Name

BioGPS Human Cell Type and Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From BioGPS

mRNA expression profiles for human tissues and cell types

BioGPS Mouse Cell Type and Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From BioGPS

mRNA expression profiles for mouse tissues and cell types

HPM Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Proteome Map

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types

ProteomicsDB Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Proteomics Database

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types reprocessed from many proteomics datasets

CACNA1H Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1H subunit

This gene encodes a T-type member of the alpha-1 subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. The alpha-1 subunit has 24 transmembrane segments and forms the pore through which ions pass into the cell. There are multiple isoforms of each of the proteins in the complex, either encoded by different genes or the result of alternative splicing of transcripts. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized for the gene described here. Studies suggest certain mutations in this gene lead to childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA1I Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1I subunit

This gene encodes the pore-forming alpha subunit of a voltage gated calcium channel. The encoded protein is a member of a subfamily of calcium channels referred to as is a low voltage-activated, T-type, calcium channel. The channel encoded by this protein is characterized by a slower activation and inactivation compared to other T-type calcium channels. This protein may be involved in calcium signaling in neurons. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CACNA1A Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. Calcium channels are multisubunit complexes composed of alpha-1, beta, alpha-2/delta, and gamma subunits. The channel activity is directed by the pore-forming alpha-1 subunit, whereas, the others act as auxiliary subunits regulating this activity. The distinctive properties of the calcium channel types are related primarily to the expression of a variety of alpha-1 isoforms, alpha-1A, B, C, D, E, and S. This gene encodes the alpha-1A subunit, which is predominantly expressed in neuronal tissue. Mutations in this gene are associated with 2 neurologic disorders, familial hemiplegic migraine and episodic ataxia 2. This gene also exhibits polymorphic variation due to (CAG)n-repeats. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. In one set of transcript variants, the (CAG)n-repeats occur in the 3' UTR, and are not associated with any disease. But in another set of variants, an insertion extends the coding region to include the (CAG)n-repeats which encode a polyglutamine tract. Expansion of the (CAG)n-repeats from the normal 4-16 to 21-28 in the coding region is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CACNA1B Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, N type, alpha 1B subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is the pore-forming subunit of an N-type voltage-dependent calcium channel, which controls neurotransmitter release from neurons. The encoded protein forms a complex with alpha-2, beta, and delta subunits to form the high-voltage activated channel. This channel is sensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA and omega-agatoxin-IIIA but insensitive to dihydropyridines. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

CACNA1C Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit

This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. The alpha-1 subunit consists of 24 transmembrane segments and forms the pore through which ions pass into the cell. The calcium channel consists of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. There are multiple isoforms of each of these proteins, either encoded by different genes or the result of alternative splicing of transcripts. The protein encoded by this gene binds to and is inhibited by dihydropyridine. Alternative splicing results in many transcript variants encoding different proteins. Some of the predicted proteins may not produce functional ion channel subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

CACNA1D Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. Calcium channels are multisubunit complexes composed of alpha-1, beta, alpha-2/delta, and gamma subunits. The channel activity is directed by the pore-forming alpha-1 subunit, whereas the others act as auxiliary subunits regulating this activity. The distinctive properties of the calcium channel types are related primarily to the expression of a variety of alpha-1 isoforms, namely alpha-1A, B, C, D, E, and S. This gene encodes the alpha-1D subunit. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

CACNA1E Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are multisubunit complexes consisting of alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, and delta subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. These channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. This gene encodes the alpha-1E subunit of the R-type calcium channels, which belong to the 'high-voltage activated' group that maybe involved in the modulation of firing patterns of neurons important for information processing. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

CACNA1F Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit

This gene encodes a multipass transmembrane protein that functions as an alpha-1 subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, which mediates the influx of calcium ions into the cell. The encoded protein forms a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Mutations in this gene can cause X-linked eye disorders, including congenital stationary night blindness type 2A, cone-rod dystropy, and Aland Island eye disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

LOC100422463 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit pseudogene

CACNA1G Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit

Voltage-sensitive calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division, and cell death. This gene encodes a T-type, low-voltage activated calcium channel. The T-type channels generate currents that are both transient, owing to fast inactivation, and tiny, owing to small conductance. T-type channels are thought to be involved in pacemaker activity, low-threshold calcium spikes, neuronal oscillations and resonance, and rebound burst firing. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

CACNA1S Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit

This gene encodes one of the five subunits of the slowly inactivating L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel in skeletal muscle cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OSGEPL1 Gene

O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase-like 1

RCE1 Gene

Ras converting CAAX endopeptidase 1

This gene encodes an integral membrane protein which is classified as a member of the metalloproteinase family. This enzyme is thought to function in the maintenance and processing of CAAX-type prenylated proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASTL Gene

astacin-like metallo-endopeptidase (M12 family)

PREP Gene

prolyl endopeptidase

The protein encoded by this gene is a cytosolic prolyl endopeptidase that cleaves peptide bonds on the C-terminal side of prolyl residues within peptides that are up to approximately 30 amino acids long. Prolyl endopeptidases have been reported to be involved in the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PREPL Gene

prolyl endopeptidase-like

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the prolyl oligopeptidase subfamily of serine peptidases. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome, also known as the 2p21 deletion syndrome. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding either the same or different isoforms have been described for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

KEL Gene

Kell blood group, metallo-endopeptidase

This gene encodes a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is the highly polymorphic Kell blood group antigen. The Kell glycoprotein links via a single disulfide bond to the XK membrane protein that carries the Kx antigen. The encoded protein contains sequence and structural similarity to members of the neprilysin (M13) family of zinc endopeptidases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MME Gene

membrane metallo-endopeptidase

This gene encodes a common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen that is an important cell surface marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). This protein is present on leukemic cells of pre-B phenotype, which represent 85% of cases of ALL. This protein is not restricted to leukemic cells, however, and is found on a variety of normal tissues. It is a glycoprotein that is particularly abundant in kidney, where it is present on the brush border of proximal tubules and on glomerular epithelium. The protein is a neutral endopeptidase that cleaves peptides at the amino side of hydrophobic residues and inactivates several peptide hormones including glucagon, enkephalins, substance P, neurotensin, oxytocin, and bradykinin. This gene, which encodes a 100-kD type II transmembrane glycoprotein, exists in a single copy of greater than 45 kb. The 5' untranslated region of this gene is alternatively spliced, resulting in four separate mRNA transcripts. The coding region is not affected by alternative splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MMEL1 Gene

membrane metallo-endopeptidase-like 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) or membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME) family. Family members play important roles in pain perception, arterial pressure regulation, phosphate metabolism and homeostasis. This protein is a type II transmembrane protein and is thought to be expressed as a secreted protein. This gene is expressed mainly in testis with weak expression in the brain, kidney, and heart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PHEX Gene

phosphate regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked

The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane endopeptidase that belongs to the type II integral membrane zinc-dependent endopeptidase family. The protein is thought to be involved in bone and dentin mineralization and renal phosphate reabsorption. Mutations in this gene cause X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PCOLCE2 Gene

procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer 2

PCOLCE Gene

procollagen C-endopeptidase enhancer

Fibrillar collagen types I-III are synthesized as precursor molecules known as procollagens. These precursors contain amino- and carboxyl-terminal peptide extensions known as N- and C-propeptides, respectively, which are cleaved, upon secretion of procollagen from the cell, to yield the mature triple helical, highly structured fibrils. This gene encodes a glycoprotein which binds and drives the enzymatic cleavage of type I procollagen and heightens C-proteinase activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OSGEP Gene

O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase

ORAI2 Gene

ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 2

ORAI3 Gene

ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 3

ORAI1 Gene

ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane calcium channel subunit that is activated by the calcium sensor STIM1 when calcium stores are depleted. This type of channel is the primary way for calcium influx into T-cells. Defects in this gene are a cause of immune dysfunction with T-cell inactivation due to calcium entry defect type 1 (IDTICED1). [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

CAMKK2 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. The major isoform of this gene plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade by phosphorylating the downstream kinases CaMK1 and CaMK4. Protein products of this gene also phosphorylate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This gene has its strongest expression in the brain and influences signalling cascades involved with learning and memory, neuronal differentiation and migration, neurite outgrowth, and synapse formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. The identified isoforms differ in their ability to undergo autophosphorylation and to phosphorylate downstream kinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CAMKK1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade. Three transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C2CD4A Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 4A

C2CD4B Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 4B

C2CD4C Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 4C

C2CD4D Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 4D

CAMK2D Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a delta chain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Distinct isoforms of this chain have different expression patterns.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

CAMK2G Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma

The product of this gene is one of the four subunits of an enzyme which belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a gamma chain. Many alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described but the full-length nature of all the variants has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

CAMK2A Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinases family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. This calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The alpha chain encoded by this gene is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning. In addition to its calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent activity, this protein can undergo autophosphorylation, resulting in CaM-independent activity. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

CAMK2B Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a beta chain. It is possible that distinct isoforms of this chain have different cellular localizations and interact differently with calmodulin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

CACNA2D1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 1

The preproprotein encoded by this gene is cleaved into multiple chains that comprise the alpha-2 and delta subunits of the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. Mutations in this gene can cause cardiac deficiencies, including Brugada syndrome and short QT syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants, some of which may lack the delta subunit portion. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

PLA2G4A Gene

phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)

This gene encodes a member of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IV family. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to release arachidonic acid which is subsequently metabolized into eicosanoids. Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are lipid-based cellular hormones that regulate hemodynamics, inflammatory responses, and other intracellular pathways. The hydrolysis reaction also produces lysophospholipids that are converted into platelet-activating factor. The enzyme is activated by increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels and phosphorylation, resulting in its translocation from the cytosol and nucleus to perinuclear membrane vesicles. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA2D2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 2

Calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. This gene encodes the alpha-2/delta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. The complex consists of the main channel-forming subunit alpha-1, and auxiliary subunits alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma. The auxiliary subunits function in the assembly and membrane localization of the complex, and modulate calcium currents and channel activation/inactivation kinetics. The subunit encoded by this gene undergoes post-translational cleavage to yield the extracellular alpha2 peptide and a membrane-anchored delta polypeptide. This subunit is a receptor for the antiepileptic drug, gabapentin. Mutations in this gene are associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are correlated with increased sensitivity to opioid drugs. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CACNA2D3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3

This gene encodes a member of the alpha-2/delta subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. Research on a highly similar protein in rabbit suggests the protein described in this record is cleaved into alpha-2 and delta subunits. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA2D4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 4

This gene encodes a member of the alpha-2/delta subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. Research on a highly similar protein in rabbit suggests the protein described in this record is cleaved into alpha-2 and delta subunits. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CASK Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)

This gene encodes a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase. The encoded protein is a MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) protein family member. These proteins are scaffold proteins and the encoded protein is located at synapses in the brain. Mutations in this gene are associated with FG syndrome 4, mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia, and a form of X-linked mental retardation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CAMK2N2 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 2

This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the rat CaM-KII inhibitory protein, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII). CAMKII regulates numerous physiological functions, including neuronal synaptic plasticity through the phosphorylation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate (AMPA) receptors. Studies of the similar protein in rat suggest that this protein may function as a negative regulator of CaM-KII and may act to inhibit the phosphorylation of AMPA receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAMK2N1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1

CACNG8 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type II TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. The mRNA for this gene is believed to initiate translation from a non-AUG (CUG) start codon. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is a susceptibility locus for childhood absence epilepsy. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG6 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 6

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of two known gamma subunit proteins. This particular gamma subunit is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members that function as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Variants in this gene have been associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG7 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type I TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CAMK1G Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IG

This gene encodes a protein similar to calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAMK1D Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID

This gene is a member of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 family, a subfamily of the serine/threonine kinases. The encoded protein is a component of the calcium-regulated calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade. It has been associated with multiple processes including regulation of granulocyte function, activation of CREB-dependent gene transcription, aldosterone synthesis, differentiation and activation of neutrophil cells, and apoptosis of erythroleukemia cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms of this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

CACNB3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 3 subunit

This gene encodes a regulatory beta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel. Beta subunits are composed of five domains, which contribute to the regulation of surface expression and gating of calcium channels and may also play a role in the regulation of transcription factors and calcium transport. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CACNB2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 2 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel protein that is a member of the voltage-gated calcium channel superfamily. The gene product was originally identified as an antigen target in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, an autoimmune disorder. Mutations in this gene are associated with Brugada syndrome. Alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

CACNB1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the calcium channel beta subunit family. It plays an important role in the calcium channel by modulating G protein inhibition, increasing peak calcium current, controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting and shifting the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and three transcript variants encoding three distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNB4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 4 subunit

This gene encodes a member of the beta subunit family of voltage-dependent calcium channel complex proteins. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. The protein encoded by this locus plays an important role in calcium channel function by modulating G protein inhibition, increasing peak calcium current, controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting and shifting the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation. Certain mutations in this gene have been associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

CACNG1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 1

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of two known gamma subunit proteins. This particular gamma subunit is part of skeletal muscle 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels and is an integral membrane protein that plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members that function as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG5 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type I TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. This gene is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CAMK1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I is expressed in many tissues and is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade. Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly promotes the phosphorylation and synergistic activation of the enzyme by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I kinase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAMK4 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This enzyme is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase with limited tissue distribution, that has been implicated in transcriptional regulation in lymphocytes, neurons and male germ cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNG2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type II TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

C2CD3 Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 3

This gene encodes a protein that functions as a regulator of centriole elongation. Studies of the orthologous mouse protein show that it promotes centriolar distal appendage assembly and is also required for the recruitment of other ciliogenic proteins, including intraflagellar transport proteins. Mutations in this gene cause orofaciodigital syndrome XIV (OFD14), a ciliopathy resulting in malformations of the oral cavity, face and digits. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

C2CD2 Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 2

C2CD5 Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 5

CASKP1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family) pseudogene 1

CDO1 Gene

cysteine dioxygenase type 1

PRKAR2A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAR2B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) in activated T cells. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this subunit may play an important role in regulating energy balance and adiposity. The studies also suggest that this subunit may mediate the gene induction and cataleptic behavior induced by haloperidol. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAR1AP Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha pseudogene

PRKG1 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I

Mammals have three different isoforms of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (Ialpha, Ibeta, and II). These PRKG isoforms act as key mediators of the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway and are important components of many signal transduction processes in diverse cell types. This PRKG1 gene on human chromosome 10 encodes the soluble Ialpha and Ibeta isoforms of PRKG by alternative transcript splicing. A separate gene on human chromosome 4, PRKG2, encodes the membrane-bound PRKG isoform II. The PRKG1 proteins play a central role in regulating cardiovascular and neuronal functions in addition to relaxing smooth muscle tone, preventing platelet aggregation, and modulating cell growth. This gene is most strongly expressed in all types of smooth muscle, platelets, cerebellar Purkinje cells, hippocampal neurons, and the lateral amygdala. Isoforms Ialpha and Ibeta have identical cGMP-binding and catalytic domains but differ in their leucine/isoleucine zipper and autoinhibitory sequences and therefore differ in their dimerization substrates and kinase enzyme activity. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PRKG2 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type II

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family of proteins. The encoded protein plays a role in the regulation of fluid balance in the intestine. A similar protein in mouse is thought to regulate differentiation and proliferation of cells in the colon. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

NIDDM2 Gene

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (common, type 2) 2

NIDDM1 Gene

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (common, type 2) 1

PRKAR1A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. This gene encodes one of the regulatory subunits. This protein was found to be a tissue-specific extinguisher that down-regulates the expression of seven liver genes in hepatoma x fibroblast hybrids. Mutations in this gene cause Carney complex (CNC). This gene can fuse to the RET protooncogene by gene rearrangement and form the thyroid tumor-specific chimeric oncogene known as PTC2. A nonconventional nuclear localization sequence (NLS) has been found for this protein which suggests a role in DNA replication via the protein serving as a nuclear transport protein for the second subunit of the Replication Factor C (RFC40). Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

PRKAR1B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, beta

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is an essential enzyme in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Through phosphorylation of target proteins, PKA controls many biochemical events in the cell including regulation of metabolism, ion transport, and gene transcription. The PKA holoenzyme is composed of 2 regulatory and 2 catalytic subunits and dissociates from the regulatory subunits upon binding of cAMP.[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

LOC100422398 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

LOC100422399 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

LOC643733 Gene

caspase 4, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase pseudogene

CASP3P1 Gene

caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase pseudogene 1

LOC100420832 Gene

cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2 pseudogene

CCBL1 Gene

cysteine conjugate-beta lyase, cytoplasmic

This gene encodes a cytosolic enzyme that is responsible for the metabolism of cysteine conjugates of certain halogenated alkenes and alkanes. This metabolism can form reactive metabolites leading to nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Increased levels of this enzyme have been linked to schizophrenia. Multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CCBL2 Gene

cysteine conjugate-beta lyase 2

This gene encodes an aminotransferase that transaminates kynurenine to form kynurenic acid. Kynurenic acid is a metabolite of tryptophan. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different proteins have been described for this gene. This gene shares 5' exon structure with the RNA binding motif protein, X-linked-like 1 locus on chromosome 1, but the coding sequences are non-overlapping. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

CHIC2 Gene

cysteine-rich hydrophobic domain 2

This gene encodes a member of the CHIC family of proteins. The encoded protein contains a cysteine-rich hydrophobic (CHIC) motif, and is localized to vesicular structures and the plasma membrane. This gene is associated with some cases of acute myeloid leukemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHIC1 Gene

cysteine-rich hydrophobic domain 1

CDPF1 Gene

cysteine-rich, DPF motif domain containing 1

CRISPLD2 Gene

cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain containing 2

CRISPLD1 Gene

cysteine-rich secretory protein LCCL domain containing 1

CYYR1-AS1 Gene

cysteine/tyrosine-rich 1 antisense RNA 1

SSC5D Gene

scavenger receptor cysteine rich family, 5 domains

CYHR1 Gene

cysteine/histidine-rich 1

CSRNP1 Gene

cysteine-serine-rich nuclear protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that localizes to the nucleus and expression of this gene is induced in response to elevated levels of axin. The Wnt signalling pathway, which is negatively regulated by axin, is important in axis formation in early development and impaired regulation of this signalling pathway is often involved in tumors. A decreased level of expression of this gene in tumors compared to the level of expression in their corresponding normal tissues suggests that this gene product has a tumor suppressor function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CSRNP2 Gene

cysteine-serine-rich nuclear protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CSRNP family of nuclear proteins that share conserved regions, including cysteine- and serine- rich regions, a basic domain, a transcriptional activation domain, and bind the sequence 'AGAGTG', thus have the hallmark of transcription factors. Studies in mice suggest that these genes may have redundant functions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

CSRNP3 Gene

cysteine-serine-rich nuclear protein 3

LOC727896 Gene

cysteine and histidine-rich domain (CHORD) containing 1 pseudogene

RECK Gene

reversion-inducing-cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs

The protein encoded by this gene is a cysteine-rich, extracellular protein with protease inhibitor-like domains whose expression is suppressed strongly in many tumors and cells transformed by various kinds of oncogenes. In normal cells, this membrane-anchored glycoprotein may serve as a negative regulator for matrix metalloproteinase-9, a key enzyme involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NFS1 Gene

NFS1 cysteine desulfurase

Iron-sulfur clusters are required for the function of many cellular enzymes. The proteins encoded by this gene supply inorganic sulfur to these clusters by removing the sulfur from cysteine, creating alanine in the process. This gene uses alternate in-frame translation initiation sites to generate mitochondrial forms and cytoplasmic/nuclear forms. Selection of the alternative initiation sites is determined by the cytosolic pH. The encoded proteins belong to the class-V family of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent aminotransferases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

