Name

PARTICL Gene

promoter of MAT2A antisense radiation-induced circulating long non-coding RNA

PART1 Gene

prostate androgen-regulated transcript 1 (non-protein coding)

This gene is induced by androgen in prostate adenocarcinoma cells. Multiple alternatively transcript variants have been described for this gene, none of which are predicted to encode a protein product. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

TIMM44 Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 44 homolog (yeast)

LOC729057 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (yeast) pseudogene

TIMM8BP1 Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 8B pseudogene 1

IMMP2L Gene

IMP2 inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase-like (S. cerevisiae)

This gene encodes a protein involved in processing the signal peptide sequences used to direct mitochondrial proteins to the mitochondria. The encoded protein resides in the mitochondria and is one of the necessary proteins for the catalytic activity of the mitochondrial inner membrane peptidase (IMP) complex. Two variants that encode the same protein have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

TIMM17BP1 Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 17 homolog B (yeast) pseudogene 1

FIS1 Gene

fission 1 (mitochondrial outer membrane) homolog (S. cerevisiae)

The balance between fission and fusion regulates the morphology of mitochondria. TTC11 is a component of a mitochondrial complex that promotes mitochondrial fission (James et al., 2003 [PubMed 12783892]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MPV17L Gene

MPV17 mitochondrial membrane protein-like

MPV17L2 Gene

MPV17 mitochondrial membrane protein-like 2

TOMM40 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (yeast)

TOMM40 is the channel-forming subunit of the translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM) complex that is essential for protein import into mitochondria (Humphries et al., 2005 [PubMed 15644312]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2008]

MPV17 Gene

MpV17 mitochondrial inner membrane protein

This gene encodes a mitochondrial inner membrane protein that is implicated in the metabolism of reactive oxygen species. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the hepatocerebral form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDDS). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TIMM10B Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 10 homolog B (yeast)

FXC1, or TIMM10B, belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that are organized in heterooligomeric complexes in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. These proteins mediate the import and insertion of hydrophobic membrane proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

TOMM40L Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (yeast)-like

TIMM50 Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 50 homolog (S. cerevisiae)

MINOS1P4 Gene

mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system 1 pseudogene 4

TOMM6 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 6 homolog (yeast)

TOMM7 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 7 homolog (yeast)

This gene encodes a subunit of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane. The encoded protein regulates the assembly and stability of the translocase complex. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

TOMM5 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 5 homolog (yeast)

TOMM20 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20 homolog (yeast)

TOMM22 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 22 homolog (yeast)

The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. The encoded protein interacts with TOMM20 and TOMM40, and forms a complex with several other proteins to import cytosolic preproteins into the mitochondrion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IMMP1LP1 Gene

IMP1 inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase-like (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene 1

TIMM8A Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 8 homolog A (yeast)

This translocase is involved in the import and insertion of hydrophobic membrane proteins from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial inner membrane. The gene is mutated in Mohr-Tranebjaerg syndrome/Deafness Dystonia Syndrome (MTS/DDS) and it is postulated that MTS/DDS is a mitochondrial disease caused by a defective mitochondrial protein import system. Defects in this gene also cause Jensen syndrome; an X-linked disease with opticoacoustic nerve atrophy and muscle weakness. This protein, along with TIMM13, forms a 70 kDa heterohexamer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

TIMM8B Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 8 homolog B (yeast)

This gene encodes a member of a well-conserved family of proteins with similarity to yeast Tim mitochondrial import proteins. This gene is encoded by a nuclear gene and is transported into the intermembrane space of the mitochondrion. When formed into complexes, these proteins guide membrane-spanning proteins across the mitochondrial intermembrane space before they are added into the mitochondrial inner membrane. This gene is adjacent to succinate dehydrogenase, subunit D (SDHD), in which mutations have been found in affected members of families with hereditary paraganglioma.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

LOC727980 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (yeast) pseudogene

TIMMDC1 Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane domain containing 1

TIMM9 Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 9 homolog (yeast)

TIMM9 belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that are organized in heterooligomeric complexes in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. These proteins mediate the import and insertion of hydrophobic membrane proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

MINOS1P3 Gene

mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system 1 pseudogene 3

MINOS1P2 Gene

mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system 1 pseudogene 2

MINOS1P1 Gene

mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system 1 pseudogene 1

LOC642661 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (yeast) pseudogene

TOMM70A Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 70 homolog A (S. cerevisiae)

This gene encodes an import receptor of the outer mitochondrial membrane that is part of the translocase of the outer membrane complex. This protein is involved in the import of mitochondrial precursor proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

LOC100422473 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (yeast) pseudogene

MINOS1 Gene

mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system 1

TOMM20L Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 20 homolog (yeast)-like

LOC100131779 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 6 homolog (yeast) pseudogene

LOC646639 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (yeast) pseudogene

IMMT Gene

inner membrane protein, mitochondrial

IMMTP1 Gene

inner membrane protein, mitochondrial (mitofilin) pseudogene 1

LOC100506224 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 5 homolog (yeast) pseudogene

TIMM23 Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 23 homolog (yeast)

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex located in the inner mitochondrial membrane that mediates the transport of transit peptide-containing proteins across the membrane. Multiple transcript variants, one protein-coding and others not protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

TIMM22 Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 22 homolog (yeast)

TIMM17B Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 17 homolog B (yeast)

This gene encodes a multipass transmembrane protein that forms an integral component of the mitochondrial translocase TIM23 complex. This complex facilitates the transport of mitochondrial proteins from the cytosol across the mitochondrial inner membrane and into the mitochondrion. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

TIMM17A Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 17 homolog A (yeast)

IMMP1L Gene

IMP1 inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase-like (S. cerevisiae)

The mitochondrial inner membrane peptidase (IMP) complex generates mature, active proteins in the mitochondrial intermembrane space by proteolytically removing the mitochondrial targeting presequence of nuclear-encoded proteins. IMP1 and IMP2 (IMMP2L; MIM 605977) are the catalytic subunits of the IMP complex (Burri et al., 2005 [PubMed 15814844]).[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2008]

LOC100129626 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 5 homolog (yeast) pseudogene

SLC25A17 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; peroxisomal membrane protein, 34kDa), member 17

This gene encodes a peroxisomal membrane protein that belongs to the family of mitochondrial solute carriers. It is expressed in the liver, and is likely involved in transport. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

TOMM34 Gene

translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 34

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the import of precursor proteins into mitochondria. The encoded protein has a chaperone-like activity, binding the mature portion of unfolded proteins and aiding their import into mitochondria. This protein, which is found in the cytoplasm and sometimes associated with the outer mitochondrial membrane, has a weak ATPase activity and contains 6 TPR repeats. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TIMM8BP2 Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 8B pseudogene 2

TIMM13 Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 13 homolog (yeast)

This gene encodes a member of the evolutionarily conserved TIMM (translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane) family of proteins that function as chaperones in the import of proteins from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial inner membrane. Proteins of this family play a role in collecting substrate proteins from the translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex and delivering them to either the sorting and assembly machinery in the outer mitochondrial membrane (SAM) complex or the TIMM22 complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The encoded protein and the translocase of mitochondrial inner membrane 8a protein form a 70 kDa complex in the intermembrane space. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

TIMM10 Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 10 homolog (yeast)

The mitochondrial protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that are organized in heterooligomeric complexes in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. These proteins mediate the import and insertion of hydrophobic membrane proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane, functioning as intermembrane space chaperones for the highly insoluble carrier proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

TIMM21 Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 21 homolog (yeast)

IMMP1LP2 Gene

IMP1 inner mitochondrial membrane peptidase-like (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene 2

CYB5B Gene

cytochrome b5 type B (outer mitochondrial membrane)

TIMM8AP1 Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 8 homolog A (yeast) pseudogene 1

LOC105369987 Gene

mitochondrial inner membrane protease subunit 1 pseudogene

TIMM23B Gene

translocase of inner mitochondrial membrane 23 homolog B (yeast)

VMP1 Gene

vacuole membrane protein 1

VMO1 Gene

vitelline membrane outer layer 1 homolog (chicken)

LMBR1L Gene

limb development membrane protein 1-like

ITM2BP1 Gene

integral membrane protein 2B pseudogene 1

SMPD4 Gene

sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 4, neutral membrane (neutral sphingomyelinase-3)

Sphingomyelinases (EC 3.1.4.12), such as SMPD4, catalyze the hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin to form phosphorylcholine and ceramide (Krut et al., 2006 [PubMed 16517606]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SMPD3 Gene

sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3, neutral membrane (neutral sphingomyelinase II)

SMPD2 Gene

sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 2, neutral membrane (neutral sphingomyelinase)

This gene encodes a protein which was initially identified as a sphingomyelinase based on sequence similarity between bacterial sphingomyelinases and a yeast protein. Subsequent studies showed that its biological function is less likely to be as a sphingomyelinase and instead as a lysophospholipase. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

EPB41L1 Gene

erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 1

Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) is a multifunctional protein that mediates interactions between the erythrocyte cytoskeleton and the overlying plasma membrane. The encoded protein binds and stabilizes D2 and D3 dopamine receptors at the neuronal plasma membrane. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

EPB41L3 Gene

erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3

EPB41L2 Gene

erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 2

EPB41L5 Gene

erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 5

LOC728452 Gene

POM121 membrane glycoprotein (rat) pseudogene

LOC100421257 Gene

lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 pseudogene

CLMP Gene

CXADR-like membrane protein

The CTX (see VSIG2, MIM 606011) family of proteins, including ASAM, are type I transmembrane proteins within the Ig superfamily that localize to junctional complexes between endothelial and epithelial cells and may play a role in cell-cell adhesion (Raschperger et al., 2004 [PubMed 14573622]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

AMER1 Gene

APC membrane recruitment protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene upregulates trancriptional activation by the Wilms tumor protein and interacts with many other proteins, including CTNNB1, APC, AXIN1, and AXIN2. Defects in this gene are a cause of osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS). [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

JKAMPP1 Gene

JNK1/MAPK8-associated membrane protein pseudogene 1

LSAMP Gene

limbic system-associated membrane protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a neuronal surface glycoprotein found in cortical and subcortical regions of the limbic system. During development of the limbic system, this encoded protein is found on the surface of axonal membranes and growth cones, where it acts as a selective homophilic adhesion molecule, and guides the development of specific patterns of neuronal connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MARCH11 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 11

MARCH11 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). These enzymes add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their intracellular transport. March11 appears to have a role in ubiquitin-mediated protein sorting in the trans-Golgi network (TGN)-multivesicular body (MVB) transport pathway (Morokuma et al., 2007 [PubMed 17604280]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

MARCH10 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 10, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MARCH10 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH enzymes add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments (Morokuma et al., 2007 [PubMed 17604280]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

LOC101927923 Gene

small integral membrane protein 12-like

LOC105376955 Gene

nuclear pore membrane glycoprotein 210-like

BASP1 Gene

brain abundant, membrane attached signal protein 1

This gene encodes a membrane bound protein with several transient phosphorylation sites and PEST motifs. Conservation of proteins with PEST sequences among different species supports their functional significance. PEST sequences typically occur in proteins with high turnover rates. Immunological characteristics of this protein are species specific. This protein also undergoes N-terminal myristoylation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

SMIM13 Gene

small integral membrane protein 13

SMIM12 Gene

small integral membrane protein 12

SMIM11 Gene

small integral membrane protein 11

SMIM10 Gene

small integral membrane protein 10

SMIM17 Gene

small integral membrane protein 17

SMIM15 Gene

small integral membrane protein 15

SMIM14 Gene

small integral membrane protein 14

SMIM19 Gene

small integral membrane protein 19

SMIM18 Gene

small integral membrane protein 18

LSMEM1 Gene

leucine-rich single-pass membrane protein 1

LSMEM2 Gene

leucine-rich single-pass membrane protein 2

BASP1P1 Gene

brain abundant, membrane attached signal protein 1 pseudogene 1

LOC728526 Gene

POM121 membrane glycoprotein (rat) pseudogene

LOC728488 Gene

POM121 membrane glycoprotein (rat) pseudogene

LOC768086 Gene

trehalase (brush-border membrane glycoprotein) pseudogene

MS4A8 Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 8

This gene encodes a member of the membrane-spanning 4A gene family. Members of this protein family are characterized by common structural features and similar intron/exon splice boundaries and display unique expression patterns among hematopoietic cells and nonlymphoid tissues. The gene encoding this protein is localized to 11q12.3, among a cluster of family members. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MS4A7 Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 7

This gene encodes a member of the membrane-spanning 4A gene family, members of which are characterized by common structural features and similar intron/exon splice boundaries and display unique expression patterns in hematopoietic cells and nonlymphoid tissues. This family member is associated with mature cellular function in the monocytic lineage, and it may be a component of a receptor complex involved in signal transduction. This gene is localized to 11q12, in a cluster of other family members. At least four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MS4A2 Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 2

The allergic response involves the binding of allergen to receptor-bound IgE followed by cell activation and the release of mediators responsible for the manifestations of allergy. The IgE-receptor, a tetramer composed of an alpha, beta, and 2 disulfide-linked gamma chains, is found on the surface of mast cells and basophils. This gene encodes the beta subunit of the high affinity IgE receptor which is a member of the membrane-spanning 4A gene family. Members of this nascent protein family are characterized by common structural features and similar intron/exon splice boundaries and display unique expression patterns among hematopoietic cells and nonlymphoid tissues. This family member is localized to 11q12, among a cluster of membrane-spanning 4A gene family members. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct proteins. Additional transcript variants have been described but require experimental validation. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

MS4A1 Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 1

This gene encodes a member of the membrane-spanning 4A gene family. Members of this nascent protein family are characterized by common structural features and similar intron/exon splice boundaries and display unique expression patterns among hematopoietic cells and nonlymphoid tissues. This gene encodes a B-lymphocyte surface molecule which plays a role in the development and differentiation of B-cells into plasma cells. This family member is localized to 11q12, among a cluster of family members. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants which encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EMP2 Gene

epithelial membrane protein 2

This gene encodes a tetraspan protein of the PMP22/EMP family. The encoded protein regulates cell membrane composition. It has been associated with various functions including endocytosis, cell signaling, cell proliferation, cell migration, cell adhesion, cell death, cholesterol homeostasis, urinary albumin excretion, and embryo implantation. It is known to negatively regulate caveolin-1, a scaffolding protein which is the main component of the caveolae plasma membrane invaginations found in most cell types. Through activation of PTK2 it positively regulates vascular endothelial growth factor A. It also modulates the function of specific integrin isomers in the plasma membrane. Up-regulation of this gene has been linked to cancer progression in multiple different tissues. Mutations in this gene have been associated with nephrotic syndrome type 10 (NPHS10). [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

EMP3 Gene

epithelial membrane protein 3

EMP1 Gene

epithelial membrane protein 1

SMCO4P1 Gene

single-pass membrane protein with coiled-coil domains 4 pseudogene 1

TREH Gene

trehalase (brush-border membrane glycoprotein)

This gene encodes an enzyme that hydrolyses trehalose, a disaccharide formed from two glucose molecules found mainly in fungi, plants, and insects. A partial duplication of this gene is located adjacent to this locus on chromosome 11. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

ERMAP Gene

erythroblast membrane-associated protein (Scianna blood group)

The protein encoded by this gene is a cell surface transmembrane protein that may act as an erythroid cell receptor, possibly as a mediator of cell adhesion. Polymorphisms in this gene are responsible for the Scianna/Radin blood group system. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITM2C Gene

integral membrane protein 2C

ITM2A Gene

integral membrane protein 2A

This gene encodes a type II membrane protein that belongs to the ITM2 family. Studies in mouse suggest that it may be involved in osteo- and chondrogenic differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

RIMS4 Gene

regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 4

RIMS1 Gene

regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a RAS gene superfamily member that regulates synaptic vesicle exocytosis. This gene also plays a role in the regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels during neurotransmitter and insulin release. Mutations have suggested a role cognition and have been identified as the cause of cone-rod dystrophy type 7. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

