Name

HPM Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Proteome Map

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types

ProteomicsDB Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Proteomics Database

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types reprocessed from many proteomics datasets

BioGPS Human Cell Type and Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From BioGPS

mRNA expression profiles for human tissues and cell types

BioGPS Mouse Cell Type and Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From BioGPS

mRNA expression profiles for mouse tissues and cell types

Hub Proteins Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Hub Proteins

sets of proteins interacting with hub proteins

NURSA Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

protein-protein interactions inferred from membership in complexes

Pathway Commons Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Pathway Commons

protein-protein interactions from low-throughput or high-throughput studies aggregated by Pathway Commons from the following databases: Reactome, NCI Pathways, PhosphoSite, HumanCyc, HPRD, PANTHER, DIP, BioGRID, IntAct, BIND, Transfac, MiRTarBase, Drugbank, Recon X, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, and KEGG

Virus MINT Protein-Viral Protein Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viral and human proteins manually curated from literature

COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by manual literature curation

COMPARTMENTS Experimental Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by integrating experimental data

COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

gene-cellular compartment co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

CORUM Protein Complexes Dataset

From CORUM

proteins participating in complexes by manual literature curation

Guide to Pharmacology Protein Ligands of Receptors Dataset

From Guide to Pharmacology

ligand-receptor interactions curated by experts

HPA Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

semiquantitative protein expression profiles for tissues

InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations Dataset

From InterPro

protein domains predicted for gene products based on sequence similarity to known domain signatures

LOCATE Curated Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins from low-throughput or high-throughput protein localization assays

NURSA Protein Complexes Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

proteins identified in complexes isolated from cultured cells

SILAC Phosphoproteomics Signatures of Differentially Phosphorylated Proteins for Protein Ligands Dataset

From SILAC Phosphoproteomics

phosphorylation levels of proteins in cell lines following ligand treatment

TISSUES Curated Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by manual literature curation

TISSUES Experimental Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by integrating experimental data

TISSUES Text-mining Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

gene-tissue co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

Virus MINT Protein-Virus Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viruses and human proteins manually curated from literature

LOCATE Predicted Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins by sequence similarity to localization sequences

HPA Cell Line Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for cell lines

HPA Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissues

HPA Tissue Sample Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissue samples

RNU1-16P Gene

RNA, U1 small nuclear 16, pseudogene

RNU1-13P Gene

RNA, U1 small nuclear 13, pseudogene

GS1-120K12.4 Gene

uncharacterized LOC101929069

KRTAP4-16P Gene

keratin associated protein 4-16, pseudogene

RNU7-13P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 13 pseudogene

TRIP4Q32.1Q32.2 Gene

Chromosome 4q32.1-q32.2 triplication syndrome

GS1-124K5.11 Gene

RAB guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 1 pseudogene

LL22NC03-104C7.1 Gene

uncharacterized LOC105373004

RNU1-18P Gene

RNA, U1 small nuclear 18, pseudogene

KRTAP5-13P Gene

keratin associated protein 5-13, pseudogene

RNU7-14P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 14 pseudogene

1060P11.3 Gene

killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, three domains, pseudogene

CTB-12O2.1 Gene

uncharacterized LOC101927115

DUP17Q23.1Q23.2 Gene

Chromosome 17q23.1-q23.2 duplication syndrome

RNU6-15P Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear 15, pseudogene

RNU1-15P Gene

RNA, U1 small nuclear 15, pseudogene

CTB-174D11.1 Gene

RNU6-10P Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear 10, pseudogene

IGKV1OR15-118 Gene

immunoglobulin kappa variable 1/OR15-118 (pseudogene)

LL0XNC01-116E7.2 Gene

uncharacterized LOC100128594

RNU7-11P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 11 pseudogene

RNU7-19P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 19 pseudogene

CH507-145C22.1 Gene

uncharacterized LOC105379493

RNU7-10P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 10 pseudogene

DEL16P12.1P11.2 Gene

Chromosome 16p12.2-p11.2 deletion syndrome

RNU7-12P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 12 pseudogene

KRTAP19-11P Gene

keratin associated protein 19-11, pseudogene

DEL17Q23.1Q23.2 Gene

Chromosome 17q23.1-q23.2 deletion syndrome

RNU1-17P Gene

RNA, U1 small nuclear 17, pseudogene

CTB-113P19.1 Gene

uncharacterized LOC101927096

KRTAP9-11P Gene

keratin associated protein 9-11, pseudogene

IGKV1OR2-108 Gene

immunoglobulin kappa variable 1/OR2-108 (non-functional)

RNU6-19P Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear 19, pseudogene

RNU6-16P Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear 16, pseudogene

KRTAP5-14P Gene

keratin associated protein 5-14, pseudogene

RNU7-17P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 17 pseudogene

GS1-124K5.4 Gene

uncharacterized LOC100289098

KRTAP10-13P Gene

keratin associated protein 10-13, pseudogene

RNU7-18P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 18 pseudogene

LL22NC03-13G6.2 Gene

uncharacterized LOC105373009

RNU1-14P Gene

RNA, U1 small nuclear 14, pseudogene

MIR1-1HG Gene

MIR1-1 host gene

CH17-125A10.2 Gene

uncharacterized LOC101927333

CTB-178M22.2 Gene

uncharacterized LOC101927862

RNU1-11P Gene

RNA, U1 small nuclear 11, pseudogene

RNU4-10P Gene

RNA, U4 small nuclear 10, pseudogene

RNU1-19P Gene

RNA, U1 small nuclear 19, pseudogene

RNU6-14P Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear 14, pseudogene

KRTAP19-10P Gene

keratin associated protein 19-10, pseudogene

RNU7-15P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 15 pseudogene

RNU5E-10P Gene

RNA, U5E small nuclear 10, pseudogene

LL22NC03-102D1.18 Gene

uncharacterized LOC105372949

CTB-1I21.1 Gene

uncharacterized LOC105379191

KRTAP9-12P Gene

keratin associated protein 9-12, pseudogene

IGKV1OR2-118 Gene

immunoglobulin kappa variable 1/OR2-118 (pseudogene)

RNU7-16P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 16 pseudogene

PTPN13 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 13 (APO-1/CD95 (Fas)-associated phosphatase)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP is a large intracellular protein. It has a catalytic PTP domain at its C-terminus and two major structural domains: a region with five PDZ domains and a FERM domain that binds to plasma membrane and cytoskeletal elements. This PTP was found to interact with, and dephosphorylate, Fas receptor and IkappaBalpha through the PDZ domains. This suggests it has a role in Fas mediated programmed cell death. This PTP was also shown to interact with GTPase-activating protein, and thus may function as a regulator of Rho signaling pathways. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

PTPN18 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 18 (brain-derived)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, the mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a PEST motif, which often serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may be related to protein intracellular half-live. This protein can differentially dephosphorylate autophosphorylated tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in tumor tissues, and it appears to regulate HER2, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

PTPN12 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 12

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a C-terminal PEST motif, which serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may regulate protein intracellular half-life. This PTP was found to bind and dephosphorylate the product of the oncogene c-ABL and thus may play a role in oncogenesis. This PTP was also shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate, various products related to cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion, such as p130 (Cas), CAKbeta/PTK2B, PSTPIP1, and paxillin. This suggests it has a regulatory role in controlling cell shape and mobility. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

PTPN11 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains two tandem Src homology-2 domains, which function as phospho-tyrosine binding domains and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. This PTP is widely expressed in most tissues and plays a regulatory role in various cell signaling events that are important for a diversity of cell functions, such as mitogenic activation, metabolic control, transcription regulation, and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Noonan syndrome as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

PTPN14 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 14

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal noncatalytic domain similar to that of band 4.1 superfamily cytoskeleton-associated proteins, which suggested the membrane or cytoskeleton localization of this protein. It appears to regulate lymphatic development in mammals, and a loss of function mutation has been found in a kindred with a lymphedema-choanal atresia. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

LOC105369264 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 20

LOC105379539 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 23-like

PTPN22 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (lymphoid)

This gene encodes of member of the non-receptor class 4 subfamily of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. The encoded protein is a lymphoid-specific intracellular phosphatase that associates with the molecular adapter protein CBL and may be involved in regulating CBL function in the T-cell receptor signaling pathway. Mutations in this gene may be associated with a range of autoimmune disorders including Type 1 Diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and Graves' disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

PTPN23 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 23

PTPN20 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 20

The product of this gene belongs to the family of classical tyrosine-specific protein tyrosine phosphatases. Many protein tyrosine phosphatases have been shown to regulate fundamental cellular processes. The encoded protein appears to be targeted to sites of actin polymerization. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on chromosome 10. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

PTPN21 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 21

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal domain, similar to cytoskeletal- associated proteins including band 4.1, ezrin, merlin, and radixin. This PTP was shown to specially interact with BMX/ETK, a member of Tec tyrosine kinase family characterized by a multimodular structures including PH, SH3, and SH2 domains. The interaction of this PTP with BMX kinase was found to increase the activation of STAT3, but not STAT2 kinase. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested the possible roles of this PTP in liver regeneration and spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC442113 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

PTPN3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This protein contains a C-terminal PTP domain and an N-terminal domain homologous to the band 4.1 superfamily of cytoskeletal-associated proteins. P97, a cell cycle regulator involved in a variety of membrane related functions, has been shown to be a substrate of this PTP. This PTP was also found to interact with, and be regulated by adaptor protein 14-3-3 beta. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

LOC100422495 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (megakaryocyte) pseudogene

PTPN2P2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 pseudogene 2

LOC442263 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

PTPN9 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal domain that shares a significant similarity with yeast SEC14, which is a protein that has phosphatidylinositol transfer activity and is required for protein secretion through the Golgi complex in yeast. This PTP was found to be activated by polyphosphoinositide, and is thought to be involved in signaling events regulating phagocytosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPN2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. Members of the PTP family share a highly conserved catalytic motif, which is essential for the catalytic activity. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. Epidermal growth factor receptor and the adaptor protein Shc were reported to be substrates of this PTP, which suggested the roles in growth factor mediated cell signaling. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. Two highly related but distinctly processed pseudogenes that localize to chromosomes 1 and 13, respectively, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PTPN1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1

The protein encoded by this gene is the founding member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, which was isolated and identified based on its enzymatic activity and amino acid sequence. PTPs catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphate monoesters specifically on tyrosine residues. Members of the PTP family share a highly conserved catalytic motif, which is essential for the catalytic activity. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP has been shown to act as a negative regulator of insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the phosphotryosine residues of insulin receptor kinase. This PTP was also reported to dephosphorylate epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, as well as JAK2 and TYK2 kinases, which implicated the role of this PTP in cell growth control, and cell response to interferon stimulation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PTPN7 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This gene is preferentially expressed in a variety of hematopoietic cells, and is an early response gene in lymphokine stimulated cells. The non-catalytic N-terminus of this PTP can interact with MAP kinases and suppress the MAP kinase activities. This PTP was shown to be involved in the regulation of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling, which was thought to function through dephosphorylating the molecules related to MAP kinase pathway. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PTPN6 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. N-terminal part of this PTP contains two tandem Src homolog (SH2) domains, which act as protein phospho-tyrosine binding domains, and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. This PTP is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells, and functions as an important regulator of multiple signaling pathways in hematopoietic cells. This PTP has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate a wide spectrum of phospho-proteins involved in hematopoietic cell signaling. Multiple alternatively spliced variants of this gene, which encode distinct isoforms, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPN5 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 5 (striatum-enriched)

PTPN4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (megakaryocyte)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This protein contains a C-terminal PTP domain and an N-terminal domain homologous to the band 4.1 superfamily of cytoskeletal-associated proteins. This PTP has been shown to interact with glutamate receptor delta 2 and epsilon subunits, and is thought to play a role in signalling downstream of the glutamate receptors through tyrosine dephosphorylation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC344593 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

LOC102725179 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 20-like

LOC391771 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

PTPN2P1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 pseudogene 1

PTPN20CP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 20C, pseudogene

LOC100421822 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

PPFIA4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 4

PPFIA4, or liprin-alpha-4, belongs to the liprin-alpha gene family. See liprin-alpha-1 (LIP1, or PPFIA1; MIM 611054) for background on liprins.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100422713 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

LOC100422710 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

PTPRCAP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C-associated protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a transmembrane phosphoprotein specifically associated with tyrosine phosphatase PTPRC/CD45, a key regulator of T- and B-lymphocyte activation. The interaction with PTPRC may be required for the stable expression of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPFIA2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. It has been proposed that liprins are multivalent proteins that form complex structures and act as scaffolds for the recruitment and anchoring of LAR family of tyrosine phosphatases. This protein has been shown to bind the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family) protein (also known as CASK) and proposed to regulate higher-order brain functions in mammals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PPFIA3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. Liprin family protein has been shown to localize phosphatase LAR to cell focal adhesions and may be involved in the molecular organization of presynaptic active zones. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPFIA1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. This protein binds to the intracellular membrane-distal phosphatase domain of tyrosine phosphatase LAR, and appears to localize LAR to cell focal adhesions. This interaction may regulate the disassembly of focal adhesion and thus help orchestrate cell-matrix interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRZ2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 2

PTPRZ1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 1

This gene encodes a member of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase family. Expression of this gene is restricted to the central nervous system (CNS), and it may be involved in the regulation of specific developmental processes in the CNS. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

LOC100129526 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, D pseudogene

PTPRVP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, V, pseudogene

PTPRR Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, R

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and a single intracellular catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. Silencing of this gene has been associated with colorectal cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. This gene shares a symbol (PTPRQ) with another gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, Q (GeneID 374462), which is also located on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PTPRU Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, U

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracellular catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP (MAM) domain, Ig-like and fibronectin type III-like repeats. This PTP was thought to play roles in cell-cell recognition and adhesion. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested the role of this PTP in early neural development. The expression of this gene was reported to be regulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or calcium ionophore in Jurkat T lymphoma cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

PTPRT Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, T

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracellular catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP (MAM) domain, Ig-like and fibronectin type III-like repeats. The protein domain structure and the expression pattern of the mouse counterpart of this PTP suggest its roles in both signal transduction and cellular adhesion in the central nervous system. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRS Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, S

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular region, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region of this protein is composed of multiple Ig-like and fibronectin type III-like domains. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested that this PTP may be involved in cell-cell interaction, primary axonogenesis, and axon guidance during embryogenesis. This PTP has been also implicated in the molecular control of adult nerve repair. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRQ Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, Q

This locus encodes a member of the type III receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. The encoded protein catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine and phosphatidylinositol and plays roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Mutations at this locus have been linked to autosomal recessive deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

PTPRG Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, G

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region of this PTP contains a carbonic anhydrase-like (CAH) domain, which is also found in the extracellular region of PTPRBETA/ZETA. This gene is located in a chromosomal region that is frequently deleted in renal cell carcinoma and lung carcinoma, thus is thought to be a candidate tumor suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRF Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, F

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains three Ig-like domains, and nine non-Ig like domains similar to that of neural-cell adhesion molecule. This PTP was shown to function in the regulation of epithelial cell-cell contacts at adherents junctions, as well as in the control of beta-catenin signaling. An increased expression level of this protein was found in the insulin-responsive tissue of obese, insulin-resistant individuals, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRE Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, E

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported, one of which encodes a receptor-type PTP that possesses a short extracellular domain, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains; Another one encodes a PTP that contains a distinct hydrophilic N-terminus, and thus represents a nonreceptor-type isoform of this PTP. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested the regulatory roles of this PTP in RAS related signal transduction pathways, cytokines induced SATA signaling, as well as the activation of voltage-gated K+ channels. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRD Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, D