CSAD Gene

cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase

This gene encodes a member of the group 2 decarboxylase family. A similar protein in rodents plays a role in multiple biological processes as the rate-limiting enzyme in taurine biosynthesis, catalyzing the decarboxylation of cysteinesulfinate to hypotaurine. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

CHORDC2P Gene

cysteine and histidine-rich domain (CHORD) containing 2 pseudogene

LMCD1 Gene

LIM and cysteine-rich domains 1

This gene encodes a member of the LIM-domain family of zinc finger proteins. The encoded protein contains an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain and two C-terminal LIM domains. The presence of LIM domains suggests involvement in protein-protein interactions. The protein may act as a co-regulator of transcription along with other transcription factors. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

CRELD2 Gene

cysteine-rich with EGF-like domains 2

CRELD1 Gene

cysteine-rich with EGF-like domains 1

This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of epidermal growth factor-related proteins. The encoded protein is characterized by a cysteine-rich with epidermal growth factor-like domain. This protein may function as a cell adhesion molecule. Mutations in this gene are the cause of atrioventricular septal defect. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

LOC101929744 Gene

phosphopantothenate--cysteine ligase pseudogene

SPARC Gene

secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin)

This gene encodes a cysteine-rich acidic matrix-associated protein. The encoded protein is required for the collagen in bone to become calcified but is also involved in extracellular matrix synthesis and promotion of changes to cell shape. The gene product has been associated with tumor suppression but has also been correlated with metastasis based on changes to cell shape which can promote tumor cell invasion. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

CYSRT1 Gene

cysteine-rich tail protein 1

ATG4C Gene

autophagy related 4C, cysteine peptidase

Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene encodes a member of the autophagin protein family. The encoded protein is also designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding the same protein, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATG4B Gene

autophagy related 4B, cysteine peptidase

Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene encodes a member of the autophagin protein family. The encoded protein is also designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATG4A Gene

autophagy related 4A, cysteine peptidase

Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene encodes a member of the autophagin protein family. The encoded protein is also designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases. Transcript variants that encode distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100128027 Gene

cysteine-rich, DPF motif domain containing 1 pseudogene

ATG4D Gene

autophagy related 4D, cysteine peptidase

Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene belongs to the autophagy-related protein 4 (Atg4) family of C54 endopeptidases. Members of this family encode proteins that play a role in the biogenesis of autophagosomes, which sequester the cytosol and organelles for degradation by lysosomes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

CSRP2P Gene

cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2 pseudogene

CYSTM1 Gene

cysteine-rich transmembrane module containing 1

LOC724105 Gene

cysteine-rich transmembrane module containing 1 pseudogene

CRIPT Gene

cysteine-rich PDZ-binding protein

This gene encodes a protein that binds to the PDZ3 peptide recognition domain. The encoded protein may modulates protein interactions with the cytoskeleton. A mutation in this gene resulted in short stature with microcephaly and distinctive facies. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

CRIP1 Gene

cysteine-rich protein 1 (intestinal)

Cysteine-rich intestinal protein (CRIP) belongs to the LIM/double zinc finger protein family, members of which include cysteine- and glycine-rich protein-1 (CSRP1; MIM 123876), rhombotin-1 (RBTN1; MIM 186921), rhombotin-2 (RBTN2; MIM 180385), and rhombotin-3 (RBTN3; MIM 180386). CRIP may be involved in intestinal zinc transport (Hempe and Cousins, 1991 [PubMed 1946385]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CRIP3 Gene

cysteine-rich protein 3

CRIP2 Gene

cysteine-rich protein 2

This gene encodes a putative transcription factor with two LIM zinc-binding domains. The encoded protein may participate in the differentiation of smooth muscle tissue. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

TRNAC-GCA Gene

transfer RNA cysteine (anticodon GCA)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

CRIM1 Gene

cysteine rich transmembrane BMP regulator 1 (chordin-like)

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein containing six cysteine-rich repeat domains and an insulin-like growth factor-binding domain. The encoded protein may play a role in tissue development though interactions with members of the transforming growth factor beta family, such as bone morphogenetic proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

CRCT1 Gene

cysteine-rich C-terminal 1

CRISP1 Gene

cysteine-rich secretory protein 1

Fertilization consists of a sequence of specific cell-cell interactions culminating in the fusion of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. Recognition, binding, and fusion occur through the interaction of complementary molecules that are localized to specific domains of the sperm and egg plasma membranes. In the sperm, the postacrosomal region or equatorial segment is involved in sperm-egg plasma membrane fusion. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family. It is expressed in the epididymis, is secreted into the epididymal lumen, and binds to the postacrosomal region of the sperm head, where it plays a role in sperm-egg fusion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

CRISP3 Gene

cysteine-rich secretory protein 3

CRISP2 Gene

cysteine-rich secretory protein 2

GRXCR2 Gene

glutaredoxin, cysteine rich 2

This gene encodes a protein containing a glutaredoxin domain, which functions in protein S-glutathionylation. A mutation in this gene was found in a family with autoosomal recessive nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness-101. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

CASP6 Gene

caspase 6, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed by caspases 7, 8 and 10, and is thought to function as a downstream enzyme in the caspase activation cascade. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CASP7 Gene

caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. The precursor of the encoded protein is cleaved by caspase 3 and 10, is activated upon cell death stimuli and induces apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

CASP4 Gene

caspase 4, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes composed of a prodomain and a large and small protease subunit. Activation of caspases requires proteolytic processing at conserved internal aspartic residues to generate a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of the large and small subunits. This caspase is able to cleave and activate its own precursor protein, as well as caspase 1 precursor. When overexpressed, this gene induces cell apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CASP5 Gene

caspase 5, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. Overexpression of the active form of this enzyme induces apoptosis in fibroblasts. Max, a central component of the Myc/Max/Mad transcription regulation network important for cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, is cleaved by this protein; this process requires Fas-mediated dephosphorylation of Max. The expression of this gene is regulated by interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

CASP2 Gene

caspase 2, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Caspases mediate cellular apoptosis through the proteolytic cleavage of specific protein substrates. The encoded protein may function in stress-induced cell death pathways, cell cycle maintenance, and the suppression of tumorigenesis. Increased expression of this gene may play a role in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and temporal lobe epilepsy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

CASP3 Gene

caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein cleaves and activates caspases 6, 7 and 9, and the protein itself is processed by caspases 8, 9 and 10. It is the predominant caspase involved in the cleavage of amyloid-beta 4A precursor protein, which is associated with neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CASP1 Gene

caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce 2 subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This gene was identified by its ability to proteolytically cleave and activate the inactive precursor of interleukin-1, a cytokine involved in the processes such as inflammation, septic shock, and wound healing. This gene has been shown to induce cell apoptosis and may function in various developmental stages. Studies of a similar gene in mouse suggest a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

CASP8 Gene

caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes composed of a prodomain, a large protease subunit, and a small protease subunit. Activation of caspases requires proteolytic processing at conserved internal aspartic residues to generate a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of the large and small subunits. This protein is involved in the programmed cell death induced by Fas and various apoptotic stimuli. The N-terminal FADD-like death effector domain of this protein suggests that it may interact with Fas-interacting protein FADD. This protein was detected in the insoluble fraction of the affected brain region from Huntington disease patients but not in those from normal controls, which implicated the role in neurodegenerative diseases. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described, although not all variants have had their full-length sequences determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CASP9 Gene

caspase 9, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein can undergo autoproteolytic processing and activation by the apoptosome, a protein complex of cytochrome c and the apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1; this step is thought to be one of the earliest in the caspase activation cascade. This protein is thought to play a central role in apoptosis and to be a tumor suppressor. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

LOC100128048 Gene

cysteine and histidine-rich domain (CHORD) containing 1 pseudogene

GCLM Gene

glutamate-cysteine ligase, modifier subunit

Glutamate-cysteine ligase, also known as gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, is the first rate limiting enzyme of glutathione synthesis. The enzyme consists of two subunits, a heavy catalytic subunit and a light regulatory subunit. Gamma glutamylcysteine synthetase deficiency has been implicated in some forms of hemolytic anemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

GCLC Gene

glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit

Glutamate-cysteine ligase, also known as gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase is the first rate-limiting enzyme of glutathione synthesis. The enzyme consists of two subunits, a heavy catalytic subunit and a light regulatory subunit. This locus encodes the catalytic subunit, while the regulatory subunit is derived from a different gene located on chromosome 1p22-p21. Mutations at this locus have been associated with hemolytic anemia due to deficiency of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and susceptibility to myocardial infarction.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

CSRP1 Gene

cysteine and glycine-rich protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-rich protein (CSRP) family. This gene family includes a group of LIM domain proteins, which may be involved in regulatory processes important for development and cellular differentiation. The LIM/double zinc-finger motif found in this gene product occurs in proteins with critical functions in gene regulation, cell growth, and somatic differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

CSRP3 Gene

cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (cardiac LIM protein)

This gene encodes a member of the CSRP family of LIM domain proteins, which may be involved in regulatory processes important for development and cellular differentiation. The LIM/double zinc-finger motif found in this protein is found in a group of proteins with critical functions in gene regulation, cell growth, and somatic differentiation. Mutations in this gene are thought to cause heritable forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans. Alternatively spliced transcript variants with different 5' UTR, but encoding the same protein, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CSRP2 Gene

cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2

CSRP2 is a member of the CSRP family of genes, encoding a group of LIM domain proteins, which may be involved in regulatory processes important for development and cellular differentiation. CRP2 contains two copies of the cysteine-rich amino acid sequence motif (LIM) with putative zinc-binding activity, and may be involved in regulating ordered cell growth. Other genes in the family include CSRP1 and CSRP3. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

SSC4D Gene

scavenger receptor cysteine rich family, 4 domains

The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily is an ancient and highly conserved group of cell surface and/or secreted proteins, some of which are involved in the development of the immune system and the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Group B SRCR domains usually contain 8 regularly spaced cysteines that give rise to a well-defined intradomain disulfide-bond pattern.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

GRXCR1 Gene

glutaredoxin, cysteine rich 1

This gene is one of 60 loci associated with autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment. This gene encodes a protein which contains GRX-like domains; these domains play a role in the S-glutathionylation of proteins and may be involved in actin organization in hair cells. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

CHORDC1 Gene

cysteine and histidine-rich domain (CHORD) containing 1

STAC Gene

SH3 and cysteine rich domain

CASP1P1 Gene

caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase pseudogene 1

CASP1P3 Gene

caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase pseudogene 3

CASP1P2 Gene

caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase pseudogene 2

LOC391048 Gene

cysteine and histidine-rich domain (CHORD) containing 1 pseudogene

CRIPAK Gene

cysteine-rich PAK1 inhibitor

CRIPAK is a negative regulator of PAK1 (MIM 602590) that is upregulated by estrogen (Talukder et al., 2006 [PubMed 16278681]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CASP10 Gene

caspase 10, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein cleaves and activates caspases 3 and 7, and the protein itself is processed by caspase 8. Mutations in this gene are associated with type IIA autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and gastric cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

CASP14 Gene

caspase 14, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This caspase has been shown to be processed and activated by caspase 8 and caspase 10 in vitro, and by anti-Fas agonist antibody or TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand in vivo. The expression and processing of this caspase may be involved in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, which is important for the formation of the skin barrier. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CASP16 Gene

caspase 16, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase (putative)

LOC100133261 Gene

cysteine and histidine-rich domain (CHORD) containing 1 pseudogene

CYYR1 Gene

cysteine/tyrosine-rich 1

CRIP1P4 Gene

cysteine-rich protein 1 (intestinal) pseudogene 4

CRIP1P2 Gene

cysteine-rich protein 1 (intestinal) pseudogene 2

SMCP Gene

sperm mitochondria-associated cysteine-rich protein

Sperm mitochondria differ in morphology and subcellular localization from those of somatic cells. They are elongated, flattened, and arranged circumferentially to form a helical coiled sheath in the midpiece of the sperm flagellum. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the capsule associated with the mitochondrial outer membranes and is thought to function in the organization and stabilization of the helical structure of the sperm's mitochondrial sheath. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STAC2 Gene

SH3 and cysteine rich domain 2

STAC3 Gene

SH3 and cysteine rich domain 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the excitation-contraction coupling machinery of muscles. This protein is a member of the Stac gene family and contains an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain and two SH3 domains. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Native American myopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

CYR61 Gene

cysteine-rich, angiogenic inducer, 61

The secreted protein encoded by this gene is growth factor-inducible and promotes the adhesion of endothelial cells. The encoded protein interacts with several integrins and with heparan sulfate proteoglycan. This protein also plays a role in cell proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and extracellular matrix formation. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

RCN1P1 Gene

reticulocalbin 1, EF-hand calcium binding domain pseudogene 1

PLA2G6 Gene

phospholipase A2, group VI (cytosolic, calcium-independent)

The protein encoded by this gene is an A2 phospholipase, a class of enzyme that catalyzes the release of fatty acids from phospholipids. The encoded protein may play a role in phospholipid remodelling, arachidonic acid release, leukotriene and prostaglandin synthesis, fas-mediated apoptosis, and transmembrane ion flux in glucose-stimulated B-cells. Several transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been described, but the full-length nature of only three of them have been determined to date. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

EFCAB11 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 11

EFCAB10 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 10

EFCAB13 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 13

EFCAB12 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 12

EFCAB14 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 14

CALCOCO1 Gene

calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 1

CALCOCO2 Gene

calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2

This gene encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. The encoded protein functions as a receptor for ubiquitin-coated bacteria and plays an important role in innate immunity by mediating macroautophagy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

CAB39 Gene

calcium binding protein 39

CAMLG Gene

calcium modulating ligand

The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A blocks a calcium-dependent signal from the T-cell receptor (TCR) that normally leads to T-cell activation. When bound to cyclophilin B, cyclosporin A binds and inactivates the key signaling intermediate calcineurin. The protein encoded by this gene functions similarly to cyclosporin A, binding to cyclophilin B and acting downstream of the TCR and upstream of calcineurin by causing an influx of calcium. This integral membrane protein appears to be a new participant in the calcium signal transduction pathway, implicating cyclophilin B in calcium signaling, even in the absence of cyclosporin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CARHSP1 Gene

calcium regulated heat stable protein 1, 24kDa

RCN1P2 Gene

reticulocalbin 1, EF-hand calcium binding domain pseudogene 2

CHERP Gene

calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein

KCNN4 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a potentially heterotetrameric voltage-independent potassium channel that is activated by intracellular calcium. Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization, which promotes calcium influx. The encoded protein may be part of the predominant calcium-activated potassium channel in T-lymphocytes. This gene is similar to other KCNN family potassium channel genes, but it differs enough to possibly be considered as part of a new subfamily. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNN3 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 3

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. This gene belongs to the KCNN family of potassium channels. It encodes an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel, which is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. This gene contains two CAG repeat regions in the coding sequence. It was thought that expansion of one or both of these repeats could lead to an increased susceptibility to schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, but studies indicate that this is probably not the case. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

KCNN2 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 2

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. The protein encoded by this gene is activated before membrane hyperpolarization and is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. This gene is a member of the KCNN family of potassium channel genes. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel with three other calmodulin-binding subunits. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

KCNN1 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 1

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. The protein encoded by this gene is activated before membrane hyperpolarization and is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel with three other calmodulin-binding subunits. This gene is a member of the KCNN family of potassium channel genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RASGRP2 Gene

RAS guanyl releasing protein 2 (calcium and DAG-regulated)

The protein encoded by this gene is a brain-enriched nucleotide exchanged factor that contains an N-terminal GEF domain, 2 tandem repeats of EF-hand calcium-binding motifs, and a C-terminal diacylglycerol/phorbol ester-binding domain. This protein can activate small GTPases, including RAS and RAP1/RAS3. The nucleotide exchange activity of this protein can be stimulated by calcium and diacylglycerol. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RASGRP3 Gene

RAS guanyl releasing protein 3 (calcium and DAG-regulated)

Members of the RAS (see HRAS; MIM 190020) subfamily of GTPases function in signal transduction as GTP/GDP-regulated switches that cycle between inactive GDP- and active GTP-bound states. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), such as RASGRP3, serve as RAS activators by promoting acquisition of GTP to maintain the active GTP-bound state and are the key link between cell surface receptors and RAS activation (Rebhun et al., 2000 [PubMed 10934204]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RASGRP1 Gene

RAS guanyl releasing protein 1 (calcium and DAG-regulated)

This gene is a member of a family of genes characterized by the presence of a Ras superfamily guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domain. It functions as a diacylglycerol (DAG)-regulated nucleotide exchange factor specifically activating Ras through the exchange of bound GDP for GTP. It activates the Erk/MAP kinase cascade and regulates T-cells and B-cells development, homeostasis and differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. Altered expression of the different isoforms of this protein may be a cause of susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CALHM1 Gene

calcium homeostasis modulator 1

This gene encodes a calcium channel that plays a role in processing of amyloid-beta precursor protein. A polymorphism at this locus has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to late-onset Alzheimer's disease in some populations, but the pathogenicity of this polymorphism is unclear.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CALHM3 Gene

calcium homeostasis modulator 3

CALHM2 Gene

calcium homeostasis modulator 2

CABYRP1 Gene

calcium binding tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated pseudogene 1

NOX5 Gene

NADPH oxidase, EF-hand calcium binding domain 5

This gene is predominantly expressed in the testis and lymphocyte-rich areas of spleen and lymph nodes. It encodes a calcium-dependen NADPH oxidase that generates superoxide, and functions as a calcium-dependent proton channel that may regulate redox-dependent processes in lymphocytes and spermatozoa. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

S100Z Gene

S100 calcium binding protein Z

Members of the S100 protein family contain 2 calcium-binding EF-hands and exhibit cell-type specific expression patterns. For additional background information on S100 proteins, see MIM 114085.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

S100A7P1 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A7 pseudogene 1

S100A7P2 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A7 pseudogene 2

S100A11 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A11

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in motility, invasion, and tubulin polymerization. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in tumor metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A10 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A10

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in exocytosis and endocytosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A13 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A13

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein is widely expressed in various types of tissues with a high expression level in thyroid gland. In smooth muscle cells, this protein co-expresses with other family members in the nucleus and in stress fibers, suggesting diverse functions in signal transduction. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A12 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A12

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein is proposed to be involved in specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and its regulatory effect on cytoskeletal components may modulate various neutrophil activities. The protein includes an antimicrobial peptide which has antibacterial activity. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

S100A14 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A14

This gene encodes a member of the S100 protein family which contains an EF-hand motif and binds calcium. The gene is located in a cluster of S100 genes on chromosome 1. Levels of the encoded protein have been found to be lower in cancerous tissue and associated with metastasis suggesting a tumor suppressor function (PMID: 19956863, 19351828). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

S100A16 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A16

KCNMA1 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated large conductance subfamily M alpha, member 1

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit, which is the product of this gene, and the modulatory beta subunit. Intracellular calcium regulates the physical association between the alpha and beta subunits. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EFCAB9 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 9

EFCAB8 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 8

EFCAB5 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 5

EFCAB7 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 7

EFCAB6 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 6

This gene encodes a protein which directly binds the oncogene DJ-1 and androgen receptor to form a ternary complex in cells. This binding protein recruits histone-deacetylase complexes in order to repress transcription activity of androgen receptor. This protein may also play a role in spermatogenesis and fertilization. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