RIMS2 Gene

regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 2

RIMS3 Gene

regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 3

ITM2B Gene

integral membrane protein 2B

Amyloid precursor proteins are processed by beta-secretase and gamma-secretase to produce beta-amyloid peptides which form the characteristic plaques of Alzheimer disease. This gene encodes a transmembrane protein which is processed at the C-terminus by furin or furin-like proteases to produce a small secreted peptide which inhibits the deposition of beta-amyloid. Mutations which result in extension of the C-terminal end of the encoded protein, thereby increasing the size of the secreted peptide, are associated with two neurogenerative diseases, familial British dementia and familial Danish dementia. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

NRM Gene

nurim (nuclear envelope membrane protein)

The protein encoded by this gene contains transmembrane domains and resides within the inner nuclear membrane, where it is tightly associated with the nucleus. This protein shares homology with isoprenylcysteine carboxymethyltransferase enzymes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

SMIM23 Gene

small integral membrane protein 23

SMIM20 Gene

small integral membrane protein 20

SMIM21 Gene

small integral membrane protein 21

SMIM24 Gene

small integral membrane protein 24

PXMP2 Gene

peroxisomal membrane protein 2, 22kDa

PXMP4 Gene

peroxisomal membrane protein 4, 24kDa

LRMP Gene

lymphoid-restricted membrane protein

The protein encode dby this gene is expressed in a developmentally regulated manner in lymphoid cell lines and tissues. The protein is localized to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC728575 Gene

POM121 membrane glycoprotein (rat) pseudogene

EPB41L4B Gene

erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 4B

EPB41L4A Gene

erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 4A

Members of the band 4.1 protein superfamily, including EPB41L4A, are thought to regulate the interaction between the cytoskeleton and plasma membrane (Ishiguro et al., 2000 [PubMed 10874211]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2008]

GP2 Gene

glycoprotein 2 (zymogen granule membrane)

This gene encodes an integral membrane protein that is secreted from intracellular zymogen granules and associates with the plasma membrane via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. The encoded protein binds pathogens such as enterobacteria, thereby playing an important role in the innate immune response. The C-terminus of this protein is related to the C-terminus of the protein encoded by the neighboring gene, uromodulin (UMOD). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

SMIM11P1 Gene

small integral membrane protein 11 pseudogene 1

MBOAT2 Gene

membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 2

MBOAT1 Gene

membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 1

This gene belongs to the membrane-bound O-acetyltransferase superfamily. The encoded transmembrane protein is an enzyme that transfers organic compounds, preferably from oleoyl-CoA, to hydroxyl groups of protein targets in membranes. A translocation disrupting this gene may be associated with brachydactyly syndactyly syndrome. Alternately spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

MBOAT7 Gene

membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7

This gene encodes a member of the membrane-bound O-acyltransferases family of integral membrane proteins that have acyltransferase activity. The encoded protein is a lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase that has specificity for arachidonoyl-CoA as an acyl donor. This protein is involved in the reacylation of phospholipids as part of the phospholipid remodeling pathway known as the Land cycle. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

MBOAT4 Gene

membrane bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 4

LAMP1P1 Gene

lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 pseudogene 1

LOC166994 Gene

integral membrane glycoprotein-like

SMIM22 Gene

small integral membrane protein 22

PAG1 Gene

phosphoprotein membrane anchor with glycosphingolipid microdomains 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a type III transmembrane adaptor protein that binds to the tyrosine kinase csk protein. It is thought to be involved in the regulation of T cell activation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VAPB Gene

VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-associated protein B and C

The protein encoded by this gene is a type IV membrane protein found in plasma and intracellular vesicle membranes. The encoded protein is found as a homodimer and as a heterodimer with VAPA. This protein also can interact with VAMP1 and VAMP2 and may be involved in vesicle trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VAPA Gene

VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-associated protein A, 33kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is a type IV membrane protein. It is present in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles. It may also be associated with the cytoskeleton. This protein may function in vesicle trafficking, membrane fusion, protein complex assembly and cell motility. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MME Gene

membrane metallo-endopeptidase

This gene encodes a common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen that is an important cell surface marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). This protein is present on leukemic cells of pre-B phenotype, which represent 85% of cases of ALL. This protein is not restricted to leukemic cells, however, and is found on a variety of normal tissues. It is a glycoprotein that is particularly abundant in kidney, where it is present on the brush border of proximal tubules and on glomerular epithelium. The protein is a neutral endopeptidase that cleaves peptides at the amino side of hydrophobic residues and inactivates several peptide hormones including glucagon, enkephalins, substance P, neurotensin, oxytocin, and bradykinin. This gene, which encodes a 100-kD type II transmembrane glycoprotein, exists in a single copy of greater than 45 kb. The 5' untranslated region of this gene is alternatively spliced, resulting in four separate mRNA transcripts. The coding region is not affected by alternative splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SEMA7A Gene

semaphorin 7A, GPI membrane anchor (John Milton Hagen blood group)

The protein encoded by this gene binds to cell surfaces through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage. The encoded glycoprotein is found on activated lymphocytes and erythrocytes. This protein may be involved in immunomodulatory and neuronal processes. Defects in this gene can result in loss of bone mineral density (BMD). Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

AMER2 Gene

APC membrane recruitment protein 2

AMER3 Gene

APC membrane recruitment protein 3

ROM1 Gene

retinal outer segment membrane protein 1

This gene is a member of a photoreceptor-specific gene family and encodes an integral membrane protein found in the photoreceptor disk rim of the eye. This protein can form homodimers or can heterodimerize with another photoreceptor, retinal degeneration slow (RDS). It is essential for disk morphogenesis, and may also function as an adhesion molecule involved in the stabilization and compaction of outer segment disks or in the maintenance of the curvature of the rim. Certain defects in this gene have been associated with the degenerative eye disease retinitis pigmentosa. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC728540 Gene

POM121 membrane glycoprotein (rat) pseudogene

SMIM2 Gene

small integral membrane protein 2

SMIM1 Gene

small integral membrane protein 1 (Vel blood group)

This gene encodes a small, conserved protein that participates in red blood cell formation. The encoded protein is localized to the cell membrane and is the antigen for the Vel blood group. Alternative splicing results in different transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

LAMP5 Gene

lysosomal-associated membrane protein family, member 5

LAMP3 Gene

lysosomal-associated membrane protein 3

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells. Immature DCs efficiently capture antigens and differentiate into interdigitating dendritic cells (IDCs) in lymphoid tissues that induce primary T-cell responses (summary by de Saint-Vis et al., 1998 [PubMed 9768752]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2010]

LAMP2 Gene

lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of membrane glycoproteins. This glycoprotein provides selectins with carbohydrate ligands. It may play a role in tumor cell metastasis. It may also function in the protection, maintenance, and adhesion of the lysosome. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LAMP1 Gene

lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of membrane glycoproteins. This glycoprotein provides selectins with carbohydrate ligands. It may also play a role in tumor cell metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC340089 Gene

POM121 membrane glycoprotein (rat) pseudogene

TRAM1L1 Gene

translocation associated membrane protein 1-like 1

PRIMA1 Gene

proline rich membrane anchor 1

The product of this gene functions to organize acetylcholinesterase (AChE) into tetramers, and to anchor AChE at neural cell membranes. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

SMIM10L1 Gene

small integral membrane protein 10 like 1

SDHC Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit C, integral membrane protein, 15kDa

This gene encodes one of four nuclear-encoded subunits that comprise succinate dehydrogenase, also known as mitochondrial complex II, a key enzyme complex of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and aerobic respiratory chains of mitochondria. The encoded protein is one of two integral membrane proteins that anchor other subunits of the complex, which form the catalytic core, to the inner mitochondrial membrane. There are several related pseudogenes for this gene on different chromosomes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with paragangliomas. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

SDHD Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein

This gene encodes a member of complex II of the respiratory chain, which is responsible for the oxidation of succinate. The encoded protein is one of two integral membrane proteins anchoring the complex to the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Mutations in this gene are associated with the formation of tumors, including hereditary paraganglioma. Transmission of disease occurs almost exclusively through the paternal allele, suggesting that this locus may be maternally imprinted. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 7, and 18. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

GLMP Gene

glycosylated lysosomal membrane protein

MMEL1 Gene

membrane metallo-endopeptidase-like 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) or membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME) family. Family members play important roles in pain perception, arterial pressure regulation, phosphate metabolism and homeostasis. This protein is a type II transmembrane protein and is thought to be expressed as a secreted protein. This gene is expressed mainly in testis with weak expression in the brain, kidney, and heart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BAMBI Gene

BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor

This gene encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein related to the type I receptors of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family, whose members play important roles in signal transduction in many developmental and pathological processes. The encoded protein however is a pseudoreceptor, lacking an intracellular serine/threonine kinase domain required for signaling. Similar proteins in frog, mouse and zebrafish function as negative regulators of TGF-beta, which has led to the suggestion that the encoded protein may function to limit the signaling range of the TGF-beta family during early embryogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MMP14 Gene

matrix metallopeptidase 14 (membrane-inserted)

Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. However, the protein encoded by this gene is a member of the membrane-type MMP (MT-MMP) subfamily; each member of this subfamily contains a potential transmembrane domain suggesting that these proteins are expressed at the cell surface rather than secreted. This protein activates MMP2 protein, and this activity may be involved in tumor invasion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MMP15 Gene

matrix metallopeptidase 15 (membrane-inserted)

Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. However, the protein encoded by this gene is a member of the membrane-type MMP (MT-MMP) subfamily; each member of this subfamily contains a potential transmembrane domain suggesting that these proteins are expressed at the cell surface rather than secreted. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MMP16 Gene

matrix metallopeptidase 16 (membrane-inserted)

Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. The encoded protein activates MMP2 by cleavage. This gene was once referred to as MT-MMP2, but was renamed as MT-MMP3 or MMP16. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

MMP17 Gene

matrix metallopeptidase 17 (membrane-inserted)

Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. The protein encoded by this gene is considered a member of the membrane-type MMP (MT-MMP) subfamily. However, this protein is unique among the MT-MMP's in that it is a GPI-anchored protein rather than a transmembrane protein. The protein activates MMP-2 by cleavage. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC442382 Gene

ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 1 pseudogene

ANPEP Gene

alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase

Aminopeptidase N is located in the small-intestinal and renal microvillar membrane, and also in other plasma membranes. In the small intestine aminopeptidase N plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins by gastric and pancreatic proteases. Its function in proximal tubular epithelial cells and other cell types is less clear. The large extracellular carboxyterminal domain contains a pentapeptide consensus sequence characteristic of members of the zinc-binding metalloproteinase superfamily. Sequence comparisons with known enzymes of this class showed that CD13 and aminopeptidase N are identical. The latter enzyme was thought to be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides by diverse cell types, including small intestinal and renal tubular epithelial cells, macrophages, granulocytes, and synaptic membranes from the CNS. Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for one strain of human coronavirus that is an important cause of upper respiratory tract infections. Defects in this gene appear to be a cause of various types of leukemia or lymphoma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MS4A10 Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 10

Most MS4A genes, including MS4A10, encode proteins with at least 4 potential transmembrane domains and N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains encoded by distinct exons.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

MS4A12 Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 12

The protein encoded by this gene is a cell surface protein found primarily in the apical membrane of colonocytes. Silencing of this gene in colon cancer cells inhibits the proliferation, cell motility, and chemotactic invasion of cells. This gene is part of a cluster of similar genes found on chromosome 11. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

LOC645177 Gene

lymphoid-restricted membrane protein-like

MS4A6A Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 6A

This gene encodes a member of the membrane-spanning 4A gene family. Members of this nascent protein family are characterized by common structural features and similar intron/exon splice boundaries and display unique expression patterns among hematopoietic cells and nonlymphoid tissues. The gene encoding this protein is localized to 11q12.1, among a cluster of family members. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

SMCO3 Gene

single-pass membrane protein with coiled-coil domains 3

SMCO2 Gene

single-pass membrane protein with coiled-coil domains 2

SMCO1 Gene

single-pass membrane protein with coiled-coil domains 1

SMCO4 Gene

single-pass membrane protein with coiled-coil domains 4

EMC9 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 9

EMC8 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 8

EMC3 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 3

EMC2 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 2

EMC1 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 1

This gene encodes a single-pass type I transmembrane protein, which is a subunit of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complex (EMC). Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

EMC7 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 7

EMC6 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 6

EMC4 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 4

FOLH1 Gene

folate hydrolase (prostate-specific membrane antigen) 1

This gene encodes a type II transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the M28 peptidase family. The protein acts as a glutamate carboxypeptidase on different alternative substrates, including the nutrient folate and the neuropeptide N-acetyl-l-aspartyl-l-glutamate and is expressed in a number of tissues such as prostate, central and peripheral nervous system and kidney. A mutation in this gene may be associated with impaired intestinal absorption of dietary folates, resulting in low blood folate levels and consequent hyperhomocysteinemia. Expression of this protein in the brain may be involved in a number of pathological conditions associated with glutamate excitotoxicity. In the prostate the protein is up-regulated in cancerous cells and is used as an effective diagnostic and prognostic indicator of prostate cancer. This gene likely arose from a duplication event of a nearby chromosomal region. Alternative splicing gives rise to multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

SMIM12P1 Gene

small integral membrane protein 12 pseudogene 1

MPP3 Gene

membrane protein, palmitoylated 3 (MAGUK p55 subfamily member 3)

This gene product is a member of a family of membrane-associated proteins termed MAGUKs (membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologs). MAGUKs interact with the cytoskeleton and regulate cell proliferation, signaling pathways, and intracellular junctions. This protein contains a conserved sequence, called the SH3 (src homology 3) motif, found in several other proteins that associate with the cytoskeleton and are suspected to play important roles in signal transduction. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. One transcript variant is experimentally supported, but it doesn't encode a protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MPP2 Gene

membrane protein, palmitoylated 2 (MAGUK p55 subfamily member 2)

Palmitoylated membrane protein 2 is a member of a family of membrane-associated proteins termed MAGUKs (membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologs). MAGUKs interact with the cytoskeleton and regulate cell proliferation, signaling pathways, and intracellular junctions. Palmitoylated membrane protein 2 contains a conserved sequence, called the SH3 (src homology 3) motif, found in several other proteins that associate with the cytoskeleton and are suspected to play important roles in signal transduction. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MPP1 Gene

membrane protein, palmitoylated 1, 55kDa

This gene encodes the prototype of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family proteins. MAGUKs interact with the cytoskeleton and regulate cell proliferation, signaling pathways, and intercellular junctions. The encoded protein is an extensively palmitoylated membrane phosphoprotein containing a PDZ domain, a Src homology 3 (SH3) motif, and a guanylate kinase domain. This gene product interacts with various cytoskeletal proteins and cell junctional proteins in different tissue and cell types, and may be involved in the regulation of cell shape, hair cell development, neural patterning of the retina, and apico-basal polarity and tumor suppression pathways in non-erythroid cells. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

MPP7 Gene

membrane protein, palmitoylated 7 (MAGUK p55 subfamily member 7)

Membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) are important adaptor proteins involved in the assembly of protein complexes at sites of cell-cell contact. They are found in synapses, adherens junctions, and tight junctions. All MAGUKs contain at least 1 PDZ domain, an SH3 domain, and a GUK domain, and many contain 1 or 2 L27 domains, which are involved in multimerization of MAGUKs. MPP7 belongs to the p55 stardust subfamily of MAGUKs, which is named for a Drosophila gene required for establishment of cell polarity in the developing fly embryo (Bohl et al., 2007 [PubMed 17237226]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MPP6 Gene

membrane protein, palmitoylated 6 (MAGUK p55 subfamily member 6)