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular region, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region of this protein is composed of three Ig-like and eight fibronectin type III-like domains. Studies of the similar genes in chicken and fly suggest the role of this PTP is in promoting neurite growth, and regulating neurons axon guidance. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

PTPRC Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitosis, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus is classified as a receptor type PTP. This PTP has been shown to be an essential regulator of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. It functions through either direct interaction with components of the antigen receptor complexes, or by activating various Src family kinases required for the antigen receptor signaling. This PTP also suppresses JAK kinases, and thus functions as a regulator of cytokine receptor signaling. Alternatively spliced transcripts variants of this gene, which encode distinct isoforms, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

PTPRB Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment and one intracytoplasmic catalytic domain, thus belongs to receptor type PTP. The extracellular region of this PTP is composed of multiple fibronectin type_III repeats, which was shown to interact with neuronal receptor and cell adhesion molecules, such as contactin and tenascin C. This protein was also found to interact with sodium channels, and thus may regulate sodium channels by altering tyrosine phosphorylation status. The functions of the interaction partners of this protein implicate the roles of this PTP in cell adhesion, neurite growth, and neuronal differentiation. Alternate transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PTPRA Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, A

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. This PTP has been shown to dephosphorylate and activate Src family tyrosine kinases, and is implicated in the regulation of integrin signaling, cell adhesion and proliferation. Three alternatively spliced variants of this gene, which encode two distinct isoforms, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRO Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, O

This gene encodes a member of the R3 subtype family of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases. These proteins are localized to the apical surface of polarized cells and may have tissue-specific functions through activation of Src family kinases. This gene contains two distinct promoters, and alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. The encoded proteins may have multiple isoform-specific and tissue-specific functions, including the regulation of osteoclast production and activity, inhibition of cell proliferation and facilitation of apoptosis. This gene is a candidate tumor suppressor, and decreased expression of this gene has been observed in several types of cancer. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PTPRN Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, N

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and a single catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. This PTP was found to be an autoantigen that is reactive with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patient sera, and thus may be a potential target of autoimmunity in diabetes mellitus. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PTPRM Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, M

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP mu (MAM) domain, an Ig-like domain and four fibronectin type III-like repeats. This PTP has been shown to mediate cell-cell aggregation through the interaction with another molecule of this PTP on an adjacent cell. This PTP can interact with scaffolding protein RACK1/GNB2L1, which may be necessary for the downstream signaling in response to cell-cell adhesion. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcripts encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRK Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, K

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP mu (MAM) domain, an Ig-like domain and four fibronectin type III-like repeats. This PTP was shown to mediate homophilic intercellular interaction, possibly through the interaction with beta- and gamma-catenin at adherens junctions. Expression of this gene was found to be stimulated by TGF-beta 1, which may be important for the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRJ Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, J

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region containing five fibronectin type III repeats, a single transmembrane region, and a single intracytoplasmic catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. This protein is present in all hematopoietic lineages, and was shown to negatively regulate T cell receptor signaling possibly through interfering with the phosphorylation of Phospholipase C Gamma 1 and Linker for Activation of T Cells. This protein can also dephosphorylate the PDGF beta receptor, and may be involved in UV-induced signal transduction. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRH Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, H

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and a single intracytoplasmic catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains eight fibronectin type III-like repeats and multiple N-glycosylation sites. The gene was shown to be expressed primarily in brain and liver, and at a lower level in heart and stomach. It was also found to be expressed in several cancer cell lines, but not in the corresponding normal tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

PTPRN2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, N polypeptide 2

This gene encodes a protein with sequence similarity to receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases. However, tyrosine phosphatase activity has not been experimentally validated for this protein. Studies of the rat ortholog suggest that the encoded protein may instead function as a phosphatidylinositol phosphatase with the ability to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate, and this function may be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. This protein has been identified as an autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

PTP4A1P2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 2

PTP4A1P3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 3

PTP4A1P1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 1

PTP4A1P6 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 6

PTP4A1P7 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 7

PTP4A1P4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 4

PTP4A1P5 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 5

PTP4A2P1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 2 pseudogene 1

PTP4A2P2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 2 pseudogene 2

PTP4A1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1

This gene encodes a member of a small class of prenylated protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which contain a PTP domain and a characteristic C-terminal prenylation motif. The encoded protein is a cell signaling molecule that plays regulatory roles in a variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation and migration. The protein may also be involved in cancer development and metastasis. This tyrosine phosphatase is a nuclear protein, but may associate with plasma membrane by means of its prenylation motif. Pseudogenes related to this gene are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 7, 11 and X. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

PTP4A3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 3

This gene encodes a member of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. Protein tyrosine phosphatases are cell signaling molecules that play regulatory roles in a variety of cellular processes. Studies of this class of protein tyrosine phosphatase in mice demonstrates that they are prenylated in vivo, suggesting their association with cell plasma membrane. The encoded protein may enhance cell proliferation, and overexpression of this gene has been implicated in tumor metastasis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PTP4A2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a small class of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are cell signaling molecules that play regulatory roles in a variety of cellular processes. PTPs in this class contain a protein tyrosine phosphatase catalytic domain and a characteristic C-terminal prenylation motif. This PTP has been shown to primarily associate with plasmic and endosomal membrane through its C-terminal prenylation. This PTP was found to interact with the beta-subunit of Rab geranylgeranyltransferase II (beta GGT II), and thus may function as a regulator of GGT II activity. Overexpression of this gene in mammalian cells conferred a transformed phenotype, which suggested its role in tumorigenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. Related pseudogenes exist on chromosomes 11, 12 and 17. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

PTPMT1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, mitochondrial 1

LOC100128076 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase pseudogene

PTPDC1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase domain containing 1

The protein encoded by this gene contains a characteristic motif of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). PTPs regulate activities of phosphoproteins through dephosphorylation. They are signaling molecules involved in the regulation of a wide variety of biological processes. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NTRK1 Gene

neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1

This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (NTKR) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. The presence of this kinase leads to cell differentiation and may play a role in specifying sensory neuron subtypes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital insensitivity to pain, anhidrosis, self-mutilating behavior, mental retardation and cancer. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been found, but only three have been characterized to date. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NTRK2 Gene

neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2

This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. Signalling through this kinase leads to cell differentiation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with obesity and mood disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

NTRK3 Gene

neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3

This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. Signalling through this kinase leads to cell differentiation and may play a role in the development of proprioceptive neurons that sense body position. Mutations in this gene have been associated with medulloblastomas, secretory breast carcinomas and other cancers. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

ABL1 Gene

ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene is a protooncogene that encodes a protein tyrosine kinase involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell division, adhesion, differentiation, and response to stress. The activity of the protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, whereby deletion of the region encoding this domain results in an oncogene. The ubiquitously expressed protein has DNA-binding activity that is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function. This gene has been found fused to a variety of translocation partner genes in various leukemias, most notably the t(9;22) translocation that results in a fusion with the 5' end of the breakpoint cluster region gene (BCR; MIM:151410). Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants, which contain alternative first exons that are spliced to the remaining common exons. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

ABL2 Gene

ABL proto-oncogene 2, non-receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a member of the Abelson family of nonreceptor tyrosine protein kinases. The protein is highly similar to the c-abl oncogene 1 protein, including the tyrosine kinase, SH2 and SH3 domains, and it plays a role in cytoskeletal rearrangements through its C-terminal F-actin- and microtubule-binding sequences. This gene is expressed in both normal and tumor cells, and is involved in translocation with the ets variant 6 gene in leukemia. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

BMX Gene

BMX non-receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a non-receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the Tec kinase family. The protein contains a PH-like domain, which mediates membrane targeting by binding to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3), and a SH2 domain that binds to tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and functions in signal transduction. The protein is implicated in several signal transduction pathways including the Stat pathway, and regulates differentiation and tumorigenicity of several types of cancer cells. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

TNK2 Gene

tyrosine kinase, non-receptor, 2

This gene encodes a tyrosine kinase that binds Cdc42Hs in its GTP-bound form and inhibits both the intrinsic and GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-stimulated GTPase activity of Cdc42Hs. This binding is mediated by a unique sequence of 47 amino acids C-terminal to an SH3 domain. The protein may be involved in a regulatory mechanism that sustains the GTP-bound active form of Cdc42Hs and which is directly linked to a tyrosine phosphorylation signal transduction pathway. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified from this gene, but the full-length nature of only two transcript variants has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TNK1 Gene

tyrosine kinase, non-receptor, 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the tyrosine protein kinase family. Tyrosine protein kinases are important regulators of intracellular signal transduction pathways, mediating cellular proliferation, survival, and development. This gene is highly expressed in fetal tissues and at lower levels in few adult tissues, thus may function in signaling pathways utilized broadly during fetal development, and more selectively in adult tissues. It plays a negative regulatory role in the Ras-Raf1-MAPK pathway, and knockout mice have been shown to develop spontaneous tumors, suggesting a role as a tumor suppressor gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

SRC Gene

SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene is highly similar to the v-src gene of Rous sarcoma virus. This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. The protein encoded by this gene is a tyrosine-protein kinase whose activity can be inhibited by phosphorylation by c-SRC kinase. Mutations in this gene could be involved in the malignant progression of colon cancer. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ROR2 Gene

receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase and type I transmembrane protein that belongs to the ROR subfamily of cell surface receptors. The protein may be involved in the early formation of the chondrocytes and may be required for cartilage and growth plate development. Mutations in this gene can cause brachydactyly type B, a skeletal disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of distal phalanges and nails. In addition, mutations in this gene can cause the autosomal recessive form of Robinow syndrome, which is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with generalized limb bone shortening, segmental defects of the spine, brachydactyly, and a dysmorphic facial appearance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ROR1 Gene

receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1

This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor that modulates neurite growth in the central nervous system. The encoded protein is a glycosylated type I membrane protein that belongs to the ROR subfamily of cell surface receptors. It is a pseudokinase that lacks catalytic activity and may interact with the non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway. This gene is highly expressed during early embryonic development but expressed at very low levels in adult tissues. Increased expression of this gene is associated with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

LPPR3 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 3

The proteins in the lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) family, including PRG2, are integral membrane proteins that modulate bioactive lipid phosphates including phosphatidate, lysophosphatidate, and sphingosine-1-phosphate in the context of cell migration, neurite retraction, and mitogenesis (Brauer et al., 2003 [PubMed 12730698]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LPPR5 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a type 2 member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. All type 2 members of this protein family contain 6 transmembrane regions, and a consensus N-glycosylation site. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in de novo synthesis of glycerolipids as well as in receptor-activated signal transduction mediated by phospholipase D. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LPPR4 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 4

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) family. LPPs catalyze the dephosphorylation of a number of bioactive lipid mediators that regulate a variety of cell functions. This protein is specifically expressed in neurons. It is located in the membranes of outgrowing axons and has been shown to be important for axonal outgrowth during development and regenerative sprouting. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

LPPR2 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 2

LPPR1 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 1

This gene encodes a member of the plasticity-related gene (PRG) family. Members of the PRG family mediate lipid phosphate phosphatase activity in neurons and are known to be involved in neuronal plasticity. The protein encoded by this gene does not perform its function through enzymatic phospholipid degradation. This gene is strongly expressed in brain. It shows dynamic expression regulation during brain development and neuronal excitation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INPP4A Gene

inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type I, 107kDa

This gene encodes an Mg++ independent enzyme that hydrolyzes the 4-position phosphate from the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, and inositol 3,4-bisphosphate. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

INPP4B Gene

inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II, 105kDa

INPP4B encodes the inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II, one of the enzymes involved in phosphatidylinositol signaling pathways. This enzyme removes the phosphate group at position 4 of the inositol ring from inositol 3,4-bisphosphate. There is limited data to suggest that the human type II enzyme is subject to alternative splicing, as has been established for the type I enzyme. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPAP2C Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2C

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in de novo synthesis of glycerolipids as well as in receptor-activated signal transduction mediated by phospholipase D. This protein is similar to phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2A (PPAP2A) and type 2B (PPAP2B). All three proteins contain 6 transmembrane regions, and a consensus N-glycosylation site. This protein has been shown to possess membrane associated PAP activity. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPAP2B Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in de novo synthesis of glycerolipids as well as in receptor-activated signal transduction mediated by phospholipase D. This protein is a membrane glycoprotein localized at the cell plasma membrane. It has been shown to actively hydrolyze extracellular lysophosphatidic acid and short-chain phosphatidic acid. The expression of this gene is found to be enhanced by epidermal growth factor in Hela cells. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PPAP2A Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2A

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in synthesis of glycerolipids and in phospholipase D-mediated signal transduction. This enzyme is an integral membrane glycoprotein that plays a role in the hydrolysis and uptake of lipids from extracellular space. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

PPAPDC1B Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 1B

PPAPDC1A Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 1A

PPAPDC3 Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 3

PPAPDC2 Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 2

ROS1 Gene

ROS proto-oncogene 1 , receptor tyrosine kinase

This proto-oncogene, highly-expressed in a variety of tumor cell lines, belongs to the sevenless subfamily of tyrosine kinase insulin receptor genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a type I integral membrane protein with tyrosine kinase activity. The protein may function as a growth or differentiation factor receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RYK Gene

receptor-like tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is an atypical member of the family of growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinases, differing from other members at a number of conserved residues in the activation and nucleotide binding domains. This gene product belongs to a subfamily whose members do not appear to be regulated by phosphorylation in the activation segment. It has been suggested that mediation of biological activity by recruitment of a signaling-competent auxiliary protein may occur through an as yet uncharacterized mechanism. The encoded protein has a leucine-rich extracellular domain with a WIF-type Wnt binding region, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. This protein is involved in stimulating Wnt signaling pathways such as the regulation of axon pathfinding. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

AXL Gene

AXL receptor tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. The encoded protein possesses an extracellular domain which is composed of two immunoglobulin-like motifs at the N-terminal, followed by two fibronectin type-III motifs. It transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding to the vitamin K-dependent protein growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6). This gene may be involved in several cellular functions including growth, migration, aggregation and anti-inflammation in multiple cell types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

MET Gene

MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase

The proto-oncogene MET product is the hepatocyte growth factor receptor and encodes tyrosine-kinase activity. The primary single chain precursor protein is post-translationally cleaved to produce the alpha and beta subunits, which are disulfide linked to form the mature receptor. Various mutations in the MET gene are associated with papillary renal carcinoma. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MUSK Gene

muscle, skeletal, receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a muscle-specific tyrosine kinase receptor. The encoded protein may play a role in clustering of the acetylcholine receptor in the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital myasthenic syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

DDR2 Gene

discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play a key role in the communication of cells with their microenvironment. These molecules are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. In several cases the biochemical mechanism by which RTKs transduce signals across the membrane has been shown to be ligand induced receptor oligomerization and subsequent intracellular phosphorylation. This autophosphorylation leads to phosphorylation of cytosolic targets as well as association with other molecules, which are involved in pleiotropic effects of signal transduction. RTKs have a tripartite structure with extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic regions. This gene encodes a member of a novel subclass of RTKs and contains a distinct extracellular region encompassing a factor VIII-like domain. Alternative splicing in the 5' UTR results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DDR1 Gene

discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 1

Receptor tyrosine kinases play a key role in the communication of cells with their microenvironment. These kinases are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a subfamily of tyrosine kinase receptors with homology to Dictyostelium discoideum protein discoidin I in their extracellular domain, and that are activated by various types of collagen. Expression of this protein is restricted to epithelial cells, particularly in the kidney, lung, gastrointestinal tract, and brain. In addition, it has been shown to be significantly overexpressed in several human tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

