Name

ASPM Gene

asp (abnormal spindle) homolog, microcephaly associated (Drosophila)

This gene is the human ortholog of the Drosophila melanogaster 'abnormal spindle' gene (asp), which is essential for normal mitotic spindle function in embryonic neuroblasts. Studies in mouse also suggest a role of this gene in mitotic spindle regulation, with a preferential role in regulating neurogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with microcephaly primary type 5. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

TAM Gene

Myeloproliferative syndrome, transient (transient abnormal

MYL6 Gene

myosin, light chain 6, alkali, smooth muscle and non-muscle

Myosin is a hexameric ATPase cellular motor protein. It is composed of two heavy chains, two nonphosphorylatable alkali light chains, and two phosphorylatable regulatory light chains. This gene encodes a myosin alkali light chain that is expressed in smooth muscle and non-muscle tissues. Genomic sequences representing several pseudogenes have been described and two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MYL6B Gene

myosin, light chain 6B, alkali, smooth muscle and non-muscle

Myosin is a hexameric ATPase cellular motor protein. It is composed of two heavy chains, two nonphosphorylatable alkali light chains, and two phosphorylatable regulatory light chains. This gene encodes a myosin alkali light chain expressed in both slow-twitch skeletal muscle and in nonmuscle tissue. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CILD4 Gene

Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 4

PSC Gene

Cholangitis, primary sclerosing

PIFO Gene

primary cilia formation

IPOX Gene

Intestinal pseudoobstruction, neuronal, primary idiopathic

PPH2 Gene

primary pulmonary hypertension 2

PLSA1 Gene

Primary lateral sclerosis, adult, 1

MYD88 Gene

myeloid differentiation primary response 88

This gene encodes a cytosolic adapter protein that plays a central role in the innate and adaptive immune response. This protein functions as an essential signal transducer in the interleukin-1 and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. These pathways regulate that activation of numerous proinflammatory genes. The encoded protein consists of an N-terminal death domain and a C-terminal Toll-interleukin1 receptor domain. Patients with defects in this gene have an increased susceptibility to pyogenic bacterial infections. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

PRD Gene

primary retinal dysplasia

GLC3B Gene

glaucoma 3, primary infantile, B

GLC3C Gene

glaucoma 3, primary congenital, C

HDLCQ14 Gene

Hypoalphalipoproteinemia, primary

LOC102724175 Gene

membrane primary amine oxidase-like

CILD8 Gene

Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 8

PBC3 Gene

Biliary cirrhosis, primary, 3

PBC2 Gene

Biliary cirrhosis, primary, 2

PBC5 Gene

Biliary cirrhosis, primary, 5

PBC4 Gene

Biliary cirrhosis, primary, 4

DPCD Gene

deleted in primary ciliary dyskinesia homolog (mouse)

SKA1 Gene

spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 1

SKA3 Gene

spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 3

This gene encodes a component of the spindle and kinetochore-associated protein complex that regulates microtubule attachment to the kinetochores during mitosis. The encoded protein localizes to the outer kinetechore and may be required for normal chromosome segregation and cell division. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SKA2 Gene

spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 2

SPDL1 Gene

spindle apparatus coiled-coil protein 1

SKA2P1 Gene

spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 2 pseudogene 1

MZT2A Gene

mitotic spindle organizing protein 2A

MZT2B Gene

mitotic spindle organizing protein 2B

CCSAP Gene

centriole, cilia and spindle-associated protein

SFI1 Gene

Sfi1 homolog, spindle assembly associated (yeast)

CSPP1 Gene

centrosome and spindle pole associated protein 1

This gene encodes a centrosome and spindle pole associated protein. The encoded protein plays a role in cell-cycle progression and spindle organization, regulates cytokinesis, interacts with Nephrocystin 8 and is required for cilia formation. Mutations in this gene result in primary cilia abnormalities and classical Joubert syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

SASS6 Gene

spindle assembly 6 homolog (C. elegans)

SAS6 is necessary for centrosome duplication and functions during procentriole formation; SAS6 functions to ensure that each centriole seeds the formation of a single procentriole per cell cycle Strnad et al., (2007) [PubMed 17681132].[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MISP Gene

mitotic spindle positioning

SPICE1 Gene

spindle and centriole associated protein 1

MZT1P2 Gene

mitotic spindle organizing protein 1 pseudogene 2

MZT1 Gene

mitotic spindle organizing protein 1

LOC100128497 Gene

mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2A-like

NUSAP1 Gene

nucleolar and spindle associated protein 1

NUSAP1 is a nucleolar-spindle-associated protein that plays a role in spindle microtubule organization (Raemaekers et al., 2003 [PubMed 12963707]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

