene lead to LDL receptor malfunction and cause the disorder autosomal recessive hypercholesterolaemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPN2P1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 pseudogene 1

LOC102724610 Gene

putative vomeronasal receptor-like protein 4

THRAP3 Gene

thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 3

TRAP Gene

triiodothyronine receptor auxiliary protein

TIRAP Gene

toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain containing adaptor protein

The innate immune system recognizes microbial pathogens through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Different TLRs recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns and all TLRs have a Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain, which is responsible for signal transduction. The protein encoded by this gene is a TIR adaptor protein involved in the TLR4 signaling pathway of the immune system. It activates NF-kappa-B, MAPK1, MAPK3 and JNK, which then results in cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants; however, not all variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100996284 Gene

Fc receptor-like protein 2

BMPR1APS1 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA pseudogene 1

BMPR1APS2 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA pseudogene 2

BZRAP1 Gene

benzodiazepine receptor (peripheral) associated protein 1

LOC100421632 Gene

thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 3 pseudogene

DBIP2 Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein) pseudogene 2

DBIP3 Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein) pseudogene 3

DBIP1 Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein) pseudogene 1

KDELR2 Gene

KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptor 2

Retention of resident soluble proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is achieved in both yeast and animal cells by their continual retrieval from the cis-Golgi, or a pre-Golgi compartment. Sorting of these proteins is dependent on a C-terminal tetrapeptide signal, usually lys-asp-glu-leu (KDEL) in animal cells, and his-asp-glu-leu (HDEL) in S. cerevisiae. This process is mediated by a receptor that recognizes, and binds the tetrapeptide-containing protein, and returns it to the ER. In yeast, the sorting receptor encoded by a single gene, ERD2, is a seven-transmembrane protein. Unlike yeast, several human homologs of the ERD2 gene, constituting the KDEL receptor gene family, have been described. KDELR2 was the second member of the family to be identified, and it encodes a protein which is 83% identical to the KDELR1 gene product. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KDELR3 Gene

KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptor 3

This gene encodes a member of the KDEL endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptor family. Retention of resident soluble proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is achieved in both yeast and animal cells by their continual retrieval from the cis-Golgi, or a pre-Golgi compartment. Sorting of these proteins is dependent on a C-terminal tetrapeptide signal, usually lys-asp-glu-leu (KDEL) in animal cells, and his-asp-glu-leu (HDEL) in S. cerevisiae. This process is mediated by a receptor that recognizes, and binds the tetrapeptide-containing protein, and returns it to the ER. In yeast, the sorting receptor encoded by a single gene, ERD2, is a seven-transmembrane protein. Unlike yeast, several human homologs of the ERD2 gene, constituting the KDEL receptor gene family, have been described. KDELR3 was the third member of the family to be identified. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KDELR1 Gene

KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptor 1

Retention of resident soluble proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is achieved in both yeast and animal cells by their continual retrieval from the cis-Golgi, or a pre-Golgi compartment. Sorting of these proteins is dependent on a C-terminal tetrapeptide signal, usually lys-asp-glu-leu (KDEL) in animal cells, and his-asp-glu-leu (HDEL) in S. cerevisiae. This process is mediated by a receptor that recognizes, and binds the tetrapeptide-containing protein, and returns it to the ER. In yeast, the sorting receptor encoded by a single gene, ERD2, which is a seven-transmembrane protein. Unlike yeast, several human homologs of the ERD2 gene, constituting the KDEL receptor gene family, have been described. The protein encoded by this gene was the first member of the family to be identified, and it encodes a protein structurally and functionally similar to the yeast ERD2 gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AGTRAP Gene

angiotensin II receptor-associated protein

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein localized to the plasma membrane and perinuclear vesicular structures. The gene product interacts with the angiotensin II type I receptor and negatively regulates angiotensin II signaling. Alternative splicing of this gene generates multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100287856 Gene

cornichon family AMPA receptor auxiliary protein 4 pseudogene

TRAP1 Gene

TNF receptor-associated protein 1

This gene encodes a mitochondrial chaperone protein that is member of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) family. The encoded protein has ATPase activity and interacts with tumor necrosis factor type I. This protein may function in regulating cellular stress responses. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