ALK Gene

anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily. This protein comprises an extracellular domain, an hydrophobic stretch corresponding to a single pass transmembrane region, and an intracellular kinase domain. It plays an important role in the development of the brain and exerts its effects on specific neurons in the nervous system. This gene has been found to be rearranged, mutated, or amplified in a series of tumours including anaplastic large cell lymphomas, neuroblastoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. The chromosomal rearrangements are the most common genetic alterations in this gene, which result in creation of multiple fusion genes in tumourigenesis, including ALK (chromosome 2)/EML4 (chromosome 2), ALK/RANBP2 (chromosome 2), ALK/ATIC (chromosome 2), ALK/TFG (chromosome 3), ALK/NPM1 (chromosome 5), ALK/SQSTM1 (chromosome 5), ALK/KIF5B (chromosome 10), ALK/CLTC (chromosome 17), ALK/TPM4 (chromosome 19), and ALK/MSN (chromosome X).[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

RYKP1 Gene

receptor-like tyrosine kinase pseudogene 1

ERBB2 Gene

erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This protein has no ligand binding domain of its own and therefore cannot bind growth factors. However, it does bind tightly to other ligand-bound EGF receptor family members to form a heterodimer, stabilizing ligand binding and enhancing kinase-mediated activation of downstream signalling pathways, such as those involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Allelic variations at amino acid positions 654 and 655 of isoform a (positions 624 and 625 of isoform b) have been reported, with the most common allele, Ile654/Ile655, shown here. Amplification and/or overexpression of this gene has been reported in numerous cancers, including breast and ovarian tumors. Alternative splicing results in several additional transcript variants, some encoding different isoforms and others that have not been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ERBB3 Gene

erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This membrane-bound protein has a neuregulin binding domain but not an active kinase domain. It therefore can bind this ligand but not convey the signal into the cell through protein phosphorylation. However, it does form heterodimers with other EGF receptor family members which do have kinase activity. Heterodimerization leads to the activation of pathways which lead to cell proliferation or differentiation. Amplification of this gene and/or overexpression of its protein have been reported in numerous cancers, including prostate, bladder, and breast tumors. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. One isoform lacks the intermembrane region and is secreted outside the cell. This form acts to modulate the activity of the membrane-bound form. Additional splice variants have also been reported, but they have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ERBB4 Gene

erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4

This gene is a member of the Tyr protein kinase family and the epidermal growth factor receptor subfamily. It encodes a single-pass type I membrane protein with multiple cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, a tyrosine kinase domain, a phosphotidylinositol-3 kinase binding site and a PDZ domain binding motif. The protein binds to and is activated by neuregulins and other factors and induces a variety of cellular responses including mitogenesis and differentiation. Multiple proteolytic events allow for the release of a cytoplasmic fragment and an extracellular fragment. Mutations in this gene have been associated with cancer. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LTK Gene

leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ros/insulin receptor family of tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine-specific phosphorylation of proteins is a key to the control of diverse pathways leading to cell growth and differentiation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

TYROBP Gene

TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein

This gene encodes a transmembrane signaling polypeptide which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in its cytoplasmic domain. The encoded protein may associate with the killer-cell inhibitory receptor (KIR) family of membrane glycoproteins and may act as an activating signal transduction element. This protein may bind zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa (ZAP-70) and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and play a role in signal transduction, bone modeling, brain myelination, and inflammation. Mutations within this gene have been associated with polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL), also known as Nasu-Hakola disease. Its putative receptor, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), also causes PLOSL. Multiple alternative transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

GPR37 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 37 (endothelin receptor type B-like)

This gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. The encoded protein contains seven transmembrane domains and is found in cell and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. G protein-coupled receptors are involved in translating outside signals into G protein mediated intracellular effects. This gene product interacts with Parkin and is involved in juvenile Parkinson disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

YWHAQ Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 99% identical to the mouse and rat orthologs. This gene is upregulated in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It contains in its 5' UTR a 6 bp tandem repeat sequence which is polymorphic, however, there is no correlation between the repeat number and the disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

YWHAH Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 99% identical to the mouse, rat and bovine orthologs. This gene contains a 7 bp repeat sequence in its 5' UTR, and changes in the number of this repeat have been associated with early-onset schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

YWHAB Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the 14-3-3 family of proteins, members of which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals. The encoded protein has been shown to interact with RAF1 and CDC25 phosphatases, suggesting that it may play a role in linking mitogenic signaling and the cell cycle machinery. Two transcript variants, which encode the same protein, have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

YWHAG Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, gamma

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 100% identical to the rat ortholog. It is induced by growth factors in human vascular smooth muscle cells, and is also highly expressed in skeletal and heart muscles, suggesting an important role for this protein in muscle tissue. It has been shown to interact with RAF1 and protein kinase C, proteins involved in various signal transduction pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

YWHAE Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 100% identical to the mouse ortholog. It interacts with CDC25 phosphatases, RAF1 and IRS1 proteins, suggesting its role in diverse biochemical activities related to signal transduction, such as cell division and regulation of insulin sensitivity. It has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of small cell lung cancer. Two transcript variants, one protein-coding and the other non-protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

YWHAZP8 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 8

YWHAZP9 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 9

YWHAZP2 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 2

YWHAZP3 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 3

YWHAZP1 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 1

YWHAZP6 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 6

YWHAZP5 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 5

TYRO3 Gene

TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase

The gene is part of a 3-member transmembrane receptor kinase receptor family with a processed pseudogene distal on chromosome 15. The encoded protein is activated by the products of the growth arrest-specific gene 6 and protein S genes and is involved in controlling cell survival and proliferation, spermatogenesis, immunoregulation and phagocytosis. The encoded protein has also been identified as a cell entry factor for Ebola and Marburg viruses. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LOC158781 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide pseudogene

PTK2 Gene

protein tyrosine kinase 2

This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase which is found concentrated in the focal adhesions that form between cells growing in the presence of extracellular matrix constituents. The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases but lacks significant sequence similarity to kinases from other subfamilies. Activation of this gene may be an important early step in cell growth and intracellular signal transduction pathways triggered in response to certain neural peptides or to cell interactions with the extracellular matrix. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, but the full-length natures of only three of them have been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PTK7 Gene

protein tyrosine kinase 7 (inactive)

This gene encodes a member of the receptor protein tyrosine kinase family of proteins that transduce extracellular signals across the cell membrane. The encoded protein lacks detectable catalytic tyrosine kinase activity, is involved in the Wnt signaling pathway and plays a role in multiple cellular processes including polarity and adhesion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PTK6 Gene

protein tyrosine kinase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a cytoplasmic nonreceptor protein kinase which may function as an intracellular signal transducer in epithelial tissues. Overexpression of this gene in mammary epithelial cells leads to sensitization of the cells to epidermal growth factor and results in a partially transformed phenotype. Expression of this gene has been detected at low levels in some breast tumors but not in normal breast tissue. The encoded protein has been shown to undergo autophosphorylation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

LOC100422669 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide pseudogene

YWHAZ Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 99% identical to the mouse, rat and sheep orthologs. The encoded protein interacts with IRS1 protein, suggesting a role in regulating insulin sensitivity. Several transcript variants that differ in the 5' UTR but that encode the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

YWHAZP7 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 7

YWHAZP4 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 4

TEC Gene

tec protein tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Tec family of non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases containing a pleckstrin homology domain. Tec family kinases are involved in the intracellular signaling mechanisms of cytokine receptors, lymphocyte surface antigens, heterotrimeric G-protein coupled receptors, and integrin molecules. They are also key players in the regulation of the immune functions. Tec kinase is an integral component of T cell signaling and has a distinct role in T cell activation. This gene may be associated with myelodysplastic syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PKMYT1 Gene

protein kinase, membrane associated tyrosine/threonine 1

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein is a membrane-associated kinase that negatively regulates the G2/M transition of the cell cycle by phosphorylating and inactivating cyclin-dependent kinase 1. The activity of the encoded protein is regulated by polo-like kinase 1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

DSTYK Gene

dual serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase

This gene encodes a dual serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase which is expressed in multiple tissues. It is thought to function as a regulator of cell death. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

LOC100130210 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon polypeptide pseudogene

YWHAEP5 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon pseudogene 5

YWHAEP7 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon pseudogene 7

YWHAEP1 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon pseudogene 1

TYRO3P Gene

TYRO3P protein tyrosine kinase pseudogene

STYX Gene

serine/threonine/tyrosine interacting protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a pseudophosphatase, able to bind potential substrates but lacking an active catalytic loop. The encoded protein may be involved in spermiogenesis. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for these genes. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

PTK2B Gene

protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta

This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase which is involved in calcium-induced regulation of ion channels and activation of the map kinase signaling pathway. The encoded protein may represent an important signaling intermediate between neuropeptide-activated receptors or neurotransmitters that increase calcium flux and the downstream signals that regulate neuronal activity. The encoded protein undergoes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation and activation in response to increases in the intracellular calcium concentration, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation, membrane depolarization, or protein kinase C activation. This protein has been shown to bind CRK-associated substrate, nephrocystin, GTPase regulator associated with FAK, and the SH2 domain of GRB2. The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases but lacks significant sequence similarity to kinases from other subfamilies. Four transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DOK1 Gene

docking protein 1, 62kDa (downstream of tyrosine kinase 1)

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a signal transduction pathway downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. The encoded protein is a scaffold protein that helps form a platform for the assembly of multiprotein signaling complexes. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

YWHABP2 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta pseudogene 2

YWHABP1 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta pseudogene 1

RBCK1 Gene

RanBP-type and C3HC4-type zinc finger containing 1

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to mouse UIP28/UbcM4 interacting protein. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus, resulting in distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SEMA5B Gene

sema domain, seven thrombospondin repeats (type 1 and type 1-like), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 5B

This gene encodes a member of the semaphorin protein family which regulates axon growth during development of the nervous system. The encoded protein has a characteristic Sema domain near the N-terminus, through which semaphorins bind to plexin, and five thrombospondin type 1 repeats in the C-terminal region of the protein. The protein product may be cleaved and exist as a secreted molecule (PMID: 19463192). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

SEMA5A Gene

sema domain, seven thrombospondin repeats (type 1 and type 1-like), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 5A

This gene belongs to the semaphorin gene family that encodes membrane proteins containing a semaphorin domain and several thrombospondin type-1 repeats. Members of this family are involved in axonal guidance during neural development. This gene has been implicated as an autism susceptibility gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

LOC100422730 Gene

sema domain, seven thrombospondin repeats (type 1 and type 1-like), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 5A pseudogene

TRNAY-GUA Gene

transfer RNA tyrosine (anticodon GUA)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

LYN Gene

LYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a tyrosine protein kinase, which maybe involved in the regulation of mast cell degranulation, and erythroid differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

TH Gene

tyrosine hydroxylase

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the conversion of tyrosine to dopamine. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, hence plays a key role in the physiology of adrenergic neurons. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal recessive Segawa syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGR Gene

FGR proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase

This gene is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). The encoded protein contains N-terminal sites for myristylation and palmitylation, a PTK domain, and SH2 and SH3 domains which are involved in mediating protein-protein interactions with phosphotyrosine-containing and proline-rich motifs, respectively. The protein localizes to plasma membrane ruffles, and functions as a negative regulator of cell migration and adhesion triggered by the beta-2 integrin signal transduction pathway. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus results in the overexpression of this gene. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CYYR1-AS1 Gene

cysteine/tyrosine-rich 1 antisense RNA 1

TAT Gene

tyrosine aminotransferase

This nuclear gene encodes a mitochondrial protein tyrosine aminotransferase which is present in the liver and catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine into p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Mutations in this gene cause tyrosinemia (type II, Richner-Hanhart syndrome), a disorder accompanied by major skin and corneal lesions, with possible mental retardation. A regulator gene for tyrosine aminotransferase is X-linked. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HCK Gene

HCK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Src family of tyrosine kinases. This protein is primarily hemopoietic, particularly in cells of the myeloid and B-lymphoid lineages. It may help couple the Fc receptor to the activation of the respiratory burst. In addition, it may play a role in neutrophil migration and in the degranulation of neutrophils. Multiple isoforms with different subcellular distributions are produced due to both alternative splicing and the use of alternative translation initiation codons, including a non-AUG (CUG) codon. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

FERP1 Gene

fer (fps/fes related) tyrosine kinase (phosphoprotein NCP94) pseudogene 1

CABYRP1 Gene

calcium binding tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated pseudogene 1

TRNAY-AUA Gene

transfer RNA tyrosine (anticodon AUA)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

TTLL11 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 11

TTLL10 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 10

TTLL12 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 12

LMTK3 Gene

lemur tyrosine kinase 3

LMTK2 Gene

lemur tyrosine kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein kinase superfamily and the protein tyrosine kinase family. It contains N-terminal transmembrane helices and a long C-terminal cytoplasmic tail with serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity. This protein interacts with several other proteins, such as Inhibitor-2 (Inh2), protein phosphatase-1 (PP1C), p35, and myosin VI. It phosporylates other proteins, and is itself also phosporylated when interacting with cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5)/p35 complex. This protein involves in nerve growth factor (NGF)-TrkA signalling, and also plays a critical role in endosomal membrane trafficking. Mouse studies suggested an essential role of this protein in spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

TYK2 Gene

tyrosine kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the tyrosine kinase and, more specifically, the Janus kinases (JAKs) protein families. This protein associates with the cytoplasmic domain of type I and type II cytokine receptors and promulgate cytokine signals by phosphorylating receptor subunits. It is also component of both the type I and type III interferon signaling pathways. As such, it may play a role in anti-viral immunity. A mutation in this gene has been associated with hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) - a primary immunodeficiency characterized by elevated serum immunoglobulin E. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FER Gene

fer (fps/fes related) tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the FPS/FES family of non-transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases. It regulates cell-cell adhesion and mediates signaling from the cell surface to the cytoskeleton via growth factor receptors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

FES Gene

FES proto-oncogene, tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes the human cellular counterpart of a feline sarcoma retrovirus protein with transforming capabilities. The gene product has tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity and that activity is required for maintenance of cellular transformation. Its chromosomal location has linked it to a specific translocation event identified in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia but it is also involved in normal hematopoiesis as well as growth factor and cytokine receptor signaling. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding different isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

TTLL13P Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 13, pseudogene

TXK Gene

TXK tyrosine kinase

DYRK3 Gene

dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 3

This gene product belongs to the DYRK family of dual-specificity protein kinases that catalyze autophosphorylation on serine/threonine and tyrosine residues. The members of this family share structural similarity, however, differ in their substrate specificity, suggesting their involvement in different cellular functions. The encoded protein has been shown to autophosphorylate on tyrosine residue and catalyze phosphorylation of histones H3 and H2B in vitro. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DYRK2 Gene

dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 2

DYRK2 belongs to a family of protein kinases whose members are presumed to be involved in cellular growth and/or development. The family is defined by structural similarity of their kinase domains and their capability to autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues. DYRK2 has demonstrated tyrosine autophosphorylation and catalyzed phosphorylation of histones H3 and H2B in vitro. Two isoforms of DYRK2 have been isolated. The predominant isoform, isoform 1, lacks a 5' terminal insert. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DYRK4 Gene

dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 4

This gene encodes an enzyme that belongs to a conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases. Members of this dual specificity kinase family are thought to function in the regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation, survival, and in development. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

FLT4 Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 4

This gene encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors C and D. The protein is thought to be involved in lymphangiogenesis and maintenance of the lymphatic endothelium. Mutations in this gene cause hereditary lymphedema type IA. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FLT1 Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) family. VEGFR family members are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) which contain an extracellular ligand-binding region with seven immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and a tyrosine kinase (TK) domain within the cytoplasmic domain. This protein binds to VEGFR-A, VEGFR-B and placental growth factor and plays an important role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Expression of this receptor is found in vascular endothelial cells, placental trophoblast cells and peripheral blood monocytes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Isoforms include a full-length transmembrane receptor isoform and shortened, soluble isoforms. The soluble isoforms are associated with the onset of pre-eclampsia.[provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