EFCAB1 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 1

EFCAB3 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 3

EFCAB2 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 2

The gene encodes a protein that contains two EF-hand calcium-binding domains although its function has yet to be determined. Alternatively spliced transcripts have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CABP7 Gene

calcium binding protein 7

CABP5 Gene

calcium binding protein 5

The product of this gene belongs to a subfamily of calcium binding proteins, which share similarity to calmodulin. Calcium binding proteins are an important component of calcium mediated cellular signal transduction. Expression of this gene is retina-specific. The mouse homolog of this protein has been shown to express in the inner nuclear layer of the retina, suggested its role in neuronal functioning. The specific function of this gene is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

CABP2 Gene

calcium binding protein 2

This gene belongs to a subfamily of calcium binding proteins that share similarity to calmodulin. Like calmodulin, these family members can likely stimulate calmodulin-dependent kinase II and the protein phosphatase calcineurin. Calcium binding proteins are an important component of calcium mediated cellular signal transduction.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

CABP1 Gene

calcium binding protein 1

Calcium binding proteins are an important component of calcium mediated cellular signal transduction. This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a subfamily of calcium binding proteins which share similarity to calmodulin. The protein encoded by this gene regulates the gating of voltage-gated calcium ion channels. This protein inhibits calcium-dependent inactivation and supports calcium-dependent facilitation of ion channels containing voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C. This protein also regulates calcium-dependent activity of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors, P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels, and transient receptor potential channel TRPC5. This gene is predominantly expressed in retina and brain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding disinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PLA2G4C Gene

phospholipase A2, group IVC (cytosolic, calcium-independent)

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the phospholipase A2 enzyme family which hydrolyzes glycerophospholipids to produce free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, both of which serve as precursors in the production of signaling molecules. The encoded protein has been shown to be a calcium-independent and membrane bound enzyme. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

S100A11P4 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A11 pseudogene 4

S100A11P2 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A11 pseudogene 2

S100A11P3 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A11 pseudogene 3

S100A11P1 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A11 pseudogene 1

SLC24A4 Gene

solute carrier family 24 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger), member 4

This gene encodes a member of the potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchanger protein family. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

SLC24A5 Gene

solute carrier family 24 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger), member 5

This gene is a member of the potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchanger family and encodes an intracellular membrane protein with 2 large hydrophilic loops and 2 sets of multiple transmembrane-spanning segments. Sequence variation in this gene has been associated with differences in skin pigmentation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC24A2 Gene

solute carrier family 24 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger), member 2

This gene encodes a member of the calcium/cation antiporter superfamily of transport proteins. The encoded protein belongs to the SLC24 branch of exchangers, which can mediate the extrusion of one Ca2+ ion and one K+ ion in exchange for four Na+ ions. This family member is a retinal cone/brain exchanger that can mediate a light-induced decrease in free Ca2+ concentration. This protein may also play a neuroprotective role during ischemic brain injury. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

SLC24A3 Gene

solute carrier family 24 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger), member 3

Plasma membrane sodium/calcium exchangers are an important component of intracellular calcium homeostasis and electrical conduction. Potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchangers such as SLC24A3 are believed to transport 1 intracellular calcium and 1 potassium ion in exchange for 4 extracellular sodium ions (Kraev et al., 2001 [PubMed 11294880]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SLC24A1 Gene

solute carrier family 24 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger), member 1

This gene encodes a member of the potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchanger protein family. The encoded protein plays an important role in sodium/calcium exchange in retinal rod and cone photoreceptors by mediating the extrusion of one calcium ion and one potassium ion in exchange for four sodium ions. Mutations in this gene may play a role in congenital stationary night blindness. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

CACFD1 Gene

calcium channel flower domain containing 1

PPEF2 Gene

protein phosphatase, EF-hand calcium binding domain 2

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase with EF-hand motif family. The protein contains a protein phosphatase catalytic domain, and at least two EF-hand calcium-binding motifs in its C terminus. Although its substrate(s) is unknown, the encoded protein, which is expressed specifically in photoreceptors and the pineal, has been suggested to play a role in the visual system. This gene shares high sequence similarity with the Drosophila retinal degeneration C (rdgC) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPEF1 Gene

protein phosphatase, EF-hand calcium binding domain 1

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase with EF-hand motif family. The protein contains a protein phosphatase catalytic domain, and at least two EF-hand calcium-binding motifs in its C terminus. Although its substrate(s) is unknown, the encoded protein has been suggested to play a role in specific sensory neuron function and/or development. This gene shares high sequence similarity with the Drosophila retinal degeneration C (rdgC) gene. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants, each encoding a distinct isoform, have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC728549 Gene

calcium binding protein P22 pseudogene

SLC8A1 Gene

solute carrier family 8 (sodium/calcium exchanger), member 1

In cardiac myocytes, Ca(2+) concentrations alternate between high levels during contraction and low levels during relaxation. The increase in Ca(2+) concentration during contraction is primarily due to release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. However, some Ca(2+) also enters the cell through the sarcolemma (plasma membrane). During relaxation, Ca(2+) is sequestered within the intracellular stores. To prevent overloading of intracellular stores, the Ca(2+) that entered across the sarcolemma must be extruded from the cell. The Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger is the primary mechanism by which the Ca(2+) is extruded from the cell during relaxation. In the heart, the exchanger may play a key role in digitalis action. The exchanger is the dominant mechanism in returning the cardiac myocyte to its resting state following excitation.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

SLC8A3 Gene

solute carrier family 8 (sodium/calcium exchanger), member 3

This gene encodes a member of the sodium/calcium exchanger integral membrane protein family. Na+/Ca2+ exchange proteins are involved in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis in a wide variety of cell types. The protein is regulated by intracellular calcium ions and is found in both the plasma membrane and intracellular organellar membranes, where exchange of Na+ for Ca2+ occurs in an electrogenic manner. Alternative splicing has been observed for this gene and multiple variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

SLC8A2 Gene

solute carrier family 8 (sodium/calcium exchanger), member 2

CIB2 Gene

calcium and integrin binding family member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to that of KIP/CIB, calcineurin B, and calmodulin. The encoded protein is a calcium-binding regulatory protein that interacts with DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits (DNA-PKcs), and it is involved in photoreceptor cell maintenance. Mutations in this gene cause deafness, autosomal recessive, 48 (DFNB48), and also Usher syndrome 1J (USH1J). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

CIB3 Gene

calcium and integrin binding family member 3

This gene product shares a high degree of sequence similarity with DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit-interacting protein 2 in human and mouse, and like them may bind the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinases. The exact function of this gene is not known. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

CIB1 Gene

calcium and integrin binding 1 (calmyrin)

This gene encodes a member of the EF-hand domain-containing calcium-binding superfamily. The encoded protein interacts with many other proteins, including the platelet integrin alpha-IIb-beta-3, DNA-dependent protein kinase, presenilin-2, focal adhesion kinase, p21 activated kinase, and protein kinase D. The encoded protein may be involved in cell survival and proliferation, and is associated with several disease states including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2013]

CIB4 Gene

calcium and integrin binding family member 4

CASR Gene

calcium-sensing receptor

The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor that is expressed in the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-producing chief cells of the parathyroid gland, and the cells lining the kidney tubule. It senses small changes in circulating calcium concentration and couples this information to intracellular signaling pathways that modify PTH secretion or renal cation handling, thus this protein plays an essential role in maintaining mineral ion homeostasis. Mutations in this gene cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, familial, isolated hypoparathyroidism, and neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MICU3 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uptake family, member 3

MICU2 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uptake 2

MICU1 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uptake 1

This gene encodes an essential regulator of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake under basal conditions. The encoded protein interacts with the mitochondrial calcium uniporter, a mitochondrial inner membrane Ca2+ channel, and is essential in preventing mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, which can cause excessive production of reactive oxygen species and cell stress. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

RCN3 Gene

reticulocalbin 3, EF-hand calcium binding domain

RCN2 Gene

reticulocalbin 2, EF-hand calcium binding domain

The protein encoded by this gene is a calcium-binding protein located in the lumen of the ER. The protein contains six conserved regions with similarity to a high affinity Ca(+2)-binding motif, the EF-hand. This gene maps to the same region as type 4 Bardet-Biedl syndrome, suggesting a possible causative role for this gene in the disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

RCN1 Gene

reticulocalbin 1, EF-hand calcium binding domain

Reticulocalbin 1 is a calcium-binding protein located in the lumen of the ER. The protein contains six conserved regions with similarity to a high affinity Ca(+2)-binding motif, the EF-hand. High conservation of amino acid residues outside of these motifs, in comparison to mouse reticulocalbin, is consistent with a possible biochemical function besides that of calcium binding. In human endothelial and prostate cancer cell lines this protein localizes to the plasma membrane.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

NCS1 Gene

neuronal calcium sensor 1

This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium sensor gene family, which encode calcium-binding proteins expressed predominantly in neurons. The protein encoded by this gene regulates G protein-coupled receptor phosphorylation in a calcium-dependent manner and can substitute for calmodulin. The protein is associated with secretory granules and modulates synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HRC Gene

histidine rich calcium binding protein

This gene encodes a luminal sarcoplasmic reticulum protein identified by its ability to bind low-density lipoprotein with high affinity. The protein interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of triadin, the main transmembrane protein of the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle. The protein functions in the regulation of releasable calcium into the SR. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

CAB39L Gene

calcium binding protein 39-like

S100A7A Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A7A

S100A9 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in the inhibition of casein kinase and altered expression of this protein is associated with the disease cystic fibrosis. This antimicrobial protein exhibits antifungal and antibacterial activity. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

S100A8 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A8

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in the inhibition of casein kinase and as a cytokine. Altered expression of this protein is associated with the disease cystic fibrosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A5 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A5

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein has a Ca2+ affinity 20- to 100-fold higher than the other S100 proteins studied under identical conditions. This protein also binds Zn2+ and Cu2+, and Cu2+ strongly which impairs the binding of Ca2+. This protein is expressed in very restricted regions of the adult brain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A4 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in motility, invasion, and tubulin polymerization. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in tumor metastasis. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A7 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein differs from the other S100 proteins of known structure in its lack of calcium binding ability in one EF-hand at the N-terminus. The protein is overexpressed in hyperproliferative skin diseases, exhibits antimicrobial activities against bacteria and induces immunomodulatory activities. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

S100A6 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in stimulation of Ca2+-dependent insulin release, stimulation of prolactin secretion, and exocytosis. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in melanoma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A1 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in stimulation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, inhibition of microtubule assembly, and inhibition of protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation. Reduced expression of this protein has been implicated in cardiomyopathies. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A3 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein has the highest content of cysteines of all S100 proteins, has a high affinity for Zinc, and is highly expressed in human hair cuticle. The precise function of this protein is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A2 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may have a tumor suppressor function. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MCU Gene

mitochondrial calcium uniporter

This gene encodes a calcium transporter that localizes to the mitochondrial inner membrane. The encoded protein interacts with mitochondrial calcium uptake 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

LOC100420620 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulator 1 pseudogene

CANT1 Gene

calcium activated nucleotidase 1

This protein encoded by this gene belongs to the apyrase family. It functions as a calcium-dependent nucleotidase with a preference for UDP. Mutations in this gene are associated with Desbuquois dysplasia with hand anomalies. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been noted for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC100132239 Gene

calcium activated nucleotidase 1 pseudogene

CCBE1 Gene

collagen and calcium binding EGF domains 1

This gene is thought to function in extracellular matrix remodeling and migration. It is predominantly expressed in the ovary, but down regulated in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary carcinomas, suggesting its role as a tumour suppressor. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome, a generalized lymphatic dysplasia in humans. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CABS1 Gene

calcium-binding protein, spermatid-specific 1

CABP4 Gene

calcium binding protein 4

This gene encodes a member of the CABP family of calcium binding protein characterized by four EF-hand motifs. Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital stationary night blindness type 2B. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

LOC101060442 Gene

calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein SCaMC-1-like

SCGN Gene

secretagogin, EF-hand calcium binding protein

The encoded protein is a secreted calcium-binding protein which is found in the cytoplasm. It is related to calbindin D-28K and calretinin. This protein is thought to be involved in KCL-stimulated calcium flux and cell proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NECAB3 Gene

N-terminal EF-hand calcium binding protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the amino-terminal domain of the neuron-specific X11-like protein (X11L), inhibits the association of X11L with amyloid precursor protein through a non-competitive mechanism, and abolishes the suppression of beta-amyloid production by X11L. This protein, together with X11L, may play an important role in the regulatory system of amyloid precursor protein metabolism and beta-amyloid generation. The protein is phosphorylated by NIMA-related expressed kinase 2, and localizes to the Golgi apparatus. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NECAB2 Gene

N-terminal EF-hand calcium binding protein 2

NECAB1 Gene

N-terminal EF-hand calcium binding protein 1

SARAF Gene

store-operated calcium entry-associated regulatory factor

SMOC2 Gene

SPARC related modular calcium binding 2

This gene encodes a member of the SPARC family (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine/osteonectin/BM-40), which are highly expressed during embryogenesis and wound healing. The gene product is a matricellular protein which promotes matrix assembly and can stimulate endothelial cell proliferation and migration, as well as angiogenic activity. Associated with pulmonary function, this secretory gene product contains a Kazal domain, two thymoglobulin type-1 domains, and two EF-hand calcium-binding domains. The encoded protein may serve as a target for controlling angiogenesis in tumor growth and myocardial ischemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SMOC1 Gene

SPARC related modular calcium binding 1

This gene encodes a multi-domain secreted protein that may have a critical role in ocular and limb development. Mutations in this gene are associated with microphthalmia and limb anomalies. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

CCAL1 Gene

chondrocalcinosis 1 (calcium pyrophosphate-deposition disease, early onset osteoarthritis)

S100A7L2 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A7-like 2

TACSTD2 Gene

tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2

This intronless gene encodes a carcinoma-associated antigen. This antigen is a cell surface receptor that transduces calcium signals. Mutations of this gene have been associated with gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

CRACR2B Gene

calcium release activated channel regulator 2B

CRACR2A Gene

calcium release activated channel regulator 2A

S100P Gene

S100 calcium binding protein P

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21; however, this gene is located at 4p16. This protein, in addition to binding Ca2+, also binds Zn2+ and Mg2+. This protein may play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100G Gene

S100 calcium binding protein G

This gene encodes calbindin D9K, a vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein. This cytosolic protein belongs to a family of calcium-binding proteins that includes calmodulin, parvalbumin, troponin C, and S100 protein. In the intestine, the protein is vitamin D-dependent and its expression correlates with calcium transport activity. The protein may increase Ca2+ absorption by buffering Ca2+ in the cytoplasm and increase ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport in duodenal basolateral membrane vesicles. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100B Gene

S100 calcium binding protein B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21; however, this gene is located at 21q22.3. This protein may function in Neurite extension, proliferation of melanoma cells, stimulation of Ca2+ fluxes, inhibition of PKC-mediated phosphorylation, astrocytosis and axonal proliferation, and inhibition of microtubule assembly. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in several neurological, neoplastic, and other types of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, melanoma, and type I diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CABYR Gene

calcium binding tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated

To reach fertilization competence, spermatozoa undergo a series of morphological and molecular maturational processes, termed capacitation, involving protein tyrosine phosphorylation and increased intracellular calcium. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the principal piece of the sperm flagellum in association with the fibrous sheath and exhibits calcium-binding when phosphorylated during capacitation. A pseudogene on chromosome 3 has been identified for this gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

MCUR1 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulator 1

GCA Gene

grancalcin, EF-hand calcium binding protein

This gene product, grancalcin, is a calcium-binding protein abundant in neutrophils and macrophages. It belongs to the penta-EF-hand subfamily of proteins which includes sorcin, calpain, and ALG-2. Grancalcin localization is dependent upon calcium and magnesium. In the absence of divalent cation, grancalcin localizes to the cytosolic fraction; with magnesium alone, it partitions with the granule fraction; and in the presence of magnesium and calcium, it associates with both the granule and membrane fractions, suggesting a role for grancalcin in granule-membrane fusion and degranulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ANO1 Gene

anoctamin 1, calcium activated chloride channel

ANO2 Gene

anoctamin 2, calcium activated chloride channel

ANO2 belongs to a family of calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) (reviewed by Hartzell et al., 2009 [PubMed 19015192]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

CARF Gene

calcium responsive transcription factor

LOC100288712 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A11 pseudogene

LOC100422402 Gene

RAS guanyl releasing protein 2 (calcium and DAG-regulated) pseudogene

SLC8B1 Gene

solute carrier family 8 (sodium/lithium/calcium exchanger), member B1

SLC24A6 belongs to a family of potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchangers that maintain cellular calcium homeostasis through the electrogenic countertransport of 4 sodium ions for 1 calcium ion and 1 potassium ion (Cai and Lytton, 2004 [PubMed 14625281]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RBCK1 Gene

RanBP-type and C3HC4-type zinc finger containing 1

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to mouse UIP28/UbcM4 interacting protein. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus, resulting in distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SEMA5B Gene

sema domain, seven thrombospondin repeats (type 1 and type 1-like), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 5B

This gene encodes a member of the semaphorin protein family which regulates axon growth during development of the nervous system. The encoded protein has a characteristic Sema domain near the N-terminus, through which semaphorins bind to plexin, and five thrombospondin type 1 repeats in the C-terminal region of the protein. The protein product may be cleaved and exist as a secreted molecule (PMID: 19463192). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

SEMA5A Gene

sema domain, seven thrombospondin repeats (type 1 and type 1-like), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 5A

This gene belongs to the semaphorin gene family that encodes membrane proteins containing a semaphorin domain and several thrombospondin type-1 repeats. Members of this family are involved in axonal guidance during neural development. This gene has been implicated as an autism susceptibility gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

LOC100422730 Gene

sema domain, seven thrombospondin repeats (type 1 and type 1-like), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 5A pseudogene

CADPS2 Gene

Ca++-dependent secretion activator 2

This gene encodes a member of the calcium-dependent activator of secretion (CAPS) protein family, which are calcium binding proteins that regulate the exocytosis of synaptic and dense-core vesicles in neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Mutations in this gene may contribute to autism susceptibility. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

ADPGK Gene

ADP-dependent glucokinase

ADPGK (EC 2.7.1.147) catalyzes the ADP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate and may play a role in glycolysis, possibly during ischemic conditions (Ronimus and Morgan, 2004 [PubMed 14975750]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LRIF1 Gene

ligand dependent nuclear receptor interacting factor 1

VDAC1P1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 1

VDAC1P2 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 2

VDAC1P4 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 4

VDAC4 belongs to a family of small, abundant pore-forming proteins found in the outer mitochondrial membrane. These channels are thought to form the major pathway for movement of adenine nucleotides through the outer membrane and may also function as the mitochondrial binding site for hexokinase (see HK1; MIM 142600) and glycerol kinase (GK; MIM 300474) (Blachly-Dyson et al., 1994 [PubMed 7517385]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

VDAC1P5 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 5

VDAC1P6 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 6

VDAC1P7 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 7

VDAC1P9 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 9

NUCKS1 Gene

nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1

This gene encodes a nuclear protein that is highly conserved in vertebrates. The conserved regions of the protein contain several consensus phosphorylation sites for casein kinase II and cyclin-dependent kinases, two putative nuclear localization signals, and a basic DNA-binding domain. It is phosphorylated in vivo by Cdk1 during mitosis of the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