AIP Gene

aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for aryl hydrocarbons and a ligand-activated transcription factor. The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm as part of a multiprotein complex, but upon binding of ligand is transported to the nucleus. This protein can regulate the expression of many xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Also, the encoded protein can bind specifically to and inhibit the activity of hepatitis B virus. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

LOC105376731 Gene

taste receptor cell protein 1-like

PTPRVP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, V, pseudogene

BCAP29 Gene

B-cell receptor-associated protein 29

PTPRR Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, R

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and a single intracellular catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. Silencing of this gene has been associated with colorectal cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. This gene shares a symbol (PTPRQ) with another gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, Q (GeneID 374462), which is also located on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

IL1RAPL1 Gene

interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 receptor family and is similar to the interleukin 1 accessory proteins. It is most closely related to interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 2 (IL1RAPL2). This gene and IL1RAPL2 are located at a region on chromosome X that is associated with X-linked non-syndromic mental retardation. Deletions and mutations in this gene were found in patients with mental retardation. This gene is expressed at a high level in post-natal brain structures involved in the hippocampal memory system, which suggests a specialized role in the physiological processes underlying memory and learning abilities. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IL1RAPL2 Gene

interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 receptor family. This protein is similar to the interleukin 1 accessory proteins, and is most closely related to interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1). This gene and IL1RAPL1 are located at a region on chromosome X that is associated with X-linked non-syndromic mental retardation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100420641 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 7, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

PTPRU Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, U

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracellular catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP (MAM) domain, Ig-like and fibronectin type III-like repeats. This PTP was thought to play roles in cell-cell recognition and adhesion. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested the role of this PTP in early neural development. The expression of this gene was reported to be regulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or calcium ionophore in Jurkat T lymphoma cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

PTPRT Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, T

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracellular catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP (MAM) domain, Ig-like and fibronectin type III-like repeats. The protein domain structure and the expression pattern of the mouse counterpart of this PTP suggest its roles in both signal transduction and cellular adhesion in the central nervous system. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRS Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, S

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular region, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region of this protein is composed of multiple Ig-like and fibronectin type III-like domains. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested that this PTP may be involved in cell-cell interaction, primary axonogenesis, and axon guidance during embryogenesis. This PTP has been also implicated in the molecular control of adult nerve repair. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRQ Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, Q

This locus encodes a member of the type III receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. The encoded protein catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine and phosphatidylinositol and plays roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Mutations at this locus have been linked to autosomal recessive deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

PTPRG Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, G

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region of this PTP contains a carbonic anhydrase-like (CAH) domain, which is also found in the extracellular region of PTPRBETA/ZETA. This gene is located in a chromosomal region that is frequently deleted in renal cell carcinoma and lung carcinoma, thus is thought to be a candidate tumor suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRF Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, F

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains three Ig-like domains, and nine non-Ig like domains similar to that of neural-cell adhesion molecule. This PTP was shown to function in the regulation of epithelial cell-cell contacts at adherents junctions, as well as in the control of beta-catenin signaling. An increased expression level of this protein was found in the insulin-responsive tissue of obese, insulin-resistant individuals, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRE Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, E

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported, one of which encodes a receptor-type PTP that possesses a short extracellular domain, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains; Another one encodes a PTP that contains a distinct hydrophilic N-terminus, and thus represents a nonreceptor-type isoform of this PTP. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested the regulatory roles of this PTP in RAS related signal transduction pathways, cytokines induced SATA signaling, as well as the activation of voltage-gated K+ channels. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRD Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, D

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular region, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region of this protein is composed of three Ig-like and eight fibronectin type III-like domains. Studies of the similar genes in chicken and fly suggest the role of this PTP is in promoting neurite growth, and regulating neurons axon guidance. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

PTPRC Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitosis, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus is classified as a receptor type PTP. This PTP has been shown to be an essential regulator of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. It functions through either direct interaction with components of the antigen receptor complexes, or by activating various Src family kinases required for the antigen receptor signaling. This PTP also suppresses JAK kinases, and thus functions as a regulator of cytokine receptor signaling. Alternatively spliced transcripts variants of this gene, which encode distinct isoforms, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

PTPRB Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment and one intracytoplasmic catalytic domain, thus belongs to receptor type PTP. The extracellular region of this PTP is composed of multiple fibronectin type_III repeats, which was shown to interact with neuronal receptor and cell adhesion molecules, such as contactin and tenascin C. This protein was also found to interact with sodium channels, and thus may regulate sodium channels by altering tyrosine phosphorylation status. The functions of the interaction partners of this protein implicate the roles of this PTP in cell adhesion, neurite growth, and neuronal differentiation. Alternate transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PTPRA Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, A