ESPL1 Gene

extra spindle pole bodies homolog 1 (S. cerevisiae)

Stable cohesion between sister chromatids before anaphase and their timely separation during anaphase are critical for chromosome inheritance. In vertebrates, sister chromatid cohesion is released in 2 steps via distinct mechanisms. The first step involves phosphorylation of STAG1 (MIM 604358) or STAG2 (MIM 300826) in the cohesin complex. The second step involves cleavage of the cohesin subunit SCC1 (RAD21; MIM 606462) by ESPL1, or separase, which initiates the final separation of sister chromatids (Sun et al., 2009 [PubMed 19345191]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

ENO3 Gene

enolase 3 (beta, muscle)

This gene encodes one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme is found in skeletal muscle cells in the adult where it may play a role in muscle development and regeneration. A switch from alpha enolase to beta enolase occurs in muscle tissue during development in rodents. Mutations in this gene have be associated glycogen storage disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

EMWX Gene

episodic muscle weakness, X-linked

CASQ1 Gene

calsequestrin 1 (fast-twitch, skeletal muscle)

This gene encodes the skeletal muscle specific member of the calsequestrin protein family. Calsequestrin functions as a luminal sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium sensor in both cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. This protein, also known as calmitine, functions as a calcium regulator in the mitochondria of skeletal muscle. This protein is absent in patients with Duchenne and Becker types of muscular dystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

CASQ2 Gene

calsequestrin 2 (cardiac muscle)

The protein encoded by this gene specifies the cardiac muscle family member of the calsequestrin family. Calsequestrin is localized to the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac and slow skeletal muscle cells. The protein is a calcium binding protein that stores calcium for muscle function. Mutations in this gene cause stress-induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, also referred to as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 2 (CPVT2), a disease characterized by bidirectional ventricular tachycardia that may lead to cardiac arrest. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MYH7B Gene

myosin, heavy chain 7B, cardiac muscle, beta

The myosin II molecule is a multi-subunit complex consisting of two heavy chains and four light chains. This gene encodes a heavy chain of myosin II, which is a member of the motor-domain superfamily. The heavy chain includes a globular motor domain, which catalyzes ATP hydrolysis and interacts with actin, and a tail domain in which heptad repeat sequences promote dimerization by interacting to form a rod-like alpha-helical coiled coil. This heavy chain subunit is a slow-twitch myosin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but the full-length nature of these variants is not determined. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

GSTM2P1 Gene

glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (muscle) pseudogene 1

CHRNA1 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 1 (muscle)

The muscle acetylcholine receptor consiststs of 5 subunits of 4 different types: 2 alpha subunits and 1 each of the beta, gamma, and delta subunits. This gene encodes an alpha subunit that plays a role in acetlycholine binding/channel gating. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

LINCMD1 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA, muscle differentiation 1

CAPZA3 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 3

This gene encodes an actin capping protein, one of the F-actin capping protein alpha subunit family. The encoded protein is predominantly localized to the neck region of ejaculated sperm, other immunohistochemical signals were found in the tail and postacrosomal regions. The encoded protein may also form heterodimers of alpha and beta subunits. This protein may be important in determining sperm architecture and male fertility. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAPZA2 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the F-actin capping protein alpha subunit family. It is the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein Cap Z. By capping the barbed end of actin filaments, Cap Z regulates the growth of the actin filaments at the barbed end. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAPZA1 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 1

CAPZA1 is a member of the F-actin capping protein alpha subunit family. This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein. The protein regulates growth of the actin filament by capping the barbed end of growing actin filaments. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LMOD1 Gene

leiomodin 1 (smooth muscle)

The leiomodin 1 protein has a putative membrane-spanning region and 2 types of tandemly repeated blocks. The transcript is expressed in all tissues tested, with the highest levels in thyroid, eye muscle, skeletal muscle, and ovary. Increased expression of leiomodin 1 may be linked to Graves' disease and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GEM Gene

