Name

BioGPS Human Cell Type and Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From BioGPS

mRNA expression profiles for human tissues and cell types

BioGPS Mouse Cell Type and Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From BioGPS

mRNA expression profiles for mouse tissues and cell types

HPM Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Proteome Map

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types

ProteomicsDB Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Proteomics Database

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types reprocessed from many proteomics datasets

CACNA1H Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1H subunit

This gene encodes a T-type member of the alpha-1 subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. The alpha-1 subunit has 24 transmembrane segments and forms the pore through which ions pass into the cell. There are multiple isoforms of each of the proteins in the complex, either encoded by different genes or the result of alternative splicing of transcripts. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized for the gene described here. Studies suggest certain mutations in this gene lead to childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA1I Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1I subunit

This gene encodes the pore-forming alpha subunit of a voltage gated calcium channel. The encoded protein is a member of a subfamily of calcium channels referred to as is a low voltage-activated, T-type, calcium channel. The channel encoded by this protein is characterized by a slower activation and inactivation compared to other T-type calcium channels. This protein may be involved in calcium signaling in neurons. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CACNA1A Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. Calcium channels are multisubunit complexes composed of alpha-1, beta, alpha-2/delta, and gamma subunits. The channel activity is directed by the pore-forming alpha-1 subunit, whereas, the others act as auxiliary subunits regulating this activity. The distinctive properties of the calcium channel types are related primarily to the expression of a variety of alpha-1 isoforms, alpha-1A, B, C, D, E, and S. This gene encodes the alpha-1A subunit, which is predominantly expressed in neuronal tissue. Mutations in this gene are associated with 2 neurologic disorders, familial hemiplegic migraine and episodic ataxia 2. This gene also exhibits polymorphic variation due to (CAG)n-repeats. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. In one set of transcript variants, the (CAG)n-repeats occur in the 3' UTR, and are not associated with any disease. But in another set of variants, an insertion extends the coding region to include the (CAG)n-repeats which encode a polyglutamine tract. Expansion of the (CAG)n-repeats from the normal 4-16 to 21-28 in the coding region is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CACNA1B Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, N type, alpha 1B subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is the pore-forming subunit of an N-type voltage-dependent calcium channel, which controls neurotransmitter release from neurons. The encoded protein forms a complex with alpha-2, beta, and delta subunits to form the high-voltage activated channel. This channel is sensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA and omega-agatoxin-IIIA but insensitive to dihydropyridines. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

CACNA1C Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit

This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. The alpha-1 subunit consists of 24 transmembrane segments and forms the pore through which ions pass into the cell. The calcium channel consists of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. There are multiple isoforms of each of these proteins, either encoded by different genes or the result of alternative splicing of transcripts. The protein encoded by this gene binds to and is inhibited by dihydropyridine. Alternative splicing results in many transcript variants encoding different proteins. Some of the predicted proteins may not produce functional ion channel subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

CACNA1D Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. Calcium channels are multisubunit complexes composed of alpha-1, beta, alpha-2/delta, and gamma subunits. The channel activity is directed by the pore-forming alpha-1 subunit, whereas the others act as auxiliary subunits regulating this activity. The distinctive properties of the calcium channel types are related primarily to the expression of a variety of alpha-1 isoforms, namely alpha-1A, B, C, D, E, and S. This gene encodes the alpha-1D subunit. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

CACNA1E Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are multisubunit complexes consisting of alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, and delta subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. These channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. This gene encodes the alpha-1E subunit of the R-type calcium channels, which belong to the 'high-voltage activated' group that maybe involved in the modulation of firing patterns of neurons important for information processing. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

CACNA1F Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit

This gene encodes a multipass transmembrane protein that functions as an alpha-1 subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, which mediates the influx of calcium ions into the cell. The encoded protein forms a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Mutations in this gene can cause X-linked eye disorders, including congenital stationary night blindness type 2A, cone-rod dystropy, and Aland Island eye disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

LOC100422463 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit pseudogene

CACNA1G Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit

Voltage-sensitive calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division, and cell death. This gene encodes a T-type, low-voltage activated calcium channel. The T-type channels generate currents that are both transient, owing to fast inactivation, and tiny, owing to small conductance. T-type channels are thought to be involved in pacemaker activity, low-threshold calcium spikes, neuronal oscillations and resonance, and rebound burst firing. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

CACNA1S Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit

This gene encodes one of the five subunits of the slowly inactivating L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel in skeletal muscle cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA2D1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 1

The preproprotein encoded by this gene is cleaved into multiple chains that comprise the alpha-2 and delta subunits of the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. Mutations in this gene can cause cardiac deficiencies, including Brugada syndrome and short QT syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants, some of which may lack the delta subunit portion. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

CACNA2D2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 2

Calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. This gene encodes the alpha-2/delta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. The complex consists of the main channel-forming subunit alpha-1, and auxiliary subunits alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma. The auxiliary subunits function in the assembly and membrane localization of the complex, and modulate calcium currents and channel activation/inactivation kinetics. The subunit encoded by this gene undergoes post-translational cleavage to yield the extracellular alpha2 peptide and a membrane-anchored delta polypeptide. This subunit is a receptor for the antiepileptic drug, gabapentin. Mutations in this gene are associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are correlated with increased sensitivity to opioid drugs. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CACNA2D3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3

This gene encodes a member of the alpha-2/delta subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. Research on a highly similar protein in rabbit suggests the protein described in this record is cleaved into alpha-2 and delta subunits. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA2D4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 4

This gene encodes a member of the alpha-2/delta subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. Research on a highly similar protein in rabbit suggests the protein described in this record is cleaved into alpha-2 and delta subunits. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNG8 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type II TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. The mRNA for this gene is believed to initiate translation from a non-AUG (CUG) start codon. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is a susceptibility locus for childhood absence epilepsy. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG6 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 6

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of two known gamma subunit proteins. This particular gamma subunit is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members that function as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Variants in this gene have been associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG7 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type I TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNB3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 3 subunit

This gene encodes a regulatory beta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel. Beta subunits are composed of five domains, which contribute to the regulation of surface expression and gating of calcium channels and may also play a role in the regulation of transcription factors and calcium transport. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CACNB2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 2 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel protein that is a member of the voltage-gated calcium channel superfamily. The gene product was originally identified as an antigen target in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, an autoimmune disorder. Mutations in this gene are associated with Brugada syndrome. Alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

CACNB1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the calcium channel beta subunit family. It plays an important role in the calcium channel by modulating G protein inhibition, increasing peak calcium current, controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting and shifting the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and three transcript variants encoding three distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNB4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 4 subunit

This gene encodes a member of the beta subunit family of voltage-dependent calcium channel complex proteins. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. The protein encoded by this locus plays an important role in calcium channel function by modulating G protein inhibition, increasing peak calcium current, controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting and shifting the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation. Certain mutations in this gene have been associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

CACNG1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 1

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of two known gamma subunit proteins. This particular gamma subunit is part of skeletal muscle 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels and is an integral membrane protein that plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members that function as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG5 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type I TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. This gene is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type II TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

SCN1A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type I alpha subunit

The vertebrate sodium channel is a voltage-gated ion channel essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials, mainly in nerve and muscle. Voltage-sensitive sodium channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of a large central pore-forming glycosylated alpha subunit, and two smaller auxiliary beta subunits. This gene encodes the large alpha subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with several epilepsy, convulsion and migraine disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. The RefSeq Project has decided to create four representative RefSeq records. Three of the transcript variants are supported by experimental evidence and the fourth contains alternate 5' untranslated exons, the exact combination of which have not been experimentally confirmed for the full-length transcript.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

SCN9A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type IX alpha subunit

This gene encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel which plays a significant role in nociception signaling. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary erythermalgia, channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain, and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

SCN11A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type XI alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are membrane protein complexes that play a fundamental role in the rising phase of the action potential in most excitable cells. Alpha subunits, such as SCN11A, mediate voltage-dependent gating and conductance, while auxiliary beta subunits regulate the kinetic properties of the channel and facilitate membrane localization of the complex. Aberrant expression patterns or mutations of alpha subunits underlie a number of disorders. Each alpha subunit consists of 4 domains connected by 3 intracellular loops; each domain consists of 6 transmembrane segments and intra- and extracellular linkers.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

SCN3A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type III alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit with 24 transmembrane domains and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family, and is found in a cluster of five alpha subunit genes on chromosome 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN8A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type VIII alpha subunit

This gene encodes a member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family. The encoded protein forms the ion pore region of the voltage-gated sodium channel. This protein is essential for the rapid membrane depolarization that occurs during the formation of the action potential in excitable neurons. Mutations in this gene are associated with mental retardation, pancerebellar atrophy and ataxia. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

SCN5A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type V alpha subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel subunit. This protein is found primarily in cardiac muscle and is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential in an electrocardiogram. Defects in this gene are a cause of long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3), an autosomal dominant cardiac disease. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN2A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type II alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit with 24 transmembrane domains and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family. It is heterogeneously expressed in the brain, and mutations in this gene have been linked to several seizure disorders. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN4A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type IV alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit with 24 transmembrane domains and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family. It is expressed in skeletal muscle, and mutations in this gene have been linked to several myotonia and periodic paralysis disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN10A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type X alpha subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunit. The properties of the channel formed by the encoded transmembrane protein can be altered by interaction with different beta subunits. This protein may be involved in the onset of pain associated with peripheral neuropathy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

SCN7A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type VII alpha subunit

This gene encodes one of the many voltage-gated sodium channel proteins. For proper functioning of neurons and muscles during action potentials, voltage-gated sodium channels direct sodium ion diffusion for membrane depolarization. This sodium channel protein has some atypical characteristics; the similarity between the human and mouse proteins is lower compared to other orthologous sodium channel pairs. Also, the S4 segments, which sense voltage changes, have fewer positive charged residues that in other sodium channels; domain 4 has fewer arginine and lysine residues compared to other sodium channel proteins. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants exist, but the full-length natures of all of them remain unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

VDAC1P1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 1

VDAC1P2 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 2

VDAC1P4 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 4

VDAC4 belongs to a family of small, abundant pore-forming proteins found in the outer mitochondrial membrane. These channels are thought to form the major pathway for movement of adenine nucleotides through the outer membrane and may also function as the mitochondrial binding site for hexokinase (see HK1; MIM 142600) and glycerol kinase (GK; MIM 300474) (Blachly-Dyson et al., 1994 [PubMed 7517385]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

VDAC1P5 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 5

VDAC1P6 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 6

VDAC1P7 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 7

VDAC1P9 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 9

VDAC1P3 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 3

VDAC1P8 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 8

VDAC3P1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 3 pseudogene 1

VDAC2P2 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene 2

VDAC2P1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene 1

VDAC1P12 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 12

VDAC1P13 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 13

VDAC1P10 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 10

VDAC1P11 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 11

LOC644169 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene

LOC401959 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene

LOC100420647 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 3 pseudogene

LOC100420574 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene

LOC729317 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene

VDAC3 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 3

This gene encodes a voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and belongs to the mitochondrial porin family. VDACs are small, integral membrane proteins that traverse the outer mitochondrial membrane and conduct ATP and other small metabolites. They are known to bind several kinases of intermediary metabolism, thought to be involved in translocation of adenine nucleotides, and are hypothesized to form part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which results in the release of cytochrome c at the onset of apoptotic cell death. Alternatively transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

VDAC2 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2

This gene encodes a member of the voltage-dependent anion channel pore-forming family of proteins that are considered the main pathway for metabolite diffusion across the mitochondrial outer membrane. The encoded protein is also thought to be involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via regulation of BCL2-antagonist/killer 1 protein activity. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1, 2, 12 and 21, and alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

VDAC1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1

This gene encodes a voltage-dependent anion channel protein that is a major component of the outer mitochondrial membrane. The encoded protein facilitates the exchange of metabolites and ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane and may regulate mitochondrial functions. This protein also forms channels in the plasma membrane and may be involved in transmembrane electron transport. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Multiple pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1, 2 3, 6, 9, 12, X and Y.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SCN1B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type I beta subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are heteromeric proteins that function in the generation and propagation of action potentials in muscle and neuronal cells. They are composed of one alpha and two beta subunits, where the alpha subunit provides channel activity and the beta-1 subunit modulates the kinetics of channel inactivation. This gene encodes a sodium channel beta-1 subunit. Mutations in this gene result in generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, Brugada syndrome 5, and defects in cardiac conduction. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SCN3B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type III beta subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel beta subunit gene family, and influences the inactivation kinetics of the sodium channel. Two alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN2B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type II beta subunit

SCN4B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type IV beta subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is one of several sodium channel beta subunits. These subunits interact with voltage-gated alpha subunits to change sodium channel kinetics. The encoded transmembrane protein forms interchain disulfide bonds with SCN2A. Defects in this gene are a cause of long QT syndrome type 10 (LQT10). Three protein-coding and one non-coding transcript variant have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

SCNN1A Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 alpha subunit

Nonvoltage-gated, amiloride-sensitive, sodium channels control fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelia in many organs. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the alpha subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1), a rare salt wasting disease resulting from target organ unresponsiveness to mineralocorticoids. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

CAMKK1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade. Three transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAMK2A Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinases family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. This calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The alpha chain encoded by this gene is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning. In addition to its calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent activity, this protein can undergo autophosphorylation, resulting in CaM-independent activity. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

KCNN4 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a potentially heterotetrameric voltage-independent potassium channel that is activated by intracellular calcium. Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization, which promotes calcium influx. The encoded protein may be part of the predominant calcium-activated potassium channel in T-lymphocytes. This gene is similar to other KCNN family potassium channel genes, but it differs enough to possibly be considered as part of a new subfamily. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNN3 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 3

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. This gene belongs to the KCNN family of potassium channels. It encodes an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel, which is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. This gene contains two CAG repeat regions in the coding sequence. It was thought that expansion of one or both of these repeats could lead to an increased susceptibility to schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, but studies indicate that this is probably not the case. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

KCNN2 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 2

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. The protein encoded by this gene is activated before membrane hyperpolarization and is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. This gene is a member of the KCNN family of potassium channel genes. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel with three other calmodulin-binding subunits. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

KCNN1 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 1

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. The protein encoded by this gene is activated before membrane hyperpolarization and is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel with three other calmodulin-binding subunits. This gene is a member of the KCNN family of potassium channel genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNMA1 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated large conductance subfamily M alpha, member 1

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit, which is the product of this gene, and the modulatory beta subunit. Intracellular calcium regulates the physical association between the alpha and beta subunits. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ORAI2 Gene

ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 2

ORAI3 Gene

ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 3

ORAI1 Gene

ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane calcium channel subunit that is activated by the calcium sensor STIM1 when calcium stores are depleted. This type of channel is the primary way for calcium influx into T-cells. Defects in this gene are a cause of immune dysfunction with T-cell inactivation due to calcium entry defect type 1 (IDTICED1). [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

KCNA7 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 7

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. The gene is expressed preferentially in skeletal muscle, heart and kidney. It is a candidate gene for inherited cardiac disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNA4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 4

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the A-type potassium current class, the members of which may be important in the regulation of the fast repolarizing phase of action potentials in heart and thus may influence the duration of cardiac action potential.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

KCNA5 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 5

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ino channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the delayed rectifier class, the function of which could restore the resting membrane potential of beta cells after depolarization and thereby contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion. This gene is intronless, and the gene is clustered with genes KCNA1 and KCNA6 on chromosome 12. Defects in this gene are a cause of familial atrial fibrillation type 7 (ATFB7). [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

KCNA2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 2

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the delayed rectifier class, members of which allow nerve cells to efficiently repolarize following an action potential. The coding region of this gene is intronless, and the gene is clustered with genes KCNA3 and KCNA10 on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNA3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 3

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the delayed rectifier class, members of which allow nerve cells to efficiently repolarize following an action potential. It plays an essential role in T-cell proliferation and activation. This gene appears to be intronless and it is clustered together with KCNA2 and KCNA10 genes on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNA1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 1

This gene encodes a voltage-gated delayed potassium channel that is phylogenetically related to the Drosophila Shaker channel. The encoded protein has six putative transmembrane segments (S1-S6), and the loop between S5 and S6 forms the pore and contains the conserved selectivity filter motif (GYGD). The functional channel is a homotetramer. The N-terminus of the channel is associated with beta subunits that can modify the inactivation properties of the channel as well as affect expression levels. The C-terminus of the channel is complexed to a PDZ domain protein that is responsible for channel targeting. Mutations in this gene have been associated with myokymia with periodic ataxia (AEMK). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLCN3P1 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 3 pseudogene 1

SCNN1D Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 delta subunit

SCNN1B Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 beta subunit

Nonvoltage-gated, amiloride-sensitive, sodium channels control fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelia in many organs. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the beta subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1), and Liddle syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

KCNA10 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 10

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It is specifically regulated by cGMP and postulated to mediate the effects of substances that increase intracellular cGMP. This gene is intronless, and the gene is clustered with genes KCNA2 and KCNA3 on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNV2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily V, member 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily V. This member is identified as a 'silent subunit', and it does not form homomultimers, but forms heteromultimers with several other subfamily members. Through obligatory heteromerization, it exerts a function-altering effect on other potassium channel subunits. This protein is strongly expressed in pancreas and has a weaker expression in several other tissues. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNV1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily V, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily V. This protein is essentially present in the brain, and its role might be to inhibit the function of a particular class of outward rectifier potassium channel types. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNF1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily F, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily F. This gene is intronless and expressed in all tissues tested, including the heart, skeletal muscle, brain, kidney, and pancreas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNS1 Gene

potassium voltage-gated channel, modifier subfamily S, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium channels form the largest and most diversified class of ion channels and are present in both excitable and nonexcitable cells. Their main functions are associated with the regulation of the resting membrane potential and the control of the shape and frequency of action potentials. The alpha subunits are of 2 types: those that are functional by themselves and those that are electrically silent but capable of modulating the activity of specific functional alpha subunits. The protein encoded by this gene is not functional by itself but can form heteromultimers with member 1 and with member 2 (and possibly other members) of the Shab-related subfamily of potassium voltage-gated channel proteins. This gene belongs to the S subfamily of the potassium channel family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNS2 Gene

potassium voltage-gated channel, modifier subfamily S, member 2

KCNS3 Gene

potassium voltage-gated channel, modifier subfamily S, member 3

Voltage-gated potassium channels form the largest and most diversified class of ion channels and are present in both excitable and nonexcitable cells. Their main functions are associated with the regulation of the resting membrane potential and the control of the shape and frequency of action potentials. The alpha subunits are of 2 types: those that are functional by themselves and those that are electrically silent but capable of modulating the activity of specific functional alpha subunits. The protein encoded by this gene is not functional by itself but can form heteromultimers with member 1 and with member 2 (and possibly other members) of the Shab-related subfamily of potassium voltage-gated channel proteins. This gene belongs to the S subfamily of the potassium channel family. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

KCNA6 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 6

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the delayed rectifier class. The coding region of this gene is intronless, and the gene is clustered with genes KCNA1 and KCNA5 on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HVCN1 Gene

hydrogen voltage gated channel 1

This gene encodes a voltage-gated protein channel protein expressed more highly in certain cells of the immune system. Phagocytic cells produce superoxide anions which require this channel protein, and in B cells this same process facilitates antibody production. This same channel protein, however, can also regulate functions in other cells including spermatozoa. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

KCNC1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shaw related subfamily C, member 1

This gene encodes a member of a family of integral membrane proteins that mediate the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Alternative splicing is thought to result in two transcript variants encoding isoforms that differ at their C-termini. These isoforms have had conflicting names in the literature: the longer isoform has been called both "b" and "alpha", while the shorter isoform has been called both "a" and "beta" (PMIDs 1432046, 12091563). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

KCNC2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shaw related subfamily C, member 2

The Shaker gene family of Drosophila encodes components of voltage-gated potassium channels and is comprised of four subfamilies. Based on sequence similarity, this gene is similar to one of these subfamilies, namely the Shaw subfamily. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the delayed rectifier class of channel proteins and is an integral membrane protein that mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

KCNC3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shaw related subfamily C, member 3

The Shaker gene family of Drosophila encodes components of voltage-gated potassium channels and is comprised of four subfamilies. Based on sequence similarity, this gene is similar to one of these subfamilies, namely the Shaw subfamily. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the delayed rectifier class of channel proteins and is an integral membrane protein that mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Alternate splicing results in several transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