Members of the peripheral membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family function in tumor suppression and receptor clustering by forming multiprotein complexes containing distinct sets of transmembrane, cytoskeletal, and cytoplasmic signaling proteins. All MAGUKs contain a PDZ-SH3-GUK core and are divided into 4 subfamilies, DLG-like (see DLG1; MIM 601014), ZO1-like (see TJP1; MIM 601009), p55-like (see MPP1; MIM 305360), and LIN2-like (see CASK; MIM 300172), based on their size and the presence of additional domains. MPP6 is a member of the p55-like MAGUK subfamily (Tseng et al., 2001 [PubMed 11311936]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MPP5 Gene

membrane protein, palmitoylated 5 (MAGUK p55 subfamily member 5)

This gene encodes a member of the p55-like subfamily of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) gene superfamily. The encoded protein participates in the polarization of differentiating cells, has been shown to regulate myelinating Schwann cells (PMID: 20237282), and is one of the components of the Crumbs complex in the retina. Mice which express lower levels of the orthologous protein have retinal degeneration and impaired vision (PMID: 22114289). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

MPP4 Gene

membrane protein, palmitoylated 4 (MAGUK p55 subfamily member 4)

This gene encodes a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) protein family, with an N-terminal PDZ domain, a central src homology 3 region (SH3), and a C-terminal guanylate kinase-like (GUK) domain. The protein is localized to the outer limiting membrane in the retina, and is thought to function in photoreceptor polarity and the organization of specialized intercellular junctions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC642502 Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit C, integral membrane protein, 15kDa pseudogene

GOLIM4 Gene

golgi integral membrane protein 4

The Golgi complex plays a key role in the sorting and modification of proteins exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. The protein encoded by this gene is a type II Golgi-resident protein. It may process proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and assist in the transport of protein cargo through the Golgi apparatus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC728499 Gene

POM121 membrane glycoprotein (rat) pseudogene

MMP24 Gene

matrix metallopeptidase 24 (membrane-inserted)

Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. However, the protein encoded by this gene is a member of the membrane-type MMP (MT-MMP) subfamily; each member of this subfamily contains a potential transmembrane domain suggesting that these proteins are expressed at the cell surface rather than secreted. This protein activates MMP2 by cleavage. The gene has previously been referred to as MMP25 but has been renamed MMP24. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GINM1 Gene

glycoprotein integral membrane 1

SDIM1 Gene

stress responsive DNAJB4 interacting membrane protein 1

SMDT1 Gene

single-pass membrane protein with aspartate-rich tail 1

JKAMP Gene

JNK1/MAPK8-associated membrane protein

LOC643367 Gene

POM121 membrane glycoprotein (rat) pseudogene

SMIM3 Gene

small integral membrane protein 3

SMIM7 Gene

small integral membrane protein 7

SMIM6 Gene

small integral membrane protein 6

SMIM5 Gene

small integral membrane protein 5

SMIM4 Gene

small integral membrane protein 4

SMIM9 Gene

small integral membrane protein 9

SMIM8 Gene

small integral membrane protein 8

ERMARD Gene

ER membrane-associated RNA degradation

The protein encoded by this gene contains 2 transmembrane domains near the C-terminus and is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Knockout of this gene in developing rat brain showed that it may be involved in neuronal migration. Mutations in this gene are associated with periventricular nodular heterotopia-6 (PVNH6). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

BET1 Gene

Bet1 golgi vesicular membrane trafficking protein

This gene encodes a golgi-associated membrane protein that participates in vesicular transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. The encoded protein functions as a soluble N-ethylaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor and may be involved in the docking of ER-derived vesicles with the cis-Golgi membrane. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described but their full-length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MS4A18 Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 18

MS4A14 Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 14

MS4A15 Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 15

MBTPS2 Gene

membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase, site 2

This gene encodes a intramembrane zinc metalloprotease, which is essential in development. This protease functions in the signal protein activation involved in sterol control of transcription and the ER stress response. Mutations in this gene have been associated with ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia (IFAP syndrome); IFAP syndrome has been quantitatively linked to a reduction in cholesterol homeostasis and ER stress response.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

MBTPS1 Gene

membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase, site 1

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER to generate a heterodimer which exits the ER and sorts to the cis/medial-Golgi where a second autocatalytic event takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. It encodes a type 1 membrane bound protease which is ubiquitously expressed and regulates cholesterol or lipid homeostasis via cleavage of substrates at non-basic residues. Mutations in this gene may be associated with lysosomal dysfunction. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

GUCY2D Gene

guanylate cyclase 2D, membrane (retina-specific)

This gene encodes a retina-specific guanylate cyclase, which is a member of the membrane guanylyl cyclase family. Like other membrane guanylyl cyclases, this enzyme has a hydrophobic amino-terminal signal sequence followed by a large extracellular domain, a single membrane spanning domain, a kinase homology domain, and a guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. In contrast to other membrane guanylyl cyclases, this enzyme is not activated by natriuretic peptides. Mutations in this gene result in Leber congenital amaurosis and cone-rod dystrophy-6 diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

LMBR1 Gene

limb development membrane protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the LMBR1-like membrane protein family. Another member of this protein family has been shown to be a lipocalin transmembrane receptor. A highly conserved, cis-acting regulatory module for the sonic hedgehog gene is located within an intron of this gene. Consequently, disruption of this genic region can alter sonic hedgehog expression and affect limb patterning, but it is not known if this gene functions directly in limb development. Mutations and chromosomal deletions and rearrangements in this genic region are associated with acheiropody and preaxial polydactyly, which likely result from altered sonic hedgehog expression. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRAM1 Gene

translocation associated membrane protein 1

This gene encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that is part of the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum. The encoded protein influences glycosylation and facilitates the translocation of secretory proteins across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by regulating which domains of the nascent polypeptide chain are visible to the cytosol during a translocational pause. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

TRAM2 Gene

translocation associated membrane protein 2

TRAM2 is a component of the translocon, a gated macromolecular channel that controls the posttranslational processing of nascent secretory and membrane proteins at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2004]

VAMP1 Gene

vesicle-associated membrane protein 1 (synaptobrevin 1)

Synapotobrevins, syntaxins, and the synaptosomal-associated protein SNAP25 are the main components of a protein complex involved in the docking and/or fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)/synaptobrevin family. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant spastic ataxia 1. Multiple alternative splice variants have been described, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been defined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

VAMP3 Gene

vesicle-associated membrane protein 3

Synaptobrevins/VAMPs, syntaxins, and the 25-kD synaptosomal-associated protein are the main components of a protein complex involved in the docking and/or fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. This gene is a member of the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)/synaptobrevin family. Because of its high homology to other known VAMPs, its broad tissue distribution, and its subcellular localization, the protein encoded by this gene was shown to be the human equivalent of the rodent cellubrevin. In platelets the protein resides on a compartment that is not mobilized to the plasma membrane on calcium or thrombin stimulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VAMP2 Gene

vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (synaptobrevin 2)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)/synaptobrevin family. Synaptobrevins/VAMPs, syntaxins, and the 25-kD synaptosomal-associated protein SNAP25 are the main components of a protein complex involved in the docking and/or fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. This gene is thought to participate in neurotransmitter release at a step between docking and fusion. The protein forms a stable complex with syntaxin, synaptosomal-associated protein, 25 kD, and synaptotagmin. It also forms a distinct complex with synaptophysin. It is a likely candidate gene for familial infantile myasthenia (FIMG) because of its map location and because it encodes a synaptic vesicle protein of the type that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of FIMG. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VAMP5 Gene

vesicle-associated membrane protein 5

Synaptobrevins/VAMPs, syntaxins, and the 25-kD synaptosomal-associated protein are the main components of a protein complex involved in the docking and/or fusion of vesicles and cell membranes. The VAMP5 gene is a member of the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)/synaptobrevin family and the SNARE superfamily. This VAMP family member may participate in vesicle trafficking events that are associated with myogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VAMP4 Gene

vesicle-associated membrane protein 4

Synaptobrevins/VAMPs, syntaxins, and the 25-kD synaptosomal-associated protein SNAP25 are the main components of a protein complex involved in the docking and/or fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)/synaptobrevin family. This protein may play a role in trans-Golgi network-to-endosome transport. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VAMP7 Gene

vesicle-associated membrane protein 7

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein that is a member of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) family. The encoded protein localizes to late endosomes and lysosomes and is involved in the fusion of transport vesicles to their target membranes. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

VAMP8 Gene

vesicle-associated membrane protein 8

This gene encodes an integral membrane protein that belongs to the synaptobrevin/vesicle-associated membrane protein subfamily of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs). The encoded protein is involved in the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the presynaptic membrane.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

LIM2 Gene

lens intrinsic membrane protein 2, 19kDa

This gene encodes an eye lens-specific protein found at the junctions of lens fiber cells, where it may contribute to cell junctional organization. It acts as a receptor for calmodulin, and may play an important role in both lens development and cataractogenesis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with cataract formation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

LOC646506 Gene

lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 pseudogene

LOC101060164 Gene

secretory carrier membrane protein 1 pseudogene

NEU3 Gene

sialidase 3 (membrane sialidase)

This gene product belongs to a family of glycohydrolytic enzymes which remove sialic acid residues from glycoproteins and glycolipids. It is localized in the plasma membrane, and its activity is specific for gangliosides. It may play a role in modulating the ganglioside content of the lipid bilayer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SSMEM1 Gene

serine-rich single-pass membrane protein 1

SMIM10L2B Gene

small integral membrane protein 10 like 2B

LOC729316 Gene

POM121 membrane glycoprotein pseudogene

MARCH5 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 5

MARCH5 is a ubiquitin ligase of the mitochondrial outer membrane that plays a role in the control of mitochondrial morphology by regulating mitofusin-2 (MFN2; MIM 608507) and DRP1 (DNM1L; MIM 603850) (Nakamura et al., 2006 [PubMed 16936636]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MARCH4 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 4, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MARCH4 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH enzymes add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments. MARCH4 reduces surface accumulation of several membrane glycoproteins by directing them to the endosomal compartment (Bartee et al., 2004 [PubMed 14722266]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

MARCH7 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 7, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MARCH7 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH proteins add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments (Bartee et al., 2004 [PubMed 14722266]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

MARCH6 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 6, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of a family of membrane-associated E3 ubiquitin ligases containing RING-CH-type zinc finger motifs. Ubiquitination of type II deiodinase by the encoded protein is an important regulatory step in thyroid hormone signalling. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

MARCH1 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MARCH1 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH proteins add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments. MARCH1 downregulates the surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules (see MIM 142880) and other glycoproteins by directing them to the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment (Bartee et al., 2004 [PubMed 14722266]; Thibodeau et al., 2008 [PubMed 18389477]; De Gassart et al., 2008 [PubMed 18305173]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

MARCH3 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 3, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) family. The encoded protein is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that may be involved in regulation of the endosomal transport pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

MARCH2 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MARCH2 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH enzymes add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments. MARCH2 reduces surface accumulation of several glycoproteins and appears to regulate early endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) trafficking (Bartee et al., 2004 [PubMed 14722266]; Nakamura et al., 2005 [PubMed 15689499]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

MARCH9 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 9

MARCH9 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH enzymes add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments. MARCH9 induces internalization of several membrane glycoproteins and directs them to the endosomal compartment (Bartee et al., 2004 [PubMed 14722266]; Hoer et al., 2007 [PubMed 17174307]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

MARCH8 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 8, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MARCH8 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH enzymes add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments. MARCH8 induces the internalization of several membrane glycoproteins (Goto et al., 2003 [PubMed 12582153]; Bartee et al., 2004 [PubMed 14722266]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

EPB42 Gene

erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.2

Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.2 is an ATP-binding protein which may regulate the association of protein 3 with ankyrin. It probably has a role in erythrocyte shape and mechanical property regulation. Mutations in the EPB42 gene are associated with recessive spherocytic elliptocytosis and recessively transmitted hereditary hemolytic anemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EPB41 Gene

erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1

The protein encoded by this gene, together with spectrin and actin, constitute the red cell membrane cytoskeletal network. This complex plays a critical role in erythrocyte shape and deformability. Mutations in this gene are associated with type 1 elliptocytosis (EL1). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

PKMYT1 Gene

protein kinase, membrane associated tyrosine/threonine 1

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein is a membrane-associated kinase that negatively regulates the G2/M transition of the cell cycle by phosphorylating and inactivating cyclin-dependent kinase 1. The activity of the encoded protein is regulated by polo-like kinase 1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

EMC10 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 10

LOC102724175 Gene

membrane primary amine oxidase-like

BET1P1 Gene

Bet1 golgi vesicular membrane trafficking protein pseudogene 1

SDHDP7 Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein pseudogene 7

SDHDP6 Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein pseudogene 6

SDHDP5 Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein pseudogene 5

SDHDP4 Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein pseudogene 4

SDHDP3 Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein pseudogene 3

SDHDP2 Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein pseudogene 2

SDHDP1 Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein pseudogene 1

MS4A4A Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 4A

This gene encodes a member of the membrane-spanning 4A gene family. Members of this nascent protein family are characterized by common structural features, similar intron/exon splice boundaries, and display unique expression patterns in hematopoietic cells and nonlymphoid tissues. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

MS4A4E Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 4E

Most MS4A genes, including MS4A4E, encode proteins with at least 4 potential transmembrane domains and N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains encoded by distinct exons.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

LOC391359 Gene

epithelial membrane protein 2 pseudogene

LOC100419980 Gene

golgi membrane protein 1 pseudogene

XPNPEP2 Gene

X-prolyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase P) 2, membrane-bound

Aminopeptidase P is a hydrolase specific for N-terminal imido bonds, which are common to several collagen degradation products, neuropeptides, vasoactive peptides, and cytokines. Structurally, the enzyme is a member of the 'pita bread fold' family and occurs in mammalian tissues in both soluble and GPI-anchored membrane-bound forms. A membrane-bound and soluble form of this enzyme have been identified as products of two separate genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MS4A6E Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 6E

This gene encodes a member of the membrane-spanning 4A gene family. Members of this nascent protein family are characterized by common structural features and similar intron/exon splice boundaries and display unique expression patterns among hematopoietic cells and nonlymphoid tissues. The gene encoding this protein is localized to 11q12.3, among a cluster of family members. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MCEMP1 Gene

mast cell-expressed membrane protein 1

This gene encodes a single-pass transmembrane protein. Based on its expression pattern, it is speculated to be involved in regulating mast cell differentiation or immune responses. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VIMP Gene

VCP-interacting membrane selenoprotein

This gene encodes a member of the selenoprotein family, characterized by a selenocysteine (Sec) residue at the active site. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA codon that normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of selenoprotein genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), that is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. Studies suggest that this protein may regulate cytokine production, and thus play a key role in the control of the inflammatory response. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PITPNM1 Gene

phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, membrane-associated 1

PITPNM1 belongs to a family of membrane-associated phosphatidylinositol transfer domain-containing proteins that share homology with the Drosophila retinal degeneration B (rdgB) protein (Ocaka et al., 2005 [PubMed 15627748]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PITPNM2 Gene

phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, membrane-associated 2

PITPNM2 belongs to a family of membrane-associated phosphatidylinositol transfer domain-containing proteins that share homology with the Drosophila retinal degeneration B (rdgB) protein (Ocaka et al., 2005 [PubMed 15627748]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100130842 Gene

small integral membrane protein 7 pseudogene

SMPD4P2 Gene

sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 4, neutral membrane (neutral sphingomyelinase-3) pseudogene 2

SMPD4P1 Gene

sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 4, neutral membrane (neutral sphingomyelinase-3) pseudogene 1

MMGT1 Gene

membrane magnesium transporter 1

APMAP Gene

adipocyte plasma membrane associated protein

SMIM10L2A Gene

small integral membrane protein 10 like 2A

SCIMP Gene

SLP adaptor and CSK interacting membrane protein

This gene encodes a transmembrane adaptor protein that is expressed in antigen-presenting cells and is localized in the immunologic synapse. The encoded protein is involved in major histocompatibility complex class II signal transduction and immune synapse formation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