SMARCE1P5 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 5

CDK2AP1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) -associated protein which is thought to negatively regulate CDK2 activity by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting CDK2 for proteolysis. This protein was found to also interact with DNA polymerase alpha/primase and mediate the phosphorylation of the large p180 subunit, which suggests a regulatory role in DNA replication during the S-phase of the cell cycle. This protein also forms a core subunit of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation (NURD) complex that epigenetically regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation. This gene thus plays a role in both cell-cycle and epigenetic regulation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CDK2AP2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 1. Pseudogenes associated with this gene are located on chromosomes 7 and 9. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

SMARCC2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and contains a predicted leucine zipper motif typical of many transcription factors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCC1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and contains a predicted leucine zipper motif typical of many transcription factors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PDPK2P Gene

3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 2, pseudogene

LOC101929421 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 pseudogene

LOC101929483 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 pseudogene

CDK7PS Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 7 pseudogene

LOC101060637 Gene

nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1-like

NFATC1 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1

The product of this gene is a component of the nuclear factor of activated T cells DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and an inducible nuclear component. Proteins belonging to this family of transcription factors play a central role in inducible gene transcription during immune response. The product of this gene is an inducible nuclear component. It functions as a major molecular target for the immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin A. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. Different isoforms of this protein may regulate inducible expression of different cytokine genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

NFATC2 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2

This gene is a member of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family. The product of this gene is a DNA-binding protein with a REL-homology region (RHR) and an NFAT-homology region (NHR). This protein is present in the cytosol and only translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, where it becomes a member of the nuclear factors of activated T cells transcription complex. This complex plays a central role in inducing gene transcription during the immune response. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

NFATC4 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 4

This gene encodes a member of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) protein family. The encoded protein is part of a DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor stimulation and an inducible nuclear component. NFAT proteins are activated by the calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin. The encoded protein plays a role in the inducible expression of cytokine genes in T cells, especially in the induction of interleukin-2 and interleukin-4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

CDK20 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 20

The protein encoded by this gene contains a kinase domain most closely related to the cyclin-dependent protein kinases. The encoded kinase may activate cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and is involved in cell growth. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

PKIG Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor gamma

This gene encodes a member of the protein kinase inhibitor family. Studies of a similar protein in mice suggest that this protein acts as a potent competitive cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, and is a predominant form of inhibitor in various tissues. The encoded protein may be involved in osteogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PKIA Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor family. This protein was demonstrated to interact with and inhibit the activities of both C alpha and C beta catalytic subunits of the PKA. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PKIB Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor beta

This gene encodes a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor family. The encoded protein may play a role in the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway by interacting with the catalytic subunit of PKA, and overexpression of this gene may play a role in prostate cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

VDAC1P3 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 3

HCFC1R1 Gene

host cell factor C1 regulator 1 (XPO1 dependent)

VDAC1P8 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 8

FOXRED2 Gene

FAD-dependent oxidoreductase domain containing 2

FOXRED1 Gene

FAD-dependent oxidoreductase domain containing 1

This gene encodes a protein that contains a FAD-dependent oxidoreductase domain. The encoded protein is localized to the mitochondria and may function as a chaperone protein required for the function of mitochondrial complex I. Mutations in this gene are associated with mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

SFR1 Gene

SWI5-dependent recombination repair 1

CDKN3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the dual specificity protein phosphatase family. It was identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate CDK2 kinase, thus prevent the activation of CDK2 kinase. This gene was reported to be deleted, mutated, or overexpressed in several kinds of cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

LOC100130466 Gene

nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1-like

LOC400026 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene

MTHFD2P6 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 6

CDK11A Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 11A

This gene encodes a member of the p34Cdc2 protein kinase family. p34Cdc2 kinase family members are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. This gene is in close proximity to CDC2L1, a nearly identical gene in the same chromosomal region. The gene loci including this gene, CDC2L1, as well as metalloprotease MMP21/22, consist of two identical, tandemly linked genomic regions, which are thought to be a part of the larger region that has been duplicated. This gene and CDC2L1 were shown to be deleted or altered frequently in neuroblastoma with amplified MYCN genes. The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. Many transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene, but the full-length nature of only two have been determined so far. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK11B Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 11B

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. Members of this kinase family are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. Due to a segmental duplication, this gene shares very high sequence identity with a neighboring gene. These two genes are frequently deleted or altered in neuroblastoma. The protein kinase encoded by this gene can be cleaved by caspases and may play a role in cell apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

MTHFD2P1 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 1

MTHFD2P7 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 7

MTHFD2P5 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 5

MTHFD2P4 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 4

PDXDC1 Gene

pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain containing 1

CDK2AP2P1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene 1

CDK2AP2P3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene 3

PRKRAP1 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene 1

MTHFD2 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase

This gene encodes a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial bifunctional enzyme with methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase activities. The enzyme functions as a homodimer and is unique in its absolute requirement for magnesium and inorganic phosphate. Formation of the enzyme-magnesium complex allows binding of NAD. Alternative splicing results in two different transcripts, one protein-coding and the other not protein-coding. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

DQX1 Gene

DEAQ box RNA-dependent ATPase 1

RNLS Gene

renalase, FAD-dependent amine oxidase

Renalase is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent amine oxidase that is secreted into the blood from the kidney (Xu et al., 2005 [PubMed 15841207]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

NIDDM4 Gene

Diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent

PREX2 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 2

PREX1 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the RHO family of small GTP-binding proteins (RACs). It has been shown to bind to and activate RAC1 by exchanging bound GDP for free GTP. The encoded protein, which is found mainly in the cytoplasm, is activated by phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate and the beta-gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC13A2 Gene

solute carrier family 13 (sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter), member 2

SLC13A3 Gene

solute carrier family 13 (sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter), member 3

Mammalian sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporters transport succinate and other Krebs cycle intermediates. They fall into 2 categories based on their substrate affinity: low affinity and high affinity. Both the low- and high-affinity transporters play an important role in the handling of citrate by the kidneys. The protein encoded by this gene represents the high-affinity form. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, although the full-length nature of some of them have not been characterized yet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC13A5 Gene

solute carrier family 13 (sodium-dependent citrate transporter), member 5

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the solute carrier family 13 group of proteins. This family member is a sodium-dependent citrate cotransporter that may regulate metabolic processes. Mutations in this gene cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 25. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

ADNP Gene

activity-dependent neuroprotector homeobox

Vasoactive intestinal peptide is a neuroprotective factor that has a stimulatory effect on the growth of some tumor cells and an inhibitory effect on others. This gene encodes a protein that is upregulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide and may be involved in its stimulatory effect on certain tumor cells. The encoded protein contains one homeobox and nine zinc finger domains, suggesting that it functions as a transcription factor. This gene is also upregulated in normal proliferative tissues. Finally, the encoded protein may increase the viability of certain cell types through modulation of p53 activity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKACG Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes the gamma form of its catalytic subunit. The gene is intronless and is thought to be a retrotransposon derived from the gene for the alpha form of the PKA catalytic subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKACA Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha

This gene encodes one of the catalytic subunits of protein kinase A, which exists as a tetrameric holoenzyme with two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits, in its inactive form. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinase A is important to many cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Constitutive activation of this gene caused either by somatic mutations, or genomic duplications of regions that include this gene, have been associated with hyperplasias and adenomas of the adrenal cortex and are linked to corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Tissue-specific isoforms that differ at the N-terminus have been described, and these isoforms may differ in the post-translational modifications that occur at the N-terminus of some isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

PRKACB Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein is a catalytic subunit of cAMP (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, which mediates signalling though cAMP. cAMP signaling is important to a number of processes, including cell proliferaton and differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

LOC100418693 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene

LOC100418694 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene

LOC101154643 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene

ME2P1 Gene

malic enzyme 2, NAD(+)-dependent, mitochondrial pseudogene 1

GLYCAM1 Gene

glycosylation dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 (pseudogene)

PRKRIR Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor)

NFATC2IP Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2 interacting protein

ME3 Gene

malic enzyme 3, NADP(+)-dependent, mitochondrial

Malic enzyme catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate using either NAD+ or NADP+ as a cofactor. Mammalian tissues contain 3 distinct isoforms of malic enzyme: a cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isoform, a mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isoform, and a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent isoform. This gene encodes a mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isoform. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ME2 Gene

malic enzyme 2, NAD(+)-dependent, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial NAD-dependent malic enzyme, a homotetrameric protein, that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate. It had previously been weakly linked to a syndrome known as Friedreich ataxia that has since been shown to be the result of mutation in a completely different gene. Certain single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes of this gene have been shown to increase the risk for idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

SMARCE1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. The encoded protein, either alone or when in the SWI/SNF complex, can bind to 4-way junction DNA, which is thought to mimic the topology of DNA as it enters or exits the nucleosome. The protein contains a DNA-binding HMG domain, but disruption of this domain does not abolish the DNA-binding or nucleosome-displacement activities of the SWI/SNF complex. Unlike most of the SWI/SNF complex proteins, this protein has no yeast counterpart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LIG4 Gene

ligase IV, DNA, ATP-dependent

The protein encoded by this gene is a DNA ligase that joins single-strand breaks in a double-stranded polydeoxynucleotide in an ATP-dependent reaction. This protein is essential for V(D)J recombination and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). This protein forms a complex with the X-ray repair cross complementing protein 4 (XRCC4), and further interacts with the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Both XRCC4 and DNA-PK are known to be required for NHEJ. The crystal structure of the complex formed by this protein and XRCC4 has been resolved. Defects in this gene are the cause of LIG4 syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LIG1 Gene

ligase I, DNA, ATP-dependent

This gene encodes a member of the ATP-dependent DNA ligase protein family. The encoded protein functions in DNA replication, recombination, and the base excision repair process. Mutations in this gene that lead to DNA ligase I deficiency result in immunodeficiency and increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Disruption of this gene may also be associated with a variety of cancers. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

LIG3 Gene

ligase III, DNA, ATP-dependent

This gene is a member of the DNA ligase family. Each member of this family encodes a protein that catalyzes the joining of DNA ends but they each have a distinct role in DNA metabolism. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in excision repair and is located in both the mitochondria and nucleus, with translation initiation from the upstream start codon allowing for transport to the mitochondria and translation initiation from a downstream start codon allowing for transport to the nucleus. Additionally, alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RPRM Gene

reprimo, TP53 dependent G2 arrest mediator candidate

NDOR1 Gene

NADPH dependent diflavin oxidoreductase 1

This gene encodes an NADPH-dependent diflavin reductase that contains both flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding domains. The encoded protein catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADPH through FAD and FMN cofactors to potential redox partners. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

LOC100419916 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 8 pseudogene

PRKRA Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator

This gene encodes a protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA which mediates the effects of interferon in response to viral infection. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

NIDDM3 Gene

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 3

M6PR Gene

mannose-6-phosphate receptor (cation dependent)

This gene encodes a member of the P-type lectin family. P-type lectins play a critical role in lysosome function through the specific transport of mannose-6-phosphate-containing acid hydrolases from the Golgi complex to lysosomes. The encoded protein functions as a homodimer and requires divalent cations for ligand binding. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

VDAC3P1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 3 pseudogene 1

CLNK Gene

cytokine-dependent hematopoietic cell linker

MIST is a member of the SLP76 family of adaptors (see LCP2, MIM 601603; BLNK, MIM 604515). MIST plays a role in the regulation of immunoreceptor signaling, including PLC-gamma (PLCG1; MIM 172420)-mediated B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling and FC-epsilon R1 (see FCER1A, MIM 147140)-mediated mast cell degranulation (Cao et al., 1999 [PubMed 10562326]; Goitsuka et al., 2000, 2001 [PubMed 10744659] [PubMed 11463797]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RNU4ATAC Gene

RNA, U4atac small nuclear (U12-dependent splicing)

The small nuclear RNA (snRNA) encoded by this gene is part of the U12-dependent minor spliceosome complex. In addition to the encoded RNA, this ribonucleoprotein complex consists of U11, U12, U5, and U6atac snRNAs. The U12-dependent spliceosome acts on approximately 700 specific introns in the human genome. Defects in this gene are a cause of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

IDDM18 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 18

IDDM15 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 15

IDDM13 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 13

IDDM11 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 11

LOC102725121 Gene

putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX12

SMARCB1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily b, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex that relieves repressive chromatin structures, allowing the transcriptional machinery to access its targets more effectively. The encoded nuclear protein may also bind to and enhance the DNA joining activity of HIV-1 integrase. This gene has been found to be a tumor suppressor, and mutations in it have been associated with malignant rhabdoid tumors. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CTIF Gene

CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation factor

CTIF is a component of the CBP80 (NCBP1; MIM 600469)/CBP20 (NCBP2; MIM 605133) translation initiation complex that binds cotranscriptionally to the cap end of nascent mRNA. The CBP80/CBP20 complex is involved in a simultaneous editing and translation step that recognizes premature termination codons (PTCs) in mRNAs and directs PTC-containing mRNAs toward nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). On mRNAs without PTCs, the CBP80/CBP20 complex is replaced with cytoplasmic mRNA cap-binding proteins, including EIF4G (MIM 600495), and steady-state translation of the mRNAs resumes in the cytoplasm (Kim et al., 2009 [PubMed 19648179]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2009]

PPM1AP1 Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1A, pseudogene 1

OGFOD1 Gene

2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain containing 1

OGFOD3 Gene

2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain containing 3

OGFOD2 Gene

2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain containing 2

NOXRED1 Gene

NADP-dependent oxidoreductase domain containing 1

RNASEL Gene

ribonuclease L (2',5'-oligoisoadenylate synthetase-dependent)

This gene encodes a component of the interferon-regulated 2-5A system that functions in the antiviral and antiproliferative roles of interferons. Mutations in this gene have been associated with predisposition to prostate cancer and this gene is a candidate for the hereditary prostate cancer 1 (HPC1) allele. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK5R1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 5, regulatory subunit 1 (p35)

The protein encoded by this gene (p35) is a neuron-specific activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5); the activation of CDK5 is required for proper development of the central nervous system. The p35 form of this protein is proteolytically cleaved by calpain, generating a p25 form. The cleavage of p35 into p25 results in relocalization of the protein from the cell periphery to nuclear and perinuclear regions. P25 deregulates CDK5 activity by prolonging its activation and changing its cellular location. The p25 form accumulates in the brain neurons of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This accumulation correlates with an increase in CDK5 kinase activity, and may lead to aberrantly phosphorylated forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which contributes to Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RNU6ATAC Gene

RNA, U6atac small nuclear (U12-dependent splicing)

PDXDC2P Gene

pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain containing 2, pseudogene

MTHFD2L Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2-like

LOC100131200 Gene

mannose-6-phosphate receptor (cation dependent) pseudogene

HFM1 Gene

HFM1, ATP-dependent DNA helicase homolog (S. cerevisiae)

The protein encoded by this gene is thought to be an ATP-dependent DNA helicase and is expressed mainly in germ-line cells. Defects in this gene are a cause of premature ovarian failure 9 (POF9). [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

PRKRIRP8 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 8

PRKRIRP9 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 9

PRKRIRP1 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 1

PRKRIRP2 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 2

PRKRIRP3 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 3

PRKRIRP4 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 4

PRKRIRP5 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 5

PRKRIRP6 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 6

PRKRIRP7 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 7

LOC102724223 Gene

sodium- and chloride-dependent creatine transporter 1-like

SMARCE1P3 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 3

SMARCE1P2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 2

CDK18 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 18

CDK19 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 19

This gene encodes a protein that is one of the components of the Mediator co-activator complex. The Mediator complex is a multi-protein complex required for transcriptional activation by DNA binding transcription factors of genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. The protein encoded by this gene is similar to cyclin-dependent kinase 8 which can also be a component of the Mediator complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

CDK12 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 12

CDK13 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 13

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase family. Members of this family are well known for their essential roles as master switches in cell cycle control. The exact function of this protein has not yet been determined, but it may play a role in mRNA processing and may be involved in regulation of hematopoiesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

CDK10 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 10

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CDK subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The CDK subfamily members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and are known to be essential for cell cycle progression. This kinase has been shown to play a role in cellular proliferation and its function is limited to cell cycle G2-M phase. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

CDK16 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 16

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It may play a role in signal transduction cascades in terminally differentiated cells; in exocytosis; and in transport of secretory cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum. This gene is thought to escape X inactivation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

CDK17 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 17

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It has similarity to a rat protein that is thought to play a role in terminally differentiated neurons. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

CDK14 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 14

PFTK1 is a member of the CDC2 (MIM 116940)-related protein kinase family (Yang and Chen, 2001 [PubMed 11313143]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CDK15 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 15

SMARCE1P6 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 6

SMARCE1P4 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 4

CDKN1C Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (p57, Kip2)

This gene is imprinted, with preferential expression of the maternal allele. The encoded protein is a tight-binding, strong inhibitor of several G1 cyclin/Cdk complexes and a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are implicated in sporadic cancers and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndorome, suggesting that this gene is a tumor suppressor candidate. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

CDKN1B Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1)

This gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which shares a limited similarity with CDK inhibitor CDKN1A/p21. The encoded protein binds to and prevents the activation of cyclin E-CDK2 or cyclin D-CDK4 complexes, and thus controls the cell cycle progression at G1. The degradation of this protein, which is triggered by its CDK dependent phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination by SCF complexes, is required for the cellular transition from quiescence to the proliferative state. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type IV (MEN4). [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

CDKN1A Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)

This gene encodes a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. The encoded protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin-CDK2 or -CDK4 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1. The expression of this gene is tightly controlled by the tumor suppressor protein p53, through which this protein mediates the p53-dependent cell cycle G1 phase arrest in response to a variety of stress stimuli. This protein can interact with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3-like caspases, which thus leads to a dramatic activation of CDK2, and may be instrumental in the execution of apoptosis following caspase activation. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

VDAC2P2 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene 2

VDAC2P1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene 1

IDDM24 Gene

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 24

IDDM23 Gene

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 23

LOC105379282 Gene

glucose-dependent insulinotropic receptor-like

VDAC1P12 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 12

VDAC1P13 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 13

VDAC1P10 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 10

VDAC1P11 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 11

CDK8PS Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 8 pseudogene

OGFOD1P1 Gene

2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain containing 1 pseudogene 1

LOC645397 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1-like pseudogene

IDDM17 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 17

IDDM16 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 16

IDDM14 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 14

LCOR Gene

ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor

LCOR is a transcriptional corepressor widely expressed in fetal and adult tissues that is recruited to agonist-bound nuclear receptors through a single LxxLL motif, also referred to as a nuclear receptor (NR) box (Fernandes et al., 2003 [PubMed 12535528]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MTHFD1L Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1-like

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate (THF) in the mitochondrion. THF is important in the de novo synthesis of purines and thymidylate and in the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

LOC100287419 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 8 pseudogene

LCORL Gene

ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like

This gene encodes a transcription factor that appears to function in spermatogenesis. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with measures of skeletal frame size and adult height. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

CDKN2B Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (p15, inhibits CDK4)

This gene lies adjacent to the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A in a region that is frequently mutated and deleted in a wide variety of tumors. This gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which forms a complex with CDK4 or CDK6, and prevents the activation of the CDK kinases, thus the encoded protein functions as a cell growth regulator that controls cell cycle G1 progression. The expression of this gene was found to be dramatically induced by TGF beta, which suggested its role in the TGF beta induced growth inhibition. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKN2D Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2D (p19, inhibits CDK4)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been shown to form a stable complex with CDK4 or CDK6, and prevent the activation of the CDK kinases, thus function as a cell growth regulator that controls cell cycle G1 progression. The abundance of the transcript of this gene was found to oscillate in a cell-cycle dependent manner with the lowest expression at mid G1 and a maximal expression during S phase. The negative regulation of the cell cycle involved in this protein was shown to participate in repressing neuronal proliferation, as well as spermatogenesis. Two alternatively spliced variants of this gene, which encode an identical protein, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADTRP Gene

androgen-dependent TFPI-regulating protein

SMARCD3 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCD2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCD1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC644169 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene

SMARCAL1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein shows sequence similarity to the E. coli RNA polymerase-binding protein HepA. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD), an autosomal recessive disorder with the diagnostic features of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, renal dysfunction, and T-cell immunodeficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK5PS Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 5 pseudogene

SMARCAD1 Gene

SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, containing DEAD/H box 1

This gene encodes a member of the SNF subfamily of helicase proteins. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the restoration of heterochromatin organization and propagation of epigenetic patterns following DNA replication by mediating histone H3/H4 deacetylation. Mutations in this gene are associated with adermatoglyphia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

LOC401959 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene

CADPS Gene

Ca++-dependent secretion activator

This gene encodes a novel neural/endocrine-specific cytosolic and peripheral membrane protein required for the Ca2+-regulated exocytosis of secretory vesicles. The protein acts at a stage in exocytosis that follows ATP-dependent priming, which involves the essential synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and three variants, encoding distinct isoforms, are described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

LOC100420647 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 3 pseudogene

ME1 Gene

malic enzyme 1, NADP(+)-dependent, cytosolic

This gene encodes a cytosolic, NADP-dependent enzyme that generates NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis. The activity of this enzyme, the reversible oxidative decarboxylation of malate, links the glycolytic and citric acid cycles. The regulation of expression for this gene is complex. Increased expression can result from elevated levels of thyroid hormones or by higher proportions of carbohydrates in the diet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MDP1 Gene

magnesium-dependent phosphatase 1

MTHFD1 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase, formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase

This gene encodes a protein that possesses three distinct enzymatic activities, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase. Each of these activities catalyzes one of three sequential reactions in the interconversion of 1-carbon derivatives of tetrahydrofolate, which are substrates for methionine, thymidylate, and de novo purine syntheses. The trifunctional enzymatic activities are conferred by two major domains, an aminoterminal portion containing the dehydrogenase and cyclohydrolase activities and a larger synthetase domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCE1P1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 1

MEDAG Gene

mesenteric estrogen-dependent adipogenesis

NSDHL Gene

NAD(P) dependent steroid dehydrogenase-like

The protein encoded by this gene is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with CHILD syndrome, which is a X-linked dominant disorder of lipid metabolism with disturbed cholesterol biosynthesis, and typically lethal in males. Alternatively spliced transcript variants with differing 5' UTR have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCA1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 1

This gene encodes a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins. The encoded protein is an ATPase which is expressed in diverse tissues and contributes to the chromatin remodeling complex that is involved in transcription. The protein may also play a role in DNA damage, growth inhibition and apoptosis of cancer cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

SMARCA2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is highly similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, which contains a trinucleotide repeat (CAG) length polymorphism. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

SMARCA4 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. In addition, this protein can bind BRCA1, as well as regulate the expression of the tumorigenic protein CD44. Mutations in this gene cause rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

SMARCA5 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the chromatin remodeling and spacing factor RSF, a facilitator of the transcription of class II genes by RNA polymerase II. The encoded protein is similar in sequence to the Drosophila ISWI chromatin remodeling protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is a catalytic subunit of the highly conserved protein kinase complex known as M-phase promoting factor (MPF), which is essential for G1/S and G2/M phase transitions of eukaryotic cell cycle. Mitotic cyclins stably associate with this protein and function as regulatory subunits. The kinase activity of this protein is controlled by cyclin accumulation and destruction through the cell cycle. The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of this protein also play important regulatory roles in cell cycle control. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

CDK2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that participate in cell cycle regulation. The encoded protein is the catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, which regulates progression through the cell cycle. Activity of this protein is especially critical during the G1 to S phase transition. This protein associates with and regulated by other subunits of the complex including cyclin A or E, CDK inhibitor p21Cip1 (CDKN1A), and p27Kip1 (CDKN1B). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CDK3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase family. The protein promotes entry into S phase, in part by activating members of the E2F family of transcription factors. The protein also associates with cyclin C and phosphorylates the retinoblastoma 1 protein to promote exit from G0. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK4 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. The activity of this kinase is restricted to the G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and CDK inhibitor p16(INK4a). This kinase was shown to be responsible for the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma gene product (Rb). Mutations in this gene as well as in its related proteins including D-type cyclins, p16(INK4a) and Rb were all found to be associated with tumorigenesis of a variety of cancers. Multiple polyadenylation sites of this gene have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK5 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 5

This gene encodes a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase that is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of proteins. Unlike other members of the family, the protein encoded by this gene does not directly control cell cycle regulation. Instead the protein, which is predominantly expressed at high levels in mammalian postmitotic central nervous system neurons, functions in diverse processes such as synaptic plasticity and neuronal migration through phosphorylation of proteins required for cytoskeletal organization, endocytosis and exocytosis, and apoptosis. In humans, an allelic variant of the gene that results in undetectable levels of the protein has been associated with lethal autosomal recessive lissencephaly-7. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2015]

CDK6 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression. This kinase is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression and G1/S transition. The activity of this kinase first appears in mid-G1 phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits including D-type cyclins and members of INK4 family of CDK inhibitors. This kinase, as well as CDK4, has been shown to phosphorylate, and thus regulate the activity of, tumor suppressor protein Rb. Expression of this gene is up-regulated in some types of cancer. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

CDK7 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression. This protein forms a trimeric complex with cyclin H and MAT1, which functions as a Cdk-activating kinase (CAK). It is an essential component of the transcription factor TFIIH, that is involved in transcription initiation and DNA repair. This protein is thought to serve as a direct link between the regulation of transcription and the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK8 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression. This kinase and its regulatory subunit cyclin C are components of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme complex, which phosphorylates the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. This kinase has also been shown to regulate transcription by targeting the CDK7/cyclin H subunits of the general transcription initiation factor IIH (TFIIH), thus providing a link between the 'Mediator-like' protein complexes and the basal transcription machinery. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK9 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and known as important cell cycle regulators. This kinase was found to be a component of the multiprotein complex TAK/P-TEFb, which is an elongation factor for RNA polymerase II-directed transcription and functions by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found to interact with this protein and cyclin T, which suggested a possible involvement of this protein in AIDS. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTHFD1P1 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1 pseudogene 1

PDE1C Gene

phosphodiesterase 1C, calmodulin-dependent 70kDa

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) catalyze hydrolysis of the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP to the corresponding nucleoside 5-prime-monophosphates. Mammalian PDEs have been classified into several families based on their biochemical properties. Members of the PDE1 family, such as PDE1C, are calmodulin (see MIM 114180)-dependent PDEs (CaM-PDEs) that are stimulated by a calcium-calmodulin complex (Repaske et al., 1992 [PubMed 1326532]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

PDE1B Gene

phosphodiesterase 1B, calmodulin-dependent

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family, and PDE1 subfamily. Members of the PDE1 family are calmodulin-dependent PDEs that are stimulated by a calcium-calmodulin complex. This PDE has dual-specificity for the second messengers, cAMP and cGMP, with a preference for cGMP as a substrate. cAMP and cGMP function as key regulators of many important physiological processes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

PDE1A Gene

phosphodiesterase 1A, calmodulin-dependent

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a role in signal transduction by regulating intracellular cyclic nucleotide concentrations through hydrolysis of cAMP and/or cGMP to their respective nucleoside 5-prime monophosphates. Members of the PDE1 family, such as PDE1A, are Ca(2+)/calmodulin (see CALM1; MIM 114180)-dependent PDEs (CaM-PDEs) that are activated by calmodulin in the presence of Ca(2+) (Michibata et al., 2001 [PubMed 11342109]; Fidock et al., 2002 [PubMed 11747989]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

LOC100422696 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5 pseudogene

LOC100422695 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5 pseudogene

LOC100533853 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene

LOC102724985 Gene

pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing protein 1

CDK4PS Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 4 pseudogene

CDK5R2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 5, regulatory subunit 2 (p39)

The protein encoded by this gene is a neuron-specific activator of CDK5 kinase. It associates with CDK5 to form an active kinase. This protein and neuron-specific CDK5 activator CDK5R1/p39NCK5A both share limited similarity to cyclins, and thus may define a distinct family of cyclin-dependent kinase activating proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKN2C Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been shown to interact with CDK4 or CDK6, and prevent the activation of the CDK kinases, thus function as a cell growth regulator that controls cell cycle G1 progression. Ectopic expression of this gene was shown to suppress the growth of human cells in a manner that appears to correlate with the presence of a wild-type RB1 function. Studies in the knockout mice suggested the roles of this gene in regulating spermatogenesis, as well as in suppressing tumorigenesis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode an identical protein, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKN2A Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A

This gene generates several transcript variants which differ in their first exons. At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported, two of which encode structurally related isoforms known to function as inhibitors of CDK4 kinase. The remaining transcript includes an alternate first exon located 20 Kb upstream of the remainder of the gene; this transcript contains an alternate open reading frame (ARF) that specifies a protein which is structurally unrelated to the products of the other variants. This ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53 as it can interact with, and sequester, the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. In spite of the structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in cell cycle G1 control. This gene is frequently mutated or deleted in a wide variety of tumors, and is known to be an important tumor suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

NFATC3 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 3

The product of this gene is a member of the nuclear factors of activated T cells DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and an inducible nuclear component. Other members of this family participate to form this complex also. The product of this gene plays a role in the regulation of gene expression in T cells and immature thymocytes. Several transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

PPM1G Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1G

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase is found to be responsible for the dephosphorylation of Pre-mRNA splicing factors, which is important for the formation of functional spliceosome. Studies of a similar gene in mice suggested a role of this phosphatase in regulating cell cycle progression. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PPM1F Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1F

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase can interact with Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (PIX), and thus block the effects of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK), a protein kinase mediating biological effects downstream of Rho GTPases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma (CAMK2G/CAMK-II) is found to be one of the substrates of this phosphatase. The overexpression of this phosphatase or CAMK2G has been shown to mediate caspase-dependent apoptosis. An alternatively spliced transcript variant has been identified, but its full-length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1E Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1E

This gene encodes a member of the PPM family of serine/threonine-protein phosphatases. The encoded protein is localized to the nucleus and dephosphorylates and inactivates multiple substrates including serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

PPM1D Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1D

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. The expression of this gene is induced in a p53-dependent manner in response to various environmental stresses. While being induced by tumor suppressor protein TP53/p53, this phosphatase negatively regulates the activity of p38 MAP kinase, MAPK/p38, through which it reduces the phosphorylation of p53, and in turn suppresses p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis. This phosphatase thus mediates a feedback regulation of p38-p53 signaling that contributes to growth inhibition and the suppression of stress induced apoptosis. This gene is located in a chromosomal region known to be amplified in breast cancer. The amplification of this gene has been detected in both breast cancer cell line and primary breast tumors, which suggests a role of this gene in cancer development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1B Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase has been shown to dephosphorylate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and thus may be involved in cell cycle control. Overexpression of this phosphatase is reported to cause cell-growth arrest or cell death. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additional transcript variants have been described, but currently do not represent full-length sequences. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1A Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1A

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase dephosphorylates, and negatively regulates the activities of, MAP kinases and MAP kinase kinases. It has been shown to inhibit the activation of p38 and JNK kinase cascades induced by environmental stresses. This phosphatase can also dephosphorylate cyclin-dependent kinases, and thus may be involved in cell cycle control. Overexpression of this phosphatase is reported to activate the expression of the tumor suppressor gene TP53/p53, which leads to G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1N Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1N (putative)

PPM1M Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1M

PPM1L Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1L

PPM1L, or PP2CE, belongs to the PP2C group of serine/threonine phosphatases, which are distinguished from other phosphatases by their structure, absolute requirement for Mg(2+) or Mn(2+), and insensitivity to okadaic acid. PP2Cs regulate stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK; see MIM 601158) signaling cascades that respond to extracellular stimuli (Jin et al., 2004 [PubMed 15560375]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2008]

PPM1K Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1K

This gene encodes a member of the PPM family of Mn2+/Mg2+-dependent protein phosphatases. The encoded protein, essential for cell survival and development, is targeted to the mitochondria where it plays a key role in regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

PPM1J Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1J

This gene encodes the serine/threonine protein phosphatase. The mouse homolog of this gene apparently belongs to the protein phosphatase 2C family of genes. The exact function of this gene is not yet known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1H Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1H

ADPRM Gene

ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatase, manganese-dependent

LOC100420574 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene

LOC644303 Gene

ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX24-like

PDPK1 Gene

3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1

CDKL5 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5

This gene is a member of Ser/Thr protein kinase family and encodes a phosphorylated protein with protein kinase activity. Mutations in this gene have been associated with X-linked infantile spasm syndrome (ISSX), also known as X-linked West syndrome, and Rett syndrome (RTT). Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKL4 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 4

CDKL1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 1 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

CDKL3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression. This gene was identified as a gene absent in leukemic patients with chromosome 5q deletion. This loss may be an important determinant of dysmyelopoiesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKL2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the cytoplasm, with lower levels in the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CINP Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 interacting protein

The protein encoded by this gene is reported to be a component of the DNA replication complex as well as a genome-maintenance protein. It may interact with proteins important for replication initiation and has been shown to bind chromatin at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and dissociate from chromatin with replication initiation. It may also serve to regulate checkpoint signaling as part of the DNA damage response. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

IDDMX Gene

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, X-linked, susceptibility to

IDDM7 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 7

IDDM6 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 6

IDDM4 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 4

IDDM3 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 3

IDDM9 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 9

IDDM8 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 8

LOC729317 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene

PROZ Gene

protein Z, vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein

This gene encodes a liver vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein that is synthesized in the liver and secreted into the plasma. The encoded protein plays a role in regulating blood coagulation by complexing with protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor to directly inhibit activated factor X at the phospholipid surface. Deficiencies in this protein are associated with an increased risk of ischemic arterial diseases and fetal loss. Mutations in this gene are the cause of protein Z deficiency. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

VDAC3 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 3

This gene encodes a voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and belongs to the mitochondrial porin family. VDACs are small, integral membrane proteins that traverse the outer mitochondrial membrane and conduct ATP and other small metabolites. They are known to bind several kinases of intermediary metabolism, thought to be involved in translocation of adenine nucleotides, and are hypothesized to form part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which results in the release of cytochrome c at the onset of apoptotic cell death. Alternatively transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

VDAC2 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2

This gene encodes a member of the voltage-dependent anion channel pore-forming family of proteins that are considered the main pathway for metabolite diffusion across the mitochondrial outer membrane. The encoded protein is also thought to be involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via regulation of BCL2-antagonist/killer 1 protein activity. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1, 2, 12 and 21, and alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

VDAC1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1

This gene encodes a voltage-dependent anion channel protein that is a major component of the outer mitochondrial membrane. The encoded protein facilitates the exchange of metabolites and ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane and may regulate mitochondrial functions. This protein also forms channels in the plasma membrane and may be involved in transmembrane electron transport. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Multiple pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1, 2 3, 6, 9, 12, X and Y.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

PRKRIRP10 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 10

NUDT19P5 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 19 pseudogene 5

NUDT19P1 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 19 pseudogene 1

NUDT19P3 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 19 pseudogene 3

PTPN18 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 18 (brain-derived)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, the mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a PEST motif, which often serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may be related to protein intracellular half-live. This protein can differentially dephosphorylate autophosphorylated tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in tumor tissues, and it appears to regulate HER2, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

PTPN13 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 13 (APO-1/CD95 (Fas)-associated phosphatase)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP is a large intracellular protein. It has a catalytic PTP domain at its C-terminus and two major structural domains: a region with five PDZ domains and a FERM domain that binds to plasma membrane and cytoskeletal elements. This PTP was found to interact with, and dephosphorylate, Fas receptor and IkappaBalpha through the PDZ domains. This suggests it has a role in Fas mediated programmed cell death. This PTP was also shown to interact with GTPase-activating protein, and thus may function as a regulator of Rho signaling pathways. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

PTPN12 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 12

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a C-terminal PEST motif, which serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may regulate protein intracellular half-life. This PTP was found to bind and dephosphorylate the product of the oncogene c-ABL and thus may play a role in oncogenesis. This PTP was also shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate, various products related to cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion, such as p130 (Cas), CAKbeta/PTK2B, PSTPIP1, and paxillin. This suggests it has a regulatory role in controlling cell shape and mobility. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

PTPN11 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains two tandem Src homology-2 domains, which function as phospho-tyrosine binding domains and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. This PTP is widely expressed in most tissues and plays a regulatory role in various cell signaling events that are important for a diversity of cell functions, such as mitogenic activation, metabolic control, transcription regulation, and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Noonan syndrome as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

PTPN14 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 14

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal noncatalytic domain similar to that of band 4.1 superfamily cytoskeleton-associated proteins, which suggested the membrane or cytoskeleton localization of this protein. It appears to regulate lymphatic development in mammals, and a loss of function mutation has been found in a kindred with a lymphedema-choanal atresia. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

GCNT3 Gene

glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 3, mucin type

This gene encodes a member of the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase family. The encoded protein is a beta-6-N-acetylglucosamine-transferase that catalyzes the formation of core 2 and core 4 O-glycans on mucin-type glycoproteins.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

EBM Gene

epidermolysis bullosa, macular type

RIIAD1 Gene

regulatory subunit of type II PKA R-subunit (RIIa) domain containing 1

NPC2 Gene

Niemann-Pick disease, type C2

This gene encodes a protein containing a lipid recognition domain. The encoded protein may function in regulating the transport of cholesterol through the late endosomal/lysosomal system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Niemann-Pick disease, type C2 and frontal lobe atrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NPC1 Gene

Niemann-Pick disease, type C1

This gene encodes a large protein that resides in the limiting membrane of endosomes and lysosomes and mediates intracellular cholesterol trafficking via binding of cholesterol to its N-terminal domain. It is predicted to have a cytoplasmic C-terminus, 13 transmembrane domains, and 3 large loops in the lumen of the endosome - the last loop being at the N-terminus. This protein transports low-density lipoproteins to late endosomal/lysosomal compartments where they are hydrolized and released as free cholesterol. Defects in this gene cause Niemann-Pick type C disease, a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by over accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in late endosomal/lysosomal compartments.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

PSMB9 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 9

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is located in the class II region of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex). Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 1 (proteasome beta 6 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. Proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PSMB8 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 8

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is located in the class II region of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex). Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 3 (proteasome beta 5 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. Proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. Two alternative transcripts encoding two isoforms have been identified; both isoforms are processed to yield the same mature subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMB7 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 7

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. The encoded protein is a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, and is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. Expression of this catalytic subunit is downregulated by gamma interferon, and proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMB6 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 6

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. The encoded protein is a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, and is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMB5 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 5

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. This catalytic subunit is not present in the immunoproteasome and is replaced by catalytic subunit 3i (proteasome beta 8 subunit). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

PSMB4 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 4

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMB3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 3

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. The 26 S proteasome may be involved in trinucleotide repeat expansion, a phenomenon which is associated with many hereditary neurological diseases. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 2 and 12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PSMB2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 2

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PSMB1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 1

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is tightly linked to the TBP (TATA-binding protein) gene in human and in mouse, and is transcribed in the opposite orientation in both species. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL14A1 Gene

collagen, type XIV, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XIV collagen, a member of the FACIT (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) collagen family. Type XIV collagen interacts with the fibril surface and is involved in the regulation of fibrillogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