KCNH5 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 5

This gene encodes a member of voltage-gated potassium channels. Members of this family have diverse functions, including regulating neurotransmitter and hormone release, cardiac function, and cell volume. This protein is an outward-rectifying, noninactivating channel. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KCNH4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 4

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit. The gene is brain-specific, and located in the neocortex and the striatum. It may be involved in cellular excitability of restricted neurons in the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNH7 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 7

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit. There are at least two alternatively spliced transcript variants derived from this gene and encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNH6 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 6

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KCNH1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit of a voltage-gated non-inactivating delayed rectifier potassium channel. It is activated at the onset of myoblast differentiation. The gene is highly expressed in brain and in myoblasts. Overexpression of the gene may confer a growth advantage to cancer cells and favor tumor cell proliferation. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNH3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 3

KCNH2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 2

This gene encodes a voltage-activated potassium channel belonging to the eag family. It shares sequence similarity with the Drosophila ether-a-go-go (eag) gene. Mutations in this gene can cause long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2). Transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNH8 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 8

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLCNKA Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive Ka

This gene is a member of the CLC family of voltage-gated chloride channels. The encoded protein is predicted to have 12 transmembrane domains, and requires a beta subunit called barttin to form a functional channel. It is thought to function in salt reabsorption in the kidney and potassium recycling in the inner ear. The gene is highly similar to CLCNKB, which is located 10 kb downstream from this gene. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLCNKB Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive Kb

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the family of voltage-gated chloride channels. Chloride channels have several functions, including the regulation of cell volume, membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport. This gene is expressed predominantly in the kidney and may be important for renal salt reabsorption. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal recessive Bartter syndrome type 3 (BS3). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

CLCN3 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 3

This gene encodes a member of the voltage-gated chloride channel (ClC) family. The encoded protein is present in all cell types and localized in plasma membranes and in intracellular vesicles. It is a multi-pass membrane protein which contains a ClC domain and two additional C-terminal CBS (cystathionine beta-synthase) domains. The ClC domain catalyzes the selective flow of Cl- ions across cell membranes, and the CBS domain may have a regulatory function. This protein plays a role in both acidification and transmitter loading of GABAergic synaptic vesicles, and in smooth muscle cell activation and neointima formation. This protein is required for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-activated Cl- current activity and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. The protein activity is regulated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in glioma cells. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

CLCN2 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 2

This gene encodes a voltage-gated chloride channel. The encoded protein is a transmembrane protein that maintains chloride ion homeostasis in various cells. Defects in this gene may be a cause of certain epilepsies. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

CLCN1 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 1

The CLCN family of voltage-dependent chloride channel genes comprises nine members (CLCN1-7, Ka and Kb) which demonstrate quite diverse functional characteristics while sharing significant sequence homology. The protein encoded by this gene regulates the electric excitability of the skeletal muscle membrane. Mutations in this gene cause two forms of inherited human muscle disorders: recessive generalized myotonia congenita (Becker) and dominant myotonia (Thomsen). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

CLCN7 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 7

The product of this gene belongs to the CLC chloride channel family of proteins. Chloride channels play important roles in the plasma membrane and in intracellular organelles. This gene encodes chloride channel 7. Defects in this gene are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 4 (OPTB4), also called infantile malignant osteopetrosis type 2 as well as the cause of autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type 2 (OPTA2), also called autosomal dominant Albers-Schonberg disease or marble disease autosoml dominant. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. OPTA2 is the most common form of osteopetrosis, occurring in adolescence or adulthood. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLCN6 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 6

This gene encodes a member of the voltage-dependent chloride channel protein family. Members of this family can function as either chloride channels or antiporters. This protein is primarily localized to late endosomes and functions as a chloride/proton antiporter. Alternate splicing results in both coding and non-coding variants. Additional alternately spliced variants have been described but their full-length structure is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

CLCN5 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 5

This gene encodes a member of the ClC family of chloride ion channels and ion transporters. The encoded protein is primarily localized to endosomal membranes and may function to facilitate albumin uptake by the renal proximal tubule. Mutations in this gene have been found in Dent disease and renal tubular disorders complicated by nephrolithiasis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

CLCN4 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 4

The CLCN family of voltage-dependent chloride channel genes comprises nine members (CLCN1-7, Ka and Kb) which demonstrate quite diverse functional characteristics while sharing significant sequence homology. Chloride channel 4 has an evolutionary conserved CpG island and is conserved in both mouse and hamster. This gene is mapped in close proximity to APXL (Apical protein Xenopus laevis-like) and OA1 (Ocular albinism type I), which are both located on the human X chromosome at band p22.3. The physiological role of chloride channel 4 remains unknown but may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuronal disorders. Alternate splicing results in two transcript variants that encode different proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

KCNE2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, isk-related subfamily. This member is a small integral membrane subunit that assembles with the KCNH2 gene product, a pore-forming protein, to alter its function. This gene is expressed in heart and muscle and the gene mutations are associated with cardiac arrhythmia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNE3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 3

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, isk-related subfamily. This member is a type I membrane protein, and a beta subunit that assembles with a potassium channel alpha-subunit to modulate the gating kinetics and enhance stability of the multimeric complex. This gene is prominently expressed in the kidney. A missense mutation in this gene is associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNE1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 1

The product of this gene belongs to the potassium channel KCNE family. Potassium ion channels are essential to many cellular functions and show a high degree of diversity, varying in their electrophysiologic and pharmacologic properties. This gene encodes a transmembrane protein known to associate with the product of the KVLQT1 gene to form the delayed rectifier potassium channel. Mutation in this gene are associated with both Jervell and Lange-Nielsen and Romano-Ward forms of long-QT syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNE4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 4

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, isk-related subfamily. This member is a type I membrane protein, and a beta subunit that assembles with a potassium channel alpha-subunit to modulate the gating kinetics and enhance stability of the multimeric complex. This gene is prominently expressed in the embryo and in adult uterus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNE5 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 5

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a membrane protein which has sequence similarity to the KCNE1 gene product, a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, isk-related subfamily. This intronless gene is deleted in AMME contiguous gene syndrome and may be involved in the cardiac and neurologic abnormalities found in the AMME contiguous gene syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCNN1G Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 gamma subunit

Nonvoltage-gated, amiloride-sensitive, sodium channels control fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelia in many organs. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the gamma subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with Liddle syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

KCNB2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shab related subfamily B, member 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shab-related subfamily. This member is a delayed rectifier potassium channel. The gene is expressed in gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNB1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shab related subfamily B, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shab-related subfamily. This member is a delayed rectifier potassium channel and its activity is modulated by some other family members. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNC4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shaw related subfamily C, member 4

The Shaker gene family of Drosophila encodes components of voltage-gated potassium channels and is comprised of four subfamilies. Based on sequence similarity, this gene is similar to the Shaw subfamily. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the delayed rectifier class of channel proteins and is an integral membrane protein that mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. It generates atypical voltage-dependent transient current that may be important for neuronal excitability. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

KCNG1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily G, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily G. This gene is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found in normal and cancerous tissues. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNG2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily G, member 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily G. This member is a gamma subunit of the voltage-gated potassium channel. The delayed-rectifier type channels containing this subunit may contribute to cardiac action potential repolarization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNG3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily G, member 3

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily G. This member is a gamma subunit functioning as a modulatory molecule. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNG4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily G, member 4

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily G. This member functions as a modulatory subunit. The gene has strong expression in brain. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been found in normal and cancerous tissues. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNAB1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily A regulatory beta subunit 1

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member includes distinct isoforms which are encoded by alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene. Some of these isoforms are beta subunits, which form heteromultimeric complexes with alpha subunits and modulate the activity of the pore-forming alpha subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

KCNAB3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily A regulatory beta subunit 3

This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. The encoded protein is one of the beta subunits, which are auxiliary proteins associating with functional Kv-alpha subunits. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with the potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related subfamily, member 5 gene product and regulates the activity of the alpha subunit. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

KCNAB2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily A regulatory beta subunit 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member is one of the beta subunits, which are auxiliary proteins associating with functional Kv-alpha subunits. This member alters functional properties of the KCNA4 gene product. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

KCND1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shal related subfamily D, member 1

This gene encodes a multipass membrane protein that comprises the pore subunit of the voltage-gated A-type potassium channel, which functions in the repolarization of membrane action potentials. Activity of voltage-gated potassium channels is important in a number of physiological processes, among them the regulation of neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, and smooth muscle contraction. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

KCND3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shal related subfamily D, member 3

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shal-related subfamily, members of which form voltage-activated A-type potassium ion channels and are prominent in the repolarization phase of the action potential. This member includes two isoforms with different sizes, which are encoded by alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCND2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shal related subfamily D, member 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shal-related subfamily, members of which form voltage-activated A-type potassium ion channels and are prominent in the repolarization phase of the action potential. This member mediates a rapidly inactivating, A-type outward potassium current which is not under the control of the N terminus as it is in Shaker channels. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNQ4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated KQT-like subfamily Q, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene forms a potassium channel that is thought to play a critical role in the regulation of neuronal excitability, particularly in sensory cells of the cochlea. The current generated by this channel is inhibited by M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and activated by retigabine, a novel anti-convulsant drug. The encoded protein can form a homomultimeric potassium channel or possibly a heteromultimeric channel in association with the protein encoded by the KCNQ3 gene. Defects in this gene are a cause of nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness type 2 (DFNA2), an autosomal dominant form of progressive hearing loss. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNQ5 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated KQT-like subfamily Q, member 5

This gene is a member of the KCNQ potassium channel gene family that is differentially expressed in subregions of the brain and in skeletal muscle. The protein encoded by this gene yields currents that activate slowly with depolarization and can form heteromeric channels with the protein encoded by the KCNQ3 gene. Currents expressed from this protein have voltage dependences and inhibitor sensitivities in common with M-currents. They are also inhibited by M1 muscarinic receptor activation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

KCNQ2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated KQT-like subfamily Q, member 2

The M channel is a slowly activating and deactivating potassium channel that plays a critical role in the regulation of neuronal excitability. The M channel is formed by the association of the protein encoded by this gene and a related protein encoded by the KCNQ3 gene, both integral membrane proteins. M channel currents are inhibited by M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and activated by retigabine, a novel anti-convulsant drug. Defects in this gene are a cause of benign familial neonatal convulsions type 1 (BFNC), also known as epilepsy, benign neonatal type 1 (EBN1). At least five transcript variants encoding five different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNQ3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated KQT-like subfamily Q, member 3

This gene encodes a protein that functions in the regulation of neuronal excitability. The encoded protein forms an M-channel by associating with the products of the related KCNQ2 or KCNQ5 genes, which both encode integral membrane proteins. M-channel currents are inhibited by M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and are activated by retigabine, a novel anti-convulsant drug. Defects in this gene are a cause of benign familial neonatal convulsions type 2 (BFNC2), also known as epilepsy, benign neonatal type 2 (EBN2). Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

KCNQ1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated KQT-like subfamily Q, member 1

This gene encodes a voltage-gated potassium channel required for repolarization phase of the cardiac action potential. This protein can form heteromultimers with two other potassium channel proteins, KCNE1 and KCNE3. Mutations in this gene are associated with hereditary long QT syndrome 1 (also known as Romano-Ward syndrome), Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, and familial atrial fibrillation. This gene exhibits tissue-specific imprinting, with preferential expression from the maternal allele in some tissues, and biallelic expression in others. This gene is located in a region of chromosome 11 amongst other imprinted genes that are associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), and itself has been shown to be disrupted by chromosomal rearrangements in patients with BWS. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

SRD5A2 Gene

steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 2 (3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase alpha 2)

This gene encodes a microsomal protein expressed at high levels in androgen-sensitive tissues such as the prostate. The encoded protein is active at acidic pH and is sensitive to the 4-azasteroid inhibitor finasteride. Deficiencies in this gene can result in male pseudohermaphroditism, specifically pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias (PPSH). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SRD5A1 Gene

steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 1 (3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase alpha 1)

Steroid 5-alpha-reductase (EC 1.3.99.5) catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Also see SRD5A2 (MIM 607306).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SRD5A1P1 Gene

steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 1 pseudogene 1 (3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase alpha pseudogene)

CAMKK2 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. The major isoform of this gene plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade by phosphorylating the downstream kinases CaMK1 and CaMK4. Protein products of this gene also phosphorylate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This gene has its strongest expression in the brain and influences signalling cascades involved with learning and memory, neuronal differentiation and migration, neurite outgrowth, and synapse formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. The identified isoforms differ in their ability to undergo autophosphorylation and to phosphorylate downstream kinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

C2CD4A Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 4A

C2CD4B Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 4B

C2CD4C Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 4C

C2CD4D Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 4D

CAMK2D Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a delta chain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Distinct isoforms of this chain have different expression patterns.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

CAMK2G Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma

The product of this gene is one of the four subunits of an enzyme which belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a gamma chain. Many alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described but the full-length nature of all the variants has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

CAMK2B Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a beta chain. It is possible that distinct isoforms of this chain have different cellular localizations and interact differently with calmodulin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

PLA2G4A Gene

phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)

This gene encodes a member of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IV family. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to release arachidonic acid which is subsequently metabolized into eicosanoids. Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are lipid-based cellular hormones that regulate hemodynamics, inflammatory responses, and other intracellular pathways. The hydrolysis reaction also produces lysophospholipids that are converted into platelet-activating factor. The enzyme is activated by increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels and phosphorylation, resulting in its translocation from the cytosol and nucleus to perinuclear membrane vesicles. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CASK Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)

This gene encodes a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase. The encoded protein is a MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) protein family member. These proteins are scaffold proteins and the encoded protein is located at synapses in the brain. Mutations in this gene are associated with FG syndrome 4, mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia, and a form of X-linked mental retardation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CAMK2N2 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 2

This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the rat CaM-KII inhibitory protein, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII). CAMKII regulates numerous physiological functions, including neuronal synaptic plasticity through the phosphorylation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate (AMPA) receptors. Studies of the similar protein in rat suggest that this protein may function as a negative regulator of CaM-KII and may act to inhibit the phosphorylation of AMPA receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAMK2N1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1

CAMK1G Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IG

This gene encodes a protein similar to calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAMK1D Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID

This gene is a member of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 family, a subfamily of the serine/threonine kinases. The encoded protein is a component of the calcium-regulated calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade. It has been associated with multiple processes including regulation of granulocyte function, activation of CREB-dependent gene transcription, aldosterone synthesis, differentiation and activation of neutrophil cells, and apoptosis of erythroleukemia cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms of this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

CAMK1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I is expressed in many tissues and is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade. Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly promotes the phosphorylation and synergistic activation of the enzyme by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I kinase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAMK4 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This enzyme is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase with limited tissue distribution, that has been implicated in transcriptional regulation in lymphocytes, neurons and male germ cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C2CD3 Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 3

This gene encodes a protein that functions as a regulator of centriole elongation. Studies of the orthologous mouse protein show that it promotes centriolar distal appendage assembly and is also required for the recruitment of other ciliogenic proteins, including intraflagellar transport proteins. Mutations in this gene cause orofaciodigital syndrome XIV (OFD14), a ciliopathy resulting in malformations of the oral cavity, face and digits. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

C2CD2 Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 2

C2CD5 Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 5

CASKP1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family) pseudogene 1

CACFD1 Gene

calcium channel flower domain containing 1

CRACR2B Gene

calcium release activated channel regulator 2B

CRACR2A Gene

calcium release activated channel regulator 2A

ANO1 Gene

anoctamin 1, calcium activated chloride channel

ANO2 Gene

anoctamin 2, calcium activated chloride channel

ANO2 belongs to a family of calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) (reviewed by Hartzell et al., 2009 [PubMed 19015192]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

PRKAR2A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAR1AP Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha pseudogene

PRKAR1A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. This gene encodes one of the regulatory subunits. This protein was found to be a tissue-specific extinguisher that down-regulates the expression of seven liver genes in hepatoma x fibroblast hybrids. Mutations in this gene cause Carney complex (CNC). This gene can fuse to the RET protooncogene by gene rearrangement and form the thyroid tumor-specific chimeric oncogene known as PTC2. A nonconventional nuclear localization sequence (NLS) has been found for this protein which suggests a role in DNA replication via the protein serving as a nuclear transport protein for the second subunit of the Replication Factor C (RFC40). Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

PRKAR2B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) in activated T cells. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this subunit may play an important role in regulating energy balance and adiposity. The studies also suggest that this subunit may mediate the gene induction and cataleptic behavior induced by haloperidol. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKG1 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I

Mammals have three different isoforms of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (Ialpha, Ibeta, and II). These PRKG isoforms act as key mediators of the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway and are important components of many signal transduction processes in diverse cell types. This PRKG1 gene on human chromosome 10 encodes the soluble Ialpha and Ibeta isoforms of PRKG by alternative transcript splicing. A separate gene on human chromosome 4, PRKG2, encodes the membrane-bound PRKG isoform II. The PRKG1 proteins play a central role in regulating cardiovascular and neuronal functions in addition to relaxing smooth muscle tone, preventing platelet aggregation, and modulating cell growth. This gene is most strongly expressed in all types of smooth muscle, platelets, cerebellar Purkinje cells, hippocampal neurons, and the lateral amygdala. Isoforms Ialpha and Ibeta have identical cGMP-binding and catalytic domains but differ in their leucine/isoleucine zipper and autoinhibitory sequences and therefore differ in their dimerization substrates and kinase enzyme activity. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PRKG2 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type II

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family of proteins. The encoded protein plays a role in the regulation of fluid balance in the intestine. A similar protein in mouse is thought to regulate differentiation and proliferation of cells in the colon. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

NIDDM2 Gene

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (common, type 2) 2

NIDDM1 Gene

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (common, type 2) 1

PRKAR1B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, beta

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is an essential enzyme in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Through phosphorylation of target proteins, PKA controls many biochemical events in the cell including regulation of metabolism, ion transport, and gene transcription. The PKA holoenzyme is composed of 2 regulatory and 2 catalytic subunits and dissociates from the regulatory subunits upon binding of cAMP.[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

LOC100422398 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

LOC100422399 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

PKIA Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor family. This protein was demonstrated to interact with and inhibit the activities of both C alpha and C beta catalytic subunits of the PKA. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKACA Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha

This gene encodes one of the catalytic subunits of protein kinase A, which exists as a tetrameric holoenzyme with two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits, in its inactive form. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinase A is important to many cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Constitutive activation of this gene caused either by somatic mutations, or genomic duplications of regions that include this gene, have been associated with hyperplasias and adenomas of the adrenal cortex and are linked to corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Tissue-specific isoforms that differ at the N-terminus have been described, and these isoforms may differ in the post-translational modifications that occur at the N-terminus of some isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

PIEZO1P1 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1 pseudogene 1

PIEZO1P2 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1 pseudogene 2

PIEZO2 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2

The protein encoded by this gene contains more than thirty transmembrane domains and likely functions as part of mechanically-activated (MA) cation channels. These channels serve to connect mechanical forces to biological signals. The encoded protein quickly adapts MA currents in somatosensory neurons. Defects in this gene are a cause of type 5 distal arthrogryposis. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PIEZO1 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1

Piezos are large transmembrane proteins conserved among various species, all having between 24 and 36 predicted transmembrane domains. 'Piezo' comes from the Greek 'piesi,' meaning 'pressure.' The FAM38A gene encodes PIEZO1, a protein that induces mechanically activated (MA) currents in various cell types (Coste et al., 2010 [PubMed 20813920]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

BSND Gene

barttin CLCNK-type chloride channel accessory beta subunit

This gene encodes an essential beta subunit for CLC chloride channels. These heteromeric channels localize to basolateral membranes of renal tubules and of potassium-secreting epithelia of the inner ear. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Bartter syndrome with sensorineural deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BSNDP2 Gene

barttin CLCNK-type chloride channel accessory beta subunit pseudogene 2

LOC280665 Gene

anti-CNG alpha 1 cation channel translation product-like

CNGA1 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 1

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in phototransduction. Along with another protein, the encoded protein forms a cGMP-gated cation channel in the plasma membrane, allowing depolarization of rod photoreceptors. This represents the last step in the phototransduction pathway. Defects in this gene are a cause of retinitis pigmentosa autosomal recessive (ARRP) disease. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

CNGA2 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 2

The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit of a cyclic nucleotide-gated olfactory channel. The encoded protein contains a carboxy-terminal leucine zipper that mediates channel formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