LOC728506 Gene

POM121 membrane glycoprotein (rat) pseudogene

ATP2B1 Gene

ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. These enzymes remove bivalent calcium ions from eukaryotic cells against very large concentration gradients and play a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these enzymes is further increased by alternative splicing of transcripts. The expression of different isoforms and splice variants is regulated in a developmental, tissue- and cell type-specific manner, suggesting that these pumps are functionally adapted to the physiological needs of particular cells and tissues. This gene encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP2B3 Gene

ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 3

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. These enzymes remove bivalent calcium ions from eukaryotic cells against very large concentration gradients and play a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these enzymes is further increased by alternative splicing of transcripts. The expression of different isoforms and splice variants is regulated in a developmental, tissue- and cell type-specific manner, suggesting that these pumps are functionally adapted to the physiological needs of particular cells and tissues. This gene encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 3. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP2B2 Gene

ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. These enzymes remove bivalent calcium ions from eukaryotic cells against very large concentration gradients and play a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these enzymes is further increased by alternative splicing of transcripts. The expression of different isoforms and splice variants is regulated in a developmental, tissue- and cell type-specific manner, suggesting that these pumps are functionally adapted to the physiological needs of particular cells and tissues. This gene encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP2B4 Gene

ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 4

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. These enzymes remove bivalent calcium ions from eukaryotic cells against very large concentration gradients and play a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these enzymes is further increased by alternative splicing of transcripts. The expression of different isoforms and splice variants is regulated in a developmental, tissue- and cell type-specific manner, suggesting that these pumps are functionally adapted to the physiological needs of particular cells and tissues. This gene encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 4. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MS4A13 Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 13

PGRMC2 Gene

progesterone receptor membrane component 2

PGRMC1 Gene

progesterone receptor membrane component 1

This gene encodes a putative membrane-associated progesterone steroid receptor. The protein is expressed predominantly in the liver and kidney. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC100631376 Gene

sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 3, neutral membrane (neutral sphingomyelinase II) pseudogene

MFRP Gene

membrane frizzled-related protein

This gene encodes a member of the frizzled-related protein family. The encoded protein plays an important role in eye development and mutations in this gene have been associated with nanophthalmos, posterior microphthalmia, retinitis pigmentosa, foveoschisis, and optic disc drusen. The protein is encoded by a bicistronic transcript which also encodes C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 5 (C1QTNF5). [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

MS4A5 Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 5

This gene encodes a member of the membrane-spanning 4A gene family. Members of this nascent protein family are characterized by common structural features and similar intron/exon splice boundaries and display unique expression patterns among hematopoietic cells and nonlymphoid tissues. Though this member is not expressed in hematopoietic cells specifically, it may be involved in signal transduction like many of its related family members. The gene encoding this protein is localized to 11q12, among a cluster of family members. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MS4A3 Gene

membrane-spanning 4-domains, subfamily A, member 3 (hematopoietic cell-specific)

This gene encodes a member of the membrane-spanning 4A gene family. Members of this protein family are characterized by common structural features and similar intron/exon splice boundaries and display unique expression patterns among hematopoietic cells and nonlymphoid tissues. This family member likely plays a role in signal transduction and may function as a subunit associated with receptor complexes. The gene encoding this protein is localized to 11q12, among a cluster of related family members. Alternative splicing may result in multiple transcript variants; however, not all variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC150776 Gene

sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 4, neutral membrane (neutral sphingomyelinase-3) pseudogene

MAGI3 Gene

membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 3

MAGI2 Gene

membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 2

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with atrophin-1. Atrophin-1 contains a polyglutamine repeat, expansion of which is responsible for dentatorubral and pallidoluysian atrophy. This encoded protein is characterized by two WW domains, a guanylate kinase-like domain, and multiple PDZ domains. It has structural similarity to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologue (MAGUK) family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAGI1 Gene

membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase homologue (MAGUK) family. MAGUK proteins participate in the assembly of multiprotein complexes on the inner surface of the plasma membrane at regions of cell-cell contact. The product of this gene may play a role as scaffolding protein at cell-cell junctions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCAMP4 Gene

secretory carrier membrane protein 4

Secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) are widely distributed integral membrane proteins implicated in membrane trafficking. Most SCAMPs (e.g., SCAMP1; MIM 606911) have N-terminal cytoplasmic NPF (arg-pro-phe) repeats, 4 central transmembrane regions, and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic tail. These SCAMPs likely have a role in endocytosis that is mediated by their NPF repeats. Other SCAMPs, such as SCAMP4, lack the NPF repeats and are therefore unlikely to function in endocytosis (summary by Fernandez-Chacon and Sudhof, 2000 [PubMed 11050114]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2011]

SCAMP5 Gene

secretory carrier membrane protein 5

SCAMP2 Gene

secretory carrier membrane protein 2

This gene product belongs to the SCAMP family of proteins which are secretory carrier membrane proteins. They function as carriers to the cell surface in post-golgi recycling pathways. Different family members are highly related products of distinct genes, and are usually expressed together. These findings suggest that the SCAMPs may function at the same site during vesicular transport rather than in separate pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCAMP3 Gene

secretory carrier membrane protein 3

This gene encodes an integral membrane protein that belongs to the secretory carrier membrane protein family. The encoded protein functions as a carrier to the cell surface in post-golgi recycling pathways. This protein is also involved in protein trafficking in endosomal pathways. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

SCAMP1 Gene

secretory carrier membrane protein 1

This gene product belongs to the SCAMP family of proteins, which are secretory carrier membrane proteins. They function as carriers to the cell surface in post-golgi recycling pathways. Different family members are highly related products of distinct genes, and are usually expressed together. These findings suggest that these protein family members may function at the same site during vesicular transport rather than in separate pathways. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

GOLM1 Gene

golgi membrane protein 1

The Golgi complex plays a key role in the sorting and modification of proteins exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. The protein encoded by this gene is a type II Golgi transmembrane protein. It processes proteins synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and assists in the transport of protein cargo through the Golgi apparatus. The expression of this gene has been observed to be upregulated in response to viral infection. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

LOC441081 Gene

POM121 membrane glycoprotein (rat) pseudogene

DNCM Gene

DNA associated with cytoplasmic membrane

LOC646652 Gene

integral membrane glycoprotein-like

BET1L Gene

Bet1 golgi vesicular membrane trafficking protein-like

SELP Gene

selectin P (granule membrane protein 140kDa, antigen CD62)

This gene encodes a 140 kDa protein that is stored in the alpha-granules of platelets and Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells. This protein redistributes to the plasma membrane during platelet activation and degranulation and mediates the interaction of activated endothelial cells or platelets with leukocytes. The membrane protein is a calcium-dependent receptor that binds to sialylated forms of Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigens on neutrophils and monocytes. Alternative splice variants may occur but are not well documented. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS31P4 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31 pseudogene 4

SLC25A3P2 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 3 pseudogene 2

PTPMT1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, mitochondrial 1

ATP5C1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, gamma polypeptide 1

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the gamma subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. This gene also has a pseudogene on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS24P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S24 pseudogene 1

LOC100421594 Gene

mitochondrial carrier 2 pseudogene

LOC359819 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L39 pseudogene

MTCH2 Gene

mitochondrial carrier 2

MTCH1 Gene

mitochondrial carrier 1

This gene encodes a member of the mitochondrial carrier family. The encoded protein is localized to the mitochondrion inner membrane and induces apoptosis independent of the proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak. Pseudogenes on chromosomes 6 and 11 have been identified for this gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

MARC1 Gene

mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 1

MARC2 Gene

mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 2

MIPEPP3 Gene

mitochondrial intermediate peptidase pseudogene 3

MIPEPP1 Gene

mitochondrial intermediate peptidase pseudogene 1

NMTRS-TGA3-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Ser (TGA) 3-1

MRPL3P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L3 pseudogene 1

MRPL42P5 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L42 pseudogene 5

MRPL42P4 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L42 pseudogene 4

MRPL42P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L42 pseudogene 1

MRPS35P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S35 pseudogene 2

MRPS35P3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S35 pseudogene 3

MRPS35P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S35 pseudogene 1

NMTRL-TAA1-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Leu (TAA) 1-1

MRPL22P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L22 pseudogene 1

MPC2 Gene

mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2

MPC1 Gene

mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1

The protein encoded by this gene is part of an MPC1/MPC2 heterodimer that is responsible for transporting pyruvate into mitochondria. The encoded protein is found in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Defects in this gene are a cause of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier deficiency. Several transcript variants, some protein coding and one non-protein coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

LOC101929104 Gene

mitochondrial import receptor subunit TOM22 homolog pseudogene

SLC25A37 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial iron transporter), member 37

SLC25A37 is a solute carrier localized in the mitochondrial inner membrane. It functions as an essential iron importer for the synthesis of mitochondrial heme and iron-sulfur clusters (summary by Chen et al., 2009 [PubMed 19805291]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

SLC25A31 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 31

Mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers, such as SLC25A31, are nuclear-coded mitochondrial proteins that catalyze the exchange of ATP generated in mitochondria by ATP synthase (see MIM 108729) against ADP produced in cytosol by most energy-consuming reactions (Dolce et al., 2005 [PubMed 15670820]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SLC25A32 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial folate carrier), member 32

This gene encodes a member of the P(I/L)W subfamily of mitochondrial carrier family transport proteins. The encoded protein transports folate across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

LOC441996 Gene

aconitase 2, mitochondrial pseudogene

MRPS17 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S17

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S17P family. The encoded protein is moderately conserved between human mitochondrial and prokaryotic ribosomal proteins. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 1p, 3p, 6q, 14p, 18q, and Xq. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CKMT2 Gene

creatine kinase, mitochondrial 2 (sarcomeric)

Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine. It belongs to the creatine kinase isoenzyme family. It exists as two isoenzymes, sarcomeric MtCK and ubiquitous MtCK, encoded by separate genes. Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively dimeric cytosolic creatine kinase isoenzymes. Sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase. This gene contains sequences homologous to several motifs that are shared among some nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins and thus may be essential for the coordinated activation of these genes during mitochondrial biogenesis. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS9 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S9

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS7 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S7

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein. In the prokaryotic ribosome, the comparable protein is thought to play an essential role in organizing the 3' domain of the 16 S rRNA in the vicinity of the P- and A-sites. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 8p and 12p. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS6 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S6

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S6P family. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 1p and 12q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS5 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S5

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S5P family. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 4q, 5q, and 18q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S2

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S2 family. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

CKMT1A Gene

creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1A

Mitochondrial creatine (MtCK) kinase is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine. It belongs to the creatine kinase isoenzyme family. It exists as two isoenzymes, sarcomeric MtCK and ubiquitous MtCK, encoded by separate genes. Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively dimeric cytosolic creatine kinase isoenzymes. Many malignant cancers with poor prognosis have shown overexpression of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase; this may be related to high energy turnover and failure to eliminate cancer cells via apoptosis. Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. Two genes located near each other on chromosome 15 have been identified which encode identical mitochondrial creatine kinase proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CKMT1B Gene

creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1B

Mitochondrial creatine (MtCK) kinase is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine. It belongs to the creatine kinase isoenzyme family. It exists as two isoenzymes, sarcomeric MtCK and ubiquitous MtCK, encoded by separate genes. Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively dimeric cytosolic creatine kinase isoenzymes. Many malignant cancers with poor prognosis have shown overexpression of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase; this may be related to high energy turnover and failure to eliminate cancer cells via apoptosis. Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. Two genes located near each other on chromosome 15 have been identified which encode identical mitochondrial creatine kinase proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NADK2 Gene

NAD kinase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of NAD to yield NADP. Mutations in this gene result in 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

CA5B Gene

carbonic anhydrase VB, mitochondrial

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and gastric acid. They show extensive diversity in tissue distribution and in their subcellular localization. CA VB is localized in the mitochondria and shows the highest sequence similarity to the other mitochondrial CA, CA VA. It has a wider tissue distribution than CA VA, which is restricted to the liver. The differences in tissue distribution suggest that the two mitochondrial carbonic anhydrases evolved to assume different physiologic roles. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CA5A Gene

carbonic anhydrase VA, mitochondrial

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and gastric acid. They show extensive diversity in tissue distribution and in their subcellular localization. CA VA is localized in the mitochondria and expressed primarily in the liver. It may play an important role in ureagenesis and gluconeogenesis. CA5A gene maps to chromosome 16q24.3 and an unprocessed pseudogene has been assigned to 16p12-p11.2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC25A5P2 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 pseudogene 2

SLC25A5P4 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 pseudogene 4

SLC25A5P7 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 pseudogene 7

ATP5L2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit G2

LOC100421620 Gene

polymerase (RNA) mitochondrial (DNA directed) pseudogene

MARS2 Gene

methionyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

This gene produces a mitochondrial methionyl-tRNA synthetase protein that is encoded by the nuclear genome and imported to the mitochondrion. This protein likely functions as a monomer and is predicted to localize to the mitochondrial matrix. Mutations in this gene are associated with the autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease spastic ataxia-3 (SPAX3). [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

LOC100128523 Gene

mitochondrial carrier 2 pseudogene

MRPS31P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31 pseudogene 2

MRPS31P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31 pseudogene 1

MRPS31P5 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31 pseudogene 5

IARS2P1 Gene

isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial pseudogene 1

SOD2P1 Gene

superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial pseudogene 1

LOC100127892 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1 pseudogene

NMTRQ-TTG8-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 8-1

LOC100420251 Gene

mitochondrial fission factor pseudogene

MRPS10P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S10 pseudogene 1

MRPS10P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S10 pseudogene 2

MRPS10P5 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S10 pseudogene 5

GFM1 Gene

G elongation factor, mitochondrial 1

Eukaryotes contain two protein translational systems, one in the cytoplasm and one in the mitochondria. Mitochondrial translation is crucial for maintaining mitochondrial function and mutations in this system lead to a breakdown in the respiratory chain-oxidative phosphorylation system and to impaired maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. This gene encodes one of the mitochondrial translation elongation factors. Its role in the regulation of normal mitochondrial function and in different disease states attributed to mitochondrial dysfunction is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GFM2 Gene

G elongation factor, mitochondrial 2

Eukaryotes contain two protein translational systems, one in the cytoplasm and one in the mitochondria. Mitochondrial translation is crucial for maintaining mitochondrial function and mutations in this system lead to a breakdown in the respiratory chain-oxidative phosphorylation system and to impaired maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. This gene encodes one of the mitochondrial translation elongation factors, which is a GTPase that plays a role at the termination of mitochondrial translation by mediating the disassembly of ribosomes from messenger RNA . Its role in the regulation of normal mitochondrial function and in disease states attributed to mitochondrial dysfunction is not known. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

TEFM Gene

transcription elongation factor, mitochondrial

LOC100132621 Gene

mitochondrial fission regulator 2 pseudogene

NMTRQ-TTG2-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 2-1

MRPL10 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L10

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Sequence analysis identified three transcript variants that encode two different isoforms. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 5q. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

MRPL11 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L11

This nuclear gene encodes a 39S subunit component of the mitochondial ribosome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes for this gene are found on chromosomes 5 and 12. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

MRPL12 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L12

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein which forms homodimers. In prokaryotic ribosomes, two L7/L12 dimers and one L10 protein form the L8 protein complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL13 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L13

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL14 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L14

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found at 17p13.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL15 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L15

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein that belongs to the EcoL15 ribosomal protein family. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 15q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL16 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL17 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L17

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL18 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L18

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein that belongs to the L18P ribosomal protein family. Three polymorphic sites exist in this gene, one of which is three nt in length which causes an extra aa near the N-terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL19 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L19

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC388955 Gene

PRELI domain-containing protein 1, mitochondrial pseudogene

SOD2 Gene

superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial

This gene is a member of the iron/manganese superoxide dismutase family. It encodes a mitochondrial protein that forms a homotetramer and binds one manganese ion per subunit. This protein binds to the superoxide byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation and converts them to hydrogen peroxide and diatomic oxygen. Mutations in this gene have been associated with idiopathic cardiomyopathy (IDC), premature aging, sporadic motor neuron disease, and cancer. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CARS2 Gene

cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative)