GTP binding protein overexpressed in skeletal muscle

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the RAD/GEM family of GTP-binding proteins. It is associated with the inner face of the plasma membrane and could play a role as a regulatory protein in receptor-mediated signal transduction. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRAS Gene

muscle RAS oncogene homolog

This gene encodes a member of the Ras family of small GTPases. These membrane-associated proteins function as signal transducers in multiple processes including cell growth and differentiation, and dysregulation of Ras signaling has been associated with many types of cancer. The encoded protein may play a role in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha and MAP kinase signaling pathways. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

PFKM Gene

phosphofructokinase, muscle

Three phosphofructokinase isozymes exist in humans: muscle, liver and platelet. These isozymes function as subunits of the mammalian tetramer phosphofructokinase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Tetramer composition varies depending on tissue type. This gene encodes the muscle-type isozyme. Mutations in this gene have been associated with glycogen storage disease type VII, also known as Tarui disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

ACTC1 Gene

actin, alpha, cardiac muscle 1

Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility. Polymerization of globular actin (G-actin) leads to a structural filament (F-actin) in the form of a two-stranded helix. Each actin can bind to four others. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the actin family which is comprised of three main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta, and gamma. The alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. Defects in this gene have been associated with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) and familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CFL1P4 Gene

cofilin 1 (non-muscle) pseudogene 4

CFL1P5 Gene

cofilin 1 (non-muscle) pseudogene 5

CFL1P6 Gene

cofilin 1 (non-muscle) pseudogene 6

CFL1P7 Gene

cofilin 1 (non-muscle) pseudogene 7

CFL1P1 Gene

cofilin 1 (non-muscle) pseudogene 1

CFL1P2 Gene

cofilin 1 (non-muscle) pseudogene 2

CFL1P3 Gene

cofilin 1 (non-muscle) pseudogene 3

CFL1P8 Gene

cofilin 1 (non-muscle) pseudogene 8

PAMR1 Gene

peptidase domain containing associated with muscle regeneration 1

ATP5A1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1, cardiac muscle

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, using an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the different isoforms have been identified. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 9, 2, and 16. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

MYLL1 Gene

myosin, light chain, cardiac muscle-like 1

LOC100129942 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 2 pseudogene

PKM Gene

pyruvate kinase, muscle

This gene encodes a protein involved in glycolysis. The encoded protein is a pyruvate kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP, generating ATP and pyruvate. This protein has been shown to interact with thyroid hormone and may mediate cellular metabolic effects induced by thyroid hormones. This protein has been found to bind Opa protein, a bacterial outer membrane protein involved in gonococcal adherence to and invasion of human cells, suggesting a role of this protein in bacterial pathogenesis. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding a few distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

ANKRD1 Gene

ankyrin repeat domain 1 (cardiac muscle)

The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the nucleus of endothelial cells and is induced by IL-1 and TNF-alpha stimulation. Studies in rat cardiomyocytes suggest that this gene functions as a transcription factor. Interactions between this protein and the sarcomeric proteins myopalladin and titin suggest that it may also be involved in the myofibrillar stretch-sensor system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ANKRD2 Gene

ankyrin repeat domain 2 (stretch responsive muscle)

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the muscle ankyrin repeat protein (MARP) family. A similar gene in rodents is a component of a muscle stress response pathway and plays a role in the stretch-response associated with slow muscle function. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CAPZB Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, beta

This gene encodes the beta subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein, which belongs to the F-actin capping protein family. The capping protein is a heterodimeric actin capping protein that blocks actin filament assembly and disassembly at the fast growing (barbed) filament ends and functions in regulating actin filament dynamics as well as in stabilizing actin filament lengths in muscle and nonmuscle cells. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 2. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

PYGM Gene

phosphorylase, glycogen, muscle

This gene encodes a muscle enzyme involved in glycogenolysis. Highly similar enzymes encoded by different genes are found in liver and brain. Mutations in this gene are associated with McArdle disease (myophosphorylase deficiency), a glycogen storage disease of muscle. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

LOC100422324 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 1 pseudogene

CHRNB1 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 1 (muscle)

The muscle acetylcholine receptor is composed of five subunits: two alpha subunits and one beta, one gamma, and one delta subunit. This gene encodes the beta subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. The acetylcholine receptor changes conformation upon acetylcholine binding leading to the opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. Mutations in this gene are associated with slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAPZA1P Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 1 pseudogene