CNGA3 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 3

This gene encodes a member of the cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel protein family which is required for normal vision and olfactory signal transduction. Mutations in this gene are associated with achromatopsia (rod monochromacy) and color blindness. Two alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CNGA4 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 4

CNGA4 is a modulatory subunit of vertebrate cyclic nucleotide-gated membrane channels that transduce odorant signals (Munger et al., 2001 [PubMed 11739959]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100421204 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 1 pseudogene

RCN1P1 Gene

reticulocalbin 1, EF-hand calcium binding domain pseudogene 1

PLA2G6 Gene

phospholipase A2, group VI (cytosolic, calcium-independent)

The protein encoded by this gene is an A2 phospholipase, a class of enzyme that catalyzes the release of fatty acids from phospholipids. The encoded protein may play a role in phospholipid remodelling, arachidonic acid release, leukotriene and prostaglandin synthesis, fas-mediated apoptosis, and transmembrane ion flux in glucose-stimulated B-cells. Several transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been described, but the full-length nature of only three of them have been determined to date. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

EFCAB11 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 11

EFCAB10 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 10

EFCAB13 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 13

EFCAB12 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 12

EFCAB14 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 14

CALCOCO1 Gene

calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 1

CALCOCO2 Gene

calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2

This gene encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. The encoded protein functions as a receptor for ubiquitin-coated bacteria and plays an important role in innate immunity by mediating macroautophagy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

CAB39 Gene

calcium binding protein 39

CAMLG Gene

calcium modulating ligand

The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A blocks a calcium-dependent signal from the T-cell receptor (TCR) that normally leads to T-cell activation. When bound to cyclophilin B, cyclosporin A binds and inactivates the key signaling intermediate calcineurin. The protein encoded by this gene functions similarly to cyclosporin A, binding to cyclophilin B and acting downstream of the TCR and upstream of calcineurin by causing an influx of calcium. This integral membrane protein appears to be a new participant in the calcium signal transduction pathway, implicating cyclophilin B in calcium signaling, even in the absence of cyclosporin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CARHSP1 Gene

calcium regulated heat stable protein 1, 24kDa

RCN1P2 Gene

reticulocalbin 1, EF-hand calcium binding domain pseudogene 2

CHERP Gene

calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein

RASGRP2 Gene

RAS guanyl releasing protein 2 (calcium and DAG-regulated)

The protein encoded by this gene is a brain-enriched nucleotide exchanged factor that contains an N-terminal GEF domain, 2 tandem repeats of EF-hand calcium-binding motifs, and a C-terminal diacylglycerol/phorbol ester-binding domain. This protein can activate small GTPases, including RAS and RAP1/RAS3. The nucleotide exchange activity of this protein can be stimulated by calcium and diacylglycerol. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RASGRP3 Gene

RAS guanyl releasing protein 3 (calcium and DAG-regulated)

Members of the RAS (see HRAS; MIM 190020) subfamily of GTPases function in signal transduction as GTP/GDP-regulated switches that cycle between inactive GDP- and active GTP-bound states. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), such as RASGRP3, serve as RAS activators by promoting acquisition of GTP to maintain the active GTP-bound state and are the key link between cell surface receptors and RAS activation (Rebhun et al., 2000 [PubMed 10934204]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RASGRP1 Gene

RAS guanyl releasing protein 1 (calcium and DAG-regulated)

This gene is a member of a family of genes characterized by the presence of a Ras superfamily guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domain. It functions as a diacylglycerol (DAG)-regulated nucleotide exchange factor specifically activating Ras through the exchange of bound GDP for GTP. It activates the Erk/MAP kinase cascade and regulates T-cells and B-cells development, homeostasis and differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. Altered expression of the different isoforms of this protein may be a cause of susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CALHM1 Gene

calcium homeostasis modulator 1

This gene encodes a calcium channel that plays a role in processing of amyloid-beta precursor protein. A polymorphism at this locus has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to late-onset Alzheimer's disease in some populations, but the pathogenicity of this polymorphism is unclear.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CALHM3 Gene

calcium homeostasis modulator 3

CALHM2 Gene

calcium homeostasis modulator 2

CABYRP1 Gene

calcium binding tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated pseudogene 1

NOX5 Gene

NADPH oxidase, EF-hand calcium binding domain 5

This gene is predominantly expressed in the testis and lymphocyte-rich areas of spleen and lymph nodes. It encodes a calcium-dependen NADPH oxidase that generates superoxide, and functions as a calcium-dependent proton channel that may regulate redox-dependent processes in lymphocytes and spermatozoa. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

S100Z Gene

S100 calcium binding protein Z

Members of the S100 protein family contain 2 calcium-binding EF-hands and exhibit cell-type specific expression patterns. For additional background information on S100 proteins, see MIM 114085.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

S100A7P1 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A7 pseudogene 1

S100A7P2 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A7 pseudogene 2

S100A11 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A11

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in motility, invasion, and tubulin polymerization. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in tumor metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A10 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A10

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in exocytosis and endocytosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A13 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A13

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein is widely expressed in various types of tissues with a high expression level in thyroid gland. In smooth muscle cells, this protein co-expresses with other family members in the nucleus and in stress fibers, suggesting diverse functions in signal transduction. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A12 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A12

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein is proposed to be involved in specific calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways and its regulatory effect on cytoskeletal components may modulate various neutrophil activities. The protein includes an antimicrobial peptide which has antibacterial activity. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

S100A14 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A14

This gene encodes a member of the S100 protein family which contains an EF-hand motif and binds calcium. The gene is located in a cluster of S100 genes on chromosome 1. Levels of the encoded protein have been found to be lower in cancerous tissue and associated with metastasis suggesting a tumor suppressor function (PMID: 19956863, 19351828). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

S100A16 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A16

EFCAB9 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 9

EFCAB8 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 8

EFCAB5 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 5

EFCAB7 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 7

EFCAB6 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 6

This gene encodes a protein which directly binds the oncogene DJ-1 and androgen receptor to form a ternary complex in cells. This binding protein recruits histone-deacetylase complexes in order to repress transcription activity of androgen receptor. This protein may also play a role in spermatogenesis and fertilization. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

EFCAB1 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 1

EFCAB3 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 3

EFCAB2 Gene

EF-hand calcium binding domain 2

The gene encodes a protein that contains two EF-hand calcium-binding domains although its function has yet to be determined. Alternatively spliced transcripts have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CABP7 Gene

calcium binding protein 7

CABP5 Gene

calcium binding protein 5

The product of this gene belongs to a subfamily of calcium binding proteins, which share similarity to calmodulin. Calcium binding proteins are an important component of calcium mediated cellular signal transduction. Expression of this gene is retina-specific. The mouse homolog of this protein has been shown to express in the inner nuclear layer of the retina, suggested its role in neuronal functioning. The specific function of this gene is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

CABP2 Gene

calcium binding protein 2

This gene belongs to a subfamily of calcium binding proteins that share similarity to calmodulin. Like calmodulin, these family members can likely stimulate calmodulin-dependent kinase II and the protein phosphatase calcineurin. Calcium binding proteins are an important component of calcium mediated cellular signal transduction.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

CABP1 Gene

calcium binding protein 1

Calcium binding proteins are an important component of calcium mediated cellular signal transduction. This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a subfamily of calcium binding proteins which share similarity to calmodulin. The protein encoded by this gene regulates the gating of voltage-gated calcium ion channels. This protein inhibits calcium-dependent inactivation and supports calcium-dependent facilitation of ion channels containing voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C. This protein also regulates calcium-dependent activity of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors, P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels, and transient receptor potential channel TRPC5. This gene is predominantly expressed in retina and brain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding disinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PLA2G4C Gene

phospholipase A2, group IVC (cytosolic, calcium-independent)

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the phospholipase A2 enzyme family which hydrolyzes glycerophospholipids to produce free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, both of which serve as precursors in the production of signaling molecules. The encoded protein has been shown to be a calcium-independent and membrane bound enzyme. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

S100A11P4 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A11 pseudogene 4

S100A11P2 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A11 pseudogene 2

S100A11P3 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A11 pseudogene 3

S100A11P1 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A11 pseudogene 1

SLC24A4 Gene

solute carrier family 24 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger), member 4

This gene encodes a member of the potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchanger protein family. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

SLC24A5 Gene

solute carrier family 24 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger), member 5

This gene is a member of the potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchanger family and encodes an intracellular membrane protein with 2 large hydrophilic loops and 2 sets of multiple transmembrane-spanning segments. Sequence variation in this gene has been associated with differences in skin pigmentation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC24A2 Gene

solute carrier family 24 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger), member 2

This gene encodes a member of the calcium/cation antiporter superfamily of transport proteins. The encoded protein belongs to the SLC24 branch of exchangers, which can mediate the extrusion of one Ca2+ ion and one K+ ion in exchange for four Na+ ions. This family member is a retinal cone/brain exchanger that can mediate a light-induced decrease in free Ca2+ concentration. This protein may also play a neuroprotective role during ischemic brain injury. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

SLC24A3 Gene

solute carrier family 24 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger), member 3

Plasma membrane sodium/calcium exchangers are an important component of intracellular calcium homeostasis and electrical conduction. Potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchangers such as SLC24A3 are believed to transport 1 intracellular calcium and 1 potassium ion in exchange for 4 extracellular sodium ions (Kraev et al., 2001 [PubMed 11294880]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SLC24A1 Gene

solute carrier family 24 (sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger), member 1

This gene encodes a member of the potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchanger protein family. The encoded protein plays an important role in sodium/calcium exchange in retinal rod and cone photoreceptors by mediating the extrusion of one calcium ion and one potassium ion in exchange for four sodium ions. Mutations in this gene may play a role in congenital stationary night blindness. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

PPEF2 Gene

protein phosphatase, EF-hand calcium binding domain 2

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase with EF-hand motif family. The protein contains a protein phosphatase catalytic domain, and at least two EF-hand calcium-binding motifs in its C terminus. Although its substrate(s) is unknown, the encoded protein, which is expressed specifically in photoreceptors and the pineal, has been suggested to play a role in the visual system. This gene shares high sequence similarity with the Drosophila retinal degeneration C (rdgC) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPEF1 Gene

protein phosphatase, EF-hand calcium binding domain 1

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase with EF-hand motif family. The protein contains a protein phosphatase catalytic domain, and at least two EF-hand calcium-binding motifs in its C terminus. Although its substrate(s) is unknown, the encoded protein has been suggested to play a role in specific sensory neuron function and/or development. This gene shares high sequence similarity with the Drosophila retinal degeneration C (rdgC) gene. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants, each encoding a distinct isoform, have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC728549 Gene

calcium binding protein P22 pseudogene

SLC8A1 Gene

solute carrier family 8 (sodium/calcium exchanger), member 1

In cardiac myocytes, Ca(2+) concentrations alternate between high levels during contraction and low levels during relaxation. The increase in Ca(2+) concentration during contraction is primarily due to release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. However, some Ca(2+) also enters the cell through the sarcolemma (plasma membrane). During relaxation, Ca(2+) is sequestered within the intracellular stores. To prevent overloading of intracellular stores, the Ca(2+) that entered across the sarcolemma must be extruded from the cell. The Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger is the primary mechanism by which the Ca(2+) is extruded from the cell during relaxation. In the heart, the exchanger may play a key role in digitalis action. The exchanger is the dominant mechanism in returning the cardiac myocyte to its resting state following excitation.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

SLC8A3 Gene

solute carrier family 8 (sodium/calcium exchanger), member 3

This gene encodes a member of the sodium/calcium exchanger integral membrane protein family. Na+/Ca2+ exchange proteins are involved in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis in a wide variety of cell types. The protein is regulated by intracellular calcium ions and is found in both the plasma membrane and intracellular organellar membranes, where exchange of Na+ for Ca2+ occurs in an electrogenic manner. Alternative splicing has been observed for this gene and multiple variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

SLC8A2 Gene

solute carrier family 8 (sodium/calcium exchanger), member 2

CIB2 Gene

calcium and integrin binding family member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to that of KIP/CIB, calcineurin B, and calmodulin. The encoded protein is a calcium-binding regulatory protein that interacts with DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunits (DNA-PKcs), and it is involved in photoreceptor cell maintenance. Mutations in this gene cause deafness, autosomal recessive, 48 (DFNB48), and also Usher syndrome 1J (USH1J). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

CIB3 Gene

calcium and integrin binding family member 3

This gene product shares a high degree of sequence similarity with DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit-interacting protein 2 in human and mouse, and like them may bind the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinases. The exact function of this gene is not known. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

CIB1 Gene

calcium and integrin binding 1 (calmyrin)

This gene encodes a member of the EF-hand domain-containing calcium-binding superfamily. The encoded protein interacts with many other proteins, including the platelet integrin alpha-IIb-beta-3, DNA-dependent protein kinase, presenilin-2, focal adhesion kinase, p21 activated kinase, and protein kinase D. The encoded protein may be involved in cell survival and proliferation, and is associated with several disease states including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2013]

CIB4 Gene

calcium and integrin binding family member 4

CASR Gene

calcium-sensing receptor

The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor that is expressed in the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-producing chief cells of the parathyroid gland, and the cells lining the kidney tubule. It senses small changes in circulating calcium concentration and couples this information to intracellular signaling pathways that modify PTH secretion or renal cation handling, thus this protein plays an essential role in maintaining mineral ion homeostasis. Mutations in this gene cause familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, familial, isolated hypoparathyroidism, and neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MICU3 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uptake family, member 3

MICU2 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uptake 2

MICU1 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uptake 1

This gene encodes an essential regulator of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake under basal conditions. The encoded protein interacts with the mitochondrial calcium uniporter, a mitochondrial inner membrane Ca2+ channel, and is essential in preventing mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, which can cause excessive production of reactive oxygen species and cell stress. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

RCN3 Gene

reticulocalbin 3, EF-hand calcium binding domain

RCN2 Gene

reticulocalbin 2, EF-hand calcium binding domain

The protein encoded by this gene is a calcium-binding protein located in the lumen of the ER. The protein contains six conserved regions with similarity to a high affinity Ca(+2)-binding motif, the EF-hand. This gene maps to the same region as type 4 Bardet-Biedl syndrome, suggesting a possible causative role for this gene in the disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

RCN1 Gene

reticulocalbin 1, EF-hand calcium binding domain

Reticulocalbin 1 is a calcium-binding protein located in the lumen of the ER. The protein contains six conserved regions with similarity to a high affinity Ca(+2)-binding motif, the EF-hand. High conservation of amino acid residues outside of these motifs, in comparison to mouse reticulocalbin, is consistent with a possible biochemical function besides that of calcium binding. In human endothelial and prostate cancer cell lines this protein localizes to the plasma membrane.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

NCS1 Gene

neuronal calcium sensor 1

This gene is a member of the neuronal calcium sensor gene family, which encode calcium-binding proteins expressed predominantly in neurons. The protein encoded by this gene regulates G protein-coupled receptor phosphorylation in a calcium-dependent manner and can substitute for calmodulin. The protein is associated with secretory granules and modulates synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HRC Gene

histidine rich calcium binding protein

This gene encodes a luminal sarcoplasmic reticulum protein identified by its ability to bind low-density lipoprotein with high affinity. The protein interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of triadin, the main transmembrane protein of the junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle. The protein functions in the regulation of releasable calcium into the SR. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

CAB39L Gene

calcium binding protein 39-like

S100A7A Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A7A

S100A9 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in the inhibition of casein kinase and altered expression of this protein is associated with the disease cystic fibrosis. This antimicrobial protein exhibits antifungal and antibacterial activity. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

S100A8 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A8

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in the inhibition of casein kinase and as a cytokine. Altered expression of this protein is associated with the disease cystic fibrosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A5 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A5

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein has a Ca2+ affinity 20- to 100-fold higher than the other S100 proteins studied under identical conditions. This protein also binds Zn2+ and Cu2+, and Cu2+ strongly which impairs the binding of Ca2+. This protein is expressed in very restricted regions of the adult brain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A4 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in motility, invasion, and tubulin polymerization. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in tumor metastasis. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A7 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein differs from the other S100 proteins of known structure in its lack of calcium binding ability in one EF-hand at the N-terminus. The protein is overexpressed in hyperproliferative skin diseases, exhibits antimicrobial activities against bacteria and induces immunomodulatory activities. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

S100A6 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in stimulation of Ca2+-dependent insulin release, stimulation of prolactin secretion, and exocytosis. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in melanoma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A1 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in stimulation of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, inhibition of microtubule assembly, and inhibition of protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation. Reduced expression of this protein has been implicated in cardiomyopathies. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A3 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein has the highest content of cysteines of all S100 proteins, has a high affinity for Zinc, and is highly expressed in human hair cuticle. The precise function of this protein is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100A2 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may have a tumor suppressor function. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MCU Gene

mitochondrial calcium uniporter

This gene encodes a calcium transporter that localizes to the mitochondrial inner membrane. The encoded protein interacts with mitochondrial calcium uptake 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

LOC100420620 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulator 1 pseudogene

CANT1 Gene

calcium activated nucleotidase 1

This protein encoded by this gene belongs to the apyrase family. It functions as a calcium-dependent nucleotidase with a preference for UDP. Mutations in this gene are associated with Desbuquois dysplasia with hand anomalies. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been noted for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC100132239 Gene

calcium activated nucleotidase 1 pseudogene

CCBE1 Gene

collagen and calcium binding EGF domains 1

This gene is thought to function in extracellular matrix remodeling and migration. It is predominantly expressed in the ovary, but down regulated in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary carcinomas, suggesting its role as a tumour suppressor. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome, a generalized lymphatic dysplasia in humans. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CABS1 Gene

calcium-binding protein, spermatid-specific 1

CABP4 Gene

calcium binding protein 4

This gene encodes a member of the CABP family of calcium binding protein characterized by four EF-hand motifs. Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital stationary night blindness type 2B. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

LOC101060442 Gene

calcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein SCaMC-1-like

SCGN Gene

secretagogin, EF-hand calcium binding protein

The encoded protein is a secreted calcium-binding protein which is found in the cytoplasm. It is related to calbindin D-28K and calretinin. This protein is thought to be involved in KCL-stimulated calcium flux and cell proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NECAB3 Gene

N-terminal EF-hand calcium binding protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the amino-terminal domain of the neuron-specific X11-like protein (X11L), inhibits the association of X11L with amyloid precursor protein through a non-competitive mechanism, and abolishes the suppression of beta-amyloid production by X11L. This protein, together with X11L, may play an important role in the regulatory system of amyloid precursor protein metabolism and beta-amyloid generation. The protein is phosphorylated by NIMA-related expressed kinase 2, and localizes to the Golgi apparatus. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NECAB2 Gene

N-terminal EF-hand calcium binding protein 2

NECAB1 Gene

N-terminal EF-hand calcium binding protein 1

SARAF Gene

store-operated calcium entry-associated regulatory factor

SMOC2 Gene

SPARC related modular calcium binding 2

This gene encodes a member of the SPARC family (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine/osteonectin/BM-40), which are highly expressed during embryogenesis and wound healing. The gene product is a matricellular protein which promotes matrix assembly and can stimulate endothelial cell proliferation and migration, as well as angiogenic activity. Associated with pulmonary function, this secretory gene product contains a Kazal domain, two thymoglobulin type-1 domains, and two EF-hand calcium-binding domains. The encoded protein may serve as a target for controlling angiogenesis in tumor growth and myocardial ischemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SMOC1 Gene

SPARC related modular calcium binding 1

This gene encodes a multi-domain secreted protein that may have a critical role in ocular and limb development. Mutations in this gene are associated with microphthalmia and limb anomalies. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

CCAL1 Gene

chondrocalcinosis 1 (calcium pyrophosphate-deposition disease, early onset osteoarthritis)

S100A7L2 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A7-like 2

TACSTD2 Gene

tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2

This intronless gene encodes a carcinoma-associated antigen. This antigen is a cell surface receptor that transduces calcium signals. Mutations of this gene have been associated with gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

S100P Gene

S100 calcium binding protein P

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21; however, this gene is located at 4p16. This protein, in addition to binding Ca2+, also binds Zn2+ and Mg2+. This protein may play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100G Gene

S100 calcium binding protein G

This gene encodes calbindin D9K, a vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein. This cytosolic protein belongs to a family of calcium-binding proteins that includes calmodulin, parvalbumin, troponin C, and S100 protein. In the intestine, the protein is vitamin D-dependent and its expression correlates with calcium transport activity. The protein may increase Ca2+ absorption by buffering Ca2+ in the cytoplasm and increase ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport in duodenal basolateral membrane vesicles. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S100B Gene