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. This PTP has been shown to dephosphorylate and activate Src family tyrosine kinases, and is implicated in the regulation of integrin signaling, cell adhesion and proliferation. Three alternatively spliced variants of this gene, which encode two distinct isoforms, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRO Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, O

This gene encodes a member of the R3 subtype family of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases. These proteins are localized to the apical surface of polarized cells and may have tissue-specific functions through activation of Src family kinases. This gene contains two distinct promoters, and alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. The encoded proteins may have multiple isoform-specific and tissue-specific functions, including the regulation of osteoclast production and activity, inhibition of cell proliferation and facilitation of apoptosis. This gene is a candidate tumor suppressor, and decreased expression of this gene has been observed in several types of cancer. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PTPRN Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, N

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and a single catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. This PTP was found to be an autoantigen that is reactive with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patient sera, and thus may be a potential target of autoimmunity in diabetes mellitus. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PTPRM Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, M

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP mu (MAM) domain, an Ig-like domain and four fibronectin type III-like repeats. This PTP has been shown to mediate cell-cell aggregation through the interaction with another molecule of this PTP on an adjacent cell. This PTP can interact with scaffolding protein RACK1/GNB2L1, which may be necessary for the downstream signaling in response to cell-cell adhesion. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcripts encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRK Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, K

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP mu (MAM) domain, an Ig-like domain and four fibronectin type III-like repeats. This PTP was shown to mediate homophilic intercellular interaction, possibly through the interaction with beta- and gamma-catenin at adherens junctions. Expression of this gene was found to be stimulated by TGF-beta 1, which may be important for the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRJ Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, J

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region containing five fibronectin type III repeats, a single transmembrane region, and a single intracytoplasmic catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. This protein is present in all hematopoietic lineages, and was shown to negatively regulate T cell receptor signaling possibly through interfering with the phosphorylation of Phospholipase C Gamma 1 and Linker for Activation of T Cells. This protein can also dephosphorylate the PDGF beta receptor, and may be involved in UV-induced signal transduction. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRH Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, H

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and a single intracytoplasmic catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains eight fibronectin type III-like repeats and multiple N-glycosylation sites. The gene was shown to be expressed primarily in brain and liver, and at a lower level in heart and stomach. It was also found to be expressed in several cancer cell lines, but not in the corresponding normal tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

LRP1B Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B

LRP1B belongs to the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family. These receptors play a wide variety of roles in normal cell function and development due to their interactions with multiple ligands (Liu et al., 2001 [PubMed 11384978]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LRP10 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10

LRP11 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 11

LRP12 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 12

This gene encodes a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein family. The product of this gene is a transmembrane protein that is differentially expressed in many cancer cells. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

LOC105371179 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK2

GRB2 Gene

growth factor receptor-bound protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene binds the epidermal growth factor receptor and contains one SH2 domain and two SH3 domains. Its two SH3 domains direct complex formation with proline-rich regions of other proteins, and its SH2 domain binds tyrosine phosphorylated sequences. This gene is similar to the Sem5 gene of C.elegans, which is involved in the signal transduction pathway. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRB7 Gene

growth factor receptor-bound protein 7

The product of this gene belongs to a small family of adapter proteins that are known to interact with a number of receptor tyrosine kinases and signaling molecules. This gene encodes a growth factor receptor-binding protein that interacts with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ephrin receptors. The protein plays a role in the integrin signaling pathway and cell migration by binding with focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

GABARAPL1 Gene

GABA(A) receptor-associated protein like 1

GABARAPL2 Gene

GABA(A) receptor-associated protein-like 2

PTPRN2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, N polypeptide 2

This gene encodes a protein with sequence similarity to receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases. However, tyrosine phosphatase activity has not been experimentally validated for this protein. Studies of the rat ortholog suggest that the encoded protein may instead function as a phosphatidylinositol phosphatase with the ability to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate, and this function may be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. This protein has been identified as an autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

SCART1 Gene

scavenger receptor protein family member

SRPR Gene

signal recognition particle receptor (docking protein)