LCK Gene

LCK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase

This gene is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). The encoded protein is a key signaling molecule in the selection and maturation of developing T-cells. It contains N-terminal sites for myristylation and palmitylation, a PTK domain, and SH2 and SH3 domains which are involved in mediating protein-protein interactions with phosphotyrosine-containing and proline-rich motifs, respectively. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and pericentrosomal vesicles, and binds to cell surface receptors, including CD4 and CD8, and other signaling molecules. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STYXL1 Gene

serine/threonine/tyrosine interacting-like 1

TIE1 Gene

tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 1

This gene encodes a member of the tyrosine protein kinase family. The encoded protein plays a critical role in angiogenesis and blood vessel stability by inhibiting angiopoietin 1 signaling through the endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2. Ectodomain cleavage of the encoded protein relieves inhibition of Tie2 and is mediated by multiple factors including vascular endothelial growth factor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

IBTK Gene

inhibitor of Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase

Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a protein tyrosine kinase that is expressed in B cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. The protein encoded by this gene binds to BTK and downregulates BTK's kinase activity. In addition, the encoded protein disrupts BTK-mediated calcium mobilization and negatively regulates the activation of nuclear factor-kappa-B-driven transcription. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 18. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

TTLL5 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 5

This gene encodes a member of the tubulin tyrosine ligase like protein family. This protein interacts with two glucocorticoid receptor coactivators, transcriptional intermediary factor 2 and steroid receptor coactivator 1. This protein may function as a coregulator of glucocorticoid receptor mediated gene induction and repression. This protein may also function as an alpha tubulin polyglutamylase.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

TTLL4 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 4

TTLL7 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 7

TTLL6 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 6

TTLL1 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 1

TTLL3 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 3

TTLL2 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 2

TTLL9 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 9

TTLL8 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 8

IBTKP1 Gene

inhibitor of Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase pseudogene 1

TTL Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase

TTL is a cytosolic enzyme involved in the posttranslational modification of alpha-tubulin (see MIM 602529). Alpha-tubulin within assembled microtubules is detyrosinated over time at the C terminus. After microtubule disassembly, TTL restores the tyrosine residues and consequently participates in a cycle of tubulin detyrosination and tyrosination (Erck et al., 2003 [PubMed 14571137]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MATK Gene

megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene has amino acid sequence similarity to Csk tyrosine kinase and has the structural features of the CSK subfamily: SRC homology SH2 and SH3 domains, a catalytic domain, a unique N terminus, lack of myristylation signals, lack of a negative regulatory phosphorylation site, and lack of an autophosphorylation site. This protein is thought to play a significant role in the signal transduction of hematopoietic cells. It is able to phosphorylate and inactivate Src family kinases, and may play an inhibitory role in the control of T-cell proliferation. This protein might be involved in signaling in some cases of breast cancer. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BLK Gene

BLK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a nonreceptor tyrosine-kinase of the src family of proto-oncogenes that are typically involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. The protein has a role in B-cell receptor signaling and B-cell development. The protein also stimulates insulin synthesis and secretion in response to glucose and enhances the expression of several pancreatic beta-cell transcription factors. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

HGS Gene

hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate

The protein encoded by this gene regulates endosomal sorting and plays a critical role in the recycling and degradation of membrane receptors. The encoded protein sorts monoubiquitinated membrane proteins into the multivesicular body, targeting these proteins for lysosome-dependent degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

BTK Gene

Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene plays a crucial role in B-cell development. Mutations in this gene cause X-linked agammaglobulinemia type 1, which is an immunodeficiency characterized by the failure to produce mature B lymphocytes, and associated with a failure of Ig heavy chain rearrangement. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

DYRK1A Gene

dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A

This gene encodes a member of the Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase (DYRK) family. This member contains a nuclear targeting signal sequence, a protein kinase domain, a leucine zipper motif, and a highly conservative 13-consecutive-histidine repeat. It catalyzes its autophosphorylation on serine/threonine and tyrosine residues. It may play a significant role in a signaling pathway regulating cell proliferation and may be involved in brain development. This gene is a homolog of Drosophila mnb (minibrain) gene and rat Dyrk gene. It is localized in the Down syndrome critical region of chromosome 21, and is considered to be a strong candidate gene for learning defects associated with Down syndrome. Alternative splicing of this gene generates several transcript variants differing from each other either in the 5' UTR or in the 3' coding region. These variants encode at least five different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DYRK1B Gene

dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1B

This gene encodes a member of a family of nuclear-localized protein kinases. The encoded protein participates in the regulation of the cell cycle. Expression of this gene may be altered in tumor cells, and mutations in this gene were found to cause abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 3. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

MERTK Gene

MER proto-oncogene, tyrosine kinase

This gene is a member of the MER/AXL/TYRO3 receptor kinase family and encodes a transmembrane protein with two fibronectin type-III domains, two Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains, and one tyrosine kinase domain. Mutations in this gene have been associated with disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) phagocytosis pathway and onset of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

YES1 Gene

YES proto-oncogene 1, Src family tyrosine kinase

This gene is the cellular homolog of the Yamaguchi sarcoma virus oncogene. The encoded protein has tyrosine kinase activity and belongs to the src family of proteins. This gene lies in close proximity to thymidylate synthase gene on chromosome 18, and a corresponding pseudogene has been found on chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NYAP1 Gene

neuronal tyrosine-phosphorylated phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor 1

NYAP2 Gene

neuronal tyrosine-phosphorylated phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor 2

SRMS Gene

src-related kinase lacking C-terminal regulatory tyrosine and N-terminal myristylation sites

FLT3 Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 3

This gene encodes a class III receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates hematopoiesis. This receptor is activated by binding of the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand to the extracellular domain, which induces homodimer formation in the plasma membrane leading to autophosphorylation of the receptor. The activated receptor kinase subsequently phosphorylates and activates multiple cytoplasmic effector molecules in pathways involved in apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells in bone marrow. Mutations that result in the constitutive activation of this receptor result in acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

FYN Gene

FYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase

This gene is a member of the protein-tyrosine kinase oncogene family. It encodes a membrane-associated tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in the control of cell growth. The protein associates with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and interacts with the fyn-binding protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STYK1 Gene

serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1

Receptor protein tyrosine kinases, like STYK1, play important roles in diverse cellular and developmental processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival (Liu et al., 2004 [PubMed 15150103]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TEK Gene

TEK tyrosine kinase, endothelial

This gene encodes a receptor that belongs to the protein tyrosine kinase Tie2 family. The encoded protein possesses a unique extracellular region that contains two immunoglobulin-like domains, three epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains and three fibronectin type III repeats. The ligand angiopoietin-1 binds to this receptor and mediates a signaling pathway that functions in embryonic vascular development. Mutations in this gene are associated with inherited venous malformations of the skin and mucous membranes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

SYK Gene

spleen tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a member of the family of non-receptor type Tyr protein kinases. This protein is widely expressed in hematopoietic cells and is involved in coupling activated immunoreceptors to downstream signaling events that mediate diverse cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation, and phagocytosis. It is thought to be a modulator of epithelial cell growth and a potential tumour suppressor in human breast carcinomas. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

FLT3LG Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand

Dendritic cells (DCs) provide the key link between innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing pathogens and priming pathogen-specific immune responses. FLT3LG controls the development of DCs and is particularly important for plasmacytoid DCs and CD8 (see MIM 186910)-positive classical DCs and their CD103 (ITGAE; MIM 604682)-positive tissue counterparts (summary by Sathaliyawala et al., 2010 [PubMed 20933441]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

CABYR Gene

calcium binding tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated

To reach fertilization competence, spermatozoa undergo a series of morphological and molecular maturational processes, termed capacitation, involving protein tyrosine phosphorylation and increased intracellular calcium. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the principal piece of the sperm flagellum in association with the fibrous sheath and exhibits calcium-binding when phosphorylated during capacitation. A pseudogene on chromosome 3 has been identified for this gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

CYYR1 Gene

cysteine/tyrosine-rich 1

FRK Gene

fyn-related Src family tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the TYR family of protein kinases. This tyrosine kinase is a nuclear protein and may function during G1 and S phase of the cell cycle and suppress growth. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FLT1P1 Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 pseudogene 1

CSK Gene

c-src tyrosine kinase

AATK Gene

apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a tyrosine kinase domain at the N-terminus and a proline-rich domain at the C-terminus. This gene is induced during apoptosis, and expression of this gene may be a necessary pre-requisite for the induction of growth arrest and/or apoptosis of myeloid precursor cells. This gene has been shown to produce neuronal differentiation in a neuroblastoma cell line. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

NIDDM2 Gene

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (common, type 2) 2

NIDDM1 Gene

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (common, type 2) 1

BMPR1APS1 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA pseudogene 1

BMPR1APS2 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA pseudogene 2

BMPR2 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase)

This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. The ligands of this receptor are BMPs, which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. BMPs are involved in endochondral bone formation and embryogenesis. These proteins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes of two different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in the absence of type I receptors, but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II receptors for ligand binding. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary pulmonary hypertension, both familial and fenfluramine-associated, and with pulmonary venoocclusive disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BMPR1A Gene

bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA

The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors are a family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases that include the type I receptors BMPR1A and BMPR1B and the type II receptor BMPR2. These receptors are also closely related to the activin receptors, ACVR1 and ACVR2. The ligands of these receptors are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. TGF-betas and activins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes with 2 different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in the absence of type I receptors, but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II receptors for ligand binding. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BMPR1B Gene

bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IB

This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. The ligands of this receptor are BMPs, which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. BMPs are involved in endochondral bone formation and embryogenesis. These proteins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes of 2 different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in the absence of type I receptors, but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II receptors for ligand binding. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary pulmonary hypertension. Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

PPP1R1AP2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1A pseudogene 2

PPP3CA Gene

protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme

PPP3CB Gene

protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme

PPP3CC Gene

protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme

Calcineurin is a calcium-dependent, calmodulin-stimulated protein phosphatase involved in the downstream regulation of dopaminergic signal transduction. Calcineurin is composed of a regulatory subunit and a catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of the regulatory subunits that has been found for calcineurin. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PPP1R26 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 26

PPP1R27 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 27

PPP1R21 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 21

PPP1R13B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13B

This gene encodes a member of the ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) family of p53 interacting proteins. The protein contains four ankyrin repeats and an SH3 domain involved in protein-protein interactions. ASPP proteins are required for the induction of apoptosis by p53-family proteins. They promote DNA binding and transactivation of p53-family proteins on the promoters of proapoptotic genes. Expression of this gene is regulated by the E2F transcription factor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R13L Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13 like

IASPP is one of the most evolutionarily conserved inhibitors of p53 (TP53; MIM 191170), whereas ASPP1 (MIM 606455) and ASPP2 (MIM 602143) are activators of p53.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100631380 Gene

protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 2 pseudogene 1

PPP6C Gene

protein phosphatase 6, catalytic subunit

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase, a component of a signaling pathway regulating cell cycle progression. Splice variants encoding different protein isoforms exist. The pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421419 Gene

protein phosphatase 4, regulatory subunit 2 pseudogene

PPP1R10P1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 10 pseudogene 1

LOC102725016 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B'' subunit beta

PPP6CP Gene

protein phosphatase 6, catalytic subunit pseudogene

LOC390705 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', beta pseudogene

PHLPP1 Gene

PH domain and leucine rich repeat protein phosphatase 1

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine phosphatase family. The encoded protein promotes apoptosis by dephosphorylating and inactivating the serine/threonine kinase Akt, and functions as a tumor suppressor in multiple types of cancer. Increased expression of this gene may also play a role in obesity and type 2 diabetes by interfering with Akt-mediated insulin signaling. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

PPP1R14D Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14D

Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1; see MIM 176875) is a major cellular phosphatase that reverses serine/threonine protein phosphorylation. PPP1R14D is a PP1 inhibitor that itself is regulated by phosphorylation (Liu et al., 2004 [PubMed 12974676]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

PPP1R14B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B

PPP1R14C Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14C

The degree of protein phosphorylation is regulated by a balance of protein kinase and phosphatase activities. Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1; see MIM 176875) is a signal-transducing phosphatase that influences neuronal activity, protein synthesis, metabolism, muscle contraction, and cell division. PPP1R14C is an inhibitor of PP1 (Liu et al., 2002 [PubMed 11812771]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

PPP1R14A Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14A

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) inhibitor family. This protein is an inhibitor of smooth muscle myosin phosphatase, and has higher inhibitory activity when phosphorylated. Inhibition of myosin phosphatase leads to increased myosin phosphorylation and enhanced smooth muscle contraction. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

LOC100133326 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

PPP1R12BP1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 12B pseudogene, Y-linked 1

PPP1R12BP2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 12B Y-linked pseudogene 2

LOC100421808 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, gamma pseudogene

LOC100421802 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, alpha pseudogene

LOC647208 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', beta pseudogene

PPP2R2DP1 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, delta pseudogene 1

PPP1R26P5 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 26 pseudogene 5

PPP1R26P2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 26 pseudogene 2

PPP1R8P1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 8 pseudogene 1

PPP2R1B Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, beta

This gene encodes a constant regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2. Protein phosphatase 2 is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The constant regulatory subunit A serves as a scaffolding molecule to coordinate the assembly of the catalytic subunit and a variable regulatory B subunit. This gene encodes a beta isoform of the constant regulatory subunit A. Mutations in this gene have been associated with some lung and colon cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PPP1R26P4 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 26 pseudogene 4

PPP2R4 Gene

protein phosphatase 2A activator, regulatory subunit 4

Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. Protein phosphatase 2A holoenzymes are heterotrimeric proteins composed of a structural subunit A, a catalytic subunit C, and a regulatory subunit B. The regulatory subunit is encoded by a diverse set of genes that have been grouped into the B/PR55, B'/PR61, and B''/PR72 families. These different regulatory subunits confer distinct enzymatic specificities and intracellular localizations to the holozenzyme. The product of this gene belongs to the B' family. This gene encodes a specific phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator of the dimeric form of protein phosphatase 2A. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100132773 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

PPEF2 Gene

protein phosphatase, EF-hand calcium binding domain 2

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase with EF-hand motif family. The protein contains a protein phosphatase catalytic domain, and at least two EF-hand calcium-binding motifs in its C terminus. Although its substrate(s) is unknown, the encoded protein, which is expressed specifically in photoreceptors and the pineal, has been suggested to play a role in the visual system. This gene shares high sequence similarity with the Drosophila retinal degeneration C (rdgC) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPEF1 Gene

protein phosphatase, EF-hand calcium binding domain 1

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase with EF-hand motif family. The protein contains a protein phosphatase catalytic domain, and at least two EF-hand calcium-binding motifs in its C terminus. Although its substrate(s) is unknown, the encoded protein has been suggested to play a role in specific sensory neuron function and/or development. This gene shares high sequence similarity with the Drosophila retinal degeneration C (rdgC) gene. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants, each encoding a distinct isoform, have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP2CBP1 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme pseudogene 1

PPP1R14BP5 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 5

LOC390760 Gene

protein phosphatase inhibitor 2-like

PPP1R14BP4 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 4

PPP1R14BP2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 2

PPP1R14BP3 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 3

PPP1R14BP1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 1

PPP1R3G Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3G

PPP1R3F Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3F

This gene encodes a protein that has been identified as one of several type-1 protein phosphatase (PP1) regulatory subunits. One or two of these subunits, together with the well-conserved catalytic subunit, can form the PP1 holoenzyme, where the regulatory subunit functions to regulate substrate specificity and/or targeting to a particular cellular compartment. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PPP1R3E Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3E