S100 calcium binding protein B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21; however, this gene is located at 21q22.3. This protein may function in Neurite extension, proliferation of melanoma cells, stimulation of Ca2+ fluxes, inhibition of PKC-mediated phosphorylation, astrocytosis and axonal proliferation, and inhibition of microtubule assembly. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in several neurological, neoplastic, and other types of diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome, epilepsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, melanoma, and type I diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CABYR Gene

calcium binding tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated

To reach fertilization competence, spermatozoa undergo a series of morphological and molecular maturational processes, termed capacitation, involving protein tyrosine phosphorylation and increased intracellular calcium. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the principal piece of the sperm flagellum in association with the fibrous sheath and exhibits calcium-binding when phosphorylated during capacitation. A pseudogene on chromosome 3 has been identified for this gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

MCUR1 Gene

mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulator 1

GCA Gene

grancalcin, EF-hand calcium binding protein

This gene product, grancalcin, is a calcium-binding protein abundant in neutrophils and macrophages. It belongs to the penta-EF-hand subfamily of proteins which includes sorcin, calpain, and ALG-2. Grancalcin localization is dependent upon calcium and magnesium. In the absence of divalent cation, grancalcin localizes to the cytosolic fraction; with magnesium alone, it partitions with the granule fraction; and in the presence of magnesium and calcium, it associates with both the granule and membrane fractions, suggesting a role for grancalcin in granule-membrane fusion and degranulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CARF Gene

calcium responsive transcription factor

LOC100288712 Gene

S100 calcium binding protein A11 pseudogene

LOC100422402 Gene

RAS guanyl releasing protein 2 (calcium and DAG-regulated) pseudogene

SLC8B1 Gene

solute carrier family 8 (sodium/lithium/calcium exchanger), member B1

SLC24A6 belongs to a family of potassium-dependent sodium/calcium exchangers that maintain cellular calcium homeostasis through the electrogenic countertransport of 4 sodium ions for 1 calcium ion and 1 potassium ion (Cai and Lytton, 2004 [PubMed 14625281]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RBCK1 Gene

RanBP-type and C3HC4-type zinc finger containing 1

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to mouse UIP28/UbcM4 interacting protein. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus, resulting in distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SEMA5B Gene

sema domain, seven thrombospondin repeats (type 1 and type 1-like), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 5B

This gene encodes a member of the semaphorin protein family which regulates axon growth during development of the nervous system. The encoded protein has a characteristic Sema domain near the N-terminus, through which semaphorins bind to plexin, and five thrombospondin type 1 repeats in the C-terminal region of the protein. The protein product may be cleaved and exist as a secreted molecule (PMID: 19463192). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

SEMA5A Gene

sema domain, seven thrombospondin repeats (type 1 and type 1-like), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 5A

This gene belongs to the semaphorin gene family that encodes membrane proteins containing a semaphorin domain and several thrombospondin type-1 repeats. Members of this family are involved in axonal guidance during neural development. This gene has been implicated as an autism susceptibility gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

LOC100422730 Gene

sema domain, seven thrombospondin repeats (type 1 and type 1-like), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 5A pseudogene

COL14A1 Gene

collagen, type XIV, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XIV collagen, a member of the FACIT (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) collagen family. Type XIV collagen interacts with the fibril surface and is involved in the regulation of fibrillogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

PPFIA4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 4

PPFIA4, or liprin-alpha-4, belongs to the liprin-alpha gene family. See liprin-alpha-1 (LIP1, or PPFIA1; MIM 611054) for background on liprins.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

COL27A1 Gene

collagen, type XXVII, alpha 1

This gene encodes a member of the fibrillar collagen family, and plays a role during the calcification of cartilage and the transition of cartilage to bone. The encoded protein product is a preproprotein. It includes an N-terminal signal peptide, which is followed by an N-terminal propetide, mature peptide and a C-terminal propeptide. The N-terminal propeptide contains thrombospondin N-terminal-like and laminin G-like domains. The mature peptide is a major triple-helical region. The C-terminal propeptide, also known as COLFI domain, plays crucial roles in tissue growth and repair. Mutations in this gene cause Steel syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

COL9A2 Gene

collagen, type IX, alpha 2

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. Type IX collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. This chain is unusual in that, unlike the other two type IX alpha chains, it contains a covalently attached glycosaminoglycan side chain. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL9A3 Gene

collagen, type IX, alpha 3

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. Type IX collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia type 3. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

COL9A1 Gene

collagen, type IX, alpha 1

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, which is a minor (5-20%) collagen component of hyaline cartilage. Type IX collagen is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. Studies in knockout mice have shown that synthesis of the alpha 1 chain is essential for assembly of type IX collagen molecules, a heterotrimeric molecule, and that lack of type IX collagen is associated with early onset osteoarthritis. Mutations in this gene are associated with osteoarthritis in humans, with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, 6, a form of chondrodysplasia, and with Stickler syndrome, a disease characterized by ophthalmic, orofacial, articular, and auditory defects. Two transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HBHR Gene

alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome, type 1

LOC100420255 Gene

collagen, type XXII, alpha 1 pseudogene

PSMA2P3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 3

PSMA2P1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 1

COL1AR Gene

collagen, type I, alpha, receptor

COL1A2 Gene

collagen, type I, alpha 2

This gene encodes the pro-alpha2 chain of type I collagen whose triple helix comprises two alpha1 chains and one alpha2 chain. Type I is a fibril-forming collagen found in most connective tissues and is abundant in bone, cornea, dermis and tendon. Mutations in this gene are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta types I-IV, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIB, recessive Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Classical type, idiopathic osteoporosis, and atypical Marfan syndrome. Symptoms associated with mutations in this gene, however, tend to be less severe than mutations in the gene for the alpha1 chain of type I collagen (COL1A1) reflecting the different role of alpha2 chains in matrix integrity. Three transcripts, resulting from the use of alternate polyadenylation signals, have been identified for this gene. [provided by R. Dalgleish, Feb 2008]

COL6A1 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 1

The collagens are a superfamily of proteins that play a role in maintaining the integrity of various tissues. Collagens are extracellular matrix proteins and have a triple-helical domain as their common structural element. Collagen VI is a major structural component of microfibrils. The basic structural unit of collagen VI is a heterotrimer of the alpha1(VI), alpha2(VI), and alpha3(VI) chains. The alpha2(VI) and alpha3(VI) chains are encoded by the COL6A2 and COL6A3 genes, respectively. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha 1 subunit of type VI collagen (alpha1(VI) chain). Mutations in the genes that code for the collagen VI subunits result in the autosomal dominant disorder, Bethlem myopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL6A2 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 2

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type VI collagen, a beaded filament collagen found in most connective tissues. The product of this gene contains several domains similar to von Willebrand Factor type A domains. These domains have been shown to bind extracellular matrix proteins, an interaction that explains the importance of this collagen in organizing matrix components. Mutations in this gene are associated with Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich scleroatonic muscular dystrophy. Three transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL6A5 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 5

This gene encodes a member of the collagen superfamily of proteins. The encoded protein contains multiple von Willebrand factor A-like domains and may interact with the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains of collagen VI to form the complete collagen VI trimer. Polymorphisms in this gene may be linked to dermal phenotypes, such as eczema. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

COL17A1 Gene

collagen, type XVII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVII collagen. Unlike most collagens, collagen XVII is a transmembrane protein. Collagen XVII is a structural component of hemidesmosomes, multiprotein complexes at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone that mediate adhesion of keratinocytes to the underlying membrane. Mutations in this gene are associated with both generalized atrophic benign and junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Two homotrimeric forms of type XVII collagen exist. The full length form is the transmembrane protein. A soluble form, referred to as either ectodomain or LAD-1, is generated by proteolytic processing of the full length form. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMA2P2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 2

LOC100422713 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

LOC100422710 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

COL21A1 Gene

collagen, type XXI, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XXI collagen, a member of the FACIT collagen family (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted helices). Type XXI collagen is localized to tissues containing type I collagen so, like other members of this collagen family, it may serve to maintain the integrity of the extracellular matrix. An alternatively spliced transcript variant has been described, but its full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL18A1 Gene

collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVIII collagen. This collagen is one of the multiplexins, extracellular matrix proteins that contain multiple triple-helix domains (collagenous domains) interrupted by non-collagenous domains. A long isoform of the protein has an N-terminal domain that is homologous to the extracellular part of frizzled receptors. Proteolytic processing at several endogenous cleavage sites in the C-terminal domain results in production of endostatin, a potent antiangiogenic protein that is able to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth. Mutations in this gene are associated with Knobloch syndrome. The main features of this syndrome involve retinal abnormalities, so type XVIII collagen may play an important role in retinal structure and in neural tube closure. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

COL28A1 Gene

collagen, type XXVIII, alpha 1

COL28A1 belongs to a class of collagens containing von Willebrand factor (VWF; MIM 613160) type A (VWFA) domains (Veit et al., 2006 [PubMed 16330543]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

COL11A1 Gene

collagen, type XI, alpha 1

This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. Mutations in this gene are associated with type II Stickler syndrome and with Marshall syndrome. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in this gene is also associated with susceptibility to lumbar disc herniation. Multiple transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

COL11A2 Gene

collagen, type XI, alpha 2

This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 very close to but separate from the gene for retinoid X receptor beta. Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. Proteolytic processing of this type XI chain produces PARP, a proline/arginine-rich protein that is an amino terminal domain. Mutations in this gene are associated with type III Stickler syndrome, otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED syndrome), Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome, autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural type 13 deafness (DFNA13), and autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural type 53 deafness (DFNB53). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene is located nearby on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

PSMA3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 3

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIP4K2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, alpha

Phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate, the precursor to second messengers of the phosphoinositide signal transduction pathways, is thought to be involved in the regulation of secretion, cell proliferation, differentiation, and motility. The protein encoded by this gene is one of a family of enzymes capable of catalyzing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate on the fourth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring to form phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate. The amino acid sequence of this enzyme does not show homology to other kinases, but the recombinant protein does exhibit kinase activity. This gene is a member of the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 alpha

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is not sensitive to nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmanin. This protein was shown to be able to be activated by insulin and may be involved in integrin-dependent signaling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL22A1 Gene

collagen, type XXII, alpha 1

COL22A1, a member of the FACIT (fibrillar-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) subgroup of the collagen protein family, specifically localizes to tissue junctions (Koch et al., 2004 [PubMed 15016833]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

COL5A2 Gene

collagen, type V, alpha 2

This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. Mutations in this gene are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, types I and II. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL5A3 Gene

collagen, type V, alpha 3

This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. Mutations in this gene are thought to be responsible for the symptoms of a subset of patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III. Messages of several sizes can be detected in northern blots but sequence information cannot confirm the identity of the shorter messages. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL5A1 Gene

collagen, type V, alpha 1

This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. The encoded procollagen protein occurs commonly as the heterotrimer pro-alpha1(V)-pro-alpha1(V)-pro-alpha2(V). Mutations in this gene are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, types I and II. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

PSMA2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMA1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 1

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

PSMA7 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 7

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family that functions as a 20S core alpha subunit. The encoded protein interacts with the hepatitis B virus X protein and plays a role in regulating hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity, an activity essential for viral replication. The encoded protein also plays a role in the cellular stress response by regulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMA4 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 4

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMA5 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 5

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PSMA8 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 8

COL12A1 Gene

collagen, type XII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XII collagen, a member of the FACIT (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) collagen family. Type XII collagen is a homotrimer found in association with type I collagen, an association that is thought to modify the interactions between collagen I fibrils and the surrounding matrix. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL6A4P1 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 4 pseudogene 1

This transcribed pseudogene represents the 5' end of a presumed ortholog to a mouse gene which encodes a collagen VI alpha 4 chain protein (GeneID 68553). No complete ORF of comparable size to the mouse protein is found in this gene. The predicted protein lacks a signal peptide; however, this truncated collagen polypeptide may have achieved a different function as suggested by PubMed ID: 18622395. Evidence of in vivo translation is incomplete. A large chromosome break separates this pseudogene from the 3' end of the presumed ortholog (COL6A4P2, GeneID 646300) which is located downstream at chromosome 3q21.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

COL6A4P2 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 4 pseudogene 2

This transcribed pseudogene represents the 3' end of a presumed ortholog to a mouse gene which encodes a collagen VI alpha 4 chain protein (GeneID 68553). The predicted ORF contains multiple premature stop codons. A large chromosome break separates this pseudogene from the 5' end of the presumed ortholog (DVWA, GeneID 344875) which is located upstream at chromosome 3p24.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

COL25A1 Gene

collagen, type XXV, alpha 1

This gene encodes a brain-specific membrane associated collagen. A product of proteolytic processing of the encoded protein, CLAC (collagenous Alzheimer amyloid plaque component), binds to amyloid beta-peptides found in Alzheimer amyloid plaques but CLAC inhibits rather than facilitates amyloid fibril elongation (PMID: 16300410). A study of over-expression of this collagen in mice, however, found changes in pathology and behavior suggesting that the encoded protein may promote amyloid plaque formation (PMID: 19548013). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

COL2A1 Gene

collagen, type II, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha-1 chain of type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen found in cartilage and the vitreous humor of the eye. Mutations in this gene are associated with achondrogenesis, chondrodysplasia, early onset familial osteoarthritis, SED congenita, Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis, Kniest dysplasia, Stickler syndrome type I, and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia Strudwick type. In addition, defects in processing chondrocalcin, a calcium binding protein that is the C-propeptide of this collagen molecule, are also associated with chondrodysplasia. There are two transcripts identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422287 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 3 pseudogene

LOC100422286 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 1 pseudogene

PSMA3P Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 3 pseudogene

GNAL Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide, olfactory type

This gene encodes a stimulatory G protein alpha subunit which mediates odorant signaling in the olfactory epithelium. This protein couples dopamine type 1 receptors and adenosine A2A receptors and is widely expressed in the central nervous system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia 25 and this gene is located in a susceptibility region for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

COL15A1 Gene

collagen, type XV, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XV collagen, a member of the FACIT collagen family (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted helices). Type XV collagen has a wide tissue distribution but the strongest expression is localized to basement membrane zones so it may function to adhere basement membranes to underlying connective tissue stroma. The proteolytically produced C-terminal fragment of type XV collagen is restin, a potentially antiangiogenic protein that is closely related to endostatin. Mouse studies have shown that collagen XV deficiency is associated with muscle and microvessel deterioration. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

COL26A1 Gene

collagen, type XXVI, alpha 1

This gene encodes a protein containing an emilin domain and two collagen stretches. This gene may be associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

PSMA6P3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 6 pseudogene 3

COL8A2 Gene

collagen, type VIII, alpha 2

This gene encodes the alpha 2 chain of type VIII collagen. This protein is a major component of the basement membrane of the corneal endothelium and forms homo- or heterotrimers with alpha 1 (VIII) type collagens. Defects in this gene are associated with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy type 2. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

COL8A1 Gene

collagen, type VIII, alpha 1

This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type VIII collagen. The gene product is a short chain collagen and a major component of the basement membrane of the corneal endothelium. The type VIII collagen fibril can be either a homo- or a heterotrimer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

COL16A1 Gene

collagen, type XVI, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVI collagen, a member of the FACIT collagen family (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted helices). Members of this collagen family are found in association with fibril-forming collagens such as type I and II, and serve to maintain the integrity of the extracellular matrix. High levels of type XVI collagen have been found in fibroblasts and keratinocytes, and in smooth muscle and amnion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPFIA2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. It has been proposed that liprins are multivalent proteins that form complex structures and act as scaffolds for the recruitment and anchoring of LAR family of tyrosine phosphatases. This protein has been shown to bind the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family) protein (also known as CASK) and proposed to regulate higher-order brain functions in mammals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PPFIA3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. Liprin family protein has been shown to localize phosphatase LAR to cell focal adhesions and may be involved in the molecular organization of presynaptic active zones. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPFIA1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. This protein binds to the intracellular membrane-distal phosphatase domain of tyrosine phosphatase LAR, and appears to localize LAR to cell focal adhesions. This interaction may regulate the disassembly of focal adhesion and thus help orchestrate cell-matrix interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL20A1 Gene

collagen, type XX, alpha 1

COL7A1 Gene

collagen, type VII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type VII collagen. The type VII collagen fibril, composed of three identical alpha collagen chains, is restricted to the basement zone beneath stratified squamous epithelia. It functions as an anchoring fibril between the external epithelia and the underlying stroma. Mutations in this gene are associated with all forms of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. In the absence of mutations, however, an acquired form of this disease can result from an autoimmune response made to type VII collagen. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL4A6 Gene

collagen, type IV, alpha 6

This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene, alpha 5 type IV collagen, so that the gene pair shares a common promoter. Deletions in the alpha 5 gene that extend into the alpha 6 gene result in diffuse leiomyomatosis accompanying the X-linked Alport syndrome caused by the deletion in the alpha 5 gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

COL4A5 Gene

collagen, type IV, alpha 5

This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. Mutations in this gene are associated with X-linked Alport syndrome, also known as hereditary nephritis. Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene so that each gene pair shares a common promoter. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

COL4A4 Gene

collagen, type IV, alpha 4

This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. This particular collagen IV subunit, however, is only found in a subset of basement membranes. Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene so that each gene pair shares a common promoter. Mutations in this gene are associated with type II autosomal recessive Alport syndrome (hereditary glomerulonephropathy) and with familial benign hematuria (thin basement membrane disease). Two transcripts, differing only in their transcription start sites, have been identified for this gene and, as is common for collagen genes, multiple polyadenylation sites are found in the 3' UTR. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL4A3 Gene

collagen, type IV, alpha 3 (Goodpasture antigen)

Type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes, is a multimeric protein composed of 3 alpha subunits. These subunits are encoded by 6 different genes, alpha 1 through alpha 6, each of which can form a triple helix structure with 2 other subunits to form type IV collagen. This gene encodes alpha 3. In the Goodpasture syndrome, autoantibodies bind to the collagen molecules in the basement membranes of alveoli and glomeruli. The epitopes that elicit these autoantibodies are localized largely to the non-collagenous C-terminal domain of the protein. A specific kinase phosphorylates amino acids in this same C-terminal region and the expression of this kinase is upregulated during pathogenesis. This gene is also linked to an autosomal recessive form of Alport syndrome. The mutations contributing to this syndrome are also located within the exons that encode this C-terminal region. Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene so that each gene pair shares a common promoter. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

COL4A2 Gene

collagen, type IV, alpha 2

This gene encodes one of the six subunits of type IV collagen, the major structural component of basement membranes. The C-terminal portion of the protein, known as canstatin, is an inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Like the other members of the type IV collagen gene family, this gene is organized in a head-to-head conformation with another type IV collagen gene so that each gene pair shares a common promoter. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL4A1 Gene

collagen, type IV, alpha 1

This gene encodes a type IV collagen alpha protein. Type IV collagen proteins are integral components of basement membranes. This gene shares a bidirectional promoter with a paralogous gene on the opposite strand. The protein consists of an amino-terminal 7S domain, a triple-helix forming collagenous domain, and a carboxy-terminal non-collagenous domain. It functions as part of a heterotrimer and interacts with other extracellular matrix components such as perlecans, proteoglycans, and laminins. In addition, proteolytic cleavage of the non-collagenous carboxy-terminal domain results in a biologically active fragment known as arresten, which has anti-angiogenic and tumor suppressor properties. Mutations in this gene cause porencephaly, cerebrovascular disease, and renal and muscular defects. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

PSMA6 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 6

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. A pseudogene has been identified on the Y chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

COL19A1 Gene

collagen, type XIX, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XIX collagen, a member of the FACIT collagen family (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted helices). Although the function of this collagen is not known, other members of this collagen family are found in association with fibril-forming collagens such as type I and II, and serve to maintain the integrity of the extracellular matrix. The transcript produced from this gene has an unusually large 3' UTR which has not been completely sequenced. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL10A1 Gene

collagen, type X, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type X collagen, a short chain collagen expressed by hypertrophic chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Unlike type VIII collagen, the other short chain collagen, type X collagen is a homotrimer. Mutations in this gene are associated with Schmid type metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (SMCD) and Japanese type spondylometaphyseal dysplasia (SMD). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL11A2P1 Gene

collagen, type XI, alpha 2 pseudogene 1

COL1A1 Gene

collagen, type I, alpha 1

This gene encodes the pro-alpha1 chains of type I collagen whose triple helix comprises two alpha1 chains and one alpha2 chain. Type I is a fibril-forming collagen found in most connective tissues and is abundant in bone, cornea, dermis and tendon. Mutations in this gene are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta types I-IV, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIA, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Classical type, Caffey Disease and idiopathic osteoporosis. Reciprocal translocations between chromosomes 17 and 22, where this gene and the gene for platelet-derived growth factor beta are located, are associated with a particular type of skin tumor called dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, resulting from unregulated expression of the growth factor. Two transcripts, resulting from the use of alternate polyadenylation signals, have been identified for this gene. [provided by R. Dalgleish, Feb 2008]