The gene encodes a subunit of the endoplasmic reticulum signal recognition particle receptor that, in conjunction with the signal recognition particle, is involved in the targeting and translocation of signal sequence tagged secretory and membrane proteins across the endoplasmic reticulum. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PTPN20CP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 20C, pseudogene

LOC105375252 Gene

serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein pseudogene

ITPRIP Gene

inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor interacting protein

This gene encodes a membrane-associated protein that binds the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR). The encoded protein enhances the sensitivity of ITPR to intracellular calcium signaling. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

LOC100420878 Gene

GABA(A) receptor-associated protein pseudogene

LOC344382 Gene

serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein pseudogene

BCAP31P2 Gene

B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 pseudogene 2

BMPR2 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase)

This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. The ligands of this receptor are BMPs, which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. BMPs are involved in endochondral bone formation and embryogenesis. These proteins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes of two different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in the absence of type I receptors, but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II receptors for ligand binding. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary pulmonary hypertension, both familial and fenfluramine-associated, and with pulmonary venoocclusive disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRAP2 Gene

melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein 2

LOC100421822 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

CNIH1 Gene

cornichon family AMPA receptor auxiliary protein 1

CNIH3 Gene

cornichon family AMPA receptor auxiliary protein 3

CNIH2 Gene

cornichon family AMPA receptor auxiliary protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is an auxiliary subunit of the ionotropic glutamate receptor of the AMPA subtype. AMPA receptors mediate fast synaptic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. This protein has been reported to interact with the Type I AMPA receptor regulatory protein isoform gamma-8 to control assembly of hippocampal AMPA receptor complexes, thereby modulating receptor gating and pharmacology. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

CNIH4 Gene

cornichon family AMPA receptor auxiliary protein 4

LOC102724064 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK13

BMPR1A Gene

bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA

The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors are a family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases that include the type I receptors BMPR1A and BMPR1B and the type II receptor BMPR2. These receptors are also closely related to the activin receptors, ACVR1 and ACVR2. The ligands of these receptors are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. TGF-betas and activins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes with 2 different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in the absence of type I receptors, but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II receptors for ligand binding. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BMPR1B Gene

bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IB

This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. The ligands of this receptor are BMPs, which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. BMPs are involved in endochondral bone formation and embryogenesis. These proteins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes of 2 different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in the absence of type I receptors, but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II receptors for ligand binding. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary pulmonary hypertension. Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

MTVR2 Gene

mouse mammary tumor virus receptor homolog 2

ITGA2 Gene

integrin, alpha 2 (CD49B, alpha 2 subunit of VLA-2 receptor)

This gene encodes the alpha subunit of a transmembrane receptor for collagens and related proteins. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a beta subunit and mediates the adhesion of platelets and other cell types to the extracellular matrix. Loss of the encoded protein is associated with bleeding disorder platelet-type 9. Antibodies against this protein are found in several immune disorders, including neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. This gene is located adjacent to a related alpha subunit gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

ITGA3 Gene

integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of integrins. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain, and function as cell surface adhesion molecules. This gene encodes alpha 3 subunit, which undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 1 subunit to form an integrin that interacts with many extracellular-matrix proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

ITGA4 Gene

integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)

The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family of proteins. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes an alpha 4 chain. Unlike other integrin alpha chains, alpha 4 neither contains an I-domain, nor undergoes disulfide-linked cleavage. Alpha 4 chain associates with either beta 1 chain or beta 7 chain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGA5 Gene

integrin, alpha 5 (fibronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide)

The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes the integrin alpha 5 chain. Alpha chain 5 undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 1 to form a fibronectin receptor. In addition to adhesion, integrins are known to participate in cell-surface mediated signalling. Integrin alpha 5 and integrin alpha V chains are produced by distinct genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

TRHR Gene

thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Upon binding to TRH, this receptor activates the inositol phospholipid-calcium-protein kinase C transduction pathway. Mutations in this gene have been associated with generalized thyrotropin-releasing hormone resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

ITGAX Gene

integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit)

This gene encodes the integrin alpha X chain protein. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This protein combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form a leukocyte-specific integrin referred to as inactivated-C3b (iC3b) receptor 4 (CR4). The alpha X beta 2 complex seems to overlap the properties of the alpha M beta 2 integrin in the adherence of neutrophils and monocytes to stimulated endothelium cells, and in the phagocytosis of complement coated particles. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