PPP1R3D Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3D

Phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues in proteins is a crucial step in the regulation of many cellular functions ranging from hormonal regulation to cell division and even short-term memory. The level of phosphorylation is controlled by the opposing actions of protein kinases and protein phosphatases. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is 1 of 4 major serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatases which have been identified in eukaryotic cells. PP1 associates with various regulatory subunits that dictate its subcellular localization and modulate its substrate specificity. Several subunits that target PP1 to glycogen have been identified. This gene encodes a glycogen-targeting subunit of PP1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R3C Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3C

This gene encodes a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). PP1 catalyzes reversible protein phosphorylation, which is important in a wide range of cellular activities: neuronal, muscular, RNA splicing, protein synthesis, cell death, and glycogen metabolism, to name just a few. By interacting with different regulatory subunits, PP1 is directed to different parts of the cell, to different substrates, or to respond to extracellular signals. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

PPP1R3B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3B

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the serine/theonine phosphatase, protein phosphatase-1. The encoded protein is expressed in liver and skeletal muscle tissue and may be involved in regulating glycogen synthesis in these tissues. This gene may be a involved in type 2 diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

PPP1R3A Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3A

The glycogen-associated form of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) derived from skeletal muscle is a heterodimer composed of a 37-kD catalytic subunit and a 124-kD targeting and regulatory subunit. This gene encodes the regulatory subunit which binds to muscle glycogen with high affinity, thereby enhancing dephosphorylation of glycogen-bound substrates for PP1 such as glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase kinase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R37 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 37

PPP1R36 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 36

PPP1R35 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 35

PPP1R32 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 32

PPP1R12A Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 12A

Myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, which is also called the myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase, is one of the subunits of myosin phosphatase. Myosin phosphatase regulates the interaction of actin and myosin downstream of the guanosine triphosphatase Rho. The small guanosine triphosphatase Rho is implicated in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, which results in contraction of smooth muscle and interaction of actin and myosin in nonmuscle cells. The guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound, active form of RhoA (GTP.RhoA) specifically interacted with the myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase, which regulates the extent of phosphorylation of MLC. Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), which is activated by GTP. RhoA, phosphorylated MBS and consequently inactivated myosin phosphatase. Overexpression of RhoA or activated RhoA in NIH 3T3 cells increased phosphorylation of MBS and MLC. Thus, Rho appears to inhibit myosin phosphatase through the action of Rho-kinase. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

PPP1R12B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 12B

Myosin phosphatase is a protein complex comprised of three subunits: a catalytic subunit (PP1c-delta, protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit delta), a large regulatory subunit (MYPT, myosin phosphatase target) and small regulatory subunit (sm-M20). Two isoforms of MYPT have been isolated--MYPT1 and MYPT2, the first of which is widely expressed, and the second of which may be specific to heart, skeletal muscle, and brain. Each of the MYPT isoforms functions to bind PP1c-delta and increase phosphatase activity. This locus encodes both MYTP2 and M20. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. Related pseudogenes have been defined on the Y chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

PPP1R12C Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 12C

The gene encodes a subunit of myosin phosphatase. The encoded protein regulates the catalytic activity of protein phosphatase 1 delta and assembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

PPP6R2 Gene

protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 2

Protein phosphatase regulatory subunits, such as SAPS2, modulate the activity of protein phosphatase catalytic subunits by restricting substrate specificity, recruiting substrates, and determining the intracellular localization of the holoenzyme. SAPS2 is a regulatory subunit for the protein phosphatase-6 catalytic subunit (PPP6C; MIM 612725) (Stefansson and Brautigan, 2006 [PubMed 16769727]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

PPP6R3 Gene

protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 3

Protein phosphatase regulatory subunits, such as SAPS3, modulate the activity of protein phosphatase catalytic subunits by restricting substrate specificity, recruiting substrates, and determining the intracellular localization of the holoenzyme. SAPS3 is a regulatory subunit for the protein phosphatase-6 catalytic subunit (PPP6C; MIM 612725) (Stefansson and Brautigan, 2006 [PubMed 16769727]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

PPP6R1 Gene

protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 1

Protein phosphatase regulatory subunits, such as SAPS1, modulate the activity of protein phosphatase catalytic subunits by restricting substrate specificity, recruiting substrates, and determining the intracellular localization of the holoenzyme. SAPS1 is a regulatory subunit for the protein phosphatase-6 catalytic subunit (PPP6C; MIM 612725) (Stefansson and Brautigan, 2006 [PubMed 16769727]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

PPP1R26P1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 26 pseudogene 1

PSTPIP2 Gene

proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 2

PSTPIP1 Gene

proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene binds to the cytoplasmic tail of CD2, an effector of T cell activation and adhesion, negatively affecting CD2-triggered T cell activation. The encoded protein appears to be a scaffold protein and a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. It has also been shown to bind ABL1, PTPN18, WAS, CD2AP, and PTPN12. Mutations in this gene are a cause of PAPA syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100131868 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

PPP5C Gene

protein phosphatase 5, catalytic subunit

This gene encodes a serine/threonine phosphatase which is a member of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit family. Proteins in this family participate in pathways regulated by reversible phosphorylation at serine and threonine residues; many of these pathways are involved in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. The product of this gene has been shown to participate in signaling pathways in response to hormones or cellular stress, and elevated levels of this protein may be associated with breast cancer development. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

PPM1AP1 Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1A, pseudogene 1

PPP4R4 Gene

protein phosphatase 4, regulatory subunit 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a HEAT-like repeat-containing protein. The HEAT repeat is a tandemly repeated, 37-47 amino acid long module occurring in a number of cytoplasmic proteins. Arrays of HEAT repeats form a rod-like helical structure and appear to function as protein-protein interaction surfaces. The repeat-containing region of this protein has some similarity to the constant regulatory domain of the protein phosphatase 2A PR65/A subunit. The function of this particular gene product has not been determined. Alternative splicing has been observed for this gene and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP4R1 Gene

protein phosphatase 4, regulatory subunit 1

This gene encodes one of several alternate regulatory subunits of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 4 (PP4). The protein features multiple HEAT repeats. This protein forms a complex with PP4RC. This complex may have a distinct role from other PP4 complexes, including regulation of HDAC3 (Zhang et al., PMID: 15805470). There is also a transcribed pseudogene on chromosome 20. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

PPP4R2 Gene

protein phosphatase 4, regulatory subunit 2

SSH2 Gene

slingshot protein phosphatase 2

This gene encodes a protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in the regulation of actin filaments. The encoded protein dephosphorylates and activates cofilin, which promotes actin filament depolymerization. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

SSH3 Gene

slingshot protein phosphatase 3

The ADF (actin-depolymerizing factor)/cofilin family (see MIM 601442) is composed of stimulus-responsive mediators of actin dynamics. ADF/cofilin proteins are inactivated by kinases such as LIM domain kinase-1 (LIMK1; MIM 601329). The SSH family appears to play a role in actin dynamics by reactivating ADF/cofilin proteins in vivo (Niwa et al., 2002 [PubMed 11832213]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SSH1 Gene

slingshot protein phosphatase 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the slingshot homolog (SSH) family of phosphatases, which regulate actin filament dynamics. The SSH proteins dephosphorylate and activate the actin binding/depolymerizing factor cofilin, which subsequently binds to actin filaments and stimulates their disassembly. Cofilin is inactivated by kinases such as LIM domain kinase-1 (LIMK1), which may also be dephosphorylated and inactivated by SSH proteins. The SSH family thus appears to play a role in actin dynamics by reactivating cofilin proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

PPP1R1AP1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1A pseudogene 1

PPP1R7 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 7

This gene encodes a protein subunit that regulates the activity of the serine/threonine phosphatase, protein phosphatase-1. The encoded protein is required for completion of the mitotic cycle and for targeting protein phosphatase-1 to mitotic kinetochores. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PPP1R2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2

LOC100131360 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

PPP2R3B Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', beta

Protein phosphatase 2 (formerly named type 2A) is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. Protein phosphatase 2 holoenzymes are heterotrimeric proteins composed of a structural subunit A, a catalytic subunit C, and a regulatory subunit B. The regulatory subunit is encoded by a diverse set of genes that have been grouped into the B/PR55, B'/PR61, and B''/PR72 families. These different regulatory subunits confer distinct enzymatic specificities and intracellular localizations to the holozenzyme. The product of this gene belongs to the B'' family. The B'' family has been further divided into subfamilies. The product of this gene belongs to the beta subfamily of regulatory subunit B''. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PPP2R3C Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', gamma

This gene encodes a regulatory subunit of the serine/threonine phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2. This protein is localized to both nuclear and cytoplasmic regions depending on cell cycle phase. Homozygous conditional knockout mice for this gene exhibit reduced numbers and impaired proliferation of immune system B cells. This protein may regulate the expression of the P-glycoprotein ATP-binding cassette transporter through its phosphatase activity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

PPP2R3A Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', alpha

This gene encodes one of the regulatory subunits of the protein phosphatase 2. Protein phosphatase 2 (formerly named type 2A) is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. Protein phosphatase 2 holoenzymes are heterotrimeric proteins composed of a structural subunit A, a catalytic subunit C, and a regulatory subunit B. The regulatory subunit is encoded by a diverse set of genes that have been grouped into the B/PR55, B'/PR61, and B''/PR72 families. These different regulatory subunits confer distinct enzymatic specificities and intracellular localizations to the holozenzyme. The product of this gene belongs to the B'' family. The B'' family has been further divided into subfamilies. The product of this gene belongs to the alpha subfamily of regulatory subunit B''. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

PPP1R8 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 8

This gene, through alternative splicing, encodes three different isoforms. Two of the protein isoforms encoded by this gene are specific inhibitors of type 1 serine/threonine protein phosphatases and can bind but not cleave RNA. The third protein isoform lacks the phosphatase inhibitory function but is a single-strand endoribonuclease comparable to RNase E of E. coli. This isoform requires magnesium for its function and cleaves specific sites in A+U-rich regions of RNA. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAPL Gene

iron/zinc purple acid phosphatase-like protein

Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), including PAPL, are a family of binuclear metallohydrolases that have been identified in plants, animals, and fungi (Flanagan et al., 2006 [PubMed 16793224]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MPRIPP1 Gene

myosin phosphatase Rho interacting protein pseudogene 1

PPTC7 Gene

PTC7 protein phosphatase homolog (S. cerevisiae)

LOC100418682 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene

LOC100418683 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene

LOC100418684 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene

LOC100288016 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

PPP1R1A Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1A

PPP1R1C Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1C

Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) is a major serine/threonine phosphatase that regulates a variety of cellular functions. PP1 consists of a catalytic subunit (see PPP1CA; MIM 176875) and regulatory subunits that determine the subcellular localization of PP1 or regulate its function. PPP1R1C belongs to a group of PP1 inhibitory subunits that are themselves regulated by phosphorylation (Wang et al., 2008 [PubMed 18310074]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

PPP1R1B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1B

This gene encodes a bifunctional signal transduction molecule. Dopaminergic and glutamatergic receptor stimulation regulates its phosphorylation and function as a kinase or phosphatase inhibitor. As a target for dopamine, this gene may serve as a therapeutic target for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

PPP1R11 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 11

This gene encodes a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) with a differential sensitivity toward the metal-independent and metal-dependent forms of PP1. The gene is located within the major histocompatibility complex class I region on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R10 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 10

This gene encodes a protein phosphatase 1 binding protein. The encoded protein plays a role in many cellular processes including cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis by regulating the activity of protein phosphatase 1. This gene lies within the major histocompatibility complex class I region on chromosome 6, and alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PPP1R18 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 18

Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1; see MIM 176875) interacts with regulatory subunits that target the enzyme to different cellular locations and change its activity toward specific substrates. Phostensin is a regulatory subunit that targets PP1 to F-actin (see MIM 102610) cytoskeleton (Kao et al., 2007 [PubMed 17374523]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100128362 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme pseudogene

PPP1R2P3 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 3

PPP1R9A Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 9A

This gene is imprinted, and located in a cluster of imprinted genes on chromosome 7q12. This gene is transcribed in both neuronal and multiple embryonic tissues, and it is maternally expressed mainly in embryonic skeletal muscle tissues and biallelically expressed in other embryonic tissues. The protein encoded by this gene includes a PDZ domain and a sterile alpha motif (SAM). It is a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase I, and controls actin cytoskeleton reorganization. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

PPP1R9B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 9B

This gene encodes a scaffold protein that functions as a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1a. Expression of this gene is particularly high in dendritic spines, suggesting that the encoded protein may play a role in receiving signals from the central nervous system. The encoded protein has putative tumor suppressor function and decreased expression has been observed in tumors. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PPP3R2 Gene

protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, beta

PPP3R1 Gene

protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, alpha

PPP6R2P1 Gene

protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 2 pseudogene 1

PPP1R15A Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 15A

This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The induction of this gene by ionizing radiation occurs in certain cell lines regardless of p53 status, and its protein response is correlated with apoptosis following ionizing radiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R15B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 15B

PPP1R15B promotes dephosphorylation of the transcription initiation factor EIF2-alpha (EIF2S1; MIM 603907) through recruitment of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) catalytic subunits (see MIM 176875) (Harding et al., 2009 [PubMed 19181853]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

PPP1R2P1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 1

PPP1R2P2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 2

PPP1R2P5 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 5

PPP1R2P4 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 4

PPP1R2P6 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 6

PPP1R2P9 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 9

PPP1R2P8 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 8

PPP2R5D Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', delta

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes a delta isoform of the regulatory subunit B56 subfamily. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP2R5E Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', epsilon isoform

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes an epsilon isoform of the regulatory subunit B56 subfamily. Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

PPP2R5A Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes an alpha isoform of the regulatory subunit B56 subfamily. Alternative transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PPP2R5B Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', beta

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes a beta isoform of the regulatory subunit B56 subfamily. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP2R5C Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', gamma

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes a gamma isoform of the regulatory subunit B56 subfamily. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MPRIP Gene

myosin phosphatase Rho interacting protein

PPP1R42 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 42

PPP4R1L Gene

protein phosphatase 4, regulatory subunit 1-like (pseudogene)

PPP4C Gene

protein phosphatase 4, catalytic subunit

LOC101060304 Gene

protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 26-like

PHLPP2 Gene

PH domain and leucine rich repeat protein phosphatase 2

PPP1R26P3 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 26 pseudogene 3

PPP2R1A Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, alpha

This gene encodes a constant regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2. Protein phosphatase 2 is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The constant regulatory subunit A serves as a scaffolding molecule to coordinate the assembly of the catalytic subunit and a variable regulatory B subunit. This gene encodes an alpha isoform of the constant regulatory subunit A. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PPP1R11P2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 11 pseudogene 2

PPP1R11P1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 11 pseudogene 1

LOC154937 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', epsilon isoform pseudogene

PPME1 Gene

protein phosphatase methylesterase 1

This gene encodes a protein phosphatase methylesterase localized to the nucleus. The encoded protein acts on the protein phosphatase-2A catalytic subunit and supports the ERK pathway through dephosphorylation of regulatory proteins. It plays a role in malignant glioma progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

LOC101060852 Gene

protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 26-like

PPM1G Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1G

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase is found to be responsible for the dephosphorylation of Pre-mRNA splicing factors, which is important for the formation of functional spliceosome. Studies of a similar gene in mice suggested a role of this phosphatase in regulating cell cycle progression. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PPM1F Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1F