COL6A3 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 3

This gene encodes the alpha-3 chain, one of the three alpha chains of type VI collagen, a beaded filament collagen found in most connective tissues. The alpha-3 chain of type VI collagen is much larger than the alpha-1 and -2 chains. This difference in size is largely due to an increase in the number of subdomains, similar to von Willebrand Factor type A domains, that are found in the amino terminal globular domain of all the alpha chains. These domains have been shown to bind extracellular matrix proteins, an interaction that explains the importance of this collagen in organizing matrix components. Mutations in the type VI collagen genes are associated with Bethlem myopathy, a rare autosomal dominant proximal myopathy with early childhood onset. Mutations in this gene are also a cause of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy, also referred to as Ullrich scleroatonic muscular dystrophy, an autosomal recessive congenital myopathy that is more severe than Bethlem myopathy. Multiple transcript variants have been identified, but the full-length nature of only some of these variants has been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

COL6A6 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 6

COL4A3BP Gene

collagen, type IV, alpha 3 (Goodpasture antigen) binding protein

This gene encodes a kinase that specifically phosphorylates the N-terminal region of the non-collagenous domain of the alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen, known as the Goodpasture antigen. Goodpasture disease is the result of an autoimmune response directed at this antigen. One isoform of this protein is also involved in ceramide intracellular transport. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PI4K2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 alpha

Phosphatidylinositolpolyphosphates (PtdInsPs) are centrally involved in many biologic processes, ranging from cell growth and organization of the actin cytoskeleton to endo- and exocytosis. PI4KII phosphorylates PtdIns at the D-4 position, an essential step in the biosynthesis of PtdInsPs (Barylko et al., 2001 [PubMed 11244087]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

COL23A1 Gene

collagen, type XXIII, alpha 1

COL23A1 is a member of the transmembrane collagens, a subfamily of the nonfibrillar collagens that contain a single pass hydrophobic transmembrane domain (Banyard et al., 2003 [PubMed 12644459]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC645163 Gene

phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 alpha pseudogene

COL13A1 Gene

collagen, type XIII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of one of the nonfibrillar collagens. The function of this gene product is not known, however, it has been detected at low levels in all connective tissue-producing cells so it may serve a general function in connective tissues. Unlike most of the collagens, which are secreted into the extracellular matrix, collagen XIII contains a transmembrane domain and the protein has been localized to the plasma membrane. The transcripts for this gene undergo complex and extensive splicing involving at least eight exons. Like other collagens, collagen XIII is a trimer; it is not known whether this trimer is composed of one or more than one alpha chain isomer. A number of alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but the full length nature of some of them has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PILRA Gene

paired immunoglobin-like type 2 receptor alpha

Cell signaling pathways rely on a dynamic interaction between activating and inhibiting processes. SHP-1-mediated dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues is central to the regulation of several cell signaling pathways. Two types of inhibitory receptor superfamily members are immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-bearing receptors and their non-ITIM-bearing, activating counterparts. Control of cell signaling via SHP-1 is thought to occur through a balance between PILRalpha-mediated inhibition and PILRbeta-mediated activation. These paired immunoglobulin-like receptor genes are located in a tandem head-to-tail orientation on chromosome 7. This particular gene encodes the ITIM-bearing member of the receptor pair, which functions in the inhibitory role. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and three variants, each encoding a distinct isoform, are described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMA6P4 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 6 pseudogene 4

PSMA6P2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 6 pseudogene 2

PSMA6P1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 6 pseudogene 1

COL3A1 Gene

collagen, type III, alpha 1

This gene encodes the pro-alpha1 chains of type III collagen, a fibrillar collagen that is found in extensible connective tissues such as skin, lung, uterus, intestine and the vascular system, frequently in association with type I collagen. Mutations in this gene are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome types IV, and with aortic and arterial aneurysms. Two transcripts, resulting from the use of alternate polyadenylation signals, have been identified for this gene. [provided by R. Dalgleish, Feb 2008]

PIP5K1A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, alpha

COL24A1 Gene

collagen, type XXIV, alpha 1

PSMA7P Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 7 pseudogene

ITGA2 Gene

integrin, alpha 2 (CD49B, alpha 2 subunit of VLA-2 receptor)

This gene encodes the alpha subunit of a transmembrane receptor for collagens and related proteins. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a beta subunit and mediates the adhesion of platelets and other cell types to the extracellular matrix. Loss of the encoded protein is associated with bleeding disorder platelet-type 9. Antibodies against this protein are found in several immune disorders, including neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. This gene is located adjacent to a related alpha subunit gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

ITGA3 Gene

integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of integrins. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain, and function as cell surface adhesion molecules. This gene encodes alpha 3 subunit, which undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 1 subunit to form an integrin that interacts with many extracellular-matrix proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

ITGA4 Gene

integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)

The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family of proteins. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes an alpha 4 chain. Unlike other integrin alpha chains, alpha 4 neither contains an I-domain, nor undergoes disulfide-linked cleavage. Alpha 4 chain associates with either beta 1 chain or beta 7 chain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGA5 Gene

integrin, alpha 5 (fibronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide)

The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes the integrin alpha 5 chain. Alpha chain 5 undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 1 to form a fibronectin receptor. In addition to adhesion, integrins are known to participate in cell-surface mediated signalling. Integrin alpha 5 and integrin alpha V chains are produced by distinct genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

ITGAL Gene

integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)

ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGAE Gene

integrin, alpha E (antigen CD103, human mucosal lymphocyte antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)

Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes an I-domain-containing alpha integrin that undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain, yielding disulfide-linked heavy and light chains. In combination with the beta 7 integrin, this protein forms the E-cadherin binding integrin known as the human mucosal lymphocyte-1 antigen. This protein is preferentially expressed in human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), and in addition to a role in adhesion, it may serve as an accessory molecule for IEL activation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421093 Gene

karyopherin alpha 3 (importin alpha 4) pseudogene

ST6GALNAC4P1 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 4 pseudogene 1

LOC401913 Gene

ABO blood group (transferase A, alpha 1-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; transferase B, alpha 1-3-galactosyltransferase) pseudogene

LOC100422717 Gene

pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (TCF1) 2 pseudogene

TFAP2A Gene

transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that binds the consensus sequence 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3'. The encoded protein functions as either a homodimer or as a heterodimer with similar family members. This protein activates the transcription of some genes while inhibiting the transcription of others. Defects in this gene are a cause of branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS). Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

KPNA7 Gene

karyopherin alpha 7 (importin alpha 8)

KPNA6 Gene

karyopherin alpha 6 (importin alpha 7)

Nucleocytoplasmic transport, a signal- and energy-dependent process, takes place through nuclear pore complexes embedded in the nuclear envelope. The import of proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) requires the NLS import receptor, a heterodimer of importin alpha and beta subunits also known as karyopherins. Importin alpha binds the NLS-containing cargo in the cytoplasm and importin beta docks the complex at the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex. In the presence of nucleoside triphosphates and the small GTP binding protein Ran, the complex moves into the nuclear pore complex and the importin subunits dissociate. Importin alpha enters the nucleoplasm with its passenger protein and importin beta remains at the pore. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the importin alpha family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KPNA5 Gene

karyopherin alpha 5 (importin alpha 6)

The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC) which consists of 60-100 proteins and is probably 120 million daltons in molecular size. Small molecules (up to 70 kD) can pass through the nuclear pore by nonselective diffusion; larger molecules are transported by an active process. Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA5 protein belongs to the importin alpha protein family and is thought to be involved in NLS-dependent protein import into the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KPNA4 Gene

karyopherin alpha 4 (importin alpha 3)

The nuclear import of karyophilic proteins is directed by short amino acid sequences termed nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Karyopherins, or importins, are cytoplasmic proteins that recognize NLSs and dock NLS-containing proteins to the nuclear pore complex. The protein encoded by this gene shares the sequence similarity with Xenopus importin-alpha and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srp1. This protein is found to interact with the NLSs of DNA helicase Q1 and SV40 T antigen. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KPNA3 Gene

karyopherin alpha 3 (importin alpha 4)

The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which consists of 60-100 proteins. Small molecules (up to 70 kD) can pass through the nuclear pore by nonselective diffusion while larger molecules are transported by an active process. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the importin alpha family, and is involved in nuclear protein import. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

KPNA2 Gene

karyopherin alpha 2 (RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1)

The import of proteins into the nucleus is a process that involves at least 2 steps. The first is an energy-independent docking of the protein to the nuclear envelope and the second is an energy-dependent translocation through the nuclear pore complex. Imported proteins require a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) which generally consists of a short region of basic amino acids or 2 such regions spaced about 10 amino acids apart. Proteins involved in the first step of nuclear import have been identified in different systems. These include the Xenopus protein importin and its yeast homolog, SRP1 (a suppressor of certain temperature-sensitive mutations of RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which bind to the NLS. KPNA2 protein interacts with the NLSs of DNA helicase Q1 and SV40 T antigen and may be involved in the nuclear transport of proteins. KPNA2 also may play a role in V(D)J recombination [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KPNA1 Gene

karyopherin alpha 1 (importin alpha 5)

The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which consists of 60-100 proteins. Small molecules (up to 70 kD) can pass through the nuclear pore by nonselective diffusion while larger molecules are transported by an active process. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the importin alpha family, and is involved in nuclear protein import. This protein interacts with the recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1) protein and is a putative substrate of the RAG1 ubiquitin ligase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

LOC100533843 Gene

karyopherin alpha 2 (RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1) pseudogene

LOC402715 Gene

karyopherin alpha 2 (RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1) pseudogene

PCBD2 Gene

pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (TCF1) 2

ST8SIA6 Gene

ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 6

Sialic acid is a key determinate of oligosaccharide structures involved in cell-cell communication, cell-substrate interaction, adhesion, and protein targeting. ST8SIA6 belongs to a family of sialyltransferases (EC 2.4.99.8) that synthesize sialylglycoconjugates (Takashima et al., 2002 [PubMed 11980897]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ST8SIA5 Gene

ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that may be present in the Golgi apparatus. The encoded protein, which is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29, may be involved in the synthesis of gangliosides GD1c, GT1a, GQ1b, and GT3 from GD1a, GT1b, GM1b, and GD3, respectively. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST8SIA4 Gene

ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 4

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the polycondensation of alpha-2,8-linked sialic acid required for the synthesis of polysialic acid, a modulator of the adhesive properties of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1). The encoded protein, which is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29, is a type II membrane protein that may be present in the Golgi apparatus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST8SIA2 Gene

ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that is thought to catalyze the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to N-linked oligosaccharides and glycoproteins. The encoded protein may be found in the Golgi apparatus and may be involved in the production of polysialic acid, a modulator of the adhesive properties of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1). This protein is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST8SIA1 Gene

ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 1

Gangliosides are membrane-bound glycosphingolipids containing sialic acid. Ganglioside GD3 is known to be important for cell adhesion and growth of cultured malignant cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to GM3 to produce gangliosides GD3 and GT3. The encoded protein may be found in the Golgi apparatus and is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

ST6GALNAC2P1 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 2 pseudogene 1

LOC643513 Gene

karyopherin alpha 2 (RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1) pseudogene

LOC391798 Gene

karyopherin alpha 7 (importin alpha 8) pseudogene

PCBD1 Gene

pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha

This gene encodes a member of the pterin-4-alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. The encoded protein functions as both a dehydratase involved in tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis, and as a cofactor for HNF1A-dependent transcription. A deficiency of this enzyme leads to hyperphenylalaninemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

DEFA1A3 Gene

defensin, alpha 1 and alpha 3, variable copy number locus

ST8SIA3 Gene

ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 3

ST8SIA3 belongs to a family of sialyltransferases that form sialyl-alpha-2,8-sialyl-R linkages at the nonreducing termini of glycoconjugates (Lee et al., 1998 [PubMed 9826427]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

AGL Gene

amylo-alpha-1, 6-glucosidase, 4-alpha-glucanotransferase

This gene encodes the glycogen debrancher enzyme which is involved in glycogen degradation. This enzyme has two independent catalytic activities which occur at different sites on the protein: a 4-alpha-glucotransferase activity and a amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity. Mutations in this gene are associated with glycogen storage disease although a wide range of enzymatic and clinical variability occurs which may be due to tissue-specific alternative splicing. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421109 Gene

karyopherin alpha 4 (importin alpha 3) pseudogene

ABO Gene

ABO blood group (transferase A, alpha 1-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; transferase B, alpha 1-3-galactosyltransferase)

This gene encodes proteins related to the first discovered blood group system, ABO. Which allele is present in an individual determines the blood group. The 'O' blood group is caused by a deletion of guanine-258 near the N-terminus of the protein which results in a frameshift and translation of an almost entirely different protein. Individuals with the A, B, and AB alleles express glycosyltransferase activities that convert the H antigen into the A or B antigen. Other minor alleles have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST6GALNAC6 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 6

ST6GALNAC6 belongs to a family of sialyltransferases that modify proteins and ceramides on the cell surface to alter cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix interactions (Tsuchida et al., 2003 [PubMed 12668675]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ST6GALNAC5 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 5

ST6GALNAC5 belongs to a family of sialyltransferases that modify proteins and ceramides on the cell surface to alter cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix interactions (Tsuchida et al., 2003 [PubMed 12668675]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ST6GALNAC4 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to galactose-containing substrates. The encoded protein prefers glycoproteins rather than glycolipids as substrates and shows restricted substrate specificity, utilizing only the trisaccharide sequence Neu5Ac-alpha-2,3-Gal-beta-1,3-GalNAc. In addition, it is involved in the synthesis of ganglioside GD1A from GM1B. The encoded protein is normally found in the Golgi apparatus but can be proteolytically processed to a soluble form. This protein is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST6GALNAC3 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 3

ST6GALNAC3 belongs to a family of sialyltransferases that transfer sialic acids from CMP-sialic acid to terminal positions of carbohydrate groups in glycoproteins and glycolipids (Lee et al., 1999 [PubMed 10207017]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ST6GALNAC2 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 2

ST6GALNAC2 belongs to a family of sialyltransferases that add sialic acids to the nonreducing ends of glycoconjugates. At the cell surface, these modifications have roles in cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, bacterial adhesion, and protein targeting (Samyn-Petit et al., 2000 [PubMed 10742600]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ST6GALNAC1 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1

Glycosylation of proteins affects cell-cell interaction, interactions with the matrix, and the functions of intracellular molecules. ST6GALNAC1 transfers a sialic acid, N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), in an alpha-2,6 linkage to O-linked GalNAc residues. The cancer-associated sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen is formed by ST6GALNAC1-catalyzed sialylation of GalNAc residues on mucins (Ikehara et al., 1999 [PubMed 10536037]; Sewell et al., 2006 [PubMed 16319059]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CADPS2 Gene

Ca++-dependent secretion activator 2

This gene encodes a member of the calcium-dependent activator of secretion (CAPS) protein family, which are calcium binding proteins that regulate the exocytosis of synaptic and dense-core vesicles in neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Mutations in this gene may contribute to autism susceptibility. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

ADPGK Gene

ADP-dependent glucokinase

ADPGK (EC 2.7.1.147) catalyzes the ADP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate and may play a role in glycolysis, possibly during ischemic conditions (Ronimus and Morgan, 2004 [PubMed 14975750]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LRIF1 Gene

ligand dependent nuclear receptor interacting factor 1

NUCKS1 Gene

nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1

This gene encodes a nuclear protein that is highly conserved in vertebrates. The conserved regions of the protein contain several consensus phosphorylation sites for casein kinase II and cyclin-dependent kinases, two putative nuclear localization signals, and a basic DNA-binding domain. It is phosphorylated in vivo by Cdk1 during mitosis of the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

SMARCE1P5 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 5

CDK2AP1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) -associated protein which is thought to negatively regulate CDK2 activity by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting CDK2 for proteolysis. This protein was found to also interact with DNA polymerase alpha/primase and mediate the phosphorylation of the large p180 subunit, which suggests a regulatory role in DNA replication during the S-phase of the cell cycle. This protein also forms a core subunit of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation (NURD) complex that epigenetically regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation. This gene thus plays a role in both cell-cycle and epigenetic regulation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CDK2AP2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 1. Pseudogenes associated with this gene are located on chromosomes 7 and 9. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

SMARCC2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and contains a predicted leucine zipper motif typical of many transcription factors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCC1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and contains a predicted leucine zipper motif typical of many transcription factors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PDPK2P Gene

3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 2, pseudogene

LOC101929421 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 pseudogene

LOC101929483 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 pseudogene

CDK7PS Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 7 pseudogene

LOC101060637 Gene

nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1-like

NFATC1 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1

The product of this gene is a component of the nuclear factor of activated T cells DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and an inducible nuclear component. Proteins belonging to this family of transcription factors play a central role in inducible gene transcription during immune response. The product of this gene is an inducible nuclear component. It functions as a major molecular target for the immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin A. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. Different isoforms of this protein may regulate inducible expression of different cytokine genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

NFATC2 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2

This gene is a member of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family. The product of this gene is a DNA-binding protein with a REL-homology region (RHR) and an NFAT-homology region (NHR). This protein is present in the cytosol and only translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, where it becomes a member of the nuclear factors of activated T cells transcription complex. This complex plays a central role in inducing gene transcription during the immune response. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

NFATC4 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 4

This gene encodes a member of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) protein family. The encoded protein is part of a DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor stimulation and an inducible nuclear component. NFAT proteins are activated by the calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin. The encoded protein plays a role in the inducible expression of cytokine genes in T cells, especially in the induction of interleukin-2 and interleukin-4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

CDK20 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 20

The protein encoded by this gene contains a kinase domain most closely related to the cyclin-dependent protein kinases. The encoded kinase may activate cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and is involved in cell growth. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

PKIG Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor gamma

This gene encodes a member of the protein kinase inhibitor family. Studies of a similar protein in mice suggest that this protein acts as a potent competitive cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, and is a predominant form of inhibitor in various tissues. The encoded protein may be involved in osteogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PKIB Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor beta

This gene encodes a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor family. The encoded protein may play a role in the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway by interacting with the catalytic subunit of PKA, and overexpression of this gene may play a role in prostate cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

HCFC1R1 Gene

host cell factor C1 regulator 1 (XPO1 dependent)

FOXRED2 Gene

FAD-dependent oxidoreductase domain containing 2

FOXRED1 Gene

FAD-dependent oxidoreductase domain containing 1

This gene encodes a protein that contains a FAD-dependent oxidoreductase domain. The encoded protein is localized to the mitochondria and may function as a chaperone protein required for the function of mitochondrial complex I. Mutations in this gene are associated with mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

SFR1 Gene

SWI5-dependent recombination repair 1

CDKN3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the dual specificity protein phosphatase family. It was identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate CDK2 kinase, thus prevent the activation of CDK2 kinase. This gene was reported to be deleted, mutated, or overexpressed in several kinds of cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

LOC100130466 Gene

nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1-like

LOC400026 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene

MTHFD2P6 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 6

CDK11A Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 11A

This gene encodes a member of the p34Cdc2 protein kinase family. p34Cdc2 kinase family members are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. This gene is in close proximity to CDC2L1, a nearly identical gene in the same chromosomal region. The gene loci including this gene, CDC2L1, as well as metalloprotease MMP21/22, consist of two identical, tandemly linked genomic regions, which are thought to be a part of the larger region that has been duplicated. This gene and CDC2L1 were shown to be deleted or altered frequently in neuroblastoma with amplified MYCN genes. The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. Many transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene, but the full-length nature of only two have been determined so far. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK11B Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 11B

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. Members of this kinase family are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. Due to a segmental duplication, this gene shares very high sequence identity with a neighboring gene. These two genes are frequently deleted or altered in neuroblastoma. The protein kinase encoded by this gene can be cleaved by caspases and may play a role in cell apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