GYS1 Gene

glycogen synthase 1 (muscle)

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the addition of glucose monomers to the growing glycogen molecule through the formation of alpha-1,4-glycoside linkages. Mutations in this gene are associated with muscle glycogen storage disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

ATP2A1 Gene

ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, fast twitch 1

This gene encodes one of the SERCA Ca(2+)-ATPases, which are intracellular pumps located in the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticula of muscle cells. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen, and is involved in muscular excitation and contraction. Mutations in this gene cause some autosomal recessive forms of Brody disease, characterized by increasing impairment of muscular relaxation during exercise. Alternative splicing results in three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]

ATP2A2 Gene

ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, slow twitch 2

This gene encodes one of the SERCA Ca(2+)-ATPases, which are intracellular pumps located in the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticula of muscle cells. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen, and is involved in regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle. Mutations in this gene cause Darier-White disease, also known as keratosis follicularis, an autosomal dominant skin disorder characterized by loss of adhesion between epidermal cells and abnormal keratinization. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

MUSTQTL1 Gene

Muscle strength quantitative trait locus 1

LOC101060022 Gene

nascent polypeptide-associated complex subunit alpha, muscle-specific form-like

LOC101928892 Gene

nascent polypeptide-associated complex subunit alpha, muscle-specific form-like

PHKG1 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 (muscle)

This gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family and encodes a protein with one protein kinase domain and two calmodulin-binding domains. This protein is the catalytic member of a 16 subunit protein kinase complex which contains equimolar ratios of 4 subunit types. The complex is a crucial glycogenolytic regulatory enzyme. This gene has two pseudogenes at chromosome 7q11.21 and one at chromosome 11p11.12. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

FABP3 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 3, muscle and heart

The intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) belongs to a multigene family. FABPs are divided into at least three distinct types, namely the hepatic-, intestinal- and cardiac-type. They form 14-15 kDa proteins and are thought to participate in the uptake, intracellular metabolism and/or transport of long-chain fatty acids. They may also be responsible in the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. Fatty acid-binding protein 3 gene contains four exons and its function is to arrest growth of mammary epithelial cells. This gene is a candidate tumor suppressor gene for human breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MUSK Gene

muscle, skeletal, receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a muscle-specific tyrosine kinase receptor. The encoded protein may play a role in clustering of the acetylcholine receptor in the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital myasthenic syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

CNN1 Gene

calponin 1, basic, smooth muscle

LOC100422294 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 1 pseudogene

RMD1 Gene

rippling muscle disease 1

LOC100130704 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 1 pseudogene

USMG5 Gene

up-regulated during skeletal muscle growth 5 homolog (mouse)

LOC645938 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 1 pseudogene

PERM1 Gene

PPARGC1 and ESRR induced regulator, muscle 1

GSTM2 Gene

glutathione S-transferase mu 2 (muscle)

Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3 and are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CPT1B Gene

carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B (muscle)

The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the carnitine/choline acetyltransferase family, is the rate-controlling enzyme of the long-chain fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway in muscle mitochondria. This enzyme is required for the net transport of long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, and read-through transcripts are expressed from the upstream locus that include exons from this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

PGAM2 Gene

phosphoglycerate mutase 2 (muscle)

Phosphoglycerate mutase (PGAM) catalyzes the reversible reaction of 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) to 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA) in the glycolytic pathway. The PGAM is a dimeric enzyme containing, in different tissues, different proportions of a slow-migrating muscle (MM) isozyme, a fast-migrating brain (BB) isozyme, and a hybrid form (MB). This gene encodes muscle-specific PGAM subunit. Mutations in this gene cause muscle phosphoglycerate mutase eficiency, also known as glycogen storage disease X. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

ACTG2 Gene

actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric

Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and in the maintenance of the cytoskeleton. Three types of actins, alpha, beta and gamma, have been identified in vertebrates. Alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton and as mediators of internal cell motility. This gene encodes actin gamma 2; a smooth muscle actin found in enteric tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Based on similarity to peptide cleavage of related actins, the mature protein of this gene is formed by removal of two N-terminal peptides.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CHRNG Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, gamma (muscle)