SBSPON Gene

somatomedin B and thrombospondin, type 1 domain containing

ITC1 Gene

hypertrichosis universalis congenita, Ambras type

ZSWIM5P3 Gene

zinc finger, SWIM-type containing 5 pseudogene 3

ZSWIM5P2 Gene

zinc finger, SWIM-type containing 5 pseudogene 2

ZSWIM5P1 Gene

zinc finger, SWIM-type containing 5 pseudogene 1

CLEC18A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 18, member A

This is one of three closely related paralogous genes on chromosome 16 encoding secreted proteins containing C-type lectin domains. These domains bind to carbohydrates in the presence of calcium, and may be involved in cell adhesion, immune response and apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

CLEC18B Gene

C-type lectin domain family 18, member B

ALOX12B Gene

arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type

This gene encodes an enzyme involved in the converstion of arachidonic acid to 12R-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Mutations in this gene are associated with nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT3 Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It encodes a protein which shows 98% amino acid identity to mouse Wnt3 protein, and 84% to human WNT3A protein, another WNT gene product. The mouse studies show the requirement of Wnt3 in primary axis formation in the mouse. Studies of the gene expression suggest that this gene may play a key role in some cases of human breast, rectal, lung, and gastric cancer through activation of the WNT-beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway. This gene is clustered with WNT15, another family member, in the chromosome 17q21 region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT2 Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 2

This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT1 Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It is very conserved in evolution, and the protein encoded by this gene is known to be 98% identical to the mouse Wnt1 protein at the amino acid level. The studies in mouse indicate that the Wnt1 protein functions in the induction of the mesencephalon and cerebellum. This gene was originally considered as a candidate gene for Joubert syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder with cerebellar hypoplasia as a leading feature. However, further studies suggested that the gene mutations might not have a significant role in Joubert syndrome. This gene is clustered with another family member, WNT10B, in the chromosome 12q13 region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT6 Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 6

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It is overexpressed in cervical cancer cell line and strongly coexpressed with another family member, WNT10A, in colorectal cancer cell line. The gene overexpression may play key roles in carcinogenesis. This gene and the WNT10A gene are clustered in the chromosome 2q35 region. The protein encoded by this gene is 97% identical to the mouse Wnt6 protein at the amino acid level. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT4 Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 4

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family, and is the first signaling molecule shown to influence the sex-determination cascade. It encodes a protein which shows 98% amino acid identity to the Wnt4 protein of mouse and rat. This gene and a nuclear receptor known to antagonize the testis-determining factor play a concerted role in both the control of female development and the prevention of testes formation. This gene and another two family members, WNT2 and WNT7B, may be associated with abnormal proliferation in breast tissue. Mutations in this gene can result in Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome and in SERKAL syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INPP4A Gene

inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type I, 107kDa

This gene encodes an Mg++ independent enzyme that hydrolyzes the 4-position phosphate from the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, and inositol 3,4-bisphosphate. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

NUDT19P4 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 19 pseudogene 4

CMT2H Gene

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2H

PCSK9 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The encoded protein undergoes an autocatalytic processing event with its prosegment in the ER and is constitutively secreted as an inactive protease into the extracellular matrix and trans-Golgi network. It is expressed in liver, intestine and kidney tissues and escorts specific receptors for lysosomal degradation. It plays a role in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal dominant familial hypercholesterolemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PCSK2 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 2

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event and interacts with a neuroendocrine secretory protein in the ER, exits the ER and sorts to secretory granules, where it is cleaved and catalytically activated during intracellular transport. The encoded protease is packaged into and activated in dense core secretory granules and expressed in the neuroendocrine system and brain. This gene encodes one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. It functions in the proteolytic activation of polypeptide hormones and neuropeptides precursors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene may increase susceptibility to myocardial infarction and type 2 diabetes. This gene may also play a role in tumor development and progression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

PCSK1 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER to generate a heterodimer which exits the ER and sorts to subcellular compartments where a second autocatalytic even takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. The protease is packaged into and activated in dense core secretory granules and expressed in the neuroendocrine system and brain. This gene encodes one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. It functions in the proteolytic activation of polypeptide hormones and neuropeptides precursors. Mutations in this gene have been associated with susceptibility to obesity and proprotein convertase 1/3 deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

PCSK6 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 6

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER to generate a heterodimer which exits the ER and sorts to the trans-Golgi network where a second autocatalytic event takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. The encoded protease is constitutively secreted into the extracellular matrix and expressed in many tissues, including neuroendocrine, liver, gut, and brain. This gene encodes one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. Some of its substrates include transforming growth factor beta related proteins, proalbumin, and von Willebrand factor. This gene is thought to play a role in tumor progression and left-right patterning. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PCSK7 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 7

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. It encodes a type 1 membrane bound protease that is expressed in many tissues, including neuroendocrine, liver, gut, and brain. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER and then sorts to the trans-Golgi network through endosomes where a second autocatalytic event takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. This gene encodes one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. It can process proalbumin and is thought to be responsible for the activation of HIV envelope glycoproteins gp160 and gp140. This gene has been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of housekeeping genes and plays a role in the regulation of iron metabolism. A t(11;14)(q23;q32) chromosome translocation associated with B-cell lymphoma occurs between this gene and its inverted counterpart. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PCSK4 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 4

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER to generate a heterodimer which exits the ER and sorts to subcellular compartments where a second autocatalytic even takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. This gene encodes one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. The protease is expressed only in the testis, placenta, and ovary. It plays a critical role in fertilization, fetoplacental growth, and embryonic development and processes multiple prohormones including pro-pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating protein and pro-insulin-like growth factor II. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

PCSK5 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER to generate a heterodimer which exits the ER. It then sorts to the trans-Golgi network where a second autocatalytic event takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. This encoded protein is widely expressed and one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. It mediates posttranslational endoproteolytic processing for several integrin alpha subunits and is thought to process prorenin, pro-membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase and HIV-1 glycoprotein gp160. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, some of which encode distinct isoforms, including a protease packaged into dense core granules (PC5A) and a type 1 membrane bound protease (PC5B). [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

CMT2G Gene

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2G

LOC105369264 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 20

WNT10A Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10A

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It is strongly expressed in the cell lines of promyelocytic leukemia and Burkitt's lymphoma. In addition, it and another family member, the WNT6 gene, are strongly coexpressed in colorectal cancer cell lines. The gene overexpression may play key roles in carcinogenesis through activation of the WNT-beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway. This gene and the WNT6 gene are clustered in the chromosome 2q35 region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT10B Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10B

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It may be involved in breast cancer, and its protein signaling is likely a molecular switch that governs adipogenesis. This protein is 96% identical to the mouse Wnt10b protein at the amino acid level. This gene is clustered with another family member, WNT1, in the chromosome 12q13 region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TNNT1 Gene

troponin T type 1 (skeletal, slow)

This gene encodes a protein that is a subunit of troponin, which is a regulatory complex located on the thin filament of the sarcomere. This complex regulates striated muscle contraction in response to fluctuations in intracellular calcium concentration. This complex is composed of three subunits: troponin C, which binds calcium, troponin T, which binds tropomyosin, and troponin I, which is an inhibitory subunit. This protein is the slow skeletal troponin T subunit. Mutations in this gene cause nemaline myopathy type 5, also known as Amish nemaline myopathy, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and rod-shaped, or nemaline, inclusions in skeletal muscle fibers which affects infants, resulting in death due to respiratory insufficiency, usually in the second year. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT39 Gene

keratin 39, type I

This gene encodes a member of the type I (acidic) keratin family, which belongs to the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. Keratins are heteropolymeric structural proteins which form the intermediate filament. These filaments, along with actin microfilaments and microtubules, compose the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. The type I keratin genes are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

KRT31 Gene

keratin 31, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type I hair keratin, it is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT32 Gene

keratin 32, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type I hair keratin, it is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT35 Gene

keratin 35, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. This type I hair keratin is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT34 Gene

keratin 34, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type I hair keratin, it is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT37 Gene

keratin 37, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type I hair keratin, it is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT36 Gene

keratin 36, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. This type I hair keratin is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZDHHC3 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 3

FRA4A Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(4)(p16.1)

FRA4B Gene

fragile site, BrdU type, common, fra(4)(q12)

FRA4C Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(4)(q31.1)

FRA4D Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(4)(p15)

PPFIA4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 4

PPFIA4, or liprin-alpha-4, belongs to the liprin-alpha gene family. See liprin-alpha-1 (LIP1, or PPFIA1; MIM 611054) for background on liprins.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MMAA Gene

methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblA type

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the translocation of cobalamin into the mitochondrion, where it is used in the final steps of adenosylcobalamin synthesis. Adenosylcobalamin is a coenzyme required for the activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Defects in this gene are a cause of methylmalonic aciduria. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MMAB Gene

methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblB type

This gene encodes a protein that catalyzes the final step in the conversion of vitamin B(12) into adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), a vitamin B12-containing coenzyme for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Mutations in the gene are the cause of vitamin B12-dependent methylmalonic aciduria linked to the cblB complementation group. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

WS2B Gene

Waardenburg syndrome, type 2B

WS2C Gene

Waardenburg syndrome, type IIC

KRT33B Gene

keratin 33B, type I

This gene encodes a member of the keratin gene family. This gene is one of multiple type I hair keratin genes that are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. As a type I hair keratin, the encoded protein is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. There are two isoforms of this protein, encoded by two separate genes, keratin 33A and keratin 33B. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

KRT33A Gene

keratin 33A, type I

This gene encodes a member of the keratin gene family. This gene is one of multiple type I hair keratin genes that are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. As a type I hair keratin, the encoded protein is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. There are two isoforms of this protein, encoded by two separate genes, keratin 33A and keratin 33B. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

LOC105379539 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 23-like

GNRHR2P1 Gene

gonadotropin-releasing hormone (type 2) receptor 2 pseudogene 1

FRA22B Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(22)(q12.2)

ZMYND19P1 Gene

zinc finger, MYND-type containing 19 pseudogene 1

CLEC1A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 1, member A

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signaling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. The encoded protein may play a role in regulating dendritic cell function. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

CLEC1B Gene

C-type lectin domain family 1, member B

Natural killer (NK) cells express multiple calcium-dependent (C-type) lectin-like receptors, such as CD94 (KLRD1; MIM 602894) and NKG2D (KLRC4; MIM 602893), that interact with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and either inhibit or activate cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion. CLEC2 is a C-type lectin-like receptor expressed in myeloid cells and NK cells (Colonna et al., 2000 [PubMed 10671229]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

CDH20 Gene

cadherin 20, type 2

This gene is a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily and one of three cadherin 7-like genes located in a cluster on chromosome 18. The encoded membrane protein is a calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. Since disturbance of intracellular adhesion is a prerequisite for invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, cadherins are considered prime candidates for tumor suppressor genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH22 Gene

cadherin 22, type 2

This gene is a member of the cadherin superfamily. The gene product is composed of five cadherin repeat domains and a cytoplasmic tail similar to the highly conserved cytoplasmic region of classical cadherins. Expressed predominantly in the brain, this putative calcium-dependent cell adhesion protein may play an important role in morphogenesis and tissue formation in neural and non-neural cells during development and maintenance of the brain and neuroendocrine organs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH24 Gene

cadherin 24, type 2

HMN7A Gene

Motor neuronopathy, distal hereditary, type VIIA

FSD1L Gene

fibronectin type III and SPRY domain containing 1-like

COL27A1 Gene

collagen, type XXVII, alpha 1

This gene encodes a member of the fibrillar collagen family, and plays a role during the calcification of cartilage and the transition of cartilage to bone. The encoded protein product is a preproprotein. It includes an N-terminal signal peptide, which is followed by an N-terminal propetide, mature peptide and a C-terminal propeptide. The N-terminal propeptide contains thrombospondin N-terminal-like and laminin G-like domains. The mature peptide is a major triple-helical region. The C-terminal propeptide, also known as COLFI domain, plays crucial roles in tissue growth and repair. Mutations in this gene cause Steel syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

PSMB3P Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 3 pseudogene

CLEC4A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member A

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. The encoded type 2 transmembrane protein may play a role in inflammatory and immune response. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MCDR1 Gene

macular dystrophy, retinal, 1 (North Carolina type)

MCDR4 Gene

macular dystrophy, retinal, 4 (North Carolina type with progressive sensorineural hearing loss)

HPFH2 Gene

hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin, heterocellular, Indian type

HHT4 Gene

Telangiectasia, hereditary hemorrhagic, type 4

SCN1B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type I beta subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are heteromeric proteins that function in the generation and propagation of action potentials in muscle and neuronal cells. They are composed of one alpha and two beta subunits, where the alpha subunit provides channel activity and the beta-1 subunit modulates the kinetics of channel inactivation. This gene encodes a sodium channel beta-1 subunit. Mutations in this gene result in generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, Brugada syndrome 5, and defects in cardiac conduction. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SCN1A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type I alpha subunit

The vertebrate sodium channel is a voltage-gated ion channel essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials, mainly in nerve and muscle. Voltage-sensitive sodium channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of a large central pore-forming glycosylated alpha subunit, and two smaller auxiliary beta subunits. This gene encodes the large alpha subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with several epilepsy, convulsion and migraine disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. The RefSeq Project has decided to create four representative RefSeq records. Three of the transcript variants are supported by experimental evidence and the fourth contains alternate 5' untranslated exons, the exact combination of which have not been experimentally confirmed for the full-length transcript.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

OGS2 Gene

Opitz G syndrome, type II

This disorder, variously named the G, Opitz-G, or BBB syndrome, includes hypertelorism or telecanthus; laryngotracheoesophageal cleft; clefts of lip, palate, and uvula; swallowing difficulty and hoarse cry; genitourinary defects, especially hypospadias in males and splayed labia majora in females; mental retardation; and congenital heart defects.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

ATP10A Gene

ATPase, class V, type 10A

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of aminophospholipid-transporting ATPases. The aminophospholipid translocases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from one side of a bilayer to another. This gene is maternally expressed. It maps within the most common interval of deletion responsible for Angelman syndrome, also known as 'happy puppet syndrome'. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP10B Gene

ATPase, class V, type 10B

ATP10D Gene

ATPase, class V, type 10D

TAS2R63P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 63, pseudogene

LOC101928444 Gene

histone H2B type 1-F/J/L-like

FRA17A Gene

fragile site, distamycin A type, rare, fra(17)(p12)

FRA17B Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(17)(q23.1)

DYNLT1 Gene

dynein, light chain, Tctex-type 1

This gene encodes a component of the motor complex, cytoplasmic dynein, which transports cellular cargo along microtubules in the cell. The encoded protein regulates the length of primary cilia which are sensory organelles found on the surface of cells. The protein encoded by this gene interacts with viral proteins, like the minor capsid protein L2 of human papillomavirus, and is required for dynein-mediated delivery of the viral nucleic acid to the host nucleus. This protein interacts with oncogenic nucleoporins to disrupt gene regulation and cause leukemic transformation. Pseudogenes of this gene are present on chromosomes 4 and 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

DYNLT3 Gene

dynein, light chain, Tctex-type 3

This gene encodes a member of a subclass of dynein light chains. The encoded protein homodimerizes and forms the light chain component of the cytoplasmic dynein motor protein complex. This protein may be important for binding dynein to specific cargos including the spindle checkpoint protein BUB3. This protein may also function independently of dynein as a transcriptional modulator. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 2 and 20.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CNBP Gene

CCHC-type zinc finger, nucleic acid binding protein

This gene encodes a nucleic-acid binding protein with seven zinc-finger domains. The protein has a preference for binding single stranded DNA and RNA. The protein functions in cap-independent translation of ornithine decarboxylase mRNA, and may also function in sterol-mediated transcriptional regulation. A CCTG expansion in the first intron of this gene results in myotonic dystrophy type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLEC9A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 9, member A

CLEC9A is a group V C-type lectin-like receptor (CTLR) that functions as an activation receptor and is expressed on myeloid lineage cells (Huysamen et al., 2008 [PubMed 18408006]).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008]

COL9A2 Gene

collagen, type IX, alpha 2

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. Type IX collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. This chain is unusual in that, unlike the other two type IX alpha chains, it contains a covalently attached glycosaminoglycan side chain. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL9A3 Gene

collagen, type IX, alpha 3

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. Type IX collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia type 3. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

COL9A1 Gene

collagen, type IX, alpha 1

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, which is a minor (5-20%) collagen component of hyaline cartilage. Type IX collagen is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. Studies in knockout mice have shown that synthesis of the alpha 1 chain is essential for assembly of type IX collagen molecules, a heterotrimeric molecule, and that lack of type IX collagen is associated with early onset osteoarthritis. Mutations in this gene are associated with osteoarthritis in humans, with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, 6, a form of chondrodysplasia, and with Stickler syndrome, a disease characterized by ophthalmic, orofacial, articular, and auditory defects. Two transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZC3H12A Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 12A

ZC3H12A is an MCP1 (CCL2; MIM 158105)-induced protein that acts as a transcriptional activator and causes cell death of cardiomyocytes, possibly via induction of genes associated with apoptosis.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ZC3H12B Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 12B

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of CCCH-type zinc finger proteins that are involved in the proinflammatory activation of macrophages. The exact function of this family member is unknown, but it is thought to function as a ribonuclease. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

ZC3H12C Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 12C

ZC3H12D Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 12D

HBHR Gene

alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome, type 1

LOC100420255 Gene

collagen, type XXII, alpha 1 pseudogene

SCN9A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type IX alpha subunit

This gene encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel which plays a significant role in nociception signaling. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary erythermalgia, channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain, and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

DNLZ Gene

DNL-type zinc finger

PTPN22 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (lymphoid)

This gene encodes of member of the non-receptor class 4 subfamily of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. The encoded protein is a lymphoid-specific intracellular phosphatase that associates with the molecular adapter protein CBL and may be involved in regulating CBL function in the T-cell receptor signaling pathway. Mutations in this gene may be associated with a range of autoimmune disorders including Type 1 Diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and Graves' disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

PTPN23 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 23

PTPN20 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 20

The product of this gene belongs to the family of classical tyrosine-specific protein tyrosine phosphatases. Many protein tyrosine phosphatases have been shown to regulate fundamental cellular processes. The encoded protein appears to be targeted to sites of actin polymerization. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on chromosome 10. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

PTPN21 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 21

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal domain, similar to cytoskeletal- associated proteins including band 4.1, ezrin, merlin, and radixin. This PTP was shown to specially interact with BMX/ETK, a member of Tec tyrosine kinase family characterized by a multimodular structures including PH, SH3, and SH2 domains. The interaction of this PTP with BMX kinase was found to increase the activation of STAT3, but not STAT2 kinase. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested the possible roles of this PTP in liver regeneration and spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FANK1 Gene

fibronectin type III and ankyrin repeat domains 1

DROSHA Gene

drosha, ribonuclease type III

Members of the ribonuclease III superfamily of double-stranded (ds) RNA-specific endoribonucleases participate in diverse RNA maturation and decay pathways in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells (Fortin et al., 2002 [PubMed 12191433]). The RNase III Drosha is the core nuclease that executes the initiation step of microRNA (miRNA) processing in the nucleus (Lee et al., 2003 [PubMed 14508493]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PHA2A Gene

Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (gene A)

Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, also known as Gordon hyperkalemia-hypertension syndrome, is characterized by hyperkalemia despite normal renal glomerular filtration, hypertension, and correction of physiologic abnormalities by thiazide diuretics. Mild hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis, and suppressed plasma renin activity are variable associated findings.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