MTHFD2P1 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 1

MTHFD2P7 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 7

MTHFD2P5 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 5

MTHFD2P4 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 4

PDXDC1 Gene

pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain containing 1

CDK2AP2P1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene 1

CDK2AP2P3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene 3

PRKRAP1 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene 1

MTHFD2 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase

This gene encodes a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial bifunctional enzyme with methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase activities. The enzyme functions as a homodimer and is unique in its absolute requirement for magnesium and inorganic phosphate. Formation of the enzyme-magnesium complex allows binding of NAD. Alternative splicing results in two different transcripts, one protein-coding and the other not protein-coding. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

DQX1 Gene

DEAQ box RNA-dependent ATPase 1

RNLS Gene

renalase, FAD-dependent amine oxidase

Renalase is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent amine oxidase that is secreted into the blood from the kidney (Xu et al., 2005 [PubMed 15841207]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

NIDDM4 Gene

Diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent

PREX2 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 2

PREX1 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the RHO family of small GTP-binding proteins (RACs). It has been shown to bind to and activate RAC1 by exchanging bound GDP for free GTP. The encoded protein, which is found mainly in the cytoplasm, is activated by phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate and the beta-gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC13A2 Gene

solute carrier family 13 (sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter), member 2

SLC13A3 Gene

solute carrier family 13 (sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter), member 3

Mammalian sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporters transport succinate and other Krebs cycle intermediates. They fall into 2 categories based on their substrate affinity: low affinity and high affinity. Both the low- and high-affinity transporters play an important role in the handling of citrate by the kidneys. The protein encoded by this gene represents the high-affinity form. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, although the full-length nature of some of them have not been characterized yet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC13A5 Gene

solute carrier family 13 (sodium-dependent citrate transporter), member 5

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the solute carrier family 13 group of proteins. This family member is a sodium-dependent citrate cotransporter that may regulate metabolic processes. Mutations in this gene cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 25. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

ADNP Gene

activity-dependent neuroprotector homeobox

Vasoactive intestinal peptide is a neuroprotective factor that has a stimulatory effect on the growth of some tumor cells and an inhibitory effect on others. This gene encodes a protein that is upregulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide and may be involved in its stimulatory effect on certain tumor cells. The encoded protein contains one homeobox and nine zinc finger domains, suggesting that it functions as a transcription factor. This gene is also upregulated in normal proliferative tissues. Finally, the encoded protein may increase the viability of certain cell types through modulation of p53 activity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKACG Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes the gamma form of its catalytic subunit. The gene is intronless and is thought to be a retrotransposon derived from the gene for the alpha form of the PKA catalytic subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKACB Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein is a catalytic subunit of cAMP (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, which mediates signalling though cAMP. cAMP signaling is important to a number of processes, including cell proliferaton and differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

LOC100418693 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene

LOC100418694 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene

LOC101154643 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene

ME2P1 Gene

malic enzyme 2, NAD(+)-dependent, mitochondrial pseudogene 1

GLYCAM1 Gene

glycosylation dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 (pseudogene)

PRKRIR Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor)

NFATC2IP Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2 interacting protein

ME3 Gene

malic enzyme 3, NADP(+)-dependent, mitochondrial

Malic enzyme catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate using either NAD+ or NADP+ as a cofactor. Mammalian tissues contain 3 distinct isoforms of malic enzyme: a cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isoform, a mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isoform, and a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent isoform. This gene encodes a mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isoform. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ME2 Gene

malic enzyme 2, NAD(+)-dependent, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial NAD-dependent malic enzyme, a homotetrameric protein, that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate. It had previously been weakly linked to a syndrome known as Friedreich ataxia that has since been shown to be the result of mutation in a completely different gene. Certain single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes of this gene have been shown to increase the risk for idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

SMARCE1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. The encoded protein, either alone or when in the SWI/SNF complex, can bind to 4-way junction DNA, which is thought to mimic the topology of DNA as it enters or exits the nucleosome. The protein contains a DNA-binding HMG domain, but disruption of this domain does not abolish the DNA-binding or nucleosome-displacement activities of the SWI/SNF complex. Unlike most of the SWI/SNF complex proteins, this protein has no yeast counterpart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LIG4 Gene

ligase IV, DNA, ATP-dependent

The protein encoded by this gene is a DNA ligase that joins single-strand breaks in a double-stranded polydeoxynucleotide in an ATP-dependent reaction. This protein is essential for V(D)J recombination and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). This protein forms a complex with the X-ray repair cross complementing protein 4 (XRCC4), and further interacts with the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Both XRCC4 and DNA-PK are known to be required for NHEJ. The crystal structure of the complex formed by this protein and XRCC4 has been resolved. Defects in this gene are the cause of LIG4 syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LIG1 Gene

ligase I, DNA, ATP-dependent

This gene encodes a member of the ATP-dependent DNA ligase protein family. The encoded protein functions in DNA replication, recombination, and the base excision repair process. Mutations in this gene that lead to DNA ligase I deficiency result in immunodeficiency and increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Disruption of this gene may also be associated with a variety of cancers. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

LIG3 Gene

ligase III, DNA, ATP-dependent

This gene is a member of the DNA ligase family. Each member of this family encodes a protein that catalyzes the joining of DNA ends but they each have a distinct role in DNA metabolism. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in excision repair and is located in both the mitochondria and nucleus, with translation initiation from the upstream start codon allowing for transport to the mitochondria and translation initiation from a downstream start codon allowing for transport to the nucleus. Additionally, alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RPRM Gene

reprimo, TP53 dependent G2 arrest mediator candidate

NDOR1 Gene

NADPH dependent diflavin oxidoreductase 1

This gene encodes an NADPH-dependent diflavin reductase that contains both flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding domains. The encoded protein catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADPH through FAD and FMN cofactors to potential redox partners. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

LOC100419916 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 8 pseudogene

PRKRA Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator

This gene encodes a protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA which mediates the effects of interferon in response to viral infection. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

NIDDM3 Gene

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 3

M6PR Gene

mannose-6-phosphate receptor (cation dependent)

This gene encodes a member of the P-type lectin family. P-type lectins play a critical role in lysosome function through the specific transport of mannose-6-phosphate-containing acid hydrolases from the Golgi complex to lysosomes. The encoded protein functions as a homodimer and requires divalent cations for ligand binding. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

CLNK Gene

cytokine-dependent hematopoietic cell linker

MIST is a member of the SLP76 family of adaptors (see LCP2, MIM 601603; BLNK, MIM 604515). MIST plays a role in the regulation of immunoreceptor signaling, including PLC-gamma (PLCG1; MIM 172420)-mediated B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling and FC-epsilon R1 (see FCER1A, MIM 147140)-mediated mast cell degranulation (Cao et al., 1999 [PubMed 10562326]; Goitsuka et al., 2000, 2001 [PubMed 10744659] [PubMed 11463797]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RNU4ATAC Gene

RNA, U4atac small nuclear (U12-dependent splicing)

The small nuclear RNA (snRNA) encoded by this gene is part of the U12-dependent minor spliceosome complex. In addition to the encoded RNA, this ribonucleoprotein complex consists of U11, U12, U5, and U6atac snRNAs. The U12-dependent spliceosome acts on approximately 700 specific introns in the human genome. Defects in this gene are a cause of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

IDDM18 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 18

IDDM15 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 15

IDDM13 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 13

IDDM11 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 11

LOC102725121 Gene

putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX12

SMARCB1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily b, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex that relieves repressive chromatin structures, allowing the transcriptional machinery to access its targets more effectively. The encoded nuclear protein may also bind to and enhance the DNA joining activity of HIV-1 integrase. This gene has been found to be a tumor suppressor, and mutations in it have been associated with malignant rhabdoid tumors. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CTIF Gene

CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation factor

CTIF is a component of the CBP80 (NCBP1; MIM 600469)/CBP20 (NCBP2; MIM 605133) translation initiation complex that binds cotranscriptionally to the cap end of nascent mRNA. The CBP80/CBP20 complex is involved in a simultaneous editing and translation step that recognizes premature termination codons (PTCs) in mRNAs and directs PTC-containing mRNAs toward nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). On mRNAs without PTCs, the CBP80/CBP20 complex is replaced with cytoplasmic mRNA cap-binding proteins, including EIF4G (MIM 600495), and steady-state translation of the mRNAs resumes in the cytoplasm (Kim et al., 2009 [PubMed 19648179]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2009]

PPM1AP1 Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1A, pseudogene 1

OGFOD1 Gene

2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain containing 1

OGFOD3 Gene

2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain containing 3

OGFOD2 Gene

2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain containing 2

NOXRED1 Gene

NADP-dependent oxidoreductase domain containing 1

RNASEL Gene

ribonuclease L (2',5'-oligoisoadenylate synthetase-dependent)

This gene encodes a component of the interferon-regulated 2-5A system that functions in the antiviral and antiproliferative roles of interferons. Mutations in this gene have been associated with predisposition to prostate cancer and this gene is a candidate for the hereditary prostate cancer 1 (HPC1) allele. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK5R1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 5, regulatory subunit 1 (p35)

The protein encoded by this gene (p35) is a neuron-specific activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5); the activation of CDK5 is required for proper development of the central nervous system. The p35 form of this protein is proteolytically cleaved by calpain, generating a p25 form. The cleavage of p35 into p25 results in relocalization of the protein from the cell periphery to nuclear and perinuclear regions. P25 deregulates CDK5 activity by prolonging its activation and changing its cellular location. The p25 form accumulates in the brain neurons of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This accumulation correlates with an increase in CDK5 kinase activity, and may lead to aberrantly phosphorylated forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which contributes to Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RNU6ATAC Gene

RNA, U6atac small nuclear (U12-dependent splicing)

PDXDC2P Gene

pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain containing 2, pseudogene

MTHFD2L Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2-like

LOC100131200 Gene

mannose-6-phosphate receptor (cation dependent) pseudogene

HFM1 Gene

HFM1, ATP-dependent DNA helicase homolog (S. cerevisiae)

The protein encoded by this gene is thought to be an ATP-dependent DNA helicase and is expressed mainly in germ-line cells. Defects in this gene are a cause of premature ovarian failure 9 (POF9). [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

PRKRIRP8 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 8

PRKRIRP9 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 9

PRKRIRP1 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 1

PRKRIRP2 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 2

PRKRIRP3 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 3

PRKRIRP4 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 4

PRKRIRP5 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 5

PRKRIRP6 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 6

PRKRIRP7 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 7

LOC102724223 Gene

sodium- and chloride-dependent creatine transporter 1-like

SMARCE1P3 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 3

SMARCE1P2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 2

CDK18 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 18

CDK19 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 19

This gene encodes a protein that is one of the components of the Mediator co-activator complex. The Mediator complex is a multi-protein complex required for transcriptional activation by DNA binding transcription factors of genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. The protein encoded by this gene is similar to cyclin-dependent kinase 8 which can also be a component of the Mediator complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

CDK12 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 12

CDK13 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 13

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase family. Members of this family are well known for their essential roles as master switches in cell cycle control. The exact function of this protein has not yet been determined, but it may play a role in mRNA processing and may be involved in regulation of hematopoiesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

CDK10 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 10

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CDK subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The CDK subfamily members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and are known to be essential for cell cycle progression. This kinase has been shown to play a role in cellular proliferation and its function is limited to cell cycle G2-M phase. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

CDK16 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 16

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It may play a role in signal transduction cascades in terminally differentiated cells; in exocytosis; and in transport of secretory cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum. This gene is thought to escape X inactivation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

CDK17 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 17

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It has similarity to a rat protein that is thought to play a role in terminally differentiated neurons. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

CDK14 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 14

PFTK1 is a member of the CDC2 (MIM 116940)-related protein kinase family (Yang and Chen, 2001 [PubMed 11313143]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CDK15 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 15

SMARCE1P6 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 6

SMARCE1P4 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 4

CDKN1C Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (p57, Kip2)

This gene is imprinted, with preferential expression of the maternal allele. The encoded protein is a tight-binding, strong inhibitor of several G1 cyclin/Cdk complexes and a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are implicated in sporadic cancers and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndorome, suggesting that this gene is a tumor suppressor candidate. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

CDKN1B Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1)

This gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which shares a limited similarity with CDK inhibitor CDKN1A/p21. The encoded protein binds to and prevents the activation of cyclin E-CDK2 or cyclin D-CDK4 complexes, and thus controls the cell cycle progression at G1. The degradation of this protein, which is triggered by its CDK dependent phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination by SCF complexes, is required for the cellular transition from quiescence to the proliferative state. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type IV (MEN4). [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

CDKN1A Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)

This gene encodes a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. The encoded protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin-CDK2 or -CDK4 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1. The expression of this gene is tightly controlled by the tumor suppressor protein p53, through which this protein mediates the p53-dependent cell cycle G1 phase arrest in response to a variety of stress stimuli. This protein can interact with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3-like caspases, which thus leads to a dramatic activation of CDK2, and may be instrumental in the execution of apoptosis following caspase activation. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

IDDM24 Gene

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 24

IDDM23 Gene

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 23

LOC105379282 Gene

glucose-dependent insulinotropic receptor-like

CDK8PS Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 8 pseudogene

OGFOD1P1 Gene

2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain containing 1 pseudogene 1

LOC645397 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1-like pseudogene

IDDM17 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 17

IDDM16 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 16

IDDM14 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 14

LCOR Gene

ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor

LCOR is a transcriptional corepressor widely expressed in fetal and adult tissues that is recruited to agonist-bound nuclear receptors through a single LxxLL motif, also referred to as a nuclear receptor (NR) box (Fernandes et al., 2003 [PubMed 12535528]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MTHFD1L Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1-like

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate (THF) in the mitochondrion. THF is important in the de novo synthesis of purines and thymidylate and in the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

LOC100287419 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 8 pseudogene

LCORL Gene

ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like

This gene encodes a transcription factor that appears to function in spermatogenesis. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with measures of skeletal frame size and adult height. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

CDKN2B Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (p15, inhibits CDK4)

This gene lies adjacent to the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A in a region that is frequently mutated and deleted in a wide variety of tumors. This gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which forms a complex with CDK4 or CDK6, and prevents the activation of the CDK kinases, thus the encoded protein functions as a cell growth regulator that controls cell cycle G1 progression. The expression of this gene was found to be dramatically induced by TGF beta, which suggested its role in the TGF beta induced growth inhibition. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKN2D Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2D (p19, inhibits CDK4)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been shown to form a stable complex with CDK4 or CDK6, and prevent the activation of the CDK kinases, thus function as a cell growth regulator that controls cell cycle G1 progression. The abundance of the transcript of this gene was found to oscillate in a cell-cycle dependent manner with the lowest expression at mid G1 and a maximal expression during S phase. The negative regulation of the cell cycle involved in this protein was shown to participate in repressing neuronal proliferation, as well as spermatogenesis. Two alternatively spliced variants of this gene, which encode an identical protein, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADTRP Gene

androgen-dependent TFPI-regulating protein

SMARCD3 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCD2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCD1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCAL1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein shows sequence similarity to the E. coli RNA polymerase-binding protein HepA. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD), an autosomal recessive disorder with the diagnostic features of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, renal dysfunction, and T-cell immunodeficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK5PS Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 5 pseudogene

SMARCAD1 Gene

SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, containing DEAD/H box 1

This gene encodes a member of the SNF subfamily of helicase proteins. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the restoration of heterochromatin organization and propagation of epigenetic patterns following DNA replication by mediating histone H3/H4 deacetylation. Mutations in this gene are associated with adermatoglyphia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

CADPS Gene

Ca++-dependent secretion activator

This gene encodes a novel neural/endocrine-specific cytosolic and peripheral membrane protein required for the Ca2+-regulated exocytosis of secretory vesicles. The protein acts at a stage in exocytosis that follows ATP-dependent priming, which involves the essential synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and three variants, encoding distinct isoforms, are described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

ME1 Gene

malic enzyme 1, NADP(+)-dependent, cytosolic

This gene encodes a cytosolic, NADP-dependent enzyme that generates NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis. The activity of this enzyme, the reversible oxidative decarboxylation of malate, links the glycolytic and citric acid cycles. The regulation of expression for this gene is complex. Increased expression can result from elevated levels of thyroid hormones or by higher proportions of carbohydrates in the diet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MDP1 Gene

magnesium-dependent phosphatase 1

MTHFD1 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase, formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase

This gene encodes a protein that possesses three distinct enzymatic activities, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase. Each of these activities catalyzes one of three sequential reactions in the interconversion of 1-carbon derivatives of tetrahydrofolate, which are substrates for methionine, thymidylate, and de novo purine syntheses. The trifunctional enzymatic activities are conferred by two major domains, an aminoterminal portion containing the dehydrogenase and cyclohydrolase activities and a larger synthetase domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCE1P1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 1

MEDAG Gene

mesenteric estrogen-dependent adipogenesis

NSDHL Gene

NAD(P) dependent steroid dehydrogenase-like

The protein encoded by this gene is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with CHILD syndrome, which is a X-linked dominant disorder of lipid metabolism with disturbed cholesterol biosynthesis, and typically lethal in males. Alternatively spliced transcript variants with differing 5' UTR have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCA1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 1

This gene encodes a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins. The encoded protein is an ATPase which is expressed in diverse tissues and contributes to the chromatin remodeling complex that is involved in transcription. The protein may also play a role in DNA damage, growth inhibition and apoptosis of cancer cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

SMARCA2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is highly similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, which contains a trinucleotide repeat (CAG) length polymorphism. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

SMARCA4 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. In addition, this protein can bind BRCA1, as well as regulate the expression of the tumorigenic protein CD44. Mutations in this gene cause rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

SMARCA5 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the chromatin remodeling and spacing factor RSF, a facilitator of the transcription of class II genes by RNA polymerase II. The encoded protein is similar in sequence to the Drosophila ISWI chromatin remodeling protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is a catalytic subunit of the highly conserved protein kinase complex known as M-phase promoting factor (MPF), which is essential for G1/S and G2/M phase transitions of eukaryotic cell cycle. Mitotic cyclins stably associate with this protein and function as regulatory subunits. The kinase activity of this protein is controlled by cyclin accumulation and destruction through the cell cycle. The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of this protein also play important regulatory roles in cell cycle control. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

CDK2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that participate in cell cycle regulation. The encoded protein is the catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, which regulates progression through the cell cycle. Activity of this protein is especially critical during the G1 to S phase transition. This protein associates with and regulated by other subunits of the complex including cyclin A or E, CDK inhibitor p21Cip1 (CDKN1A), and p27Kip1 (CDKN1B). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CDK3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase family. The protein promotes entry into S phase, in part by activating members of the E2F family of transcription factors. The protein also associates with cyclin C and phosphorylates the retinoblastoma 1 protein to promote exit from G0. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK4 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. The activity of this kinase is restricted to the G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and CDK inhibitor p16(INK4a). This kinase was shown to be responsible for the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma gene product (Rb). Mutations in this gene as well as in its related proteins including D-type cyclins, p16(INK4a) and Rb were all found to be associated with tumorigenesis of a variety of cancers. Multiple polyadenylation sites of this gene have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK5 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 5

This gene encodes a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase that is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of proteins. Unlike other members of the family, the protein encoded by this gene does not directly control cell cycle regulation. Instead the protein, which is predominantly expressed at high levels in mammalian postmitotic central nervous system neurons, functions in diverse processes such as synaptic plasticity and neuronal migration through phosphorylation of proteins required for cytoskeletal organization, endocytosis and exocytosis, and apoptosis. In humans, an allelic variant of the gene that results in undetectable levels of the protein has been associated with lethal autosomal recessive lissencephaly-7. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2015]

CDK6 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression. This kinase is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression and G1/S transition. The activity of this kinase first appears in mid-G1 phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits including D-type cyclins and members of INK4 family of CDK inhibitors. This kinase, as well as CDK4, has been shown to phosphorylate, and thus regulate the activity of, tumor suppressor protein Rb. Expression of this gene is up-regulated in some types of cancer. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