The mammalian muscle-type acetylcholine receptor is a transmembrane pentameric glycoprotein with two alpha subunits, one beta, one delta, and one epsilon (in adult skeletal muscle) or gamma (in fetal and denervated muscle) subunit. This gene, which encodes the gamma subunit, is expressed prior to the thirty-third week of gestation in humans. The gamma subunit of the acetylcholine receptor plays a role in neuromuscular organogenesis and ligand binding and disruption of gamma subunit expression prevents the correct localization of the receptor in cell membranes. Mutations in this gene cause Escobar syndrome and a lethal form of multiple pterygium syndrome. Muscle-type acetylcholine receptor is the major antigen in the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

CHRND Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, delta (muscle)

The acetylcholine receptor of muscle has 5 subunits of 4 different types: 2 alpha and 1 each of beta, gamma and delta subunits. After acetylcholine binding, the receptor undergoes an extensive conformation change that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. Defects in this gene are a cause of multiple pterygium syndrome lethal type (MUPSL), congenital myasthenic syndrome slow-channel type (SCCMS), and congenital myasthenic syndrome fast-channel type (FCCMS). Several transcript variants, some protein-coding and some not, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

CHRNE Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, epsilon (muscle)

Acetylcholine receptors at mature mammalian neuromuscular junctions are pentameric protein complexes composed of four subunits in the ratio of two alpha subunits to one beta, one epsilon, and one delta subunit. The acetylcholine receptor changes subunit composition shortly after birth when the epsilon subunit replaces the gamma subunit seen in embryonic receptors. Mutations in the epsilon subunit are associated with congenital myasthenic syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

MYLPF Gene

myosin light chain, phosphorylatable, fast skeletal muscle

CFL2 Gene

cofilin 2 (muscle)

This gene encodes an intracellular protein that is involved in the regulation of actin-filament dynamics. This protein is a major component of intranuclear and cytoplasmic actin rods. It can bind G- and F-actin in a 1:1 ratio of cofilin to actin, and it reversibly controls actin polymerization and depolymerization in a pH-dependent manner. Mutations in this gene cause nemaline myopathy type 7, a form of congenital myopathy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

CFL1 Gene

cofilin 1 (non-muscle)

The protein encoded by this gene can polymerize and depolymerize F-actin and G-actin in a pH-dependent manner. Increased phosphorylation of this protein by LIM kinase aids in Rho-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Cofilin is a widely distributed intracellular actin-modulating protein that binds and depolymerizes filamentous F-actin and inhibits the polymerization of monomeric G-actin in a pH-dependent manner. It is involved in the translocation of actin-cofilin complex from cytoplasm to nucleus.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

COX7A1 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa polypeptide 1 (muscle)

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the electron transfer from reduced cytochrome c to oxygen. This component is a heteromeric complex consisting of 3 catalytic subunits encoded by mitochondrial genes and multiple structural subunits encoded by nuclear genes. The mitochondrially-encoded subunits function in electron transfer, and the nuclear-encoded subunits may function in the regulation and assembly of the complex. This nuclear gene encodes polypeptide 1 (muscle isoform) of subunit VIIa and the polypeptide 1 is present only in muscle tissues. Other polypeptides of subunit VIIa are present in both muscle and nonmuscle tissues, and are encoded by different genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100130849 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 (muscle) pseudogene

ACTA1 Gene

actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle

The product encoded by this gene belongs to the actin family of proteins, which are highly conserved proteins that play a role in cell motility, structure and integrity. Alpha, beta and gamma actin isoforms have been identified, with alpha actins being a major constituent of the contractile apparatus, while beta and gamma actins are involved in the regulation of cell motility. This actin is an alpha actin that is found in skeletal muscle. Mutations in this gene cause nemaline myopathy type 3, congenital myopathy with excess of thin myofilaments, congenital myopathy with cores, and congenital myopathy with fiber-type disproportion, diseases that lead to muscle fiber defects. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CKM Gene

creatine kinase, muscle

The protein encoded by this gene is a cytoplasmic enzyme involved in energy homeostasis and is an important serum marker for myocardial infarction. The encoded protein reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens such as creatine phosphate. It acts as a homodimer in striated muscle as well as in other tissues, and as a heterodimer with a similar brain isozyme in heart. The encoded protein is a member of the ATP:guanido phosphotransferase protein family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PKMP1 Gene

pyruvate kinase, muscle pseudogene 1

PKMP3 Gene

pyruvate kinase, muscle pseudogene 3

PKMP2 Gene

pyruvate kinase, muscle pseudogene 2

PKMP5 Gene

pyruvate kinase, muscle pseudogene 5

PHKA1 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, alpha 1 (muscle)