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase can interact with Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (PIX), and thus block the effects of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK), a protein kinase mediating biological effects downstream of Rho GTPases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma (CAMK2G/CAMK-II) is found to be one of the substrates of this phosphatase. The overexpression of this phosphatase or CAMK2G has been shown to mediate caspase-dependent apoptosis. An alternatively spliced transcript variant has been identified, but its full-length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1E Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1E

This gene encodes a member of the PPM family of serine/threonine-protein phosphatases. The encoded protein is localized to the nucleus and dephosphorylates and inactivates multiple substrates including serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

PPM1D Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1D

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. The expression of this gene is induced in a p53-dependent manner in response to various environmental stresses. While being induced by tumor suppressor protein TP53/p53, this phosphatase negatively regulates the activity of p38 MAP kinase, MAPK/p38, through which it reduces the phosphorylation of p53, and in turn suppresses p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis. This phosphatase thus mediates a feedback regulation of p38-p53 signaling that contributes to growth inhibition and the suppression of stress induced apoptosis. This gene is located in a chromosomal region known to be amplified in breast cancer. The amplification of this gene has been detected in both breast cancer cell line and primary breast tumors, which suggests a role of this gene in cancer development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1B Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase has been shown to dephosphorylate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and thus may be involved in cell cycle control. Overexpression of this phosphatase is reported to cause cell-growth arrest or cell death. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additional transcript variants have been described, but currently do not represent full-length sequences. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1A Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1A

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase dephosphorylates, and negatively regulates the activities of, MAP kinases and MAP kinase kinases. It has been shown to inhibit the activation of p38 and JNK kinase cascades induced by environmental stresses. This phosphatase can also dephosphorylate cyclin-dependent kinases, and thus may be involved in cell cycle control. Overexpression of this phosphatase is reported to activate the expression of the tumor suppressor gene TP53/p53, which leads to G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1N Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1N (putative)

PPM1M Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1M

PPM1L Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1L

PPM1L, or PP2CE, belongs to the PP2C group of serine/threonine phosphatases, which are distinguished from other phosphatases by their structure, absolute requirement for Mg(2+) or Mn(2+), and insensitivity to okadaic acid. PP2Cs regulate stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK; see MIM 601158) signaling cascades that respond to extracellular stimuli (Jin et al., 2004 [PubMed 15560375]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2008]

PPM1K Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1K

This gene encodes a member of the PPM family of Mn2+/Mg2+-dependent protein phosphatases. The encoded protein, essential for cell survival and development, is targeted to the mitochondria where it plays a key role in regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

PPM1J Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1J

This gene encodes the serine/threonine protein phosphatase. The mouse homolog of this gene apparently belongs to the protein phosphatase 2C family of genes. The exact function of this gene is not yet known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1H Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1H

PP2D1 Gene

protein phosphatase 2C-like domain containing 1

PPP1CB Gene

protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the three catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). PP1 is a serine/threonine specific protein phosphatase known to be involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes, such as cell division, glycogen metabolism, muscle contractility, protein synthesis, and HIV-1 viral transcription. Mouse studies suggest that PP1 functions as a suppressor of learning and memory. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1CC Gene

protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein phosphatase family, PP1 subfamily. PP1 is an ubiquitous serine/threonine phosphatase that regulates many cellular processes, including cell division. It is expressed in mammalian cells as three closely related isoforms, alpha, beta/delta and gamma, which have distinct localization patterns. This gene encodes the gamma isozyme. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

PPP1CA Gene

protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the three catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). PP1 is a serine/threonine specific protein phosphatase known to be involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes, such as cell division, glycogen metabolism, muscle contractility, protein synthesis, and HIV-1 viral transcription. Increased PP1 activity has been observed in the end stage of heart failure. Studies in both human and mice suggest that PP1 is an important regulator of cardiac function. Mouse studies also suggest that PP1 functions as a suppressor of learning and memory. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R16A Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 16A

PPP1R16B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 16B

The protein encoded by this gene is membrane-associated and contains five ankyrin repeats, a protein phosphatase-1-interacting domain, and a carboxy-terminal CAAX box domain. Synthesis of the encoded protein is inhibited by transforming growth factor beta-1. The protein may bind to the membrane through its CAAX box domain and may act as a signaling molecule through interaction with protein phosphatase-1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

PPP2CA Gene

protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme

This gene encodes the phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. This gene encodes an alpha isoform of the catalytic subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP2CB Gene

protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme

This gene encodes the phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. This gene encodes a beta isoform of the catalytic subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC102724991 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B'' subunit beta

LOC100286973 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme pseudogene

LOC100128052 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', gamma pseudogene

LOC102724526 Gene

protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 26-like

LOC101059962 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 10-like

PPP2R2D Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, delta

PPP2R2A Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2 is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes an alpha isoform of the regulatory subunit B55 subfamily. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PPP2R2C Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, gamma

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2 is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes a gamma isoform of the regulatory subunit B55 subfamily. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP2R2B Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, beta

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2 is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes a beta isoform of the regulatory subunit B55 subfamily. Defects in this gene cause autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia 12 (SCA12), a disease caused by degeneration of the cerebellum, sometimes involving the brainstem and spinal cord, and in resulting in poor coordination of speech and body movements. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, which encode different isoforms, have been identified for this gene. The 5' UTR of some of these variants includes a CAG trinucleotide repeat sequence (7-28 copies) that can be expanded to 66-78 copies in cases of SCA12. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R17 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 17

The protein encoded by this gene is found primarily in cerebellar Purkinje cells, where it functions as a protein phosphatase inhibitor. The encoded protein is a substrate for cGMP-dependent protein kinase. An allele of this gene was discovered that increases susceptibility to hypercholesterolemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

PPP1R2P10 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 10

PPP2R5CP Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', gamma pseudogene

NCCRP1 Gene

non-specific cytotoxic cell receptor protein 1 homolog (zebrafish)

GNRHR2P1 Gene

gonadotropin-releasing hormone (type 2) receptor 2 pseudogene 1

TAS2R63P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 63, pseudogene

COL1AR Gene

collagen, type I, alpha, receptor

TAS2R20 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 20

TAS2R22 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 22

ACVR1 Gene

activin A receptor, type I

Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I ( I and IB) and two type II (II and IIB) receptors. These receptors are all transmembrane proteins, composed of a ligand-binding extracellular domain with cysteine-rich region, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. Type I receptors are essential for signaling; and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a stable complex after ligand binding, resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which signals a particular transcriptional response in concert with activin type II receptors. Mutations in this gene are associated with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R50 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 50

TAS2R50 belongs to the large TAS2R receptor family. TAS2Rs are expressed on the surface of taste receptor cells and mediate the perception of bitterness through a G protein-coupled second messenger pathway (Conte et al., 2002 [PubMed 12584440]). See also TAS2R10 (MIM 604791).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TAS2R64P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 64, pseudogene

EDNRA Gene

endothelin receptor type A

This gene encodes the receptor for endothelin-1, a peptide that plays a role in potent and long-lasting vasoconstriction. This receptor associates with guanine-nucleotide-binding (G) proteins, and this coupling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Polymorphisms in this gene have been linked to migraine headache resistance. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

EDNRB Gene

endothelin receptor type B

The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor which activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its ligand, endothelin, consists of a family of three potent vasoactive peptides: ET1, ET2, and ET3. Studies suggest that the multigenic disorder, Hirschsprung disease type 2, is due to mutations in the endothelin receptor type B gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

ACVR2A Gene

activin A receptor, type IIA

This gene encodes a receptor that mediates the functions of activins, which are members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily involved in diverse biological processes. The encoded protein is a transmembrane serine-threonine kinase receptor which mediates signaling by forming heterodimeric complexes with various combinations of type I and type II receptors and ligands in a cell-specific manner. The encoded type II receptor is primarily involved in ligand-binding and includes an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic serine-threonine kinase domain. This gene may be associated with susceptibility to preeclampsia, a pregnancy-related disease which can result in maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

ACVR2B Gene

activin A receptor, type IIB

Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I (I and IB) and two type II (II and IIB) receptors. These receptors are all transmembrane proteins, composed of a ligand-binding extracellular domain with cysteine-rich region, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. Type I receptors are essential for signaling; and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a stable complex after ligand binding, resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. Type II receptors are considered to be constitutively active kinases. This gene encodes activin A type IIB receptor, which displays a 3- to 4-fold higher affinity for the ligand than activin A type II receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105379861 Gene

neuropeptide Y receptor type 4

CELSR3 Gene

cadherin, EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3

This gene belongs to the flamingo subfamily, which is included in the cadherin superfamily. The flamingo cadherins consist of nonclassic-type cadherins that do not interact with catenins. They are plasma membrane proteins containing seven epidermal growth factor-like repeats, nine cadherin domains and two laminin A G-type repeats in their ectodomain. They also have seven transmembrane domains, a characteristic feature of their subfamily. The encoded protein may be involved in the regulation of contact-dependent neurite growth and may play a role in tumor formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

CELSR2 Gene

cadherin, EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the flamingo subfamily, part of the cadherin superfamily. The flamingo subfamily consists of nonclassic-type cadherins; a subpopulation that does not interact with catenins. The flamingo cadherins are located at the plasma membrane and have nine cadherin domains, seven epidermal growth factor-like repeats and two laminin A G-type repeats in their ectodomain. They also have seven transmembrane domains, a characteristic unique to this subfamily. It is postulated that these proteins are receptors involved in contact-mediated communication, with cadherin domains acting as homophilic binding regions and the EGF-like domains involved in cell adhesion and receptor-ligand interactions. The specific function of this particular member has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CELSR1 Gene

cadherin, EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the flamingo subfamily, part of the cadherin superfamily. The flamingo subfamily consists of nonclassic-type cadherins; a subpopulation that does not interact with catenins. The flamingo cadherins are located at the plasma membrane and have nine cadherin domains, seven epidermal growth factor-like repeats and two laminin A G-type repeats in their ectodomain. They also have seven transmembrane domains, a characteristic unique to this subfamily. It is postulated that these proteins are receptors involved in contact-mediated communication, with cadherin domains acting as homophilic binding regions and the EGF-like domains involved in cell adhesion and receptor-ligand interactions. This particular member is a developmentally regulated, neural-specific gene which plays an unspecified role in early embryogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R43 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 43

TAS2R43 belongs to the large TAS2R receptor family. TAS2Rs are expressed on the surface of taste receptor cells and mediate the perception of bitterness through a G protein-coupled second messenger pathway (Conte et al., 2002 [PubMed 12584440]). For further information on TAS2Rs, see MIM 604791.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2009]

TAS2R42 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 42

TAS2R41 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 41

TAS2R40 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 40

TAS2R46 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 46

TAS2R46 belongs to the large TAS2R receptor family. TAS2Rs are expressed on the surface of taste receptor cells and mediate the perception of bitterness through a G protein-coupled second messenger pathway (Conte et al., 2002 [PubMed 12584440]). For further information on TAS2Rs, see MIM 604791.[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2009]

TAS2R45 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 45

LOC105375807 Gene

ephrin type-B receptor 6-like

TAS2R62P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 62, pseudogene

LOC100420580 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 7 pseudogene

LOC100420583 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 7 pseudogene

TAS2R12P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 12, pseudogene

MRC1 Gene

mannose receptor, C type 1

The recognition of complex carbohydrate structures on glycoproteins is an important part of several biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, serum glycoprotein turnover, and neutralization of pathogens. The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane receptor that mediates the endocytosis of glycoproteins by macrophages. The protein has been shown to bind high-mannose structures on the surface of potentially pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and fungi so that they can be neutralized by phagocytic engulfment.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

TAS2R19 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 19

TAS2R14 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 14

This gene product belongs to the family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These proteins are specifically expressed in the taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. They are organized in the genome in clusters and are genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans. In functional expression studies, they respond to bitter tastants. This gene maps to the taste receptor gene cluster on chromosome 12p13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R16 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 16

This gene encodes a member of a family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These family members are specifically expressed by taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. Each of these apparently intronless genes encodes a 7-transmembrane receptor protein, functioning as a bitter taste receptor. This gene is clustered with another 3 candidate taste receptor genes in chromosome 7 and is genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R10 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 10

This gene product belongs to the family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These proteins are specifically expressed in the taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. They are organized in the genome in clusters and are genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans. In functional expression studies, they respond to bitter tastants. This gene maps to the taste receptor gene cluster on chromosome 12p13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R13 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 13

This gene product belongs to the family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These proteins are specifically expressed in the taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. They are organized in the genome in clusters and are genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans. In functional expression studies, they respond to bitter tastants. This gene maps to the taste receptor gene cluster on chromosome 12p13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ACVRL1 Gene

activin A receptor type II-like 1

This gene encodes a type I cell-surface receptor for the TGF-beta superfamily of ligands. It shares with other type I receptors a high degree of similarity in serine-threonine kinase subdomains, a glycine- and serine-rich region (called the GS domain) preceding the kinase domain, and a short C-terminal tail. The encoded protein, sometimes termed ALK1, shares similar domain structures with other closely related ALK or activin receptor-like kinase proteins that form a subfamily of receptor serine/threonine kinases. Mutations in this gene are associated with hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2, also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R8 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 8

This gene product belongs to the family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These proteins are specifically expressed in the taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. They are organized in the genome in clusters and are genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans. In functional expression studies, they respond to bitter tastants. This gene maps to the taste receptor gene cluster on chromosome 12p13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R1 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 1

This gene encodes a member of a family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and that are specifically expressed by taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. This intronless taste receptor gene encodes a 7-transmembrane receptor protein, functioning as a bitter taste receptor. This gene is mapped to chromosome 5p15, the location of a genetic locus (PROP) that controls the detection of the bitter compound 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R67P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 67 pseudogene

LOC105372478 Gene

taste receptor type 1 member 2-like

ACVR1C Gene

activin A receptor, type IC

ACVR1C is a type I receptor for the TGFB (see MIM 190180) family of signaling molecules. Upon ligand binding, type I receptors phosphorylate cytoplasmic SMAD transcription factors, which then translocate to the nucleus and interact directly with DNA or in complex with other transcription factors (Bondestam et al., 2001 [PubMed 12063393]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ACVR1B Gene

activin A receptor, type IB

This gene encodes an activin A type IB receptor. Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I and two type II receptors. This protein is a type I receptor which is essential for signaling. Mutations in this gene are associated with pituitary tumors. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

TAS2R68P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 68 pseudogene

TAS2R18P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 18, pseudogene

AGTR2 Gene

angiotensin II receptor, type 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family, and functions as a receptor for angiotensin II. It is an intergral membrane protein that is highly expressed in fetus, but scantily in adult tissues, except brain, adrenal medulla, and atretic ovary. This receptor has been shown to mediate programmed cell death and this apoptotic function may play an important role in developmental biology and pathophysiology. Mutations in this gene are been associated with X-linked mental retardation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

AGTR1 Gene

angiotensin II receptor, type 1

Angiotensin II is a potent vasopressor hormone and a primary regulator of aldosterone secretion. It is an important effector controlling blood pressure and volume in the cardiovascular system. It acts through at least two types of receptors. This gene encodes the type 1 receptor which is thought to mediate the major cardiovascular effects of angiotensin II. This gene may play a role in the generation of reperfusion arrhythmias following restoration of blood flow to ischemic or infarcted myocardium. It was previously thought that a related gene, denoted as AGTR1B, existed; however, it is now believed that there is only one type 1 receptor gene in humans. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

ADCYAP1R1 Gene

adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) receptor type I

This gene encodes type I adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptor, which is a membrane-associated protein and shares significant homology with members of the glucagon/secretin receptor family. This receptor mediates diverse biological actions of adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 and is positively coupled to adenylate cyclase. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CH17-360D5.1 Gene

neuropeptide Y receptor type 4-like

TAS2R9 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 9

This gene product belongs to the family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These proteins are specifically expressed in the taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. They are organized in the genome in clusters and are genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans. In functional expression studies, they respond to bitter tastants. This gene maps to the taste receptor gene cluster on chromosome 12p13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R7 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 7