PSMA2P3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 3

PSMA2P1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 1

DYNLL1 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1

Cytoplasmic dyneins are large enzyme complexes with a molecular mass of about 1,200 kD. They contain two force-producing heads formed primarily from dynein heavy chains, and stalks linking the heads to a basal domain, which contains a varying number of accessory intermediate chains. The complex is involved in intracellular transport and motility. The protein described in this record is a light chain and exists as part of this complex but also physically interacts with and inhibits the activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Binding of this protein destabilizes the neuronal nitric oxide synthase dimer, a conformation necessary for activity, and it may regulate numerous biologic processes through its effects on nitric oxide synthase activity. Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DYNLL2 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 2

EDS8 Gene

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type VIII

COL1AR Gene

collagen, type I, alpha, receptor

COL1A2 Gene

collagen, type I, alpha 2

This gene encodes the pro-alpha2 chain of type I collagen whose triple helix comprises two alpha1 chains and one alpha2 chain. Type I is a fibril-forming collagen found in most connective tissues and is abundant in bone, cornea, dermis and tendon. Mutations in this gene are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta types I-IV, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIB, recessive Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Classical type, idiopathic osteoporosis, and atypical Marfan syndrome. Symptoms associated with mutations in this gene, however, tend to be less severe than mutations in the gene for the alpha1 chain of type I collagen (COL1A1) reflecting the different role of alpha2 chains in matrix integrity. Three transcripts, resulting from the use of alternate polyadenylation signals, have been identified for this gene. [provided by R. Dalgleish, Feb 2008]

COL6A1 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 1

The collagens are a superfamily of proteins that play a role in maintaining the integrity of various tissues. Collagens are extracellular matrix proteins and have a triple-helical domain as their common structural element. Collagen VI is a major structural component of microfibrils. The basic structural unit of collagen VI is a heterotrimer of the alpha1(VI), alpha2(VI), and alpha3(VI) chains. The alpha2(VI) and alpha3(VI) chains are encoded by the COL6A2 and COL6A3 genes, respectively. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha 1 subunit of type VI collagen (alpha1(VI) chain). Mutations in the genes that code for the collagen VI subunits result in the autosomal dominant disorder, Bethlem myopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL6A2 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 2

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type VI collagen, a beaded filament collagen found in most connective tissues. The product of this gene contains several domains similar to von Willebrand Factor type A domains. These domains have been shown to bind extracellular matrix proteins, an interaction that explains the importance of this collagen in organizing matrix components. Mutations in this gene are associated with Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich scleroatonic muscular dystrophy. Three transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL6A5 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 5

This gene encodes a member of the collagen superfamily of proteins. The encoded protein contains multiple von Willebrand factor A-like domains and may interact with the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains of collagen VI to form the complete collagen VI trimer. Polymorphisms in this gene may be linked to dermal phenotypes, such as eczema. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

TAS2R20 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 20

TAS2R22 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 22

COL17A1 Gene

collagen, type XVII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVII collagen. Unlike most collagens, collagen XVII is a transmembrane protein. Collagen XVII is a structural component of hemidesmosomes, multiprotein complexes at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone that mediate adhesion of keratinocytes to the underlying membrane. Mutations in this gene are associated with both generalized atrophic benign and junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Two homotrimeric forms of type XVII collagen exist. The full length form is the transmembrane protein. A soluble form, referred to as either ectodomain or LAD-1, is generated by proteolytic processing of the full length form. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT6B Gene

keratin 6B, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. As many as six of this type II cytokeratin (KRT6) have been identified; the multiplicity of the genes is attributed to successive gene duplication events. The genes are expressed with family members KRT16 and/or KRT17 in the filiform papillae of the tongue, the stratified epithelial lining of oral mucosa and esophagus, the outer root sheath of hair follicles, and the glandular epithelia. Mutations in these genes have been associated with pachyonychia congenita. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT6C Gene

keratin 6C, type II

Keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into epithelial keratins and hair keratins. The type II keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

KRT6A Gene

keratin 6A, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. As many as six of this type II cytokeratin (KRT6) have been identified; the multiplicity of the genes is attributed to successive gene duplication events. The genes are expressed with family members KRT16 and/or KRT17 in the filiform papillae of the tongue, the stratified epithelial lining of oral mucosa and esophagus, the outer root sheath of hair follicles, and the glandular epithelia. This KRT6 gene in particular encodes the most abundant isoform. Mutations in these genes have been associated with pachyonychia congenita. In addition, peptides from the C-terminal region of the protein have antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

COMA Gene

Cogan-type congential oculomotor apraxia

ZDHHC20 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 20

ZDHHC21 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 21

ZDHHC22 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 22

ZDHHC23 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 23

ZDHHC24 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 24

CLEC18C Gene

C-type lectin domain family 18, member C

ZC3HC1 Gene

zinc finger, C3HC-type containing 1

This gene encodes an F-box-containing protein that is a component of an SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that regulates the onset of cell division. The G2/M transition in the cell cycle requires the interaction of the proteins cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1. The activated ubiquitin ligase complex targets the protein cyclin B1 for degradation, preventing this transition to mitosis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

FRA7I Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(q36)

FRA7H Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(q32.3)

FRA7J Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(q11)

FRA7A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(7)(p11.2)

FRA7C Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(p14.2)

FRA7B Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(p22)

FRA7E Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(q21.2)

FRA7D Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(p13)

FRA7G Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(q31.2)

FRA7F Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(q22)

WNT7A Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 7A

This gene is a member of the WNT gene family, which consists of structurally related genes that encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is involved in the development of the anterior-posterior axis in the female reproductive tract, and also plays a critical role in uterine smooth muscle pattering and maintenance of adult uterine function. Mutations in this gene are associated with Fuhrmann and Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndromes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT7B Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 7B

This gene is a member of the WNT gene family, which consists of structurally related genes that encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. Among members of the human WNT family, this gene product is most similar to WNT7A protein. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

ANKFN1 Gene

ankyrin-repeat and fibronectin type III domain containing 1

DYNLL1P2 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1 pseudogene 2

DYNLL1P3 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1 pseudogene 3

DYNLL1P1 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1 pseudogene 1

DYNLL1P6 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1 pseudogene 6

DYNLL1P7 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1 pseudogene 7

DYNLL1P4 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1 pseudogene 4

INPP4B Gene

inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II, 105kDa

INPP4B encodes the inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II, one of the enzymes involved in phosphatidylinositol signaling pathways. This enzyme removes the phosphate group at position 4 of the inositol ring from inositol 3,4-bisphosphate. There is limited data to suggest that the human type II enzyme is subject to alternative splicing, as has been established for the type I enzyme. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMA2P2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 2

ZC3H6 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 6

CCNDBP1 Gene

cyclin D-type binding-protein 1

This gene was identified by the interaction of its gene product with Grap2, a leukocyte-specific adaptor protein important for immune cell signaling. The protein encoded by this gene was shown to interact with cyclin D. Transfection of this gene in cells was reported to reduce the phosphorylation of Rb gene product by cyclin D-dependent protein kinase, and inhibit E2F1-mediated transcription activity. This protein was also found to interact with helix-loop-helix protein E12 and is thought to be a negative regulator of liver-specific gene expression. Several alternatively spliced variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

LOC100419859 Gene

zinc finger, MYM-type 1 pseudogene

LOC100419678 Gene

zinc finger, MYM-type 1 pseudogene

CLEC4M Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member M

This gene encodes a transmembrane receptor and is often referred to as L-SIGN because of its expression in the endothelial cells of the lymph nodes and liver. The encoded protein is involved in the innate immune system and recognizes numerous evolutionarily divergent pathogens ranging from parasites to viruses, with a large impact on public health. The protein is organized into three distinct domains: an N-terminal transmembrane domain, a tandem-repeat neck domain and C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain. The extracellular region consisting of the C-type lectin and neck domains has a dual function as a pathogen recognition receptor and a cell adhesion receptor by binding carbohydrate ligands on the surface of microbes and endogenous cells. The neck region is important for homo-oligomerization which allows the receptor to bind multivalent ligands with high avidity. Variations in the number of 23 amino acid repeats in the neck domain of this protein are common and have a significant impact on ligand binding ability. This gene is closely related in terms of both sequence and function to a neighboring gene (GeneID 30835; often referred to as DC-SIGN or CD209). DC-SIGN and L-SIGN differ in their ligand-binding properties and distribution. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

CLEC4G Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member G

This gene encodes a glycan-binding receptor and member of the C-type lectin family which plays a role in the T-cell immune response. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CLEC4F Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member F

CLEC4E Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member E

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. The encoded type II transmembrane protein is a downstream target of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta (CEBPB) and may play a role in inflammation. Alternative splice variants have been described but their full-length sequence has not been determined. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLEC4D Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member D

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLEC4C Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member C

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. The encoded type 2 transmembrane protein may play a role in dendritic cell function. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CFTDX Gene

Myopathy, congenital, with fiber-type disproportion, X-linked

CDH11 Gene

cadherin 11, type 2, OB-cadherin (osteoblast)

This gene encodes a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily, integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a small, highly conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. Expression of this particular cadherin in osteoblastic cell lines, and its upregulation during differentiation, suggests a specific function in bone development and maintenance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH10 Gene

cadherin 10, type 2 (T2-cadherin)

This gene encodes a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily, integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a small, highly conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The extracellular domain consists of 5 subdomains, each containing a cadherin motif, and appears to determine the specificity of the protein's homophilic cell adhesion activity. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. This particular cadherin is predominantly expressed in brain and is putatively involved in synaptic adhesions, axon outgrowth and guidance. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

CDH12 Gene

cadherin 12, type 2 (N-cadherin 2)

This gene encodes a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily of integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a small, highly conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. This particular cadherin appears to be expressed specifically in the brain and its temporal pattern of expression would be consistent with a role during a critical period of neuronal development, perhaps specifically during synaptogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH15 Gene

cadherin 15, type 1, M-cadherin (myotubule)

This gene is a member of the cadherin superfamily of genes, encoding calcium-dependent intercellular adhesion glycoproteins. Cadherins consist of an extracellular domain containing 5 cadherin domains, a transmembrane region, and a conserved cytoplasmic domain. Transcripts from this particular cadherin are expressed in myoblasts and upregulated in myotubule-forming cells. The protein is thought to be essential for the control of morphogenetic processes, specifically myogenesis, and may provide a trigger for terminal muscle cell differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH19 Gene

cadherin 19, type 2

This gene is one of three related type II cadherin genes situated in a cluster on chromosome 18. The encoded protein is a calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein containing five extracellular cadherin repeats. Loss of cadherins may be associated with cancer formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

CDH18 Gene

cadherin 18, type 2

This gene encodes a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily of integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a small, highly conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. This particular cadherin is expressed specifically in the central nervous system and is putatively involved in synaptic adhesion, axon outgrowth and guidance. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

ZDHHC20P3 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 20 pseudogene 3

NPHS1 Gene

nephrosis 1, congenital, Finnish type (nephrin)

This gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin family of cell adhesion molecules that functions in the glomerular filtration barrier in the kidney. The gene is primarily expressed in renal tissues, and the protein is a type-1 transmembrane protein found at the slit diaphragm of glomerular podocytes. The slit diaphragm is thought to function as an ultrafilter to exclude albumin and other plasma macromolecules in the formation of urine. Mutations in this gene result in Finnish-type congenital nephrosis 1, characterized by severe proteinuria and loss of the slit diaphragm and foot processes.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

LOC100422713 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

LOC100422710 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

SCN11A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type XI alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are membrane protein complexes that play a fundamental role in the rising phase of the action potential in most excitable cells. Alpha subunits, such as SCN11A, mediate voltage-dependent gating and conductance, while auxiliary beta subunits regulate the kinetic properties of the channel and facilitate membrane localization of the complex. Aberrant expression patterns or mutations of alpha subunits underlie a number of disorders. Each alpha subunit consists of 4 domains connected by 3 intracellular loops; each domain consists of 6 transmembrane segments and intra- and extracellular linkers.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

SPINK9 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 9

SPINK8 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 8 (putative)

CTRCT37 Gene

Cataract, congenital cerulean type, 5

LOC442113 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

ACVR1 Gene

activin A receptor, type I

Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I ( I and IB) and two type II (II and IIB) receptors. These receptors are all transmembrane proteins, composed of a ligand-binding extracellular domain with cysteine-rich region, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. Type I receptors are essential for signaling; and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a stable complex after ligand binding, resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which signals a particular transcriptional response in concert with activin type II receptors. Mutations in this gene are associated with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SWSAP1 Gene

SWIM-type zinc finger 7 associated protein 1

KAZALD1 Gene

Kazal-type serine peptidase inhibitor domain 1

This gene encodes a secreted member of the insulin growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) superfamily. It contains an N-terminal insulin growth factor-binding domain, a central Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor and follistatin-like domain, and a C-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain. Studies of the mouse ortholog suggest that this gene product may have a function in bone development and bone regeneration. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

TAS2R50 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 50

TAS2R50 belongs to the large TAS2R receptor family. TAS2Rs are expressed on the surface of taste receptor cells and mediate the perception of bitterness through a G protein-coupled second messenger pathway (Conte et al., 2002 [PubMed 12584440]). See also TAS2R10 (MIM 604791).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PTPRCAP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C-associated protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a transmembrane phosphoprotein specifically associated with tyrosine phosphatase PTPRC/CD45, a key regulator of T- and B-lymphocyte activation. The interaction with PTPRC may be required for the stable expression of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZFAND6P1 Gene

zinc finger, AN1-type domain 6 pseudogene 1

ZMIZ2 Gene

zinc finger, MIZ-type containing 2

ZMIZ2 and ZMIZ1 (MIM 607159) are members of a PIAS (see MIM 603566)-like family of proteins that interact with nuclear hormone receptors. ZMIZ2 interacts with androgen receptor (AR; MIM 313700) and enhances AR-mediated transcription (Huang et al., 2005 [PubMed 16051670]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2010]

ZMIZ1 Gene

zinc finger, MIZ-type containing 1

This gene encodes a member of the PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family of proteins. The encoded protein regulates the activity of various transcription factors, including the androgen receptor, Smad3/4, and p53. The encoded protein may also play a role in sumoylation. A translocation between this locus on chromosome 10 and the protein tyrosine kinase ABL1 locus on chromosome 9 has been associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

OI16 Gene

Osteogenesis imperfecta, type XVI

NUDT4P2 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 4 pseudogene 2

NUDT4P1 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 4 pseudogene 1

ZBED4 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 4

NUDT15P1 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 15 pseudogene 1

KRT222 Gene

keratin 222, type II

PFHB2 Gene

Progressive familial heart block, type II

NUDT16 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 16

COL21A1 Gene

collagen, type XXI, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XXI collagen, a member of the FACIT collagen family (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted helices). Type XXI collagen is localized to tissues containing type I collagen so, like other members of this collagen family, it may serve to maintain the integrity of the extracellular matrix. An alternatively spliced transcript variant has been described, but its full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPOP Gene

speckle-type POZ protein

This gene encodes a protein that may modulate the transcriptional repression activities of death-associated protein 6 (DAXX), which interacts with histone deacetylase, core histones, and other histone-associated proteins. In mouse, the encoded protein binds to the putative leucine zipper domain of macroH2A1.2, a variant H2A histone that is enriched on inactivated X chromosomes. The BTB/POZ domain of this protein has been shown in other proteins to mediate transcriptional repression and to interact with components of histone deacetylase co-repressor complexes. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZDHHC11B Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 11B

TAS2R64P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 64, pseudogene

KRT38 Gene

keratin 38, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type I hair keratin, it is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPIRE1 Gene

spire-type actin nucleation factor 1

Spire proteins, such as SPIRE1, are highly conserved between species. They belong to the family of Wiskott-Aldrich homology region-2 (WH2) proteins, which are involved in actin organization (Kerkhoff et al., 2001 [PubMed 11747823]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SPIRE2 Gene

spire-type actin nucleation factor 2

LOC100129391 Gene

zinc finger (CCCH type), RNA-binding motif and serine/arginine rich 2 pseudogene

ATP2C2 Gene

ATPase, Ca++ transporting, type 2C, member 2

ATP2C1 Gene

ATPase, Ca++ transporting, type 2C, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases. This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium ions. Defects in this gene cause Hailey-Hailey disease, an autosomal dominant disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

FRA10D Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(10)(q22.1)

FRA10E Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(10)(q25.2)

FRA10F Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(10)(q26.1)

FRA10G Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(10)(q11.2)

FRA10A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(10)(q23.3) or fra(10)(q24.2)

FRA10C Gene

fragile site, BrdU type, common, fra(10)(q21)

ZFAND2B Gene

zinc finger, AN1-type domain 2B

This gene encodes a protein containing AN1-type zinc-fingers and ubiquitin-interacting motifs. The encoded protein likely associates with the proteosome to stimulate the degradation of toxic or misfolded proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

ZFAND2A Gene

zinc finger, AN1-type domain 2A

COL18A1 Gene

collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVIII collagen. This collagen is one of the multiplexins, extracellular matrix proteins that contain multiple triple-helix domains (collagenous domains) interrupted by non-collagenous domains. A long isoform of the protein has an N-terminal domain that is homologous to the extracellular part of frizzled receptors. Proteolytic processing at several endogenous cleavage sites in the C-terminal domain results in production of endostatin, a potent antiangiogenic protein that is able to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth. Mutations in this gene are associated with Knobloch syndrome. The main features of this syndrome involve retinal abnormalities, so type XVIII collagen may play an important role in retinal structure and in neural tube closure. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

ECTD5 Gene

Ectodermal dysplasia 5, hair/nail type

ECTD7 Gene

Ectodermal dysplasia 7, hair/nail type

ECTD6 Gene

Ectodermal dysplasia 6, hair/nail type

ZC3H10 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 10

ZC3H13 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 13

ZC3H14 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 14

ZC3H14 belongs to a family of poly(A)-binding proteins that influence gene expression by regulating mRNA stability, nuclear export, and translation (Kelly et al., 2007 [PubMed 17630287]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

ZC3H18 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 18

NUDT9P1 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 9 pseudogene 1

PGGT1BP1 Gene

protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I, beta subunit pseudogene 1

FNDC8 Gene

fibronectin type III domain containing 8

FNDC9 Gene

fibronectin type III domain containing 9

FNDC4 Gene

fibronectin type III domain containing 4

FNDC5 Gene

fibronectin type III domain containing 5

This gene encodes a secreted protein that is released from muscle cells during exercise. The encoded protein may participate in the development of brown fat. Translation of the precursor protein initiates at a non-AUG start codon at a position that is conserved as an AUG start codon in other organisms. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

FNDC1 Gene

fibronectin type III domain containing 1

FRA2F Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(q21.3)

FRA2G Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(q31)

FRA2D Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(p16.2)

FRA2E Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(p13)

FRA2B Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(2)(q13)

FRA2C Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(p24.2)

FRA2A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(2)(q11.2)

FRA2J Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(q37.3)

FRA2K Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(2)(q22.3)

FRA2H Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(q32.1)

FRA2I Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(q33)