ITGAM Gene

integrin, alpha M (complement component 3 receptor 3 subunit)

This gene encodes the integrin alpha M chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form a leukocyte-specific integrin referred to as macrophage receptor 1 ('Mac-1'), or inactivated-C3b (iC3b) receptor 3 ('CR3'). The alpha M beta 2 integrin is important in the adherence of neutrophils and monocytes to stimulated endothelium, and also in the phagocytosis of complement coated particles. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

IGF2R Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor

This gene encodes a receptor for both insulin-like growth factor 2 and mannose 6-phosphate, although the binding sites for either are located on different segments of the receptor. This receptor functions in the intracellular trafficking of lysosomal enzymes, the activation of transforming growth factor beta, and the degradation of insulin-like growth factor 2. While the related mouse gene shows exclusive expression from the maternal allele, imprinting of the human gene appears to be polymorphic, with only a minority of individuals showing expression from the maternal allele. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2013]

OR4A44P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily A, member 44 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421947 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 6, subfamily C, member 3 pseudogene

LOC100421945 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 6, subfamily C, member 1 pseudogene

LOC100421944 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 9, subfamily K, member 2 pseudogene

LOC100421942 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 6, subfamily C, member 2 pseudogene

LOC100421941 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 6, subfamily Y, member 1 pseudogene

OR2K2 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily K, member 2

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR4F14P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily F, member 14 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NR1D1 Gene

nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 1

This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the nuclear receptor subfamily 1. The encoded protein is a ligand-sensitive transcription factor that negatively regulates the expression of core clock proteins. In particular this protein represses the circadian clock transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1 (ARNTL). This protein may also be involved in regulating genes that function in metabolic, inflammatory and cardiovascular processes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

NR1D2 Gene

nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group D, member 2

This gene encodes a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, specifically the NR1 subfamily of receptors. The encoded protein functions as a transcriptional repressor and may play a role in circadian rhythms and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

OGFR Gene

opioid growth factor receptor

The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for opioid growth factor (OGF), also known as [Met(5)]-enkephalin. OGF is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and tissue organization in a variety of processes. The encoded unbound receptor for OGF has been localized to the outer nuclear envelope, where it binds OGF and is translocated into the nucleus. The coding sequence of this gene contains a polymorphic region of 60 nt tandem imperfect repeat units. Several transcripts containing between zero and eight repeat units have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VN2R10P Gene

vomeronasal 2 receptor 10 pseudogene

LPAR1 Gene

lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

The integral membrane protein encoded by this gene is a lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor from a group known as EDG receptors. These receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Utilized by LPA for cell signaling, EDG receptors mediate diverse biologic functions, including proliferation, platelet aggregation, smooth muscle contraction, inhibition of neuroblastoma cell differentiation, chemotaxis, and tumor cell invasion. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR52N4 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 52, subfamily N, member 4 (gene/pseudogene)

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR52N5 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 52, subfamily N, member 5

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR52N2 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 52, subfamily N, member 2

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR52N1 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 52, subfamily N, member 1

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR5R1 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 5, subfamily R, member 1 (gene/pseudogene)

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100420096 Gene

IGF-like family receptor 1 pseudogene

LOC100533655 Gene

aryl hydrocarbon receptor pseudogene

OR1S1 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 1, subfamily S, member 1 (gene/pseudogene)

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR1S2 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 1, subfamily S, member 2

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FCER1G Gene

Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; gamma polypeptide

The high affinity IgE receptor is a key molecule involved in allergic reactions. It is a tetramer composed of 1 alpha, 1 beta, and 2 gamma chains. The gamma chains are also subunits of other Fc receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FCER1A Gene

Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; alpha polypeptide

The immunoglobulin epsilon receptor (IgE receptor) is the initiator of the allergic response. When two or more high-affinity IgE receptors are brought together by allergen-bound IgE molecules, mediators such as histamine that are responsible for allergy symptoms are released. This receptor is comprised of an alpha subunit, a beta subunit, and two gamma subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC100422128 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 52, subfamily H, member 1 pseudogene

LOC100422129 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 56, subfamily A, member 1 pseudogene

LOC100422125 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 51, subfamily B, member 2 pseudogene

TRAV23DV6 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 23/delta variable 6