This gene product belongs to the family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These proteins are specifically expressed in the taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. They are organized in the genome in clusters and are genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans. In functional expression studies, they respond to bitter tastants. This gene maps to the taste receptor gene cluster on chromosome 12p13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R4 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 4

This gene encodes a member of a family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and that are specifically expressed by taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. These apparently intronless genes encode a 7-transmembrane receptor protein, functioning as a bitter taste receptor. This gene is clustered with another 3 candidate taste receptor genes in chromosome 7 and is genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R5 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 5

This gene encodes a bitter taste receptor; bitter taste receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and are specifically expressed by taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. Each of these apparently intronless taste receptor genes encodes a 7-transmembrane receptor protein, functioning as a bitter taste receptor. This gene is clustered with another 3 candidate taste receptor genes on chromosome 7 and is genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R3 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 3

This gene encodes a member of a family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and that are specifically expressed by taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. These apparently intronless taste receptor genes encode a 7-transmembrane receptor protein, functioning as a bitter taste receptor. This gene is clustered with another 3 candidate taste receptor genes in chromosome 7 and is genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R36 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 36

TAS2R37 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 37

TAS2R33 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 33

TAS2R30 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 30

TAS2R31 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 31

TAS2R44 belongs to the large TAS2R receptor family. TAS2Rs are expressed on the surface of taste receptor cells and mediate the perception of bitterness through a G protein-coupled second messenger pathway (Conte et al., 2002 [PubMed 12584440]). For further information on TAS2Rs, see MIM 604791.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2009]

TAS2R38 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 38

This gene encodes a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor that controls the ability to taste glucosinolates, a family of bitter-tasting compounds found in plants of the Brassica sp. Synthetic compounds phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) have been identified as ligands for this receptor and have been used to test the genetic diversity of this gene. Although several allelic forms of this gene have been identified worldwide, there are two predominant common forms (taster and non-taster) found outside of Africa. These alleles differ at three nucleotide positions resulting in amino acid changes in the protein (A49P, A262V, and V296I) with the amino acid combination PAV identifying the taster variant (and AVI identifying the non-taster variant). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

TAS2R39 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 39

AMHR2 Gene

anti-Mullerian hormone receptor, type II

This gene encodes the receptor for the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) which, in addition to testosterone, results in male sex differentiation. AMH and testosterone are produced in the testes by different cells and have different effects. Testosterone promotes the development of male genitalia while the binding of AMH to the encoded receptor prevents the development of the mullerian ducts into uterus and Fallopian tubes. Mutations in this gene are associated with persistent Mullerian duct syndrome type II. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

TAS2R15P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 15, pseudogene

TAS2R2P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 2, pseudogene

IL1R2 Gene

interleukin 1 receptor, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine receptor that belongs to the interleukin 1 receptor family. This protein binds interleukin alpha (IL1A), interleukin beta (IL1B), and interleukin 1 receptor, type I(IL1R1/IL1RA), and acts as a decoy receptor that inhibits the activity of its ligands. Interleukin 4 (IL4) is reported to antagonize the activity of interleukin 1 by inducing the expression and release of this cytokine. This gene and three other genes form a cytokine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 2q12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms. Alternative splicing produces both membrane-bound and soluble proteins. A soluble protein is also produced by proteolytic cleavage. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

IL1R1 Gene

interleukin 1 receptor, type I

This gene encodes a cytokine receptor that belongs to the interleukin-1 receptor family. The encoded protein is a receptor for interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. It is an important mediator involved in many cytokine-induced immune and inflammatory responses. This gene is located in a cluster of related cytokine receptor genes on chromosome 2q12. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

ITPR2 Gene

inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor family, whose members are second messenger intracellular calcium release channels. These proteins mediate a rise in cytoplasmic calcium in response to receptor activated production of inositol triphosphate. Inositol triphosphate receptor-mediated signaling is involved in many processes including cell migration, cell division, smooth muscle contraction, and neuronal signaling. This protein is a type 2 receptor that consists of a cytoplasmic amino-terminus that binds inositol triphosphate, six membrane-spanning helices that contribute to the ion pore, and a short cytoplasmic carboxy-terminus. A mutation in this gene has been associated with anhidrosis, suggesting that intracellular calcium release mediated by this protein is required for eccrine sweat production. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

ITPR3 Gene

inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3

This gene encodes a receptor for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, a second messenger that mediates the release of intracellular calcium. The receptor contains a calcium channel at the C-terminus and the ligand-binding site at the N-terminus. Knockout studies in mice suggest that type 2 and type 3 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors play a key role in exocrine secretion underlying energy metabolism and growth. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

ITPR1 Gene

inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1

This gene encodes an intracellular receptor for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Upon stimulation by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, this receptor mediates calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in this gene cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 15, a disease associated with an heterogeneous group of cerebellar disorders. Multiple transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

TAS1R1 Gene

taste receptor, type 1, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor and is a component of the heterodimeric amino acid taste receptor T1R1+3. The T1R1+3 receptor responds to L-amino acids but not to D-enantiomers or other compounds. Most amino acids that are perceived as sweet activate T1R1+3, and this activation is strictly dependent on an intact T1R1+3 heterodimer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

TAS1R3 Gene

taste receptor, type 1, member 3

The TAS1R3 gene encodes the human homolog of mouse Sac, a major determinant of differences between sweet-sensitive and -insensitive mouse strains in their responsiveness to sucrose, saccharine, and other sweeteners (Max et al., 2001 [PubMed 11326277]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2010]

TAS1R2 Gene

taste receptor, type 1, member 2

MRC2 Gene

mannose receptor, C type 2

This gene encodes a member of the mannose receptor family of proteins that contain a fibronectin type II domain and multiple C-type lectin-like domains. The encoded protein plays a role in extracellular matrix remodeling by mediating the internalization and lysosomal degradation of collagen ligands. Expression of this gene may play a role in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of several malignancies including breast cancer, gliomas and metastatic bone disease. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

PILRA Gene

paired immunoglobin-like type 2 receptor alpha

Cell signaling pathways rely on a dynamic interaction between activating and inhibiting processes. SHP-1-mediated dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues is central to the regulation of several cell signaling pathways. Two types of inhibitory receptor superfamily members are immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-bearing receptors and their non-ITIM-bearing, activating counterparts. Control of cell signaling via SHP-1 is thought to occur through a balance between PILRalpha-mediated inhibition and PILRbeta-mediated activation. These paired immunoglobulin-like receptor genes are located in a tandem head-to-tail orientation on chromosome 7. This particular gene encodes the ITIM-bearing member of the receptor pair, which functions in the inhibitory role. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and three variants, each encoding a distinct isoform, are described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PILRB Gene

paired immunoglobin-like type 2 receptor beta

The paired immunoglobin-like type 2 receptors consist of highly related activating and inhibitory receptors that are involved in the regulation of many aspects of the immune system. The paired immunoglobulin-like receptor genes are located in a tandem head-to-tail orientation on chromosome 7. This gene encodes the activating member of the receptor pair and contains a truncated cytoplasmic tail relative to its inhibitory counterpart (PILRA), that has a long cytoplasmic tail with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory (ITIM) motifs. This gene is thought to have arisen from a duplication of the inhibitory PILRA gene and evolved to acquire its activating function. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

GNRHR2 Gene

gonadotropin-releasing hormone (type 2) receptor 2, pseudogene

In non-hominoid primates and non-mammalian vertebrates, the gonadotropin releasing hormone 2 receptor gene (GnRHR2) encodes a seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor. However, in human, the corresponding reading frame contains a premature stop codon, which has been suggested to encode a selenocysteine residue, but there is no solid evidence for selenocysteine incorporation (PMID: 12538601). It appears that the human GnRHR2 transcription occurs but the gene does not likely produce a functional multi-transmembrane protein. A non-transcribed pseudogene of GnRHR2 is located on chromosome 14. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

TAS2R6P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 6, pseudogene

TAS2R60 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 60

PHACTR4 Gene

phosphatase and actin regulator 4

This gene encodes a member of the phosphatase and actin regulator (PHACTR) family. Other PHACTR family members have been shown to inhibit protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) activity, and the homolog of this gene in the mouse has been shown to interact with actin and PP1. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PHACTR1 Gene

phosphatase and actin regulator 1

PHACTR3 Gene

phosphatase and actin regulator 3

This gene encodes a member of the phosphatase and actin regulator protein family. The encoded protein is associated with the nuclear scaffold in proliferating cells, and binds to actin and the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1, suggesting that it functions as a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase-1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PHACTR2 Gene

phosphatase and actin regulator 2

ALPP Gene

alkaline phosphatase, placental

The protein encoded by this gene is an alkaline phosphatase, a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoric acid monoesters. It belongs to a multigene family composed of four alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. The enzyme functions as a homodimer and has a catalytic site containing one magnesium and two zinc ions, which are required for its enzymatic function. The protein is primarily expressed in placental and endometrial tissue; however, strong ectopic expression has been detected in ovarian adenocarcinoma, serous cystadenocarcinoma, and other ovarian cancer cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

ALPI Gene

alkaline phosphatase, intestinal

There are at least four distinct but related alkaline phosphatases: intestinal, placental, placental-like, and liver/bone/kidney (tissue non-specific). The intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene encodes a digestive brush-border enzyme. This enzyme is a component of the gut mucosal defense system and is thought to function in the detoxification of lipopolysaccharide, and in the prevention of bacterial translocation in the gut. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

ALPL Gene

alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney

There are at least four distinct but related alkaline phosphatases: intestinal, placental, placental-like, and liver/bone/kidney (tissue non-specific). The first three are located together on chromosome 2, while the tissue non-specific form is located on chromosome 1. The product of this gene is a membrane bound glycosylated enzyme that is not expressed in any particular tissue and is, therefore, referred to as the tissue-nonspecific form of the enzyme. The exact physiological function of the alkaline phosphatases is not known. A proposed function of this form of the enzyme is matrix mineralization; however, mice that lack a functional form of this enzyme show normal skeletal development. This enzyme has been linked directly to hypophosphatasia, a disorder that is characterized by hypercalcemia and includes skeletal defects. The character of this disorder can vary, however, depending on the specific mutation since this determines age of onset and severity of symptoms. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

LHPP Gene

phospholysine phosphohistidine inorganic pyrophosphate phosphatase

LOC100271656 Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase pseudogene

ALPPP Gene

alkaline phosphatase, pseudogene

LOC101929101 Gene

carboxy-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase 2 pseudogene

PDXP Gene

pyridoxal (pyridoxine, vitamin B6) phosphatase

Pyridoxal 5-prime-phosphate (PLP) is the active form of vitamin B6 that acts as a coenzyme in maintaining biochemical homeostasis. The preferred degradation route from PLP to 4-pyridoxic acid involves the dephosphorylation of PLP by PDXP (Jang et al., 2003 [PubMed 14522954]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RNGTT Gene

RNA guanylyltransferase and 5'-phosphatase

LOC100420466 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 3 pseudogene

PXYLP1 Gene

2-phosphoxylose phosphatase 1

EEPD1 Gene

endonuclease/exonuclease/phosphatase family domain containing 1

PDPR Gene

pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit

PDP1 Gene

pyruvate dehyrogenase phosphatase catalytic subunit 1

Pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) is one of the three components (E1, E2, and E3) of the large pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases catalyze phosphorylation of serine residues of E1 to inactivate the E1 component and inhibit the complex. Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatases catalyze the dephosphorylation and activation of the E1 component to reverse the effects of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases. Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase is a heterodimer consisting of catalytic and regulatory subunits. Two catalytic subunits have been reported; one is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and another one is is much more abundant in the liver. The catalytic subunit, encoded by this gene, is the former, and belongs to the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) superfamily. Along with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases, this enzyme is located in the mitochondrial matrix. Mutation in this gene causes pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

PDP2 Gene

pyruvate dehyrogenase phosphatase catalytic subunit 2

TPTE2 Gene

transmembrane phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase and tensin homolog 2

TPIP is a member of a large class of membrane-associated phosphatases with substrate specificity for the 3-position phosphate of inositol phospholipids.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

INPP1 Gene

inositol polyphosphate-1-phosphatase

This gene encodes the enzyme inositol polyphosphate-1-phosphatase, one of the enzymes involved in phosphatidylinositol signaling pathways. This enzyme removes the phosphate group at position 1 of the inositol ring from the polyphosphates inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4-trisphophosphate. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100128407 Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase pseudogene

ALPPL2 Gene

alkaline phosphatase, placental-like 2

There are at least four distinct but related alkaline phosphatases: intestinal, placental, placental-like, and liver/bone/kidney (tissue non-specific). The product of this gene is a membrane bound glycosylated enzyme, localized to testis, thymus and certain germ cell tumors, that is closely related to both the placental and intestinal forms of alkaline phosphatase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100130747 Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase pseudogene

LOC100420515 Gene

CTD nuclear envelope phosphatase 1 pseudogene

DUSP12P1 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 12 pseudogene 1

LOC102724525 Gene

carboxy-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase 2 pseudogene

LOC100419991 Gene

phosphoserine phosphatase pseudogene

LOC101929749 Gene

carboxy-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase 2 pseudogene

PTENP1 Gene

phosphatase and tensin homolog pseudogene 1 (functional)

The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene encodes a tumor suppressor that functions by negatively regulating the AKT/PKB signaling pathway. A highly homologous processed pseudogene of PTEN is found on chromosome 9 and regulates PTEN by both sense and antisense RNAs (Gene ID: 101243555). This long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA) acts as a decoy for PTEN targeting microRNAs and also exerts a tumor suppressive activity. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2013]

ALPQTL3 Gene

Alkaline phosphatase, plasma level of, QTL3

ALPQTL2 Gene

Alkaline phosphatase, plasma level of, QTL 2

NANP Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase

DUSP28 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 28

DUSP21 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 21

This gene encodes a member of the dual specificity phosphatase family, specifically the low molecular weight dual specificity phosphatase family. The encoded protein localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus and functions to remove phosphate groups from phosphotyrosine and phosphothreonine residues.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

DUSP22 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 22

DUSP23 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 23

DUSP26 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 26 (putative)

This gene encodes a member of the tyrosine phosphatase family of proteins and exhibits dual specificity by dephosphorylating tyrosine as well as serine and threonine residues. This gene has been described as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene depending on the cellular context. This protein may regulate neuronal proliferation and has been implicated in the progression of glioblastoma through its ability to dephosphorylate the p53 tumor suppressor. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

DUSP27 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 27 (putative)

PHOSPHO2 Gene

phosphatase, orphan 2

PHOSPHO1 Gene

phosphatase, orphan 1

LOC100131448 Gene

CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) small phosphatase like 2 pseudogene

TIGAR Gene

TP53 induced glycolysis regulatory phosphatase

This gene is regulated as part of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and encodes a protein with sequence similarity to the bisphosphate domain of the glycolytic enzyme that degrades fructose-2,6-bisphosphate. The protein functions by blocking glycolysis and directing the pathway into the pentose phosphate shunt. Expression of this protein also protects cells from DNA damaging reactive oxygen species and provides some protection from DNA damage-induced apoptosis. The 12p13.32 region that includes this gene is paralogous to the 11q13.3 region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SSU72 Gene

SSU72 RNA polymerase II CTD phosphatase homolog (S. cerevisiae)