This gene encodes a putative member of the class I family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This protein is encoded by the nuclear genome but is likely to be imported to the mitochondrion where it is thought to catalyze the ligation of cysteine to tRNA molecules. A splice-site mutation in this gene has been associated with a novel progressive myoclonic epilepsy disease with similar symptoms to MERRF syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

HSCB Gene

HscB mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster co-chaperone

MCCD1 Gene

mitochondrial coiled-coil domain 1

MRPS36P4 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S36 pseudogene 4

MRPS36P6 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S36 pseudogene 6

MRPS36P3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S36 pseudogene 3

MRPS36P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S36 pseudogene 2

LOC100289091 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit G2 pseudogene

PMPCAP1 Gene

peptidase (mitochondrial processing) alpha pseudogene 1

VARS2 Gene

valyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, which catalyzes the attachment of valine to tRNA(Val) for mitochondrial translation. Mutations in this gene cause combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-20, and are also associated with early-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

ATP5BP1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide pseudogene 1

SLC25A3P3 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 3 pseudogene

SLC25A3P1 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 3 pseudogene 1

MRPL11P3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L11 pseudogene 3

MRPL11P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L11 pseudogene 2

MRPL45P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L45 pseudogene 1

MRPL45P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L45 pseudogene 2

LOC101929583 Gene

monofunctional C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, mitochondrial-like

LOC100289118 Gene

mitochondrial carrier 2 pseudogene

MRPS16 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S16

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S16P family. The encoded protein is one of the most highly conserved ribosomal proteins between mammalian and yeast mitochondria. Three pseudogenes (located at 8q21.3, 20q13.32, 22q12-q13.1) for this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS15 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S15

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S15P family. The encoded protein is more than two times the size of its E. coli counterpart, with the 12S rRNA binding sites conserved. Between human and mouse, the encoded protein is the least conserved among small subunit ribosomal proteins. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 15q and 19q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS14 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S14

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S14P family. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

MRPS12 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S12

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S12P family. The encoded protein is a key component of the ribosomal small subunit and controls the decoding fidelity and susceptibility to aminoglycoside antibiotics. The gene for mitochondrial seryl-tRNA synthetase is located upstream and adjacent to this gene, and both genes are possible candidates for the autosomal dominant deafness gene (DFNA4). Splice variants that differ in the 5' UTR have been found for this gene; all three variants encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS11 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S11

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that contains a high level of sequence similarity with ribosomal protein S11P family members. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 20. Sequence analysis identified two transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS10 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S10

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S10P family. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 1q, 3p, and 9p. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC25A5P8 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 pseudogene 8

SLC25A5P9 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 pseudogene 9

SLC25A5P1 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 pseudogene 1

SLC25A5P3 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 pseudogene 3

LOC100128171 Gene

mitochondrial fission regulator 1 pseudogene

NMTRQ-TTG3-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 3-1

LOC100131471 Gene

presenilins-associated rhomboid-like protein, mitochondrial-like

MTIF3 Gene

mitochondrial translational initiation factor 3

This gene encodes a translation initiation factor that is involved in mitochondrial protein synthesis. Polymorphism in this gene is associated with the onset of Parkinson's disease. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

MTIF2 Gene

mitochondrial translational initiation factor 2

During the initiation of protein biosynthesis, initiation factor-2 (IF-2) promotes the binding of the initiator tRNA to the small subunit of the ribosome in a GTP-dependent manner. Prokaryotic IF-2 is a single polypeptide, while eukaryotic cytoplasmic IF-2 (eIF-2) is a trimeric protein. Bovine liver mitochondria contain IF-2(mt), an 85-kD monomeric protein that is equivalent to prokaryotic IF-2. The predicted 727-amino acid human protein contains a 29-amino acid presequence. Human IF-2(mt) shares 32 to 38% amino acid sequence identity with yeast IF-2(mt) and several prokaryotic IF-2s, with the greatest degree of conservation in the G domains of the proteins. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTPAP Gene

mitochondrial poly(A) polymerase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the DNA polymerase type-B-like family. This enzyme synthesizes the 3' poly(A) tail of mitochondrial transcripts and plays a role in replication-dependent histone mRNA degradation.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

HMGCS2 Gene

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (mitochondrial)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the HMG-CoA synthase family. It is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the first reaction of ketogenesis, a metabolic pathway that provides lipid-derived energy for various organs during times of carbohydrate deprivation, such as fasting. Mutations in this gene are associated with HMG-CoA synthase deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

MMDFS Gene

Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome

SLC25A14P1 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, brain), member 14 pseudogene 1

ACO2 Gene

aconitase 2, mitochondrial

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the aconitase/IPM isomerase family. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate in the second step of the TCA cycle. This protein is encoded in the nucleus and functions in the mitochondrion. It was found to be one of the mitochondrial matrix proteins that are preferentially degraded by the serine protease 15(PRSS15), also known as Lon protease, after oxidative modification. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MIEF1 Gene

mitochondrial elongation factor 1

MIEF2 Gene

mitochondrial elongation factor 2

This gene encodes an outer mitochondrial membrane protein that functions in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology. It can directly recruit the fission mediator dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to the mitochondrial surface. The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

MCAT Gene

malonyl CoA:ACP acyltransferase (mitochondrial)

The protein encoded by this gene is found exclusively in the mitochondrion, where it catalyzes the transfer of a malonyl group from malonyl-CoA to the mitochondrial acyl carrier protein. The encoded protein may be part of a fatty acid synthase complex that is more like the type II prokaryotic and plastid complexes rather than the type I human cytosolic complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

MRPL42P3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L42 pseudogene 3

MRPL42P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L42 pseudogene 2

NMTRQ-TTG12-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 12-1

OXSM Gene

3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a beta-ketoacyl synthetase. The encoded enzyme is required for elongation of fatty acid chains in the mitochondria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

MRPS18A Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18A

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S18P family. The encoded protein is one of three that has significant sequence similarity to bacterial S18 proteins. The primary sequences of the three human mitochondrial S18 proteins are no more closely related to each other than they are to the prokaryotic S18 proteins. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 3p. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

MRPS18B Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18B

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S18P family. The encoded protein is one of three that has significant sequence similarity to bacterial S18 proteins. The primary sequences of the three human mitochondrial S18 proteins are no more closely related to each other than they are to the prokaryotic S18 proteins. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 1q and 2q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS18C Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18C

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S18P family. The encoded protein is one of three that has significant sequence similarity to bacterial S18 proteins. The primary sequences of the three human mitochondrial S18 proteins are no more closely related to each other than they are to the prokaryotic S18 proteins. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 8p, 12p, 15q, and 22q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL14P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L14 pseudogene 1

ATP5J2LP Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2-like pseudogene

MRPS7P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S7 pseudogene 2

MRPS7P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S7 pseudogene 1

LOC260339 Gene

transcription factor A, mitochondrial pseudogene

MTRF1 Gene

mitochondrial translational release factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene was determined by in silico methods to be a mitochondrial protein with similarity to the peptide chain release factors (RFs) discovered in bacteria and yeast. The peptide chain release factors direct the termination of translation in response to the peptide chain termination codons. Initially thought to have a role in the termination of mitochondria protein synthesis, a recent publication found no mitochondrial translation release functionality. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been suggested by mRNA and EST data; however, their full-length natures are not clear. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTFR1 Gene

mitochondrial fission regulator 1

This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein that is characterized by a poly-proline rich region. A chicken homolog of this protein promotes mitochondrial fission and the mouse homolog protects cells from oxidative stress. A related pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

MTFR2 Gene

mitochondrial fission regulator 2

LOC100288416 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2 pseudogene

LOC100128454 Gene

39S ribosomal protein L32, mitochondrial pseudogene

LOC645324 Gene

GrpE-like 1, mitochondrial (E. coli) pseudogene

NMTRS-TGA2-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Ser (TGA) 2-1

LOC100736408 Gene

NAD kinase 2, mitochondrial pseudogene

LOC100509370 Gene

39S ribosomal protein L21, mitochondrial pseudogene

LOC101928296 Gene

ATP synthase-coupling factor 6, mitochondrial-like

TFB2M Gene

transcription factor B2, mitochondrial

MGME1 Gene

mitochondrial genome maintenance exonuclease 1

MRPL51P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L51 pseudogene 2

MRPL51P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L51 pseudogene 1

TARS2 Gene

threonyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative)

This gene encodes a member of the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. The encoded protein is a mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

LOC343508 Gene

aconitase 2, mitochondrial pseudogene

MRPS23P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23 pseudogene 1

NMTRQ-TTG6-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 6-1

ME2P1 Gene

malic enzyme 2, NAD(+)-dependent, mitochondrial pseudogene 1

ATP5JP1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F6 pseudogene 1

ATP5A1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1, cardiac muscle

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, using an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the different isoforms have been identified. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 9, 2, and 16. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

LOC105369446 Gene

mitochondrial import receptor subunit TOM20 homolog pseudogene

MRPS18AP1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18A pseudogene 1

MRPL39 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L39

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 5q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC102724738 Gene

tricarboxylate transport protein, mitochondrial pseudogene

NMTRQ-TTG13-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 13-1

MRPL43 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L43

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. This gene and the gene for a semaphorin class 4 protein (SEMA4G) overlap at map location 10q24.31 and are transcribed in opposite directions. Sequence analysis identified multiple transcript variants encoding at least four different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL42 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L42

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a protein identified as belonging to both the 28S and the 39S subunits. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 4q, 6p, 6q, 7p, and 15q. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

MRPL40 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L40

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Deletions in this gene may contribute to the etiology of velo-cardio-facial syndrome and DiGeorge syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL47 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L47

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. This gene is immediately adjacent to the gene for BAF complex 53 kDa subunit protein a (BAF53a), in a tail-to-tail orientation. Two transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL46 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L46

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL44 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L44

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL49 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L49

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 5q and 8p. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

MRPL48 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L48

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 6p. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP5J2P6 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2 pseudogene 6

ATP5J2P4 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2 pseudogene 4

ATP5J2P5 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2 pseudogene 5

ATP5J2P2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2 pseudogene 2

ATP5J2P3 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2 pseudogene 3

MPC1L Gene

mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 1-like

MRPS28 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S28

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that has been called mitochondrial ribosomal protein S35 in the literature. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS26 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S26

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein. This gene lies adjacent to and downstream of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone precursor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS27 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S27

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that may be a functional partner of the death associated protein 3 (DAP3). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

MRPS24 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S24

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 11. Read-through transcription exists between this gene and the upstream upregulator of cell proliferation (URGCP) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

MRPS25 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S25

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS22 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S22

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that does not seem to have a counterpart in prokaryotic and fungal-mitochondrial ribosomes. This gene lies telomeric of and is transcribed in the opposite direction from the forkhead box L2 gene. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome Xq. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS23 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S23

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 7p. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS21 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S21P family. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 1p, 1q, 9p, 10p, 10q, 16q, and 17q. Available sequence data analyses identified splice variants that differ in the 5' UTR; both transcripts encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NMTRV-TAC1-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Val (TAC) 1-1

ATP5S Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit s (factor B)

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. This gene encodes the subunit s, also known as factor B, of the proton channel. This subunit is necessary for the energy transduction activity of the ATP synthase complexes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP5J Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F6

Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The F1 complex consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled in a ratio of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The Fo seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the F6 subunit of the Fo complex, required for F1 and Fo interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. A pseudogene exists on chromosome Yp11.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

ATP5I Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit E

Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The F1 complex consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled in a ratio of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The Fo seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the e subunit of the Fo complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

ATP5H Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit d

Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The F1 complex consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled in a ratio of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The Fo seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the d subunit of the Fo complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. In addition, three pseudogenes are located on chromosomes 9, 12 and 15. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

ATP5O Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, O subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the F-type ATPase found in the mitochondrial matrix. F-type ATPases are composed of a catalytic core and a membrane proton channel. The encoded protein appears to be part of the connector linking these two components and may be involved in transmission of conformational changes or proton conductance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ME3 Gene

malic enzyme 3, NADP(+)-dependent, mitochondrial

Malic enzyme catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate using either NAD+ or NADP+ as a cofactor. Mammalian tissues contain 3 distinct isoforms of malic enzyme: a cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isoform, a mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isoform, and a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent isoform. This gene encodes a mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isoform. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ME2 Gene

malic enzyme 2, NAD(+)-dependent, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial NAD-dependent malic enzyme, a homotetrameric protein, that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate. It had previously been weakly linked to a syndrome known as Friedreich ataxia that has since been shown to be the result of mutation in a completely different gene. Certain single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes of this gene have been shown to increase the risk for idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

ATP5B Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the beta subunit of the catalytic core. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP5E Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, epsilon subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the epsilon subunit of the catalytic core. Two pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 4 and 13. Read-through transcripts that include exons from this gene are expressed from the upstream gene SLMO2.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

ATP5D Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, delta subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the delta subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same isoform have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLPX Gene

caseinolytic mitochondrial matrix peptidase chaperone subunit

CLPP Gene

caseinolytic mitochondrial matrix peptidase proteolytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the peptidase family S14 and hydrolyzes proteins into small peptides in the presence of ATP and magnesium. The protein is transported into mitochondrial matrix and is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLPB Gene

ClpB homolog, mitochondrial AAA ATPase chaperonin

This gene belongs to the ATP-ases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+) superfamily. Members of this superfamily form ring-shaped homo-hexamers and have highly conserved ATPase domains that are involved in various processes including DNA replication, protein degradation and reactivation of misfolded proteins. All members of this family hydrolyze ATP through their AAA+ domains and use the energy generated through ATP hydrolysis to exert mechanical force on their substrates. In addition to an AAA+ domain, the protein encoded by this gene contains a C-terminal D2 domain, which is characteristic of the AAA+ subfamily of Caseinolytic peptidases to which this protein belongs. It cooperates with Hsp70 in the disaggregation of protein aggregates. Allelic variants of this gene are associated with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, which causes cataracts and neutropenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

NMTRL-TAA4-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Leu (TAA) 4-1

RMRP Gene

RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease

This gene encodes the RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease, which cleaves mitochondrial RNA at a priming site of mitochondrial DNA replication. This RNA also interacts with the telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit to form a distinct ribonucleoprotein complex that has RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity and produces double-stranded RNAs that can be processed into small interfering RNA. Mutations in this gene are associated with cartilage-hair hypoplasia.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC100996643 Gene

monofunctional C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, mitochondrial-like

LOC100421472 Gene

mitochondrial fission regulator 2 pseudogene

DIABLO Gene

diablo, IAP-binding mitochondrial protein

This gene encodes an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-binding protein. The encoded mitochondrial protein enters the cytosol when cells undergo apoptosis, and allows activation of caspases by binding to inhibitor of apoptosis proteins. Overexpression of the encoded protein sensitizes tumor cells to apoptosis. A mutation in this gene is associated with young-adult onset of nonsyndromic deafness-64. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

MTO1 Gene

mitochondrial tRNA translation optimization 1

This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein thought to be involved in mitochondrial tRNA modification. The encoded protein may also play a role in the expression of the non-syndromic and aminoglycoside-induced deafness phenotypes associated with a specific mutation in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NMTRL-TAA5-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Leu (TAA) 5-1

LOC100132849 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, O subunit pseudogene

NMTRQ-TTG7-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 7-1

GPAM Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial enzyme which prefers saturated fatty acids as its substrate for the synthesis of glycerolipids. This metabolic pathway's first step is catalyzed by the encoded enzyme. Two forms for this enzyme exist, one in the mitochondria and one in the endoplasmic reticulum. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

LOC102724580 Gene

monofunctional C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, mitochondrial-like

ATP5C1P1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, gamma polypeptide 1 pseudogene 1

TFAMP2 Gene

transcription factor A, mitochondrial pseudogene 2

TFAMP1 Gene

transcription factor A, mitochondrial pseudogene 1

MECR Gene

mitochondrial trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase

LOC100507083 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) pseudogene

LOC102724828 Gene

39S ribosomal protein L23, mitochondrial-like

LOC101929091 Gene

enoyl-CoA hydratase domain-containing protein 2, mitochondrial pseudogene

MTG2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosome-associated GTPase 2