OR4D12P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily D, member 12 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VN1R20P Gene

vomeronasal 1 receptor 20 pseudogene

LRIF1 Gene

ligand dependent nuclear receptor interacting factor 1

VN1R94P Gene

vomeronasal 1 receptor 94 pseudogene

MARCO Gene

macrophage receptor with collagenous structure

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the class A scavenger receptor family and is part of the innate antimicrobial immune system. The protein may bind both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria via an extracellular, C-terminal, scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domain. In addition to short cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains, there is an extracellular spacer domain and a long, extracellular collagenous domain. The protein may form a trimeric molecule by the association of the collagenous domains of three identical polypeptide chains. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR7E96P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 7, subfamily E, member 96 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NPY2R Gene

neuropeptide Y receptor Y2

TRBJ2-4 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-4

TRBJ2-5 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-5

TRBJ2-6 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-6

TRBJ2-7 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-7

TRBJ2-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-1

TRBJ2-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-2

TRBJ2-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-3

OR4P1P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily P, member 1 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105379705 Gene

olfactory receptor 4F6-like

OR4C14P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily C, member 14 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR7E157P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 7, subfamily E, member 157 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR6V1 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 6, subfamily V, member 1

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VN1R106P Gene

vomeronasal 1 receptor 106 pseudogene

CNR1 Gene

cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain)

This gene encodes one of two cannabinoid receptors. The cannabinoids, principally delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and synthetic analogs, are psychoactive ingredients of marijuana. The cannabinoid receptors are members of the guanine-nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) coupled receptor family, which inhibit adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent, stereoselective and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. The two receptors have been found to be involved in the cannabinoid-induced CNS effects (including alterations in mood and cognition) experienced by users of marijuana. Multiple transcript variants encoding two different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

CNR2 Gene

cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage)

The cannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is the principal psychoactive ingredient of marijuana. The proteins encoded by this gene and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) (CNR1) gene have the characteristics of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein)-coupled receptor for cannabinoids. They inhibit adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent, stereoselective, and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. These proteins have been found to be involved in the cannabinoid-induced CNS effects (including alterations in mood and cognition) experienced by users of marijuana. The cannabinoid receptors are members of family 1 of the G-protein-coupled receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR2A15P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily A, member 15 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV20-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 20-1

LOC100421948 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 6, subfamily C, member 2 pseudogene

OR2T34 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily T, member 34

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR2T35 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily T, member 35

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR2T33 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily T, member 33

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VN1R38P Gene

vomeronasal 1 receptor 38 pseudogene

OR5P1P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 5, subfamily P, member 1 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

5-HT3C2 Gene

5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 3, family member E pseudogene

OR4A47 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily A, member 47

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABBR1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. GABA exerts its effects through ionotropic [GABA(A/C)] receptors, to produce fast synaptic inhibition, and metabotropic [GABA(B)] receptors, to produce slow, prolonged inhibitory signals. The GABA(B) receptor consists of a heterodimer of two related 7-transmembrane receptors, GABA(B) receptor 1 and GABA(B) receptor 2. The GABA(B) receptor 1 gene is mapped to chromosome 6p21.3 within the HLA class I region close to the HLA-F gene. Susceptibility loci for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and schizophrenia have also been mapped in this region. Alternative splicing of this gene generates multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

OR2AS2P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily AS, member 2 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AHRR Gene

aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor

The protein encoded by this gene participates in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling cascade, which mediates dioxin toxicity, and is involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It functions as a feedback modulator by repressing AhR-dependent gene expression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

LOC102725029 Gene

leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 3

VN1R65P Gene

vomeronasal 1 receptor 65 pseudogene

LOC100418679 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily J, member 3 pseudogene

LOC100418678 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily W, member 1 pseudogene

OR8J2 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 8, subfamily J, member 2 (gene/pseudogene)

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR8J3 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 8, subfamily J, member 3

LOC100418677 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily G, member 6 pseudogene

OR8J1 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 8, subfamily J, member 1

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100418671 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily J, member 3 pseudogene

LOC100418670 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily B, member 6 pseudogene

LOC100418673 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily Y, member 1 pseudogene

LOC100418672 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily B, member 2 pseudogene

OR2C3 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily C, member 3

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR2C1 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 2, subfamily C, member 1

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR51A2 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 51, subfamily A, member 2