BDH2 Gene

3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, type 2

BDH1 Gene

3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, type 1

This gene encodes a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase gene family. The encoded protein forms a homotetrameric lipid-requiring enzyme of the mitochondrial membrane and has a specific requirement for phosphatidylcholine for optimal enzymatic activity. The encoded protein catalyzes the interconversion of acetoacetate and (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, the two major ketone bodies produced during fatty acid catabolism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT3 Gene

keratin 3, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is specifically expressed in the corneal epithelium with family member KRT12 and mutations in these genes have been associated with Meesmann's Corneal Dystrophy. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT2 Gene

keratin 2, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is expressed largely in the upper spinous layer of epidermal keratinocytes and mutations in this gene have been associated with bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT1 Gene

keratin 1, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is specifically expressed in the spinous and granular layers of the epidermis with family member KRT10 and mutations in these genes have been associated with bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT7 Gene

keratin 7, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is specifically expressed in the simple epithelia lining the cavities of the internal organs and in the gland ducts and blood vessels. The genes encoding the type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. Alternative splicing may result in several transcript variants; however, not all variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT5 Gene

keratin 5, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is specifically expressed in the basal layer of the epidermis with family member KRT14. Mutations in these genes have been associated with a complex of diseases termed epidermolysis bullosa simplex. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT4 Gene

keratin 4, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is specifically expressed in differentiated layers of the mucosal and esophageal epithelia with family member KRT13. Mutations in these genes have been associated with White Sponge Nevus, characterized by oral, esophageal, and anal leukoplakia. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT9 Gene

keratin 9, type I

This gene encodes the type I keratin 9, an intermediate filament chain expressed only in the terminally differentiated epidermis of palms and soles. Mutations in this gene cause epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT8 Gene

keratin 8, type II

This gene is a member of the type II keratin family clustered on the long arm of chromosome 12. Type I and type II keratins heteropolymerize to form intermediate-sized filaments in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. The product of this gene typically dimerizes with keratin 18 to form an intermediate filament in simple single-layered epithelial cells. This protein plays a role in maintaining cellular structural integrity and also functions in signal transduction and cellular differentiation. Mutations in this gene cause cryptogenic cirrhosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

FRA18A Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(18)(q12.2)

FRA18B Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(18)(q21.3)

ZGPAT Gene

zinc finger, CCCH-type with G patch domain

EDNRA Gene

endothelin receptor type A

This gene encodes the receptor for endothelin-1, a peptide that plays a role in potent and long-lasting vasoconstriction. This receptor associates with guanine-nucleotide-binding (G) proteins, and this coupling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Polymorphisms in this gene have been linked to migraine headache resistance. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

EDNRB Gene

endothelin receptor type B

The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor which activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its ligand, endothelin, consists of a family of three potent vasoactive peptides: ET1, ET2, and ET3. Studies suggest that the multigenic disorder, Hirschsprung disease type 2, is due to mutations in the endothelin receptor type B gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

MORC2 Gene

MORC family CW-type zinc finger 2

MORC3 Gene

MORC family CW-type zinc finger 3

This gene encodes a protein that localizes to the nuclear matrix. The protein also has RNA binding activity, and has a predicted coiled-coil domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MORC1 Gene

MORC family CW-type zinc finger 1

This gene encodes the human homolog of mouse morc and like the mouse protein it is testis-specific. Mouse studies support a testis-specific function since only male knockout mice are infertile; infertility is the only apparent defect. These studies further support a role for this protein early in spermatogenesis, possibly by affecting entry into apoptosis because testis from knockout mice show greatly increased numbers of apoptotic cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

MORC4 Gene

MORC family CW-type zinc finger 4

In human, the four current members of the microrchidia (morc) gene family share an N-terminal ATPase-like ATP-binding region and a CW four-cysteine zinc-finger motif. The protein encoded by this gene also has a nuclear matrix binding domain and a two-stranded coiled-coil motif near its C-terminus. This gene is widely expressed at low levels in normal tissues and has elevated expression in placenta and testis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

PTPRZ2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 2

PTPRZ1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 1

This gene encodes a member of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase family. Expression of this gene is restricted to the central nervous system (CNS), and it may be involved in the regulation of specific developmental processes in the CNS. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

COL28A1 Gene

collagen, type XXVIII, alpha 1

COL28A1 belongs to a class of collagens containing von Willebrand factor (VWF; MIM 613160) type A (VWFA) domains (Veit et al., 2006 [PubMed 16330543]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

ZNFX1 Gene

zinc finger, NFX1-type containing 1

CLEC7A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 7, member A

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. The encoded glycoprotein is a small type II membrane receptor with an extracellular C-type lectin-like domain fold and a cytoplasmic domain with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. It functions as a pattern-recognition receptor that recognizes a variety of beta-1,3-linked and beta-1,6-linked glucans from fungi and plants, and in this way plays a role in innate immune response. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZNHIT3 Gene

zinc finger, HIT-type containing 3

ZNHIT2 Gene

zinc finger, HIT-type containing 2

ZNHIT1 Gene

zinc finger, HIT-type containing 1

ZNHIT6 Gene

zinc finger, HIT-type containing 6

KRT17 Gene

keratin 17, type I

This gene encodes the type I intermediate filament chain keratin 17, expressed in nail bed, hair follicle, sebaceous glands, and other epidermal appendages. Mutations in this gene lead to Jackson-Lawler type pachyonychia congenita and steatocystoma multiplex. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

KRT16 Gene

keratin 16, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. Most of the type I cytokeratins consist of acidic proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains and are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21. This keratin has been coexpressed with keratin 14 in a number of epithelial tissues, including esophagus, tongue, and hair follicles. Mutations in this gene are associated with type 1 pachyonychia congenita, non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and unilateral palmoplantar verrucous nevus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT15 Gene

keratin 15, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. Most of the type I cytokeratins consist of acidic proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains and are clustered in a region on chromosome 17q21.2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT14 Gene

keratin 14, type I

This gene encodes a member of the keratin family, the most diverse group of intermediate filaments. This gene product, a type I keratin, is usually found as a heterotetramer with two keratin 5 molecules, a type II keratin. Together they form the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. Mutations in the genes for these keratins are associated with epidermolysis bullosa simplex. At least one pseudogene has been identified at 17p12-p11. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT13 Gene

keratin 13, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. Most of the type I cytokeratins consist of acidic proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains. This type I cytokeratin is paired with keratin 4 and expressed in the suprabasal layers of non-cornified stratified epithelia. Mutations in this gene and keratin 4 have been associated with the autosomal dominant disorder White Sponge Nevus. The type I cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q21.2. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants; however, not all variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT12 Gene

keratin 12, type I

KRT12 encodes the type I intermediate filament chain keratin 12, expressed in corneal epithelia. Mutations in this gene lead to Meesmann corneal dystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT10 Gene

keratin 10, type I

This gene encodes a member of the type I (acidic) cytokeratin family, which belongs to the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. Keratins are heteropolymeric structural proteins which form the intermediate filament. These filaments, along with actin microfilaments and microtubules, compose the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. Mutations in this gene are associated with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. This gene is located within a cluster of keratin family members on chromosome 17q21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT19 Gene

keratin 19, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. The type I cytokeratins consist of acidic proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains. Unlike its related family members, this smallest known acidic cytokeratin is not paired with a basic cytokeratin in epithelial cells. It is specifically expressed in the periderm, the transiently superficial layer that envelopes the developing epidermis. The type I cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT18 Gene

keratin 18, type I

KRT18 encodes the type I intermediate filament chain keratin 18. Keratin 18, together with its filament partner keratin 8, are perhaps the most commonly found members of the intermediate filament gene family. They are expressed in single layer epithelial tissues of the body. Mutations in this gene have been linked to cryptogenic cirrhosis. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

THSD1P1 Gene

thrombospondin, type I, domain containing 1 pseudogene 1

COL11A1 Gene

collagen, type XI, alpha 1

This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. Mutations in this gene are associated with type II Stickler syndrome and with Marshall syndrome. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in this gene is also associated with susceptibility to lumbar disc herniation. Multiple transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

COL11A2 Gene

collagen, type XI, alpha 2

This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 very close to but separate from the gene for retinoid X receptor beta. Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. Proteolytic processing of this type XI chain produces PARP, a proline/arginine-rich protein that is an amino terminal domain. Mutations in this gene are associated with type III Stickler syndrome, otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED syndrome), Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome, autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural type 13 deafness (DFNA13), and autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural type 53 deafness (DFNB53). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene is located nearby on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

ACVR2A Gene

activin A receptor, type IIA

This gene encodes a receptor that mediates the functions of activins, which are members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily involved in diverse biological processes. The encoded protein is a transmembrane serine-threonine kinase receptor which mediates signaling by forming heterodimeric complexes with various combinations of type I and type II receptors and ligands in a cell-specific manner. The encoded type II receptor is primarily involved in ligand-binding and includes an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic serine-threonine kinase domain. This gene may be associated with susceptibility to preeclampsia, a pregnancy-related disease which can result in maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

ACVR2B Gene

activin A receptor, type IIB

Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I (I and IB) and two type II (II and IIB) receptors. These receptors are all transmembrane proteins, composed of a ligand-binding extracellular domain with cysteine-rich region, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. Type I receptors are essential for signaling; and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a stable complex after ligand binding, resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. Type II receptors are considered to be constitutively active kinases. This gene encodes activin A type IIB receptor, which displays a 3- to 4-fold higher affinity for the ligand than activin A type II receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VMAC Gene

vimentin-type intermediate filament associated coiled-coil protein

PTPN3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This protein contains a C-terminal PTP domain and an N-terminal domain homologous to the band 4.1 superfamily of cytoskeletal-associated proteins. P97, a cell cycle regulator involved in a variety of membrane related functions, has been shown to be a substrate of this PTP. This PTP was also found to interact with, and be regulated by adaptor protein 14-3-3 beta. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

ZMYND15 Gene

zinc finger, MYND-type containing 15

This gene encodes a MYND-containing zinc-binding protein with a nuclear localization sequence. A similar gene in mice has been shown to act as a testis-specific transcriptional repressor by recruiting histone deacetylase enzymes to regulate spatiotemporal expression of many haploid genes. This protein may play an important role in spermatogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

ZMYND12 Gene

zinc finger, MYND-type containing 12

ZMYND10 Gene

zinc finger, MYND-type containing 10

ZMYND11 Gene

zinc finger, MYND-type containing 11

The protein encoded by this gene was first identified by its ability to bind the adenovirus E1A protein. The protein localizes to the nucleus. It functions as a transcriptional repressor, and expression of E1A inhibits this repression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZMYND19 Gene

zinc finger, MYND-type containing 19

ZMYND19 is a MYND zinc finger domain-containing protein that binds to the C terminus of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1 (MCHR1; MIM 601751) (Bachner et al., 2002 [PubMed 12208518]), and to the N termini of alpha-tubulin (TUBA1; MIM 191110), and beta-tubulin (TUBB; MIM 191130) (Francke et al., 2005 [PubMed 16039987]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

WNT2B Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 2B

This gene encodes a member of the wingless-type MMTV integration site (WNT) family of highly conserved, secreted signaling factors. WNT family members function in a variety of developmental processes including regulation of cell growth and differentiation and are characterized by a WNT-core domain. This gene may play a role in human development as well as carcinogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

CYB5AP5 Gene

cytochrome b5 type A (microsomal) pseudogene 5

PSMA3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 3

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIP4K2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, alpha

Phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate, the precursor to second messengers of the phosphoinositide signal transduction pathways, is thought to be involved in the regulation of secretion, cell proliferation, differentiation, and motility. The protein encoded by this gene is one of a family of enzymes capable of catalyzing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate on the fourth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring to form phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate. The amino acid sequence of this enzyme does not show homology to other kinases, but the recombinant protein does exhibit kinase activity. This gene is a member of the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIP4K2C Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, gamma

PIP4K2B Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, beta

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate on the fourth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring to form phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate. This gene is a member of the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase family. The encoded protein sequence does not show similarity to other kinases, but the protein does exhibit kinase activity. Additionally, the encoded protein interacts with p55 TNF receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC103156999 Gene

dynein, light chain, Tctex-type 1 pseudogene

LOC100422495 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (megakaryocyte) pseudogene

LOC105379861 Gene

neuropeptide Y receptor type 4

PIEZO1P1 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1 pseudogene 1

PIEZO1P2 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1 pseudogene 2

ALOX15B Gene

arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, type B

This gene encodes a member of the lipoxygenase family of structurally related nonheme iron dioxygenases involved in the production of fatty acid hydroperoxides. The encoded protein converts arachidonic acid exclusively to 15S-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, while metabolizing linoleic acid less effectively. This gene is located in a cluster of related genes and a pseudogene that spans approximately 100 kilobases on the short arm of chromosome 17. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HBN1 Gene

Progressive familial heart block, type I, locus 1

DYNLT3P1 Gene

dynein, light chain, Tctex-type 3 pseudogene 1

DYNLT3P2 Gene

dynein, light chain, Tctex-type 3 pseudogene 2

PSMB11 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 11

Proteasomes generate peptides that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I molecules to other cells of the immune system. Proteolysis is conducted by 20S proteasomes, complexes of 28 subunits arranged as a cylinder in 4 heteroheptameric rings: alpha-1 to -7, beta-1 to -7, beta-1 to -7, and alpha-1 to -7. The catalytic subunits are beta-1 (PSMB6; MIM 600307), beta-2 (PSMB7; MIM 604030), and beta-5 (PSMB5; MIM 600306). Three additional subunits, beta-1i (PSMB9; MIM 177045), beta-2i (PSMB10; MIM 176847), and beta-5i (PSMB8; MIM 177046), are induced by gamma-interferon (IFNG; MIM 147570) and are preferentially incorporated into proteasomes to make immunoproteasomes. PSMB11, or beta-5t, is a catalytic subunit expressed exclusively in cortical thymic epithelial cells (Murata et al., 2007 [PubMed 17540904]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PSMB10 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 10

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. Proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon, and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 2 (proteasome beta 7 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADAMTS8 Gene

ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 8

This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The enzyme encoded by this gene contains two C-terminal TS motifs, and disrupts angiogenesis in vivo. A number of disorders have been mapped in the vicinity of this gene, most notably lung neoplasms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH8 Gene

cadherin 8, type 2

This gene encodes a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily, integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a small, highly conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The extracellular domain consists of 5 subdomains, each containing a cadherin motif, and appears to determine the specificity of the protein's homophilic cell adhesion activity. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. This particular cadherin is expressed in brain and is putatively involved in synaptic adhesion, axon outgrowth and guidance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH2 Gene

cadherin 2, type 1, N-cadherin (neuronal)

This gene is a classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily. The encoded protein is a calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. The protein functions during gastrulation and is required for establishment of left-right asymmetry. At certain central nervous system synapses, presynaptic to postsynaptic adhesion is mediated at least in part by this gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN3A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type III alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit with 24 transmembrane domains and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family, and is found in a cluster of five alpha subunit genes on chromosome 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN3B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type III beta subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel beta subunit gene family, and influences the inactivation kinetics of the sodium channel. Two alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2B Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is sensitive to low nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmanin. The C2 domain of this protein was shown to bind phospholipids but not Ca2+, which suggests that this enzyme may function in a calcium-independent manner. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 alpha

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is not sensitive to nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmanin. This protein was shown to be able to be activated by insulin and may be involved in integrin-dependent signaling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2G Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 gamma

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. This gene may play a role in several diseases, including type II diabetes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

AFD1 Gene

acrofacial dysostosis 1, Nager type

PIP5K1P1 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, pseudogene 1

PIP5K1P2 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, pseudogene 2

LOC100132830 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 14 pseudogene

PTPN2P2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 pseudogene 2

LOC100421641 Gene

zinc finger CCHC-type and RNA binding motif 1 pseudogene

BDET Gene

Bleeding disorder, east Texas type

LOC391813 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 3 pseudogene

NMSR Gene

Neuropathy, hereditary motor and sensory, Russe type

FRA15A Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(15)(q22)

LOC100133225 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 7 pseudogene

ZC3H8 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 8

ZC3H3 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 3

COL22A1 Gene

collagen, type XXII, alpha 1

COL22A1, a member of the FACIT (fibrillar-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) subgroup of the collagen protein family, specifically localizes to tissue junctions (Koch et al., 2004 [PubMed 15016833]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ZC3H4 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 4

This gene encodes a member of a family of CCCH (C-x8-C-x5-C-x3-H type) zinc finger domain-containing proteins. These zinc finger domains, which coordinate zinc finger binding and are characterized by three cysteine residues and one histidine residue, are nucleic acid-binding. Other family members are known to function in post-transcriptional regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC100422416 Gene

ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 7 pseudogene

ZDHHC20P4 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 20 pseudogene 4

ZDHHC20P2 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 20 pseudogene 2

ZDHHC20P1 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 20 pseudogene 1

COL5A2 Gene

collagen, type V, alpha 2

This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. Mutations in this gene are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, types I and II. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL5A3 Gene

collagen, type V, alpha 3

This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. Mutations in this gene are thought to be responsible for the symptoms of a subset of patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III. Messages of several sizes can be detected in northern blots but sequence information cannot confirm the identity of the shorter messages. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL5A1 Gene

collagen, type V, alpha 1

This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. The encoded procollagen protein occurs commonly as the heterotrimer pro-alpha1(V)-pro-alpha1(V)-pro-alpha2(V). Mutations in this gene are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, types I and II. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

ZBED1 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 1

This gene is located in the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of X and Y chromosomes. It was earlier identified as a gene with similarity to Ac transposable elements, however, was found not to have transposase activity. Later studies show that this gene product is localized in the nucleus and functions as a transcription factor. It binds to DNA elements found in the promoter regions of several genes related to cell proliferation, such as histone H1, hence may have a role in regulating genes related to cell proliferation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants with different 5' untranslated region have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

ZBED2 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 2

ZBED3 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 3

ZBED5 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 5

This gene is unusual in that its coding sequence is mostly derived from Charlie-like DNA transposon; however, it does not appear to be an active DNA transposon as it is not flanked by terminal inverted repeats. The encoded protein is conserved among the mammalian Laurasiatheria branch. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

ZBED6 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 6

ZBED8 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 8

ZBED9 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 9

FHII Gene

Hyperaldosteronism, familial, type II

LOC105369259 Gene

putative L-type amino acid transporter 1-like protein MLAS

CYB5AP2 Gene

cytochrome b5 type A (microsomal) pseudogene 2

HMU Gene

Hypotrichosis, Marie Unna type

LOC442263 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

CELSR3 Gene

cadherin, EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3

This gene belongs to the flamingo subfamily, which is included in the cadherin superfamily. The flamingo cadherins consist of nonclassic-type cadherins that do not interact with catenins. They are plasma membrane proteins containing seven epidermal growth factor-like repeats, nine cadherin domains and two laminin A G-type repeats in their ectodomain. They also have seven transmembrane domains, a characteristic feature of their subfamily. The encoded protein may be involved in the regulation of contact-dependent neurite growth and may play a role in tumor formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

CELSR2 Gene

cadherin, EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the flamingo subfamily, part of the cadherin superfamily. The flamingo subfamily consists of nonclassic-type cadherins; a subpopulation that does not interact with catenins. The flamingo cadherins are located at the plasma membrane and have nine cadherin domains, seven epidermal growth factor-like repeats and two laminin A G-type repeats in their ectodomain. They also have seven transmembrane domains, a characteristic unique to this subfamily. It is postulated that these proteins are receptors involved in contact-mediated communication, with cadherin domains acting as homophilic binding regions and the EGF-like domains involved in cell adhesion and receptor-ligand interactions. The specific function of this particular member has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CELSR1 Gene

cadherin, EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the flamingo subfamily, part of the cadherin superfamily. The flamingo subfamily consists of nonclassic-type cadherins; a subpopulation that does not interact with catenins. The flamingo cadherins are located at the plasma membrane and have nine cadherin domains, seven epidermal growth factor-like repeats and two laminin A G-type repeats in their ectodomain. They also have seven transmembrane domains, a characteristic unique to this subfamily. It is postulated that these proteins are receptors involved in contact-mediated communication, with cadherin domains acting as homophilic binding regions and the EGF-like domains involved in cell adhesion and receptor-ligand interactions. This particular member is a developme