CDK7 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression. This protein forms a trimeric complex with cyclin H and MAT1, which functions as a Cdk-activating kinase (CAK). It is an essential component of the transcription factor TFIIH, that is involved in transcription initiation and DNA repair. This protein is thought to serve as a direct link between the regulation of transcription and the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK8 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression. This kinase and its regulatory subunit cyclin C are components of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme complex, which phosphorylates the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. This kinase has also been shown to regulate transcription by targeting the CDK7/cyclin H subunits of the general transcription initiation factor IIH (TFIIH), thus providing a link between the 'Mediator-like' protein complexes and the basal transcription machinery. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK9 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and known as important cell cycle regulators. This kinase was found to be a component of the multiprotein complex TAK/P-TEFb, which is an elongation factor for RNA polymerase II-directed transcription and functions by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found to interact with this protein and cyclin T, which suggested a possible involvement of this protein in AIDS. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTHFD1P1 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1 pseudogene 1

PDE1C Gene

phosphodiesterase 1C, calmodulin-dependent 70kDa

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) catalyze hydrolysis of the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP to the corresponding nucleoside 5-prime-monophosphates. Mammalian PDEs have been classified into several families based on their biochemical properties. Members of the PDE1 family, such as PDE1C, are calmodulin (see MIM 114180)-dependent PDEs (CaM-PDEs) that are stimulated by a calcium-calmodulin complex (Repaske et al., 1992 [PubMed 1326532]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

PDE1B Gene

phosphodiesterase 1B, calmodulin-dependent

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family, and PDE1 subfamily. Members of the PDE1 family are calmodulin-dependent PDEs that are stimulated by a calcium-calmodulin complex. This PDE has dual-specificity for the second messengers, cAMP and cGMP, with a preference for cGMP as a substrate. cAMP and cGMP function as key regulators of many important physiological processes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

PDE1A Gene

phosphodiesterase 1A, calmodulin-dependent

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a role in signal transduction by regulating intracellular cyclic nucleotide concentrations through hydrolysis of cAMP and/or cGMP to their respective nucleoside 5-prime monophosphates. Members of the PDE1 family, such as PDE1A, are Ca(2+)/calmodulin (see CALM1; MIM 114180)-dependent PDEs (CaM-PDEs) that are activated by calmodulin in the presence of Ca(2+) (Michibata et al., 2001 [PubMed 11342109]; Fidock et al., 2002 [PubMed 11747989]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

LOC100422696 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5 pseudogene

LOC100422695 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5 pseudogene

LOC100533853 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene

LOC102724985 Gene

pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing protein 1

CDK4PS Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 4 pseudogene

CDK5R2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 5, regulatory subunit 2 (p39)

The protein encoded by this gene is a neuron-specific activator of CDK5 kinase. It associates with CDK5 to form an active kinase. This protein and neuron-specific CDK5 activator CDK5R1/p39NCK5A both share limited similarity to cyclins, and thus may define a distinct family of cyclin-dependent kinase activating proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKN2C Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been shown to interact with CDK4 or CDK6, and prevent the activation of the CDK kinases, thus function as a cell growth regulator that controls cell cycle G1 progression. Ectopic expression of this gene was shown to suppress the growth of human cells in a manner that appears to correlate with the presence of a wild-type RB1 function. Studies in the knockout mice suggested the roles of this gene in regulating spermatogenesis, as well as in suppressing tumorigenesis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode an identical protein, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKN2A Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A

This gene generates several transcript variants which differ in their first exons. At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported, two of which encode structurally related isoforms known to function as inhibitors of CDK4 kinase. The remaining transcript includes an alternate first exon located 20 Kb upstream of the remainder of the gene; this transcript contains an alternate open reading frame (ARF) that specifies a protein which is structurally unrelated to the products of the other variants. This ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53 as it can interact with, and sequester, the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. In spite of the structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in cell cycle G1 control. This gene is frequently mutated or deleted in a wide variety of tumors, and is known to be an important tumor suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

NFATC3 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 3

The product of this gene is a member of the nuclear factors of activated T cells DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and an inducible nuclear component. Other members of this family participate to form this complex also. The product of this gene plays a role in the regulation of gene expression in T cells and immature thymocytes. Several transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

PPM1G Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1G

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase is found to be responsible for the dephosphorylation of Pre-mRNA splicing factors, which is important for the formation of functional spliceosome. Studies of a similar gene in mice suggested a role of this phosphatase in regulating cell cycle progression. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PPM1F Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1F

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase can interact with Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (PIX), and thus block the effects of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK), a protein kinase mediating biological effects downstream of Rho GTPases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma (CAMK2G/CAMK-II) is found to be one of the substrates of this phosphatase. The overexpression of this phosphatase or CAMK2G has been shown to mediate caspase-dependent apoptosis. An alternatively spliced transcript variant has been identified, but its full-length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1E Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1E

This gene encodes a member of the PPM family of serine/threonine-protein phosphatases. The encoded protein is localized to the nucleus and dephosphorylates and inactivates multiple substrates including serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

PPM1D Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1D

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. The expression of this gene is induced in a p53-dependent manner in response to various environmental stresses. While being induced by tumor suppressor protein TP53/p53, this phosphatase negatively regulates the activity of p38 MAP kinase, MAPK/p38, through which it reduces the phosphorylation of p53, and in turn suppresses p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis. This phosphatase thus mediates a feedback regulation of p38-p53 signaling that contributes to growth inhibition and the suppression of stress induced apoptosis. This gene is located in a chromosomal region known to be amplified in breast cancer. The amplification of this gene has been detected in both breast cancer cell line and primary breast tumors, which suggests a role of this gene in cancer development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1B Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase has been shown to dephosphorylate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and thus may be involved in cell cycle control. Overexpression of this phosphatase is reported to cause cell-growth arrest or cell death. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additional transcript variants have been described, but currently do not represent full-length sequences. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1A Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1A

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase dephosphorylates, and negatively regulates the activities of, MAP kinases and MAP kinase kinases. It has been shown to inhibit the activation of p38 and JNK kinase cascades induced by environmental stresses. This phosphatase can also dephosphorylate cyclin-dependent kinases, and thus may be involved in cell cycle control. Overexpression of this phosphatase is reported to activate the expression of the tumor suppressor gene TP53/p53, which leads to G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1N Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1N (putative)

PPM1M Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1M

PPM1L Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1L

PPM1L, or PP2CE, belongs to the PP2C group of serine/threonine phosphatases, which are distinguished from other phosphatases by their structure, absolute requirement for Mg(2+) or Mn(2+), and insensitivity to okadaic acid. PP2Cs regulate stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK; see MIM 601158) signaling cascades that respond to extracellular stimuli (Jin et al., 2004 [PubMed 15560375]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2008]

PPM1K Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1K

This gene encodes a member of the PPM family of Mn2+/Mg2+-dependent protein phosphatases. The encoded protein, essential for cell survival and development, is targeted to the mitochondria where it plays a key role in regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

PPM1J Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1J

This gene encodes the serine/threonine protein phosphatase. The mouse homolog of this gene apparently belongs to the protein phosphatase 2C family of genes. The exact function of this gene is not yet known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1H Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1H

ADPRM Gene

ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatase, manganese-dependent

LOC644303 Gene

ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX24-like

PDPK1 Gene

3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1

CDKL5 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5

This gene is a member of Ser/Thr protein kinase family and encodes a phosphorylated protein with protein kinase activity. Mutations in this gene have been associated with X-linked infantile spasm syndrome (ISSX), also known as X-linked West syndrome, and Rett syndrome (RTT). Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKL4 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 4

CDKL1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 1 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

CDKL3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression. This gene was identified as a gene absent in leukemic patients with chromosome 5q deletion. This loss may be an important determinant of dysmyelopoiesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKL2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the cytoplasm, with lower levels in the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CINP Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 interacting protein

The protein encoded by this gene is reported to be a component of the DNA replication complex as well as a genome-maintenance protein. It may interact with proteins important for replication initiation and has been shown to bind chromatin at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and dissociate from chromatin with replication initiation. It may also serve to regulate checkpoint signaling as part of the DNA damage response. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

IDDMX Gene

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, X-linked, susceptibility to

IDDM7 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 7

IDDM6 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 6

IDDM4 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 4

IDDM3 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 3

IDDM9 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 9

IDDM8 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 8

PROZ Gene

protein Z, vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein

This gene encodes a liver vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein that is synthesized in the liver and secreted into the plasma. The encoded protein plays a role in regulating blood coagulation by complexing with protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor to directly inhibit activated factor X at the phospholipid surface. Deficiencies in this protein are associated with an increased risk of ischemic arterial diseases and fetal loss. Mutations in this gene are the cause of protein Z deficiency. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

PRKRIRP10 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 10

LOC101929026 Gene

zinc-activated ligand-gated ion channel-like

CNGB1 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel beta 1

In humans, the rod photoreceptor cGMP-gated cation channel helps regulate ion flow into the rod photoreceptor outer segment in response to light-induced alteration of the levels of intracellular cGMP. This channel consists of two subunits, alpha and beta, with the protein encoded by this gene representing the beta subunit. Defects in this gene are a cause of cause of retinitis pigmentosa type 45. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]

TMC5 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 5

KCTD9P6 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 pseudogene 6

KCTD13 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 13

KCTD12 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 12

KCTD10 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 10

KCTD17 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 17

KCTD16 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 16

KCTD15 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 15

KCTD14 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 14

KCTD19 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 19

KCTD18 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 18

TCAF1P1 Gene

TRPM8 channel-associated factor 1 pseudogene 1

KCNMB3P1 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 3 pseudogene 1

LOC100288724 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6 pseudogene

LOC392232 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 pseudogene

LOC100422478 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 12 pseudogene

TPCN1 Gene

two pore segment channel 1

Voltage-gated Ca(2+) and Na+ channels have 4 homologous domains, each containing 6 transmembrane segments, S1 to S6. TPCN1 is similar to these channels, but it has only 2 domains containing S1 to S6 (Ishibashi et al., 2000 [PubMed 10753632]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100420252 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 6 pseudogene

KCMF1 Gene

potassium channel modulatory factor 1

P2RX1 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the P2X family of G-protein-coupled receptors. These proteins can form homo-and heterotimers and function as ATP-gated ion channels and mediate rapid and selective permeability to cations. This protein is primarily localized to smooth muscle where binds ATP and mediates synaptic transmission between neurons and from neurons to smooth muscle and may being responsible for sympathetic vasoconstriction in small arteries, arterioles and vas deferens. Mouse studies suggest that this receptor is essential for normal male reproductive function. This protein may also be involved in promoting apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

P2RX3 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 3

The product of this gene belongs to the family of purinoceptors for ATP. This receptor functions as a ligand-gated ion channel and may transduce ATP-evoked nociceptor activation. Mouse studies suggest that this receptor is important for peripheral pain responses, and also participates in pathways controlling urinary bladder volume reflexes. It is possible that the development of selective antagonists for this receptor may have a therapeutic potential in pain relief and in the treatment of disorders of urine storage. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

P2RX2 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 2

The product of this gene belongs to the family of purinoceptors for ATP. This receptor functions as a ligand-gated ion channel. Binding to ATP mediates synaptic transmission between neurons and from neurons to smooth muscle. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

P2RX5 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 5

The product of this gene belongs to the family of purinoceptors for ATP. This receptor functions as a ligand-gated ion channel. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the neighboring downstream gene, TAX1BP3 (Tax1 binding protein 3). [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

P2RX4 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 4

The product of this gene belongs to the family of purinoceptors for ATP. This receptor functions as a ligand-gated ion channel with high calcium permeability. The main pharmacological distinction between the members of the purinoceptor family is the relative sensitivity to the antagonists suramin and PPADS. The product of this gene has the lowest sensitivity for these antagonists. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants, some protein-coding and some not protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

P2RX6 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 6

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P2X receptors, which are ATP-gated ion channels and mediate rapid and selective permeability to cations. This gene is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle, and regulated by p53. The encoded protein is associated with VE-cadherin at the adherens junctions of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene, which is also located on chromosome 22, has been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

CNGB3 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel beta 3

This gene encodes the beta subunit of a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. The encoded beta subunit appears to play a role in modulation of channel function in cone photoreceptors. This heterotetrameric channel is necessary for sensory transduction, and mutations in this gene have been associated with achromatopsia 3, progressive cone dystrophy, and juvenile macular degeneration, also known as Stargardt Disease. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

TRPC4AP Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 4 associated protein

KCNT2 Gene

potassium channel, sodium activated subfamily T, member 2

LOC100422094 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 5 pseudogene

KCTD20 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 20

KCTD21 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 21

LOC401864 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 1 pseudogene

LOC100422548 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4 pseudogene

LOC100422549 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4 pseudogene

P2RX6P Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 6 pseudogene

LOC389768 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 1 pseudogene

CLIC6 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 6

This gene encodes a member of the chloride intracellular channel family of proteins. The gene is part of a large triplicated region found on chromosomes 1, 6, and 21. An alternatively spliced transcript variant has been described, but its biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLIC4 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 4

Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. Chloride intracellular channel 4 (CLIC4) protein, encoded by the CLIC4 gene, is a member of the p64 family; the gene is expressed in many tissues and exhibits a intracellular vesicular pattern in Panc-1 cells (pancreatic cancer cells). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLIC5 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 5

This gene encodes a member of the chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) family of chloride ion channels. The encoded protein associates with actin-based cytoskeletal structures and may play a role in multiple processes including hair cell stereocilia formation, myoblast proliferation and glomerular podocyte and endothelial cell maintenance. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

CLIC2 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 2

This gene encodes a chloride intracellular channel protein. Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. This protein may play a role in inhibiting the function of ryanodine receptor 2. A mutation in this gene is the cause of X-linked mental retardation-32. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

CLIC3 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 3

Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. Chloride intracellular channel 3 is a member of the p64 family and is predominantly localized in the nucleus and stimulates chloride ion channel activity. In addition, this protein may participate in cellular growth control, based on its association with ERK7, a member of the MAP kinase family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLIC1 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 1

Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. Chloride intracellular channel 1 is a member of the p64 family; the protein localizes principally to the cell nucleus and exhibits both nuclear and plasma membrane chloride ion channel activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK9 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 9

This gene encodes a protein that contains multiple transmembrane regions and two pore-forming P domains and functions as a pH-dependent potassium channel. Amplification and overexpression of this gene have been observed in several types of human carcinomas. This gene is imprinted in the brain, with preferential expression from the maternal allele. A mutation in this gene was associated with Birk-Barel mental retardation dysmorphism syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

KCNK4 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 4

Potassium channels play a role in many cellular processes including maintenance of the action potential, muscle contraction, hormone secretion, osmotic regulation, and ion flow. This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The encoded protein homodimerizes and functions as an outwardly rectifying channel. It is expressed primarily in neural tissues and is stimulated by membrane stretch and polyunsaturated fatty acids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK5 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 5

This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The message for this gene is mainly expressed in the cortical distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney. The protein is highly sensitive to external pH and this, in combination with its expression pattern, suggests it may play an important role in renal potassium transport. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK6 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 6

This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. This channel protein, considered an open rectifier, is widely expressed. It is stimulated by arachidonic acid, and inhibited by internal acidification and volatile anaesthetics. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK7 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 7

This gene encodes a member of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The product of this gene has not been shown to be a functional channel; however, it may require other non-pore-forming proteins for activity. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK1 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 1

This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The product of this gene has not been shown to be a functional channel, however, it may require other non-pore-forming proteins for activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK2 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 2

This gene encodes one of the members of the two-pore-domain background potassium channel protein family. This type of potassium channel is formed by two homodimers that create a channel that leaks potassium out of the cell to control resting membrane potential. The channel can be opened, however, by certain anesthetics, membrane stretching, intracellular acidosis, and heat. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK3 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 3

This gene encodes a member of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins that contain two pore-forming P domains. The encoded protein is an outwardly rectifying channel that is sensitive to changes in extracellular pH and is inhibited by extracellular acidification. Also referred to as an acid-sensitive potassium channel, it is activated by the anesthetics halothane and isoflurane. Although three transcripts are detected in northern blots, there is currently no sequence available to confirm transcript variants for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

LOC100270670 Gene

chloride channel, nucleotide-sensitive, 1A pseudogene

P2RX7 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 7

The product of this gene belongs to the family of purinoceptors for ATP. This receptor functions as a ligand-gated ion channel and is responsible for ATP-dependent lysis of macrophages through the formation of membrane pores permeable to large molecules. Activation of this nuclear receptor by ATP in the cytoplasm may be a mechanism by which cellular activity can be coupled to changes in gene expression. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been identified, most of which fit nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) criteria. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

CLNS1AP1 Gene

chloride channel, nucleotide-sensitive, 1A pseudogene 1

LOC100533814 Gene

TRPM8 channel-associated factor 2 pseudogene

KCTD11 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 11

KCNJ13 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 13

This gene encodes a member of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel family of proteins. Members of this family form ion channel pores that allow potassium ions to pass into a cell. The encoded protein belongs to a subfamily of low signal channel conductance proteins that have a low dependence on potassium concentration. Mutations in this gene are associated with snowflake vitreoretinal degeneration. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

KCNJ12 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 12

This gene encodes an inwardly rectifying K+ channel which may be blocked by divalent cations. This protein is thought to be one of multiple inwardly rectifying channels which contribute to the cardiac inward rectifier current (IK1). The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ11 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 11

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell, is controlled by G-proteins and is found associated with the sulfonylurea receptor SUR. Mutations in this gene are a cause of familial persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by unregulated insulin secretion. Defects in this gene may also contribute to autosomal dominant non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type II (NIDDM), transient neonatal diabetes mellitus type 3 (TNDM3), and permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM). Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

KCNJ10 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 10

This gene encodes a member of the inward rectifier-type potassium channel family, characterized by having a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into, rather than out of, a cell. The encoded protein may form a heterodimer with another potassium channel protein and may be responsible for the potassium buffering action of glial cells in the brain. Mutations in this gene have been associated with seizure susceptibility of common idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ16 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 16

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which tends to allow potassium to flow into rather than out of a cell, can form heterodimers with two other inward-rectifier type potassium channels. It may function in fluid and pH balance regulation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

KCNJ15 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 15

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell. Eight transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

KCNJ14 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 14

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel, and probably has a role in controlling the excitability of motor neurons. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

KCNJ18 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 18

This gene encodes a member of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel family. Transcription of this locus is regulated by thyroid hormone, and the encoded protein plays a role in resting membrane potential maintenance. Mutations in this locus have been associated with thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

CLCA2 Gene

chloride channel accessory 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the calcium sensitive chloride conductance protein family. To date, all members of this gene family map to the same site on chromosome 1p31-p22 and share high degrees of homology in size, sequence and predicted structure, but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. Since this protein is expressed predominantly in trachea and lung, it is suggested to play a role in the complex pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis. It may also serve as adhesion molecule for lung metastatic cancer cells, mediating vascular arrest and colonization, and furthermore, it has been implicated to act as a tumor suppressor gene for breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLCA1 Gene

chloride channel accessory 1

This gene encodes a member of the calcium sensitive chloride conductance protein family. To date, all members of this gene family map to the same region on chromosome 1p31-p22 and share a high degree of homology in size, sequence, and predicted structure, but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. The encoded protein is expressed as a precursor protein that is processed into two cell-surface-associated subunits, although the site at which the precursor is cleaved has not been precisely determined. The encoded protein may be involved in mediating calcium-activated chloride conductance in the intestine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLCA4 Gene

chloride channel accessory 4

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the calcium sensitive chloride conductance protein family. To date, all members of this gene family map to the same site on chromosome 1p31-p22 and share high degrees of homology in size, sequence and predicted structure, but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, only one of which is thought to be protein coding. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

TRPC6P Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6 pseudogene

TRPM8 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 8

TRPM4 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a calcium-activated nonselective ion channel that mediates transport of monovalent cations across membranes, thereby depolarizing the membrane. The activity of the encoded protein increases with increasing intracellular calcium concentration, but this channel does not transport calcium. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

TRPM5 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 5

This gene encodes a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) protein family, which is a diverse group of proteins with structural features typical of ion channels. This protein plays an important role in taste transduction, and has characteristics of a calcium-activated, non-selective cation channel that carries Na+, K+, and Cs+ ions equally well, but not Ca(2+) ions. It is activated by lower concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+), and inhibited by higher concentrations. It is also a highly temperature-sensitive, heat activated channel showing a steep increase of inward currents at temperatures between 15 and 35 degrees Celsius. This gene is located within the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome critical region-1 on chromosome 11p15.5, and has been shown to be imprinted, with exclusive expression from the paternal allele. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

TRPM6 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 6

This gene is predominantly expressed in the kidney and colon, and encodes a protein containing an ion channel domain and a protein kinase domain. It is crucial for magnesium homeostasis, and plays an essential role in epithelial magnesium transport and in the active magnesium absorption in the gut and kidney. Mutations in this gene are associated with hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