Small G proteins, such as GTPBP5, act as molecular switches that play crucial roles in the regulation of fundamental cellular processes such as protein synthesis, nuclear transport, membrane trafficking, and signal transduction (Hirano et al., 2006 [PubMed 17054726]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MTG1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosome-associated GTPase 1

MRPS6P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S6 pseudogene 2

MRPS6P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S6 pseudogene 1

MRPS6P4 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S6 pseudogene 4

CMPK2 Gene

cytidine monophosphate (UMP-CMP) kinase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes one of the enzymes in the nucleotide synthesis salvage pathway that may participate in terminal differentiation of monocytic cells. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ATP5J2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2

Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of five different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and single representatives of the gamma, delta, and epsilon subunits. The proton channel likely has nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the f subunit of the Fo complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. This gene has multiple pseudogenes. Naturally occurring read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the downstream pentatricopeptide repeat domain 1 (PTCD1) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

SHMT2 Gene

serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (mitochondrial)

This gene encodes the mitochondrial form of a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction of serine and tetrahydrofolate to glycine and 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate. The encoded product is primarily responsible for glycine synthesis. The activity of the encoded protein has been suggested to be the primary source of intracellular glycine. The gene which encodes the cytosolic form of this enzyme is located on chromosome 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

TARS2P1 Gene

threonyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial pseudogene

MSTO1 Gene

misato 1, mitochondrial distribution and morphology regulator

TFAM Gene

transcription factor A, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a key mitochondrial transcription factor containing two high mobility group motifs. The encoded protein also functions in mitochondrial DNA replication and repair. Sequence polymorphisms in this gene are associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 6, 7, and 11. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

ERAL1 Gene

Era-like 12S mitochondrial rRNA chaperone 1

ALDH2 Gene

aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (mitochondrial)

This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family of proteins. Aldehyde dehydrogenase is the second enzyme of the major oxidative pathway of alcohol metabolism. Two major liver isoforms of aldehyde dehydrogenase, cytosolic and mitochondrial, can be distinguished by their electrophoretic mobilities, kinetic properties, and subcellular localizations. Most Caucasians have two major isozymes, while approximately 50% of Orientals have the cytosolic isozyme but not the mitochondrial isozyme. A remarkably higher frequency of acute alcohol intoxication among Orientals than among Caucasians could be related to the absence of a catalytically active form of the mitochondrial isozyme. The increased exposure to acetaldehyde in individuals with the catalytically inactive form may also confer greater susceptibility to many types of cancer. This gene encodes a mitochondrial isoform, which has a low Km for acetaldehydes, and is localized in mitochondrial matrix. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

LOC642355 Gene

nucleoside diphosphate kinase, mitochondrial-like

MRPS11P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S11 pseudogene 1

HARS2 Gene

histidyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are a class of enzymes that charge tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme belonging to the class II family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Functioning in the synthesis of histidyl-transfer RNA, the enzyme plays an accessory role in the regulation of protein biosynthesis. The gene is located in a head-to-head orientation with HARS on chromosome five, where the homologous genes likely share a bidirectional promoter. Mutations in this gene are associated with the pathogenesis of Perrault syndrome, which involves ovarian dysgenesis and sensorineural hearing loss. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

LONP1 Gene

lon peptidase 1, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial matrix protein that belongs to the Lon family of ATP-dependent proteases. This protein mediates the selective degradation of misfolded, unassembled or oxidatively damaged polypeptides in the mitochondrial matrix. It may also have a chaperone function in the assembly of inner membrane protein complexes, and participate in the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression and maintenance of the integrity of the mitochondrial genome. Decreased expression of this gene has been noted in a patient with hereditary spastic paraplegia (PMID:18378094). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

FTMT Gene

ferritin mitochondrial

MAVS Gene

mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein

This gene encodes an intermediary protein necessary in the virus-triggered beta interferon signaling pathways. It is required for activation of transcription factors which regulate expression of beta interferon and contributes to antiviral immunity. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

TK2 Gene

thymidine kinase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a deoxyribonucleoside kinase that specifically phosphorylates thymidine, deoxycytidine, and deoxyuridine. The encoded enzyme localizes to the mitochondria and is required for mitochondrial DNA synthesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with a myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms, some of which lack transit peptide, so are not localized to mitochondria. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

LOC100996384 Gene

aconitate hydratase, mitochondrial pseudogene

LOC101060049 Gene

ornithine aminotransferase, mitochondrial-like

LOC133332 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S5 pseudogene

LOC100422685 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6 pseudogene

WARS2 Gene

tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Two forms of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase exist, a cytoplasmic form, named WARS, and a mitochondrial form, named WARS2. This gene encodes the mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP5EP1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, epsilon subunit pseudogene 1

ATP5EP2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, epsilon subunit pseudogene 2

SLC25A22 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier: glutamate), member 22

This gene encodes a mitochondrial glutamate carrier. Mutations in this gene are associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

SLC25A23 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 23

SLC25A21 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial oxoadipate carrier), member 21

SLC25A21 is a homolog of the S. cerevisiae ODC proteins, mitochondrial carriers that transport C5-C7 oxodicarboxylates across inner mitochondrial membranes. One of the species transported by ODC is 2-oxoadipate, a common intermediate in the catabolism of lysine, tryptophan, and hydroxylysine in mammals. Within mitochondria, 2-oxoadipate is converted into acetyl-CoA.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

SLC25A24 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 24

This gene encodes a carrier protein that transports ATP-Mg exchanging it for phosphate. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

SLC25A25 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 25

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of calcium-binding mitochondrial carriers, with a characteristic mitochondrial carrier domain at the C-terminus. These proteins are found in the inner membranes of mitochondria, and function as transport proteins. They shuttle metabolites, nucleotides and cofactors through the mitochondrial membrane and thereby connect and/or regulate cytoplasm and matrix functions. This protein may function as an ATP-Mg/Pi carrier that mediates the transport of Mg-ATP in exchange for phosphate, and likely responsible for the net uptake or efflux of adenine nucleotides into or from the mitochondria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms with a common C-terminus but variable N-termini have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

SLC25A28 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial iron transporter), member 28

SLC25A29 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier), member 29

This gene encodes a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial protein that is a member of the large family of solute carrier family 25 (SLC25) mitochondrial transporters. The members of this superfamily are involved in numerous metabolic pathways and cell functions. This gene product was previously reported to be a mitochondrial carnitine-acylcarnitine-like (CACL) translocase (PMID:128829710) or an ornithine transporter (designated ORNT3, PMID:19287344), however, a recent study characterized the main role of this protein as a mitochondrial transporter of basic amino acids, with a preference for arginine and lysine (PMID:24652292). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

MCCD1P1 Gene

mitochondrial coiled-coil domain 1 pseudogene 1

GPD2 Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (mitochondrial)

The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the conversion of glycerol-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate, using FAD as a cofactor. Along with GDP1, the encoded protein constitutes the glycerol phosphate shuttle, which reoxidizes NADH formed during glycolysis. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

MICU3 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uptake family, member 3

MICU2 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uptake 2

MICU1 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uptake 1

This gene encodes an essential regulator of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake under basal conditions. The encoded protein interacts with the mitochondrial calcium uniporter, a mitochondrial inner membrane Ca2+ channel, and is essential in preventing mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, which can cause excessive production of reactive oxygen species and cell stress. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

ATP5G2P1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) pseudogene 1

ATP5G2P3 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) pseudogene 3

ATP5G2P2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) pseudogene 2

ATP5G2P4 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) pseudogene 4

NMTRS-TGA1-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Ser (TGA) 1-1

LOC102724023 Gene

ES1 protein homolog, mitochondrial

SLC25A15P1 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; ornithine transporter) member 15 pseudogene 1

SLC25A15P2 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; ornithine transporter) member 15 pseudogene 2

SLC25A15P3 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; ornithine transporter) member 15 pseudogene 3

SLC25A15P5 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; ornithine transporter) member 15 pseudogene 5

GRPEL2P2 Gene

GrpE-like 2, mitochondrial (E. coli) pseudogene 2

ECHS1 Gene

enoyl CoA hydratase, short chain, 1, mitochondrial

The protein encoded by this gene functions in the second step of the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. It catalyzes the hydration of 2-trans-enoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) intermediates to L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoAs. The gene product is a member of the hydratase/isomerase superfamily. It localizes to the mitochondrial matrix. Transcript variants utilizing alternative transcription initiation sites have been described in the literature. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC392452 Gene

mitochondrial fission factor pseudogene

ATP5HP1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit d, pseudogene 1

ATP5HP3 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit d, pseudogene 3

ATP5HP2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit d, pseudogene 2

ATP5HP4 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit d, pseudogene 4

FARS2 Gene

phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are a class of enzymes that charge tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This gene encodes a phenylalanine-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) localized to the mitochondrion which consists of a single polypeptide chain, unlike the (alpha-beta)2 structure of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cytoplasmic forms of PheRS. Structure analysis and catalytic properties indicate mitochondrial PheRSs may constitute a class of PheRS distinct from the enzymes found in prokaryotes and in the eukaryotic cytoplasm. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NMTRQ-TTG11-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 11-1

SLC25A6P3 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6 pseudogene 3

MRPL37P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L37 pseudogene 1

DFNM2 Gene

deafness (mitochondrial) modifier 2

AARS2 Gene

alanyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases play critical roles in mRNA translation by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. The encoded protein is a mitochondrial enzyme that specifically aminoacylates alanyl-tRNA. Mutations in this gene are a cause of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 8. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

MRRF Gene

mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor

LOC105379443 Gene

monofunctional C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, mitochondrial-like

MRPS33P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S33 pseudogene 1

MRPS33P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S33 pseudogene 2

MRPS33P3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S33 pseudogene 3

MRPS33P4 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S33 pseudogene 4

GPAT2 Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2, mitochondrial

MRPL57P10 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L57 pseudogene 10

LOC100420057 Gene

aconitase 2, mitochondrial pseudogene

ATP5G3 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C3 (subunit 9)

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene is one of three genes that encode subunit c of the proton channel. Each of the three genes have distinct mitochondrial import sequences but encode the identical mature protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different proteins have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

ATP5G2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9)

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and single representatives of the gamma, delta, and epsilon subunits. The proton channel likely has nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). There are three separate genes which encode subunit c of the proton channel and they specify precursors with different import sequences but identical mature proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is one of three precursors of subunit c. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. This gene has multiple pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

MRPL15P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L15 pseudogene 1

MRPL2P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L2 pseudogene 1

NMTRL-TAA3-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Leu (TAA) 3-1

MRPL50P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L50 pseudogene 2

MRPL50P3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L50 pseudogene 3

MRPL50P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L50 pseudogene 1

MRPL50P4 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L50 pseudogene 4

MRPL32P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L32 pseudogene 1

LOC653924 Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2, mitochondrial pseudogene

MRPL24 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L24

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein which is more than twice the size of its E.coli counterpart (EcoL24). Sequence analysis identified two transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL27 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L27

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL21 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L21

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms were identified through sequence analysis although some may be subject to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL20 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L20

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 21q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL23 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L23

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. The gene is biallelically expressed, despite its location within a region of imprinted genes on chromosome 11. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL22 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L22

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein that belongs to the L22 ribosomal protein family. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 4q. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL28 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L28

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein, a part of which was originally isolated by its ability to recognize tyrosinase in an HLA-A24-restricted fashion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100288560 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18C pseudogene

POLRMT Gene

polymerase (RNA) mitochondrial (DNA directed)

This gene encodes a mitochondrial DNA-directed RNA polymerase. The gene product is responsible for mitochondrial gene expression as well as for providing RNA primers for initiation of replication of the mitochondrial genome. Although this polypeptide has the same function as the three nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerases, it is more closely related to RNA polymerases of phage and mitochondrial polymerases of lower eukaryotes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRPEL1 Gene

GrpE-like 1, mitochondrial (E. coli)

GRPEL2 Gene

GrpE-like 2, mitochondrial (E. coli)

NMTRQ-TTG10-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 10-1

BCAT2 Gene

branched chain amino-acid transaminase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a branched chain aminotransferase found in mitochondria. The encoded protein forms a dimer that catalyzes the first step in the production of the branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

LOC440514 Gene

citrate synthase, mitochondrial-like

TCAIM Gene

T cell activation inhibitor, mitochondrial

TSFM Gene

Ts translation elongation factor, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial translation elongation factor. The encoded protein is an enzyme that catalyzes the exchange of guanine nucleotides on the translation elongation factor Tu during the elongation step of mitchondrial protein translation. Mutations in this gene are associated with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-3 syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

MRPS34 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S34

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

NT5M Gene

5',3'-nucleotidase, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a 5' nucleotidase that localizes to the mitochondrial matrix. This enzyme dephosphorylates the 5'- and 2'(3')-phosphates of uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides. The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

XPNPEP3 Gene

X-prolyl aminopeptidase 3, mitochondrial

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of X-pro-aminopeptidases that utilize a metal cofactor, and remove the N-terminal amino acid from peptides with a proline residue in the penultimate position. This protein has been shown to localize to the mitochondria of renal cells, and have a role in ciliary function. Mutations in this gene are associated with nephronophthisis-like nephropathy-1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene, however, expression of some of these isoforms in vivo is not known.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

SARS2 Gene

seryl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes the mitochondrial seryl-tRNA synthethase precursor, a member of the class II tRNA synthetase family. The mature enzyme catalyzes the ligation of Serine to tRNA(Ser) and participates in the biosynthesis of selenocysteinyl-tRNA(sec) in mitochondria. The enzyme contains an N-terminal tRNA binding domain and a core catalytic domain. It functions in a homodimeric form, which is stabilized by tRNA binding. This gene is regulated by a bidirectional promoter that also controls the expression of mitochondrial ribosomal protein S12. Both genes are within the critical interval for the autosomal dominant deafness locus DFNA4 and might be linked to this disease. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

GTPBP3 Gene

GTP binding protein 3 (mitochondrial)

This locus encodes a GTP-binding protein. The encoded protein is localized to the mitochondria and may play a role in mitochondrial tRNA modification. Polymorphisms at this locus may be associated with severity of aminoglycoside-induced deafness, a disease associated with a mutation in the 12S rRNA. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

NMTRQ-TTG9-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 9-1

SLC25A1P4 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; citrate transporter), member 1 pseudogene 4

SLC25A1P5 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; citrate transporter), member 1 pseudogene 5

SLC25A1P1 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; citrate transporter), member 1 pseudogene 1

SLC25A1P2 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; citrate transporter), member 1 pseudogene 2

SLC25A1P3 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; citrate transporter), member 1 pseudogene 3

MCU Gene

mitochondrial calcium uniporter

This gene encodes a calcium transporter that localizes to the mitochondrial inner membrane. The encoded protein interacts with mitochondrial calcium uptake 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

LOC100129577 Gene

mitochondrial carrier 1 pseudogene

LOC100420620 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulator 1 pseudogene