Phosphorylase kinase is a polymer of 16 subunits, four each of alpha, beta, gamma and delta. The alpha subunit includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, and the skeletal muscle isoform is encoded by this gene. The beta subunit is the same in both the muscle and hepatic isoforms, and encoded by one gene. The gamma subunit also includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, which are encoded by two different genes. The delta subunit is a calmodulin and can be encoded by three different genes. The gamma subunits contain the active site of the enzyme, whereas the alpha and beta subunits have regulatory functions controlled by phosphorylation. The delta subunit mediates the dependence of the enzyme on calcium concentration. Mutations in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type 9D, also known as X-linked muscle glycogenosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified in this gene. A pseudogene has been found on chromosome 1.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

LOC105379556 Gene

nascent polypeptide-associated complex subunit alpha, muscle-specific form-like

MYH10 Gene

myosin, heavy chain 10, non-muscle

This gene encodes a member of the myosin superfamily. The protein represents a conventional non-muscle myosin; it should not be confused with the unconventional myosin-10 (MYO10). Myosins are actin-dependent motor proteins with diverse functions including regulation of cytokinesis, cell motility, and cell polarity. Mutations in this gene have been associated with May-Hegglin anomaly and developmental defects in brain and heart. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

MYH11 Gene

myosin, heavy chain 11, smooth muscle

The protein encoded by this gene is a smooth muscle myosin belonging to the myosin heavy chain family. The gene product is a subunit of a hexameric protein that consists of two heavy chain subunits and two pairs of non-identical light chain subunits. It functions as a major contractile protein, converting chemical energy into mechanical energy through the hydrolysis of ATP. The gene encoding a human ortholog of rat NUDE1 is transcribed from the reverse strand of this gene, and its 3' end overlaps with that of the latter. The pericentric inversion of chromosome 16 [inv(16)(p13q22)] produces a chimeric transcript that encodes a protein consisting of the first 165 residues from the N terminus of core-binding factor beta in a fusion with the C-terminal portion of the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. This chromosomal rearrangement is associated with acute myeloid leukemia of the M4Eo subtype. Alternative splicing generates isoforms that are differentially expressed, with ratios changing during muscle cell maturation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MYH13 Gene

myosin, heavy chain 13, skeletal muscle

MYH14 Gene

myosin, heavy chain 14, non-muscle

This gene encodes a member of the myosin superfamily. The protein represents a conventional non-muscle myosin; it should not be confused with the unconventional myosin-14 (MYO14). Myosins are actin-dependent motor proteins with diverse functions including regulation of cytokinesis, cell motility, and cell polarity. Mutations in this gene result in one form of autosomal dominant hearing impairment. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

SENCR Gene

smooth muscle and endothelial cell enriched migration/differentiation-associated long non-coding RNA

LOC101928722 Gene

nascent polypeptide-associated complex subunit alpha, muscle-specific form-like

ACYP2 Gene

acylphosphatase 2, muscle type

Acylphosphatase can hydrolyze the phosphoenzyme intermediate of different membrane pumps, particularly the Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle. Two isoenzymes have been isolated, called muscle acylphosphatase and erythrocyte acylphosphatase on the basis of their tissue localization. This gene encodes the muscle-type isoform (MT). An increase of the MT isoform is associated with muscle differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMPX Gene

small muscle protein, X-linked

This gene encodes a small protein that has no known functional domains. Mutations in this gene are a cause of X-linked deafness-4, and the encoded protein may play a role in the maintenance of inner ear cells subjected to mechanical stress. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

LOC644265 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, beta pseudogene

ACTA2 Gene

actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the actin family of proteins, which are highly conserved proteins that play a role in cell motility, structure and integrity. Alpha, beta and gamma actin isoforms have been identified, with alpha actins being a major constituent of the contractile apparatus, while beta and gamma actins are involved in the regulation of cell motility. This actin is an alpha actin that is found in skeletal muscle. Defects in this gene cause aortic aneurysm familial thoracic type 6. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