TRPM7 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7

The protein encoded by this gene is both an ion channel and a serine/threonine protein kinase. The kinase activity is essential for the ion channel function, which serves to increase intracellular calcium levels and to help regulate magnesium ion homeostasis. Defects in this gene are a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism/dementia complex of Guam. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

TRPM1 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 1

This gene encodes a member of the transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily of transient receptor potential ion channels. The encoded protein is a calcium permeable cation channel that is expressed in melanocytes and may play a role in melanin synthesis. Specific mutations in this gene are the cause autosomal recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness-1C. The expression of this protein is inversely correlated with melanoma aggressiveness and as such it is used as a prognostic marker for melanoma metastasis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

TRPM2 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a calcium-permeable cation channel that is regulated by free intracellular ADP-ribose. The encoded protein is activated by oxidative stress and confers susceptibility to cell death. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRPM3 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 3

The product of this gene belongs to the family of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. TRP channels are cation-selective channels important for cellular calcium signaling and homeostasis. The protein encoded by this gene mediates calcium entry, and this entry is potentiated by calcium store depletion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCTD3 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 3

KCTD2 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 2

KCTD1 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 1

KCTD7 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 7

This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel tetramerization domain-containing protein family. Family members are identified on a structural basis and contain an amino-terminal domain similar to the T1 domain present in the voltage-gated potassium channel. Mutations in this gene have been associated with progressive myoclonic epilepsy-3. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

KCTD6 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 6

KCTD5 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 5

KCTD4 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 4

KCTD9 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9

KCTD8 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 8

KCNK18 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 18

Potassium channels play a role in many cellular processes including maintenance of the action potential, muscle contraction, hormone secretion, osmotic regulation, and ion flow. This gene encodes a member of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains and the encoded protein functions as an outward rectifying potassium channel. A mutation in this gene has been found to be associated with migraine with aura.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

KCNK16 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 16

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. This channel is an open rectifier which primarily passes outward current under physiological K+ concentrations. This gene is expressed predominantly in the pancreas and is activated at alkaline pH. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

KCNK17 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 17

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. This channel is an open rectifier which primarily passes outward current under physiological K+ concentrations. This gene is activated at alkaline pH. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

KCNK15 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 15

This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The product of this gene has not been shown to be a functional channel, however, it may require other non-pore-forming proteins for activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK12 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 12

This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The product of this gene has not been shown to be a functional channel, however, it may require other non-pore-forming proteins for activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK13 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 13

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a potassium channel containing two pore-forming domains. This protein is an open channel that can be stimulated by arachidonic acid and inhibited by the anesthetic halothane. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KCNK10 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 10

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. This channel is an open rectifier which primarily passes outward current under physiological K+ concentrations, and is stimulated strongly by arachidonic acid and to a lesser degree by membrane stretching, intracellular acidification, and general anaesthetics. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

SCLT1 Gene

sodium channel and clathrin linker 1

This gene encodes an adaptor protein. Studies of a related gene in rat suggest that the encoded protein functions to link clathrin to the sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha protein. The encoded protein has also been identified as a component of distal appendages of centrioles that is necessary for ciliogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

SCNM1 Gene

sodium channel modifier 1

SCNM1 is a zinc finger protein and putative splicing factor. In mice, Scnm1 modifies phenotypic expression of Scn8a (MIM 600702) mutations (Buchner et al., 2003 [PubMed 12920299]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

LOC652276 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 5 pseudogene

KCNU1 Gene

potassium channel, subfamily U, member 1

TMC4 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 4

TMC6 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 6

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is an autosomal recessive dermatosis characterized by abnormal susceptibility to human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and a high rate of progression to squamous cell carcinoma on sun-exposed skin. EV is caused by mutations in either of two adjacent genes located on chromosome 17q25.3. Both of these genes encode integral membrane proteins that localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and are predicted to form transmembrane channels. This gene encodes a transmembrane channel-like protein with 10 transmembrane domains and 2 leucine zipper motifs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMC7 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 7

TMC1 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 1

This gene is considered a member of a gene family predicted to encode transmembrane proteins. The specific function of this gene is unknown; however, it is known to be required for normal function of cochlear hair cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with progressive postlingual hearing loss and profound prelingual deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMC2 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 2

This gene is considered a member of a gene family predicted to encode transmembrane proteins. The specific function of this gene is unknown; however, expression in the inner ear suggests that it may be crucial for normal auditory function. Mutations in this gene may underlie hereditary disorders of balance and hearing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMC3 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 3

TMC8 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 8

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is an autosomal recessive dermatosis characterized by abnormal susceptibility to human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and a high rate of progression to squamous cell carcinoma on sun-exposed skin. EV is caused by mutations in either of two adjacent genes located on chromosome 17q25.3. Both of these genes encode integral membrane proteins that localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and are predicted to form transmembrane channels. This gene encodes a transmembrane channel-like protein with 8 predicted transmembrane domains and 3 leucine zipper motifs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TPCN2 Gene

two pore segment channel 2

This gene encodes a putative cation-selective ion channel with two repeats of a six-transmembrane-domain. The protein localizes to lysosomal membranes and enables nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) -induced calcium ion release from lysosome-related stores. This ubiquitously expressed gene has elevated expression in liver and kidney. Two common nonsynonymous SNPs in this gene strongly associate with blond versus brown hair pigmentation.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

KCNIP4 Gene

Kv channel interacting protein 4

This gene encodes a member of the family of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel-interacting proteins (KCNIPs), which belong to the recoverin branch of the EF-hand superfamily. Members of the KCNIP family are small calcium binding proteins. They all have EF-hand-like domains, and differ from each other in the N-terminus. They are integral subunit components of native Kv4 channel complexes. They may regulate A-type currents, and hence neuronal excitability, in response to changes in intracellular calcium. This protein member also interacts with presenilin. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNIP3 Gene

Kv channel interacting protein 3, calsenilin

This gene encodes a member of the family of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel-interacting proteins, which belong to the recoverin branch of the EF-hand superfamily. Members of this family are small calcium binding proteins containing EF-hand-like domains. They are integral subunit components of native Kv4 channel complexes that may regulate A-type currents, and hence neuronal excitability, in response to changes in intracellular calcium. The encoded protein also functions as a calcium-regulated transcriptional repressor, and interacts with presenilins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNIP2 Gene

Kv channel interacting protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the family of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel-interacting proteins (KCNIPs), which belongs to the recoverin branch of the EF-hand superfamily. Members of the KCNIP family are small calcium binding proteins. They all have EF-hand-like domains, and differ from each other in the N-terminus. They are integral subunit components of native Kv4 channel complexes. They may regulate A-type currents, and hence neuronal excitability, in response to changes in intracellular calcium. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified from this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNIP1 Gene

Kv channel interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the family of cytosolic voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel-interacting proteins (KCNIPs), which belong to the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) family of the calcium binding EF-hand proteins. They associate with Kv4 alpha subunits to form native Kv4 channel complexes. The encoded protein may regulate rapidly inactivating (A-type) currents, and hence neuronal membrane excitability, in response to changes in the concentration of intracellular calcium. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

NALCN Gene

sodium leak channel, non selective

NALCN forms a voltage-independent, nonselective, noninactivating cation channel permeable to Na+, K+, and Ca(2+). It is responsible for the neuronal background sodium leak conductance (Lu et al., 2007 [PubMed 17448995]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TRPV5 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 5

This gene is a member of the transient receptor family and the TrpV subfamily. The calcium-selective channel encoded by this gene has 6 transmembrane-spanning domains, multiple potential phosphorylation sites, an N-linked glycosylation site, and 5 ANK repeats. This protein forms homotetramers or heterotetramers and is activated by a low internal calcium level. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRPV4 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4

This gene encodes a member of the OSM9-like transient receptor potential channel (OTRPC) subfamily in the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of ion channels. The encoded protein is a Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channel that is thought to be involved in the regulation of systemic osmotic pressure. Mutations in this gene are the cause of spondylometaphyseal and metatropic dysplasia and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type IIC. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

TRPV6 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6

This gene encodes a member of a family of multipass membrane proteins that functions as calcium channels. The encoded protein contains N-terminal ankyrin repeats, which are required for channel assembly and regulation. Translation initiation for this protein occurs at a non-AUG start codon that is decoded as methionine. This gene is situated next to a closely related gene for transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 5 (TRPV5). This locus has experienced positive selection in non-African populations, resulting in several non-synonymous codon differences among individuals of different genetic backgrounds. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

TRPV1 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1

Capsaicin, the main pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers, elicits a sensation of burning pain by selectively activating sensory neurons that convey information about noxious stimuli to the central nervous system. The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for capsaicin and is a non-selective cation channel that is structurally related to members of the TRP family of ion channels. This receptor is also activated by increases in temperature in the noxious range, suggesting that it functions as a transducer of painful thermal stimuli in vivo. Four transcript variants encoding the same protein, but with different 5' UTR sequence, have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRPV3 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 3

This gene product belongs to a family of nonselective cation channels that function in a variety of processes, including temperature sensation and vasoregulation. The thermosensitive members of this family are expressed in subsets of sensory neurons that terminate in the skin, and are activated at distinct physiological temperatures. This channel is activated at temperatures between 22 and 40 degrees C. This gene lies in close proximity to another family member gene on chromosome 17, and the two encoded proteins are thought to associate with each other to form heteromeric channels. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

TRPV2 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 2

This gene encodes an ion channel that is activated by high temperatures above 52 degrees Celsius. The protein may be involved in transduction of high-temperature heat responses in sensory ganglia. It is thought that in other tissues the channel may be activated by stimuli other than heat. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCAF2 Gene

TRPM8 channel-associated factor 2

TCAF1 Gene

TRPM8 channel-associated factor 1

KCNRG Gene

potassium channel regulator

This gene encodes a protein which regulates the activity of voltage-gated potassium channels. This gene is on chromosome 13 and overlaps the gene for tripartite motif containing 13 on the same strand. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

KCNMB1 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 1

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit and the product of this gene, the modulatory beta subunit. Intracellular calcium regulates the physical association between the alpha and beta subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNMB3 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 3

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit and the modulatory beta subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is an auxiliary beta subunit which may partially inactivate or slightly decrease the activation time of MaxiK alpha subunit currents. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

KCNMB2 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 2

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit and the modulatory beta subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is an auxiliary beta subunit which decreases the activation time of MaxiK alpha subunit currents. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. Additional variants are discussed in the literature, but their full length nature has not been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KCNMB4 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 4

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit and the modulatory beta subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is an auxiliary beta subunit which slows activation kinetics, leads to steeper calcium sensitivity, and shifts the voltage range of current activation to more negative potentials than does the beta 1 subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLIC4P1 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 4 pseudogene 1

CLIC4P2 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 4 pseudogene 2

CLIC4P3 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 4 pseudogene 3

CLCC1 Gene

chloride channel CLIC-like 1

KCNJ3 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 3

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell, is controlled by G-proteins and plays an important role in regulating heartbeat. It associates with three other G-protein-activated potassium channels to form a heteromultimeric pore-forming complex that also couples to neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and whereby channel activation can inhibit action potential firing by hyperpolarizing the plasma membrane. These multimeric G-protein-gated inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels may play a role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, addiction, Down's syndrome, ataxia, and Parkinson's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct proteins. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

KCNJ2 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 2

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell, probably participates in establishing action potential waveform and excitability of neuronal and muscle tissues. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Andersen syndrome, which is characterized by periodic paralysis, cardiac arrhythmias, and dysmorphic features. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ1 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 1

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. It is activated by internal ATP and probably plays an important role in potassium homeostasis. The encoded protein has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell. Mutations in this gene have been associated with antenatal Bartter syndrome, which is characterized by salt wasting, hypokalemic alkalosis, hypercalciuria, and low blood pressure. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ6 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 6

This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel family of inward rectifier potassium channels. This type of potassium channel allows a greater flow of potassium into the cell than out of it. These proteins modulate many physiological processes, including heart rate in cardiac cells and circuit activity in neuronal cells, through G-protein coupled receptor stimulation. Mutations in this gene are associated with Keppen-Lubinsky Syndrome, a rare condition characterized by severe developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, and intellectual disability. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

KCNJ5 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 5

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell, is controlled by G-proteins. It may associate with two other G-protein-activated potassium channels to form a heteromultimeric pore-forming complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ4 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 4

Several different potassium channels are known to be involved with electrical signaling in the nervous system. One class is activated by depolarization whereas a second class is not. The latter are referred to as inwardly rectifying K+ channels, and they have a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. This asymmetry in potassium ion conductance plays a key role in the excitability of muscle cells and neurons. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and member of the inward rectifier potassium channel family. The encoded protein has a small unitary conductance compared to other members of this protein family. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ9 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 9

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell, is controlled by G-proteins. It associates with another G-protein-activated potassium channel to form a heteromultimeric pore-forming complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ8 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 8

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell, is controlled by G-proteins. Defects in this gene may be a cause of J-wave syndromes and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

LOC100420638 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 1 pseudogene

CLIC1P1 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 1 pseudogene 1

TRPC2 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 2, pseudogene

TRPC3 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane protein that can form a non-selective channel permeable to calcium and other cations. The encoded protein appears to be induced to form channels by a receptor tyrosine kinase-activated phosphatidylinositol second messenger system and also by depletion of intracellular calcium stores. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

TRPC6 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6

The protein encoded by this gene forms a receptor-activated calcium channel in the cell membrane. The channel is activated by diacylglycerol and is thought to be under the control of a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system. Activation of this channel occurs independently of protein kinase C and is not triggered by low levels of intracellular calcium. Defects in this gene are a cause of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 2 (FSGS2). [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

TRPC4 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 4

This gene encodes a member of the canonical subfamily of transient receptor potential cation channels. The encoded protein forms a non-selective calcium-permeable cation channel that is activated by Gq-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinases, and plays a role in multiple processes including endothelial permeability, vasodilation, neurotransmitter release and cell proliferation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with generalized epilepsy with photosensitivity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC440895 Gene

two pore channel 3 pseudogene

KCTD9P1 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 pseudogene 1

KCTD9P2 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 pseudogene 2

KCTD9P3 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 pseudogene 3

KCTD9P4 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 pseudogene 4

KCTD9P5 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 pseudogene 5

LOC100422502 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6 pseudogene

LOC100422500 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6 pseudogene

LOC100127986 Gene

cation channel, sperm associated 2 pseudogene

SLC5A4 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4

ZACN Gene

zinc activated ligand-gated ion channel

LGICZ1 is a zinc-activated ligand-gated ion channel that defines a new subgroup of the cysteine-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (Davies et al., 2003 [PubMed 12381728]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CLNS1A Gene

chloride channel, nucleotide-sensitive, 1A

This gene encodes a protein that functions in multiple regulatory pathways. The encoded protein complexes with numerous cytosolic proteins and performs diverse functions including regulation of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein biosynthesis, platelet activation and cytoskeletal organization. The protein is also found associated with the plasma membrane where it functions as a chloride current regulator. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1, 4 and 6. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

LOC402192 Gene

chloride channel, nucleotide-sensitive, 1A pseudogene

LOC100133315 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 2-like

LOC644110 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 2 pseudogene

LOC650866 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6 pseudogene

CATSPER4 Gene

cation channel, sperm associated 4

CATSPER1 Gene

cation channel, sperm associated 1

Calcium ions play a primary role in the regulation of sperm motility. This gene belongs to a family of putative cation channels that are specific to spermatozoa and localize to the flagellum. The protein family features a single repeat with six membrane-spanning segments and a predicted calcium-selective pore region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CATSPER2 Gene

cation channel, sperm associated 2

Calcium ions play a primary role in the regulation of sperm motility. This gene belongs to a family of putative cation channels that are specific to spermatozoa and localize to the flagellum. The protein family features a single repeat with six membrane-spanning segments and a predicted calcium-selective pore region. This gene is part of a tandem repeat on chromosome 15q15; the second copy of this gene is thought to be a pseudogene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

CATSPER3 Gene

cation channel, sperm associated 3

CATSPERD Gene

catsper channel auxiliary subunit delta

CATSPERG Gene

catsper channel auxiliary subunit gamma

CATSPERG is a subunit of the CATSPER (see CATSPER1; MIM 606389) sperm calcium channel, which is required for sperm hyperactivated motility and male fertility (Wang et al., 2009 [PubMed 19516020]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]

HCN1 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 1

The membrane protein encoded by this gene is a hyperpolarization-activated cation channel that contributes to the native pacemaker currents in heart and neurons. The encoded protein can homodimerize or heterodimerize with other pore-forming subunits to form a potassium channel. This channel may act as a receptor for sour tastes. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

HCN3 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 3

This gene encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that functions as a voltage gated cation channel. The encoded protein is a member of a family of closely related cyclic adenosine monophosphate-binding channel proteins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

HCN2 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 2

Hyperpolarization-activated cation channels of the HCN gene family, such as HCN2, contribute to spontaneous rhythmic activity in both heart and brain.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]

HCN4 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 4

This gene encodes a member of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channels. The encoded protein shows slow kinetics of activation and inactivation, and is necessary for the cardiac pacemaking process. This channel may also mediate responses to sour stimuli. Mutations in this gene have been linked to sick sinus syndrome 2, also known as atrial fibrillation with bradyarrhythmia or familial sinus bradycardia. Two pseudogenes have been identified on chromosome 15. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

CLCA3P Gene

chloride channel accessory 3, pseudogene

This gene is a transcribed pseudogene belonging to the calcium sensitive chloride conductance protein family. To date, all members of this gene family map to the same site on chromosome 1p31-p22 and share high degrees of homology in size, sequence and predicted structure, but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. This gene contains several nonsense codons compared to other family members that render the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Therefore, this gene is unlikely to be protein-coding. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

TCAF2P1 Gene

TRPM8 channel-associated factor 2 pseudogene 1

KCNT1 Gene

potassium channel, sodium activated subfamily T, member 1

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a sodium-activated potassium channel subunit which is thought to function in ion conductance and developmental signaling pathways. Mutations in this gene cause the early-onset epileptic disorders, malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy and autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

CATSPER2P1 Gene

cation channel, sperm associated 2 pseudogene 1

Catsper genes belong to a family of putative cation channels that are specific to spermatozoa and localize to the flagellum. This gene is part of a tandem repeat on chromosome 15q15; this copy of the gene is thought to be a pseudogene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

KCTD10P1 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 10 pseudogene 1

ASIC5 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel family member 5

This gene belongs to the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel and degenerin (NaC/DEG) family, members of which have been identified in many animal species ranging from the nematode to human. The amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channel encoded by this gene is primarily expressed in the small intestine, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASIC4 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel family member 4

This gene belongs to the superfamily of acid-sensing ion channels, which are proton-gated, amiloride-sensitive sodium channels. These channels have been implicated in synaptic transmission, pain perception as well as mechanoperception. This gene is predominantly expressed in the pituitary gland, and was considered a candidate for paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC), a movement disorder, however, no correlation was found between mutations in this gene and PDC. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ASIC1 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 1

This gene encodes a member of the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) family of proteins, which are part of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. Members of the ASIC family are sensitive to amiloride and function in neurotransmission. The encoded proteins function in learning, pain transduction, touch sensation, and development of memory and fear. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ASIC3 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 3

This gene encodes a member of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. The members of this family are amiloride-sensitive sodium channels that contain intracellular N and C termini, two hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and a large extracellular loop, which has many cysteine residues with conserved spacing. The member encoded by this gene is an acid sensor and may play an important role in the detection of lasting pH changes. In addition, a heteromeric association between this member and acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channel 2 has been observed as proton-gated channels sensitive to gadolinium. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ASIC2 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 2

This gene encodes a member of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. The members of this family are amiloride-sensitive sodium channels that contain intracellular N and C termini, 2 hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and a large extracellular loop, which has many cysteine residues with conserved spacing. The member encoded by this gene may play a role in neurotransmission. In addition, a heteromeric association between this member and acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channel 3 has been observed to co-assemble into proton-gated channels sensitive to gadolinium. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and two variants, encoding distinct isoforms, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

SLC5A4P1 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4 pseudogene 1

LOC728424 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 2 pseudogene

TRPA1 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1

The structure of the protein encoded by this gene is highly related to both the protein ankyrin and transmembrane proteins. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined; however, studies indicate the function may involve a role in signal transduction and growth control. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ENKUR Gene

enkurin, TRPC channel interacting protein