NMTRL-TAA6-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Leu (TAA) 6-1

ATP5A1P4 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1 pseudogene 4

ATP5A1P5 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1 pseudogene 5

ATP5A1P7 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1 pseudogene 7

ATP5A1P2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1 pseudogene 2

ATP5A1P3 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1 pseudogene 3

ATP5A1P8 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1 pseudogene 8

MRPS18CP2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18C pseudogene 2

NDUFA4 Gene

NDUFA4, mitochondrial complex associated

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the complex I 9kDa subunit family. Mammalian complex I of mitochondrial respiratory chain is composed of 45 different subunits. This protein has NADH dehydrogenase activity and oxidoreductase activity. It transfers electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTIF2P1 Gene

mitochondrial translational initiation factor 2 pseudogene 1

ATP5A1P10 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1 pseudogene 10

MCCD1P2 Gene

mitochondrial coiled-coil domain 1 pseudogene 2

MRPL36P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L36 pseudogene 1

MRPS15P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S15 pseudogene 1

MRPS15P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S15 pseudogene 2

MTERF2 Gene

mitochondrial transcription termination factor 2

MTERF3 Gene

mitochondrial transcription termination factor 3

MTERF1 Gene

mitochondrial transcription termination factor 1

This gene encodes a mitochondrial transcription termination factor. This protein participates in attenuating transcription from the mitochondrial genome; this attenuation allows higher levels of expression of 16S ribosomal RNA relative to the tRNA gene downstream. The product of this gene has three leucine zipper motifs bracketed by two basic domains that are all required for DNA binding. There is evidence that, for this protein, the zippers participate in intramolecular interactions that establish the three-dimensional structure required for DNA binding. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTERF4 Gene

mitochondrial transcription termination factor 4

TFB1M Gene

transcription factor B1, mitochondrial

The protein encoded by this gene is a dimethyltransferase that methylates the conserved stem loop of mitochondrial 12S rRNA. The encoded protein also is part of the basal mitochondrial transcription complex and is necessary for mitochondrial gene expression. The methylation and transcriptional activities of this protein are independent of one another. Variations in this gene may influence the severity of aminoglycoside-induced deafness (AID).[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

LOC729999 Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (mitochondrial) pseudogene

ATP5F1P1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1 pseudogene 1

ATP5F1P3 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1 pseudogene 3

ATP5F1P5 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1 pseudogene 5

ATP5F1P4 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1 pseudogene 4

ATP5F1P7 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1 pseudogene 7

ATP5F1P6 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1 pseudogene 6

LOC100129966 Gene

mitochondrial carrier 1 pseudogene

MRM1 Gene

mitochondrial rRNA methyltransferase 1 homolog (S. cerevisiae)

LOC100130270 Gene

NDUFA4, mitochondrial complex associated pseudogene

MRPL53P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L53 pseudogene 1

NMTRP-TGG1-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Pro (TGG) 1-1

MRPS21P9 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21 pseudogene 9

MRPS21P4 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21 pseudogene 4

MRPS21P7 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21 pseudogene 7

UCP1 Gene

uncoupling protein 1 (mitochondrial, proton carrier)

Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP) are members of the family of mitochondrial anion carrier proteins (MACP). UCPs separate oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis with energy dissipated as heat, also referred to as the mitochondrial proton leak. UCPs facilitate the transfer of anions from the inner to the outer mitochondrial membrane and the return transfer of protons from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. They also reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential in mammalian cells. Tissue specificity occurs for the different UCPs and the exact methods of how UCPs transfer H+/OH- are not known. UCPs contain the three homologous protein domains of MACPs. This gene is expressed only in brown adipose tissue, a specialized tissue which functions to produce heat. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UCP3 Gene

uncoupling protein 3 (mitochondrial, proton carrier)

Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP) are members of the larger family of mitochondrial anion carrier proteins (MACP). UCPs separate oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis with energy dissipated as heat, also referred to as the mitochondrial proton leak. UCPs facilitate the transfer of anions from the inner to the outer mitochondrial membrane and the return transfer of protons from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. They also reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential in mammalian cells. The different UCPs have tissue-specific expression; this gene is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle. This gene's protein product is postulated to protect mitochondria against lipid-induced oxidative stress. Expression levels of this gene increase when fatty acid supplies to mitochondria exceed their oxidation capacity and the protein enables the export of fatty acids from mitochondria. UCPs contain the three solcar protein domains typically found in MACPs. Two splice variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

MSS51 Gene

MSS51 mitochondrial translational activator

ATPAF2 Gene

ATP synthase mitochondrial F1 complex assembly factor 2

This gene encodes an assembly factor for the F(1) component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase. This protein binds specifically to the F1 alpha subunit and is thought to prevent this subunit from forming nonproductive homooligomers during enzyme assembly. This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. An alternatively spliced transcript variant has been described, but its biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATPAF1 Gene

ATP synthase mitochondrial F1 complex assembly factor 1

This gene encodes an assembly factor for the F(1) component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase. This protein binds specifically to the F1 beta subunit and is thought to prevent this subunit from forming nonproductive homooligomers during enzyme assembly. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LARS2 Gene

leucyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a class 1 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase. Each of the twenty aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyzes the aminoacylation of a specific tRNA or tRNA isoaccepting family with the cognate amino acid. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP5LP5 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit g, pseudogene 5

ATP5LP4 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit g, pseudogene 4

ATP5LP7 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit g, pseudogene 7

ATP5LP6 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit g, pseudogene 6

ATP5LP1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit g, pseudogene 1

ATP5LP3 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit g, pseudogene 3

ATP5LP2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit g, pseudogene 2

ATP5LP8 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit g, pseudogene 8

LOC729126 Gene

GrpE-like 1, mitochondrial (E. coli) pseudogene

MRPL54 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L54

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL55 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L55

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Multiple transcript variants encoding two different isoforms were identified through sequence analysis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL57 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L57

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a protein which belongs to an undetermined ribosomal subunit and which seems to be specific to animal mitoribosomes. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 1p, 1q, 3p, 5q, 8q, 14q, and Y. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL50 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L50

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a putative 39S subunit protein and belongs to the L47P ribosomal protein family. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 2p, 2q, 5p, and 10q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL51 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L51

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 4p and 21q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL52 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L52

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein which has no bacterial homolog. Multiple transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms were identified through sequence analysis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL53 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L53

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 1p. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100129693 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L19 pseudogene

LOC101060206 Gene

transcription termination factor 1, mitochondrial-like

MRPS16P3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S16 pseudogene 3

MRPS16P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S16 pseudogene 2

MRPS16P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S16 pseudogene 1

MRPL40P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L40 pseudogene 1

MFF Gene

mitochondrial fission factor

This is a nuclear gene encoding a protein that functions in mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission. The encoded protein recruits dynamin-1-like protein (DNM1L) to mitochondria. There are multiple pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 5, and X. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

MRPL20P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L20 pseudogene 1

MDH2 Gene

malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD (mitochondrial)

Malate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reversible oxidation of malate to oxaloacetate, utilizing the NAD/NADH cofactor system in the citric acid cycle. The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the mitochondria and may play pivotal roles in the malate-aspartate shuttle that operates in the metabolic coordination between cytosol and mitochondria. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

SLC25A3 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 3

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the transport of phosphate into the mitochondrial matrix, either by proton cotransport or in exchange for hydroxyl ions. The protein contains three related segments arranged in tandem which are related to those found in other characterized members of the mitochondrial carrier family. Both the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of this protein protrude toward the cytosol. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been isolated. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP5G1P3 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 3

ATP5G1P1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 1

TMEM243 Gene

transmembrane protein 243, mitochondrial

LOC100132126 Gene

mitochondrial carrier 2 pseudogene

LOC442155 Gene

transcription factor B2, mitochondrial pseudogene

LOC101060199 Gene

acyl-coenzyme A synthetase ACSM6, mitochondrial-like

NMTRL-TAA2-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Leu (TAA) 2-1

IDH2 Gene

isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (NADP+), mitochondrial

Isocitrate dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to 2-oxoglutarate. These enzymes belong to two distinct subclasses, one of which utilizes NAD(+) as the electron acceptor and the other NADP(+). Five isocitrate dehydrogenases have been reported: three NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, which localize to the mitochondrial matrix, and two NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, one of which is mitochondrial and the other predominantly cytosolic. Each NADP(+)-dependent isozyme is a homodimer. The protein encoded by this gene is the NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase found in the mitochondria. It plays a role in intermediary metabolism and energy production. This protein may tightly associate or interact with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

LOC101060442 Gene

calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein SCaMC-1-like

SLC25A5P5 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 pseudogene 5

SLC25A5P6 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5 pseudogene 6

MRPL41 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L41

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein that belongs to the YmL27 ribosomal protein family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL45 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L45

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 2p and 17q. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

ATP5F1P2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1 pseudogene 2

GLS2 Gene

glutaminase 2 (liver, mitochondrial)

The protein encoded by this gene is a mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to stoichiometric amounts of glutamate and ammonia. Originally thought to be liver-specific, this protein has been found in other tissues as well. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

LOC648934 Gene

citrate synthase, mitochondrial-like

NMTRQ-TTG1-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 1-1

NMTRQ-TTG15-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 15-1

MRPL48P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L48 pseudogene 1

LOC644203 Gene

glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial-like

LOC100420247 Gene

mitochondrial fission factor pseudogene

SLC25A15P4 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; ornithine transporter) member 15 pseudogene 4

GRPEL2P1 Gene

GrpE-like 2, mitochondrial (E. coli) pseudogene 1

GRPEL2P3 Gene

GrpE-like 2, mitochondrial (E. coli) pseudogene 3

TUFM Gene

Tu translation elongation factor, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a protein which participates in protein translation in mitochondria. Mutations in this gene have been associated with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency resulting in lactic acidosis and fatal encephalopathy. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTRF1L Gene

mitochondrial translational release factor 1-like

The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in mitochondrial translation termination, and is thought to be a release factor that is involved in the dissociation of the complete protein from the final tRNA, the ribosome, and the cognate mRNA. This protein acts upon UAA and UAG stop codons, but has no in vitro activity against UGA, which encodes tryptophan in human mitochondrion, or, the mitochondrial non-cognate stop codons, AGA and AGG. This protein shares sequence similarity to bacterial release factors. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 4, 8, and 11. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

TUFMP1 Gene

Tu translation elongation factor, mitochondrial pseudogene 1

LOC100420951 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L18 pseudogene

LOC100420954 Gene

GrpE-like 1, mitochondrial (E. coli) pseudogene

PMPCB Gene

peptidase (mitochondrial processing) beta

This gene is a member of the peptidase M16 family and encodes a protein with a zinc-binding motif. This protein is located in the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes the cleavage of the leader peptides of precursor proteins newly imported into the mitochondria, though it only functions as part of a heterodimeric complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PMPCA Gene

peptidase (mitochondrial processing) alpha

ATP5L Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit G

Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The F1 complex consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled in a ratio of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The Fo seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the g subunit of the Fo complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

TOP1MT Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) I, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial DNA topoisomerase that plays a role in the modification of DNA topology. The encoded protein is a type IB topoisomerase and catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of DNA to relieve tension and DNA supercoiling generated in the mitochondrial genome during replication and transcription. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

UCP2 Gene

uncoupling protein 2 (mitochondrial, proton carrier)

Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP) are members of the larger family of mitochondrial anion carrier proteins (MACP). UCPs separate oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis with energy dissipated as heat, also referred to as the mitochondrial proton leak. UCPs facilitate the transfer of anions from the inner to the outer mitochondrial membrane and the return transfer of protons from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. They also reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential in mammalian cells. Tissue specificity occurs for the different UCPs and the exact methods of how UCPs transfer H+/OH- are not known. UCPs contain the three homologous protein domains of MACPs. This gene is expressed in many tissues, with the greatest expression in skeletal muscle. It is thought to play a role in nonshivering thermogenesis, obesity and diabetes. Chromosomal order is 5'-UCP3-UCP2-3'. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MALSU1 Gene

mitochondrial assembly of ribosomal large subunit 1

LOC348210 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L57 pseudogene

ATP5G1P2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 2

ATP5G1P6 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 6

ATP5G1P7 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 7

ATP5G1P4 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 4

ATP5G1P5 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 5

ATP5G1P8 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 8

NMTRQ-TTG14-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 14-1

LOC100422628 Gene

glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial (aspartate aminotransferase 2) pseudogene

MRPS17P9 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S17 pseudogene 9

MRPS17P6 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S17 pseudogene 6

MRPS17P7 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S17 pseudogene 7

MRPS17P5 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S17 pseudogene 5

MRPS17P3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S17 pseudogene 3

MRPS17P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S17 pseudogene 1

SLC25A19 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial thiamine pyrophosphate carrier), member 19

This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein that is a member of the solute carrier family. Although this protein was initially thought to be the mitochondrial deoxynucleotide carrier involved in the uptake of deoxynucleotides into the matrix of the mitochondria, further studies have demonstrated that this protein instead functions as the mitochondrial thiamine pyrophosphate carrier, which transports thiamine pyrophosphates into mitochondria. Mutations in this gene cause microcephaly, Amish type, a metabolic disease that results in severe congenital microcephaly, severe 2-ketoglutaric aciduria, and death within the first year. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC25A16 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier), member 16

This gene encodes a protein that contains three tandemly repeated mitochondrial carrier protein domains. The encoded protein is localized in the inner membrane and facilitates the rapid transport and exchange of molecules between the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix space. This gene has a possible role in Graves' disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC25A15 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; ornithine transporter) member 15

This gene is a member of the mitochondrial carrier family. The encoded protein transports ornithine across the inner mitochondrial membrane from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix. The protein is an essential component of the urea cycle, and functions in ammonium detoxification and biosynthesis of the amino acid arginine. Mutations in this gene result in hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome. There is a pseudogene of this locus on the Y chromosome.[provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

SLC25A14 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier, brain), member 14

Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP) are members of the larger family of mitochondrial anion carrier proteins (MACP). Uncoupling proteins separate oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis with energy dissipated as heat, also referred to as the mitochondrial proton leak. Uncoupling proteins facilitate the transfer of anions from the inner to the outer mitochondrial membrane and the return transfer of protons from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. They also reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential in mammalian cells. This gene is widely expressed in many tissues with the greatest abundance in brain and testis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

SLC25A11 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; oxoglutarate carrier), member 11

The oxoglutarate/malate carrier transports 2-oxoglutarate across the inner membranes of mitochondria in an electroneutral exchange for malate or other dicarboxylic acids (summary by Iacobazzi et al., 1992 [PubMed 1457818]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

SLC25A10 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; dicarboxylate transporter), member 10

This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins that translocate small metabolites across the mitochondrial membrane. The encoded protein exchanges dicarboxylates, such as malate and succinate, for phosphate, sulfate, and other small molecules, thereby providing substrates for metabolic processes including the Krebs cycle and fatty acid synthesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

MRPS18BP1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18B pseudogene 1

MRPS18BP2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18B pseudogene 2

LOC101928195 Gene

monofunctional C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, mitochondrial-like

MRPL9P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L9 pseudogene 1

MRPS22P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S22 pseudogene 1

MRPL4 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L4

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Sequence analysis identified alternatively spliced variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L2

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein that belongs to the EcoL2 ribosomal protein family. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 12q. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

MRPL3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L3

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein that belongs to the L3P ribosomal protein family. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 13q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L1

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein that belongs to the L1 ribosomal protein family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL9 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L9

This is a nuclear gene encoding a protein component of the 39S subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 8. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

MRPS5P3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S5 pseudogene 3

MRPS5P4 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S5 pseudogene 4

MUL1 Gene

mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

MIPEPP2 Gene

mitochondrial intermediate peptidase pseudogene 2

PARS2 Gene

prolyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative)

This gene encodes a putative member of the class II family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This protein is encoded by the nuclear genome but is likely to be imported to the mitochondrion where it is thought to catalyze the ligation of proline to tRNA molecules. Mutations have been found in this gene in some patients with Alpers syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

LOC101060098 Gene

deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotidohydrolase, mitochondrial-like

SSBP1 Gene

single-stranded DNA binding protein 1, mitochondrial

SSBP1 is a housekeeping gene involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (Tiranti et al., 1995 [PubMed 7789991]). It is also a subunit of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding complex involved in the maintenance of genome stability (Huang et al., 2009) [PubMed 19683501].[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

MTFMT Gene

mitochondrial methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase

The protein encoded by this nuclear gene localizes to the mitochondrion, where it catalyzes the formylation of methionyl-tRNA. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

LOC102724788 Gene

proline dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrial

LOC100420899 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S25 pseudogene

LOC644924 Gene

glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial (aspartate aminotransferase 2) pseudogene