MYH2 Gene

myosin, heavy chain 2, skeletal muscle, adult

Myosins are actin-based motor proteins that function in the generation of mechanical force in eukaryotic cells. Muscle myosins are heterohexamers composed of 2 myosin heavy chains and 2 pairs of nonidentical myosin light chains. This gene encodes a member of the class II or conventional myosin heavy chains, and functions in skeletal muscle contraction. This gene is found in a cluster of myosin heavy chain genes on chromosome 17. A mutation in this gene results in inclusion body myopathy-3. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

MYH3 Gene

myosin, heavy chain 3, skeletal muscle, embryonic

Myosin is a major contractile protein which converts chemical energy into mechanical energy through the hydrolysis of ATP. Myosin is a hexameric protein composed of a pair of myosin heavy chains (MYH) and two pairs of nonidentical light chains. This gene is a member of the MYH family and encodes a protein with an IQ domain and a myosin head-like domain. Mutations in this gene have been associated with two congenital contracture (arthrogryposis) syndromes, Freeman-Sheldon syndrome and Sheldon-Hall syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MYH1 Gene

myosin, heavy chain 1, skeletal muscle, adult

Myosin is a major contractile protein which converts chemical energy into mechanical energy through the hydrolysis of ATP. Myosin is a hexameric protein composed of a pair of myosin heavy chains (MYH) and two pairs of nonidentical light chains. Myosin heavy chains are encoded by a multigene family. In mammals at least 10 different myosin heavy chain (MYH) isoforms have been described from striated, smooth, and nonmuscle cells. These isoforms show expression that is spatially and temporally regulated during development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MYH6 Gene

myosin, heavy chain 6, cardiac muscle, alpha

Cardiac muscle myosin is a hexamer consisting of two heavy chain subunits, two light chain subunits, and two regulatory subunits. This gene encodes the alpha heavy chain subunit of cardiac myosin. The gene is located ~4kb downstream of the gene encoding the beta heavy chain subunit of cardiac myosin. Mutations in this gene cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atrial septal defect 3. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

MYH7 Gene

myosin, heavy chain 7, cardiac muscle, beta

Muscle myosin is a hexameric protein containing 2 heavy chain subunits, 2 alkali light chain subunits, and 2 regulatory light chain subunits. This gene encodes the beta (or slow) heavy chain subunit of cardiac myosin. It is expressed predominantly in normal human ventricle. It is also expressed in skeletal muscle tissues rich in slow-twitch type I muscle fibers. Changes in the relative abundance of this protein and the alpha (or fast) heavy subunit of cardiac myosin correlate with the contractile velocity of cardiac muscle. Its expression is also altered during thyroid hormone depletion and hemodynamic overloading. Mutations in this gene are associated with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myosin storage myopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and Laing early-onset distal myopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MYH4 Gene

myosin, heavy chain 4, skeletal muscle

MYH8 Gene

myosin, heavy chain 8, skeletal muscle, perinatal

Myosins are actin-based motor proteins that function in the generation of mechanical force in eukaryotic cells. Muscle myosins are heterohexamers composed of 2 myosin heavy chains and 2 pairs of nonidentical myosin light chains. This gene encodes a member of the class II or conventional myosin heavy chains, and functions in skeletal muscle contraction. This gene is predominantly expressed in fetal skeletal muscle. This gene is found in a cluster of myosin heavy chain genes on chromosome 17. A mutation in this gene results in trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

MYH9 Gene

myosin, heavy chain 9, non-muscle

This gene encodes a conventional non-muscle myosin; this protein should not be confused with the unconventional myosin-9a or 9b (MYO9A or MYO9B). The encoded protein is a myosin IIA heavy chain that contains an IQ domain and a myosin head-like domain which is involved in several important functions, including cytokinesis, cell motility and maintenance of cell shape. Defects in this gene have been associated with non-syndromic sensorineural deafness autosomal dominant type 17, Epstein syndrome, Alport syndrome with macrothrombocytopenia, Sebastian syndrome, Fechtner syndrome and macrothrombocytopenia with progressive sensorineural deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

LOC391334 Gene

actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric pseudogene

MURC Gene

muscle-related coiled-coil protein

This gene encodes a protein containing two coiled-coil regions. The encoded protein promotes Rho/ROCK (Rho-kinase) signaling in cardiac muscles cells, and may facilitate myofibrillar organization. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

TMOD4 Gene

tropomodulin 4 (muscle)