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR7E105P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 7, subfamily E, member 105 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VN2R18P Gene

vomeronasal 2 receptor 18 pseudogene

VN1R66P Gene

vomeronasal 1 receptor 66 pseudogene

OR7E53P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 7, subfamily E, member 53 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR52E7P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 52, subfamily E, member 7 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RIPK1 Gene

receptor (TNFRSF)-interacting serine-threonine kinase 1

RIPK3 Gene

receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 3

The product of this gene is a member of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and contains a C-terminal domain unique from other RIP family members. The encoded protein is predominantly localized to the cytoplasm, and can undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling dependent on novel nuclear localization and export signals. It is a component of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-I signaling complex, and can induce apoptosis and weakly activate the NF-kappaB transcription factor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RIPK2 Gene

receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein contains a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD), and is a component of signaling complexes in both the innate and adaptive immune pathways. It is a potent activator of NF-kappaB and inducer of apoptosis in response to various stimuli. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR13C1P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 13, subfamily C, member 1 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR5J2 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 5, subfamily J, member 2

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRAJ32 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 32

NRBF2P5 Gene

nuclear receptor binding factor 2 pseudogene 5

LOC102724726 Gene

coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor-like

OR4L1 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 4, subfamily L, member 1

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR11K2P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 11, subfamily K, member 2 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR10Q2P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 10, subfamily Q, member 2 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC101929104 Gene

mitochondrial import receptor subunit TOM22 homolog pseudogene

OR7A18P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 7, subfamily A, member 18 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC101929818 Gene

killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 3DL1

LOC101929815 Gene

D(1B) dopamine receptor-like

OR5J7P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 5, subfamily J, member 7 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAQR9 Gene

progestin and adipoQ receptor family member IX

OR51H2P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 51, subfamily H, member 2 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR10J6P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 10, subfamily J, member 6 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NMBR Gene

neuromedin B receptor

Neuromedin B receptor binds neuromedin B, a potent mitogen and growth factor for normal and neoplastic lung and for gastrointestinal epithelial tissue. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR6M2P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 6, subfamily M, member 2 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ROS1 Gene

ROS proto-oncogene 1 , receptor tyrosine kinase

This proto-oncogene, highly-expressed in a variety of tumor cell lines, belongs to the sevenless subfamily of tyrosine kinase insulin receptor genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a type I integral membrane protein with tyrosine kinase activity. The protein may function as a growth or differentiation factor receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADIPOR2 Gene

adiponectin receptor 2

The adiponectin receptors, ADIPOR1 (MIM 607945) and ADIPOR2, serve as receptors for globular and full-length adiponectin (MIM 605441) and mediate increased AMPK (see MIM 602739) and PPAR-alpha (PPARA; MIM 170998) ligand activities, as well as fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake by adiponectin (Yamauchi et al., 2003 [PubMed 12802337]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ADIPOR1 Gene

adiponectin receptor 1

This gene encodes a protein which acts as a receptor for adiponectin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes which regulates fatty acid catabolism and glucose levels. Binding of adiponectin to the encoded protein results in activation of an AMP-activated kinase signaling pathway which affects levels of fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 14. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

OR7E47P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 7, subfamily E, member 47 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VN1R105P Gene

vomeronasal 1 receptor 105 pseudogene

NPTXR Gene

neuronal pentraxin receptor

This gene encodes a protein similar to the rat neuronal pentraxin receptor. The rat pentraxin receptor is an integral membrane protein that is thought to mediate neuronal uptake of the snake venom toxin, taipoxin, and its transport into the synapses. Studies in rat indicate that translation of this mRNA initiates at a non-AUG (CUG) codon. This may also be true for mouse and human, based on strong sequence conservation amongst these species. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ESRRAP2 Gene

estrogen-related receptor alpha pseudogene 2

ESRRAP1 Gene

estrogen-related receptor alpha pseudogene 1

LDLRAD1 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor class A domain containing 1

LDLRAD2 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor class A domain containing 2

LDLRAD3 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor class A domain containing 3

CRCP Gene

CGRP receptor component

This gene encodes a membrane protein that functions as part of a receptor complex for a small neuropeptide that increases intracellular cAMP levels. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR9K1P Gene

olfactory receptor, family 9, subfamily K, member 1 pseudogene

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OR13C6P Gene