EARS2 Gene

glutamyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a member of the class I family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This protein is encoded by the nuclear genome but is likely to be imported to the mitochondrion where it is thought to catalyze the ligation of glutamate to tRNA molecules. Mutations in this gene have been associated with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 12 (COXPD12). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

RARS2 Gene

arginyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

The protein encoded by this gene is an arginyl-tRNA synthetase that is found in the mitochondrial matrix. Defects in this gene are a cause of pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6 (PCH6). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

MRPL57P7 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L57 pseudogene 7

MRPL57P6 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L57 pseudogene 6

MRPL57P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L57 pseudogene 1

MRPL57P3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L57 pseudogene 3

MRPL57P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L57 pseudogene 2

MRPL57P9 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L57 pseudogene 9

MRPL57P8 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L57 pseudogene 8

YARS2 Gene

tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein that catalyzes the attachment of tyrosine to tRNA(Tyr). Mutations in this gene are associated with myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia type 2 (MLASA2). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

LOC89844 Gene

mitochondrial RNA polymerase pseudogene

MRPL49P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L49 pseudogene 1

MRPL49P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L49 pseudogene 2

ATP5F1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the b subunit of the proton channel. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTFR1L Gene

mitochondrial fission regulator 1-like

NARS2 Gene

asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative)

This gene encodes a putative member of the class II family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This protein is encoded by the nuclear genome but is likely to be imported to the mitochondrion where it is thought to catalyze the ligation of asparagine to tRNA molecules. Mutations in this gene have been associated with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 24 (COXPD24). [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

MRPS25P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S25 pseudogene 1

LOC644762 Gene

mitochondrial fission factor pseudogene

PCK2 Gene

phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 2 (mitochondrial)

This gene encodes a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). A cytosolic form of this protein is encoded by a different gene and is the key enzyme of gluconeogenesis in the liver. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

MRPL36 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L36

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome 2p. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL37 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L37

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL34 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L34

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL35 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L35

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Sequence analysis identified three transcript variants. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 6p, 10q, and Xp. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL32 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L32

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein that belongs to the L32 ribosomal protein family. A pseudogene corresponding to this gene is found on chromosome Xp. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL33 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L33

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPL30 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L30

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 6p and 12p. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the neighboring upstream lipoyltransferase 1 (LIPT1) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

MRPL38 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L38

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 39S subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

METAP1D Gene

methionyl aminopeptidase type 1D (mitochondrial)

The N-terminal methionine excision pathway is an essential process in which the N-terminal methionine is removed from many proteins, thus facilitating subsequent protein modification. In mitochondria, enzymes that catalyze this reaction are celled methionine aminopeptidases (MetAps, or MAPs; EC 3.4.11.18) (Serero et al., 2003 [PubMed 14532271]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MRPL30P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L30 pseudogene 1

MRPL30P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L30 pseudogene 2

LOC285442 Gene

mitochondrial translational release factor 1-like pseudogene

LOC102724904 Gene

monofunctional C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, mitochondrial-like

POLRMTP1 Gene

polymerase (RNA) mitochondrial (DNA directed) pseudogene 1

LOC100421031 Gene

carbonic anhydrase VA, mitochondrial pseudogene

MRPS35 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S35

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that has had confusing nomenclature in the literature. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 3p, 5q, and 10q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

MRPS36 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S36

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. The mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome) consists of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 3p, 4q, 8p, 11q, 12q, and 20p. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS31 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. The 28S subunit of the mammalian mitoribosome may play a crucial and characteristic role in translation initiation. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that has also been associated with type 1 diabetes; however, its relationship to the etiology of this disease remains to be clarified. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene have been found on chromosomes 3 and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS30 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S30

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that is similar to the chicken pro-apoptotic protein p52. Transcript variants using alternative promoters or polyA sites have been mentioned in the literature but the complete description of these sequences is not available. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRPS33 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S33

Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. The 28S subunit of the mammalian mitoribosome may play a crucial and characteristic role in translation initiation. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that is one of the more highly conserved mitochondrial ribosomal proteins among mammals, Drosophila and C. elegans. Splice variants that differ in the 5' UTR have been found for this gene; all variants encode the same protein. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 1q, 4p, 4q, and 20q [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100310782 Gene

mitochondrial translational initiation factor 3 pseudogene

MRRFP1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor pseudogene 1

SLC25A6P2 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6 pseudogene 2

SLC25A6P1 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6, pseudogene 1

SLC25A6P6 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6 pseudogene 6

SLC25A6P5 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6 pseudogene 5

SLC25A6P4 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6 pseudogene 4

LOC100287966 Gene

ATP synthase-coupling factor 6, mitochondrial-like

TAMM41 Gene

TAM41, mitochondrial translocator assembly and maintenance protein, homolog (S. cerevisiae)

MRPS18CP3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18C pseudogene 3

MRPS18CP5 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18C pseudogene 5

MRPS18CP4 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18C pseudogene 4

MRPS18CP6 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18C pseudogene 6

MCUR1 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulator 1

MRPS21P8 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21 pseudogene 8

MRPS21P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21 pseudogene 1

MRPS21P3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21 pseudogene 3

MRPS21P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21 pseudogene 2

MRPS21P5 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21 pseudogene 5

MRPS21P6 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S21 pseudogene 6

MTRF1LP1 Gene

mitochondrial translational release factor 1-like pseudogene 1

MTRF1LP2 Gene

mitochondrial translational release factor 1-like pseudogene 2

NMTRQ-CTG1-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (CTG) 1-1

SLC25A2 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; ornithine transporter) member 2

This intronless gene encodes a protein that localizes to the mitochondrial inner membrane and likely functions as a transporter of small molecules such as ornithine. This gene is located between the protocadherin beta and gamma gene clusters on chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

SLC25A1 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; citrate transporter), member 1

This gene encodes a member of the mitochondrial carrier subfamily of solute carrier proteins. Members of this family include nuclear-encoded transporters that translocate small metabolites across the mitochondrial membrane. This protein regulates the movement of citrate across the inner membranes of the mitochondria. Mutations in this gene have been associated with combined D-2- and L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Pseudogenes of this gene have been identified on chromosomes 7, 11, 16, and 19. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

SLC25A6 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 6

This gene is a member of the mitochondrial carrier subfamily of solute carrier protein genes. The product of this gene functions as a gated pore that translocates ADP from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix and ATP from the mitochondrial matrix into the cytoplasm. The protein is implicated in the function of the permability transition pore complex (PTPC), which regulates the release of mitochondrial products that induce apoptosis. The human genome contains several non-transcribed pseudogenes of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

SLC25A5 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 5

This gene is a member of the mitochondrial carrier subfamily of solute carrier protein genes. The product of this gene functions as a gated pore that translocates ADP from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix and ATP from the mitochondrial matrix into the cytoplasm. The protein forms a homodimer embedded in the inner mitochondria membrane. Suppressed expression of this gene has been shown to induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth. The human genome contains several non-transcribed pseudogenes of this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

SLC25A4 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; adenine nucleotide translocator), member 4

This gene is a member of the mitochondrial carrier subfamily of solute carrier protein genes. The product of this gene functions as a gated pore that translocates ADP from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrial matrix and ATP from the mitochondrial matrix into the cytoplasm. The protein forms a homodimer embedded in the inner mitochondria membrane. Mutations in this gene have been shown to result in autosomal dominant progressive external opthalmoplegia and familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

IARS2 Gene

isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAS, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. Two forms of isoleucine-tRNA synthetase exist, a cytoplasmic form and a mitochondrial form. This gene encodes the mitochondrial isoleucine-tRNA synthetase which belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

DECR1 Gene

2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase 1, mitochondrial

This gene encodes an accessory enzyme which participates in the beta-oxidation and metabolism of unsaturated fatty enoyl-CoA esters. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC646828 Gene

carbonic anhydrase VA, mitochondrial pseudogene

MIPEP Gene

mitochondrial intermediate peptidase

The product of this gene performs the final step in processing a specific class of nuclear-encoded proteins targeted to the mitochondrial matrix or inner membrane. This protein is primarily involved in the maturation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS)-related proteins. This gene may contribute to the functional effects of frataxin deficiency and the clinical manifestations of Friedreich ataxia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTFP1 Gene

mitochondrial fission process 1

MTP18 is a mitochondrial protein and downstream target of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (see PIK3CA, MIM 171834) signaling pathway that plays a role in cell viability and mitochondrial dynamics (Tondera et al., 2004 [PubMed 15155745]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PDF Gene

peptide deformylase (mitochondrial)

Protein synthesis proceeds after formylation of methionine by methionyl-tRNA formyl transferase (FMT) and transfer of the charged initiator f-met tRNA to the ribosome. In eubacteria and eukaryotic organelles the product of this gene, peptide deformylase (PDF), removes the formyl group from the initiating methionine of nascent peptides. In eubacteria, deformylation of nascent peptides is required for subsequent cleavage of initiating methionines by methionine aminopeptidase. The discovery that a natural inhibitor of PDF, actinonin, acts as an antimicrobial agent in some bacteria has spurred intensive research into the design of bacterial-specific PDF inhibitors. In human cells, only mitochondrial proteins have N-formylation of initiating methionines. Protein inhibitors of PDF or siRNAs of PDF block the growth of cancer cell lines but have no effect on normal cell growth. In humans, PDF function may therefore be restricted to rapidly growing cells. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

LOC348958 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L10 pseudogene

GOT2 Gene

glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2, mitochondrial

Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in cytoplasmic and inner-membrane mitochondrial forms, GOT1 and GOT2, respectively. GOT plays a role in amino acid metabolism and the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles. The two enzymes are homodimeric and show close homology. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]

LOC100287498 Gene

NDUFA4, mitochondrial complex associated pseudogene

LOC643219 Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2, mitochondrial pseudogene

ATP5G1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9)

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene is one of three genes that encode subunit c of the proton channel. Each of the three genes have distinct mitochondrial import sequences but encode the identical mature protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421651 Gene

caseinolytic mitochondrial matrix peptidase chaperone subunit pseudogene

MRPS36P5 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S36 pseudogene 5

MRPS36P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S36 pseudogene 1

NMTRQ-TTG4-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 4-1

NMTRQ-TTG5-1 Gene

nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transfer RNA-Gln (TTG) 5-1

MRPL35P4 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L35 pseudogene 4

MRPL35P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L35 pseudogene 1

MRPL35P3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L35 pseudogene 3

MRPL35P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L35 pseudogene 2

APOPT1 Gene

apoptogenic 1, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a protein that localizes to the mitochondria, where it stimulates the release of cytochrome c, thereby promoting programmed cell death. Mutations in this gene have been found in individuals with mitochondrial complex IV deficiency. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DARS2 Gene

aspartyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. It is a mitochondrial enzyme that specifically aminoacylates aspartyl-tRNA. Mutations in this gene are associated with leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and lactate elevation (LBSL). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

CPS1 Gene

carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1, mitochondrial

The mitochondrial enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from ammonia and bicarbonate. This reaction is the first committed step of the urea cycle, which is important in the removal of excess urea from cells. The encoded protein may also represent a core mitochondrial nucleoid protein. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The shortest isoform may not be localized to the mitochondrion. Mutations in this gene have been associated with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency, susceptibility to persistent pulmonary hypertension, and susceptibility to venoocclusive disease after bone marrow transplantation.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LOC100420262 Gene

mitochondrial fission factor pseudogene

mitochondrial membrane part Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the mitochondrial membrane part cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial membrane part Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins co-occuring with the mitochondrial membrane part cellular component in abstracts of biomedical publications from the COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial membrane part Gene Set

From GO Cellular Component Annotations

proteins localized to the mitochondrial membrane part cellular component from the curated GO Cellular Component Annotations dataset.

MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEX V (ATP SYNTHASE) DEFICIENCY, NUCLEAR TYPE 1;MC5DN1 MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEX V (ATP SYNTHASE) DEFICIENCY, ATPAF2 TYPE Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Disease Associations

genes/proteins associated with the disease MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEX V (ATP SYNTHASE) DEFICIENCY, NUCLEAR TYPE 1;MC5DN1 MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEX V (ATP SYNTHASE) DEFICIENCY, ATPAF2 TYPE from the curated CTD Gene-Disease Associations dataset.

mitochondrial outer membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

integral component of mitochondrial membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the integral component of mitochondrial membrane cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial inner membrane peptidase complex Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane peptidase complex cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

intrinsic component of mitochondrial outer membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the intrinsic component of mitochondrial outer membrane cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

extrinsic component of mitochondrial outer membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the extrinsic component of mitochondrial outer membrane cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

integral component of mitochondrial outer membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the integral component of mitochondrial outer membrane cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial inner membrane presequence translocase complex Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane presequence translocase complex cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

intrinsic component of mitochondrial inner membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the intrinsic component of mitochondrial inner membrane cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial outer membrane translocase complex Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane translocase complex cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

integral component of mitochondrial inner membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the integral component of mitochondrial inner membrane cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

intrinsic component of mitochondrial membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the intrinsic component of mitochondrial membrane cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

extrinsic component of mitochondrial inner membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the extrinsic component of mitochondrial inner membrane cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the mitochondrial membrane cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial inner membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the mitochondrial inner membrane cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

cytoplasmic side of mitochondrial outer membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the cytoplasmic side of mitochondrial outer membrane cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial outer membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins co-occuring with the mitochondrial outer membrane cellular component in abstracts of biomedical publications from the COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

integral component of mitochondrial membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins co-occuring with the integral component of mitochondrial membrane cellular component in abstracts of biomedical publications from the COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial inner membrane peptidase complex Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins co-occuring with the mitochondrial inner membrane peptidase complex cellular component in abstracts of biomedical publications from the COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial inner membrane presequence translocase complex Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins co-occuring with the mitochondrial inner membrane presequence translocase complex cellular component in abstracts of biomedical publications from the COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

intrinsic component of mitochondrial inner membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins co-occuring with the intrinsic component of mitochondrial inner membrane cellular component in abstracts of biomedical publications from the COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial outer membrane translocase complex Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins co-occuring with the mitochondrial outer membrane translocase complex cellular component in abstracts of biomedical publications from the COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

integral component of mitochondrial inner membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins co-occuring with the integral component of mitochondrial inner membrane cellular component in abstracts of biomedical publications from the COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

intrinsic component of mitochondrial membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins co-occuring with the intrinsic component of mitochondrial membrane cellular component in abstracts of biomedical publications from the COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins co-occuring with the mitochondrial membrane cellular component in abstracts of biomedical publications from the COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial inner membrane Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins co-occuring with the mitochondrial inner membrane cellular component in abstracts of biomedical publications from the COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

mitochondrial inner membrane protein insertion complex Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins co-occuring with the mitochondrial inner membrane protein insertion complex cellular component in abstracts of biomedical publications from the COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

negative regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the negative regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

positive regulation of protein import into mitochondrial outer membrane Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the positive regulation of protein import into mitochondrial outer membrane biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

positive regulation of protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the positive regulation of protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

regulation of protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the regulation of protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

regulation of protein import into mitochondrial outer membrane Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the regulation of protein import into mitochondrial outer membrane biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in programmed cell death Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in programmed cell death biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

outer mitochondrial membrane organization Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the outer mitochondrial membrane organization biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

mitochondrial membrane organization Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the mitochondrial membrane organization biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

mitochondrial membrane fission Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the mitochondrial membrane fission biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

negative regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability involved in apoptotic process Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the negative regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability involved in apoptotic process biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

negative regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the negative regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability involved in apoptotic process Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability involved in apoptotic process biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

protein import into mitochondrial inner membrane Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the protein import into mitochondrial inner membrane biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

negative regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the negative regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

establishment of protein localization to mitochondrial membrane Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the establishment of protein localization to mitochondrial membrane biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability involved in apoptotic process Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability involved in apoptotic process biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the regulation of mitochondrial membrane potential biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

inner mitochondrial membrane organization Gene Set