LOC400927 Gene

TPTE and PTEN homologous inositol lipid phosphatase pseudogene

DUSP5P2 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 5 pseudogene 2

DUSP5P1 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 5 pseudogene 1

LOC643605 Gene

CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) small phosphatase like 2 pseudogene

INPP5A Gene

inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase, 40kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane-associated type I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) 5-phosphatase. InsP3 5-phosphatases hydrolyze Ins(1,4,5)P3, which mobilizes intracellular calcium and acts as a second messenger mediating cell responses to various stimulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INPP5B Gene

inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase, 75kDa

This gene encodes a member of a family of inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatases. These enzymes function in the regulation of calcium signaling by inactivating inositol phosphates. The encoded protein is localized to the cytosol and mitochondria, and associates with membranes through an isoprenyl modification near the C-terminus. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

INPP5D Gene

inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase, 145kDa

This gene is a member of the inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (INPP5) family and encodes a protein with an N-terminal SH2 domain, an inositol phosphatase domain, and two C-terminal protein interaction domains. Expression of this protein is restricted to hematopoietic cells where its movement from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation. At the plasma membrane, the protein hydrolyzes the 5' phosphate from phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate and inositol-1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, thereby affecting multiple signaling pathways. The protein is also partly localized to the nucleus, where it may be involved in nuclear inositol phosphate signaling processes. Overall, the protein functions as a negative regulator of myeloid cell proliferation and survival. Mutations in this gene are associated with defects and cancers of the immune system. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

INPP5E Gene

inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase, 72 kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) 5-phosphatase. InsP3 5-phosphatases hydrolyze Ins(1,4,5)P3, which mobilizes intracellular calcium and acts as a second messenger mediating cell responses to various stimulation. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this protein may hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate on the cytoplasmic Golgi membrane and thereby regulate Golgi-vesicular trafficking. Mutations in this gene cause Joubert syndrome; a clinically and genetically heterogenous group of disorders characterized by midbrain-hindbrain malformation and various associated ciliopathies that include retinal dystrophy, nephronophthisis, liver fibrosis and polydactyly.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

INPP5F Gene

inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase F

The protein encoded by this gene is an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) 5-phosphatase and contains a Sac domain. The activity of this protein is specific for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

INPP5J Gene

inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase J

INPP5K Gene

inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase K

This gene encodes a protein with 5-phosphatase activity toward polyphosphate inositol. The protein localizes to the cytosol in regions lacking actin stress fibers. It is thought that this protein may negatively regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

LOC102724677 Gene

carboxy-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase 2 pseudogene

CTDSP1 Gene

CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) small phosphatase 1

This gene encodes a member of the small C-terminal domain phosphatase (SCP) family of nuclear phosphatases. These proteins play a role in transcriptional regulation through specific dephosphorylation of phosphoserine 5 within tandem heptapeptide repeats of the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. The encoded protein plays a role in neuronal gene silencing in non-neuronal cells, and may also inhibit osteoblast differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CTDSP2 Gene

CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) small phosphatase 2

CTDSPL Gene

CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) small phosphatase-like

EYA4 Gene

EYA transcriptional coactivator and phosphatase 4

This gene encodes a member of the eyes absent (EYA) family of proteins. The encoded protein may act as a transcriptional activator through its protein phosphatase activity, and it may be important for eye development, and for continued function of the mature organ of Corti. Mutations in this gene are associated with postlingual, progressive, autosomal dominant hearing loss at the deafness, autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural 10 locus. The encoded protein is also a putative oncogene that mediates DNA repair, apoptosis, and innate immunity following DNA damage, cellular damage, and viral attack. Defects in this gene are also associated with dilated cardiomyopathy 1J. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

EYA1 Gene

EYA transcriptional coactivator and phosphatase 1

This gene encodes a member of the eyes absent (EYA) family of proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in the developing kidney, branchial arches, eye, and ear. Mutations of this gene have been associated with branchiootorenal dysplasia syndrome, branchiootic syndrome, and sporadic cases of congenital cataracts and ocular anterior segment anomalies. A similar protein in mice can act as a transcriptional activator. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

EYA3 Gene

EYA transcriptional coactivator and phosphatase 3

This gene encodes a member of the eyes absent (EYA) family of proteins. The encoded protein may act as a transcriptional activator and have a role during development. It can act as a mediator of chemoresistance and cell survival in Ewing sarcoma cells, where this gene is up-regulated via a micro-RNA that binds to the 3' UTR of the transcript. A similar protein in mice acts as a transcriptional activator. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

EYA2 Gene

EYA transcriptional coactivator and phosphatase 2

This gene encodes a member of the eyes absent (EYA) family of proteins. The encoded protein may be post-translationally modified and may play a role in eye development. A similar protein in mice can act as a transcriptional activator. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, but the full-length natures of all of these variants have not yet been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

G6PC3 Gene

glucose 6 phosphatase, catalytic, 3

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). G6Pase is located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate to glucose and phosphate in the last step of the gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal recessive severe congenital neutropenia. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene, only one of which is expected to express a protein.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

G6PC2 Gene

glucose-6-phosphatase, catalytic, 2

This gene encodes an enzyme belonging to the glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit family. These enzymes are part of a multicomponent integral membrane system that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate, the terminal step in gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways, allowing the release of glucose into the bloodstream. The family member encoded by this gene is found in pancreatic islets and does not exhibit phosphohydrolase activity, but it is a major target of cell-mediated autoimmunity in diabetes. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CTDNEP1 Gene

CTD nuclear envelope phosphatase 1

PSPHP1 Gene

phosphoserine phosphatase pseudogene 1

This gene is significantly upregulated in Fanconi's anemia fibroblasts but downregulated or absent in fibroblasts from normal donors. It is also highly expressed in FA B-cells of complementation group A. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ALPQTL4 Gene

Alkaline phosphatase, plasma level of, QTL4

LOC102724822 Gene

carboxy-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase 2 pseudogene

ILKAP Gene

integrin-linked kinase-associated serine/threonine phosphatase

The protein encoded by this gene is a protein serine/threonine phosphatase of the PP2C family. This protein can interact with integrin-linked kinase (ILK/ILK1), a regulator of integrin mediated signaling, and regulate the kinase activity of ILK. Through the interaction with ILK, this protein may selectively affect the signaling process of ILK-mediated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3beta), and thus participate in Wnt signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PHPT1 Gene

phosphohistidine phosphatase 1

This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible dephosphorylation of histidine residues in proteins. It may be involved in the dephosphorylation of G-beta and ATP citrate lyase and in negatively regulating CD4 T lymphocytes by dephosphorylation and inhibition of KCa3.1 channels. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

RNGTTP1 Gene

RNA guanylyltransferase and 5'-phosphatase pseudogene 1

TPTEP1 Gene

transmembrane phosphatase with tensin homology pseudogene 1

LOC647299 Gene

enolase-phosphatase 1 pseudogene

G6PC Gene

glucose-6-phosphatase, catalytic subunit

Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) is a multi-subunit integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum that is composed of a catalytic subunit and transporters for G6P, inorganic phosphate, and glucose. This gene (G6PC) is one of the three glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic-subunit-encoding genes in human: G6PC, G6PC2 and G6PC3. Glucose-6-phosphatase catalyzes the hydrolysis of D-glucose 6-phosphate to D-glucose and orthophosphate and is a key enzyme in glucose homeostasis, functioning in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Mutations in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type I (GSD1). This disease, also known as von Gierke disease, is a metabolic disorder characterized by severe hypoglycemia associated with the accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver and kidneys.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

G6PR Gene

glucose-6-phosphatase regulator

MINPP1 Gene

multiple inositol-polyphosphate phosphatase 1

This gene encodes multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase; an enzyme that removes 3-phosphate from inositol phosphate substrates. It is the only enzyme known to hydrolzye inositol pentakisphosphate and inositol hexakisphosphate. This enzyme also converts 2,3 bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) to 2-phosphoglycerate; an activity formerly thought to be exclusive to 2,3-BPG synthase/2-phosphatase (BPGM) in the Rapoport-Luebering shunt of the glycolytic pathway.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

PNKP Gene

polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase

This locus represents a gene involved in DNA repair. In response to ionizing radiation or oxidative damage, the protein encoded by this locus catalyzes 5' phosphorylation and 3' dephosphorylation of nucleic acids. Mutations at this locus have been associated with microcephaly, seizures, and developmental delay.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

CTDP1 Gene

CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) phosphatase, subunit 1

This gene encodes a protein which interacts with the carboxy-terminus of the RAP74 subunit of transcription initiation factor TFIIF, and functions as a phosphatase that processively dephosphorylates the C-terminus of POLR2A (a subunit of RNA polymerase II), making it available for initiation of gene expression. Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism and neuropathy syndrome (CCFDN). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

LOC283922 Gene

pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit pseudogene

PALD1 Gene

phosphatase domain containing, paladin 1

LOC100129155 Gene

phosphatase, orphan 1 pseudogene

DUSP19 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 19

Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) constitute a large heterogeneous subgroup of the type I cysteine-based protein-tyrosine phosphatase superfamily. DUSPs are characterized by their ability to dephosphorylate both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues. They have been implicated as major modulators of critical signaling pathways. DUSP19 contains a variation of the consensus DUSP C-terminal catalytic domain, with the last serine residue replaced by alanine, and lacks the N-terminal CH2 domain found in the MKP (mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase) class of DUSPs (see MIM 600714) (summary by Patterson et al., 2009 [PubMed 19228121]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2009]

DUSP15 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 15

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the non-receptor class of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. The encoded protein has both protein-tyrosine phophatase activity and serine/threonine-specific phosphatase activity, and therefore is known as a dual specificity phosphatase. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DUSP14 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 14

Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) constitute a large heterogeneous subgroup of the type I cysteine-based protein-tyrosine phosphatase superfamily. DUSPs are characterized by their ability to dephosphorylate both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues. They have been implicated as major modulators of critical signaling pathways. DUSP14 contains the consensus DUSP C-terminal catalytic domain but lacks the N-terminal CH2 domain found in the MKP (mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase) class of DUSPs (see MIM 600714) (summary by Patterson et al., 2009 [PubMed 19228121]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2009]

DUSP16 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 16

This gene encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase that is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. These phosphatases inactivate their target kinases by dephosphorylating both the phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine residues. The encoded protein specifically regulates the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

DUSP11 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 11 (RNA/RNP complex 1-interacting)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. These phosphatases inactivate their target kinases by dephosphorylating both the phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine residues. They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which is associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation. Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases, different tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and different modes of inducibility of their expression by extracellular stimuli. This gene product is localized to the nucleus and binds directly to RNA and splicing factors, and thus it is suggested to participate in nuclear mRNA metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

DUSP10 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 10

Dual specificity protein phosphatases inactivate their target kinases by dephosphorylating both the phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine residues. They negatively regulate members of the MAP kinase superfamily, which is associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation. Different members of this family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for MAP kinases, different tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and different modes of expression induction by extracellular stimuli. This gene product binds to and inactivates p38 and SAPK/JNK. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

DUSP12 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 12

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. These phosphatases inactivate their target kinases by dephosphorylating both the phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine residues. They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which is associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation. Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases, different tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and different modes of inducibility of their expression by extracellular stimuli. This gene product is the human ortholog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae YVH1 protein tyrosine phosphatase. It is localized predominantly in the nucleus, and is novel in that it contains, and is regulated by a zinc finger domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SGPP2 Gene

sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase 2

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that regulates diverse biologic processes. SGPP2 catalyzes the degradation of S1P (Ogawa et al., 2003 [PubMed 12411432]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

SGPP1 Gene

sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase 1

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that regulates diverse biologic processes. SGPP1 catalyzes the degradation of S1P via salvage and recycling of sphingosine into long-chain ceramides (Mandala et al., 2000 [PubMed 10859351]; Le Stunff et al., 2007 [PubMed 17895250]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

ENOPH1 Gene

enolase-phosphatase 1

INPPL1 Gene

inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1

The protein encoded by this gene is an SH2-containing 5'-inositol phosphatase that is involved in the regulation of insulin function. The encoded protein also plays a role in the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor turnover and actin remodelling. Additionally, this gene supports metastatic growth in breast cancer and is a valuable biomarker for breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

LOC100420528 Gene

CTD nuclear envelope phosphatase 1 pseudogene

DUPD1 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase and pro isomerase domain containing 1

MDP1 Gene

magnesium-dependent phosphatase 1

PTEN Gene

phosphatase and tensin homolog

This gene was identified as a tumor suppressor that is mutated in a large number of cancers at high frequency. The protein encoded by this gene is a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase. It contains a tensin like domain as well as a catalytic domain similar to that of the dual specificity protein tyrosine phosphatases. Unlike most of the protein tyrosine phosphatases, this protein preferentially dephosphorylates phosphoinositide substrates. It negatively regulates intracellular levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate in cells and functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating AKT/PKB signaling pathway. The use of a non-canonical (CUG) upstream initiation site produces a longer isoform that initiates translation with a leucine, and is thought to be preferentially associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane. This longer isoform may help regulate energy metabolism in the mitochondria. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 9. Alternative splicing and the use of multiple translation start codons results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

PHACTR2P1 Gene

phosphatase and actin regulator 2 pseudogene 1

FIG4 Gene

FIG4 phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SAC domain-containing protein gene family. The SAC domain, approximately 400 amino acids in length and consisting of seven conserved motifs, has been shown to possess phosphoinositide phosphatase activity. The yeast homolog, Sac1p, is involved in the regulation of various phosphoinositides, and affects diverse cellular functions such as actin cytoskeleton organization, Golgi function, and maintenance of vacuole morphology. Membrane-bound phosphoinositides function as signaling molecules and play a key role in vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4J. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TPTE2P5 Gene

transmembrane phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase and tensin homolog 2 pseudogene 5

ACP5 Gene

acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant

This gene encodes an iron containing glycoprotein which catalyzes the conversion of orthophosphoric monoester to alcohol and orthophosphate. It is the most basic of the acid phosphatases and is the only form not inhibited by L(+)-tartrate. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

ACP6 Gene

acid phosphatase 6, lysophosphatidic

ACP1 Gene

acid phosphatase 1, soluble

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase family of proteins. It functions as an acid phosphatase and a protein tyrosine phosphatase by hydrolyzing protein tyrosine phosphate to protein tyrosine and orthophosphate. This enzyme also hydrolyzes orthophosphoric monoesters to alcohol and orthophosphate. This gene is genetically polymorphic, and three common alleles segregating at the corresponding locus give rise to six phenotypes. Each allele appears to encode at least two electrophoretically different isozymes, Bf and Bs, which are produced in allele-specific ratios. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

ACP2 Gene

acid phosphatase 2, lysosomal

This gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP). LAP is chemically and genetically distinct from red cell acid phosphatase. The encoded protein belongs to a family of distinct isoenzymes which hydrolyze orthophosphoric monoesters to alcohol and phosphate. LAP-deficiencies in mice cause multiple defects including bone structure alterations, lysosomal storage defects in the kidneys and central nervous system, and an increased tendency towards seizures. An enzymatically-inactive allele of LAP in mice exhibited a more severe phenotype than the null allele, and defects included cerebellum abnormalities, growth retardation, hair-follicle abnormalities, and an ataxia-like phenotype. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

ACPT Gene

acid phosphatase, testicular

Acid phosphatases are enzymes capable of hydrolyzing orthophosphoric acid esters in an acid medium. This gene is up-regulated by androgens and is down-regulated by estrogens in the prostate cancer cell line. This gene exhibits a lower level of expression in testicular cancer tissues than in normal tissues. The protein encoded by this gene has structural similarity to prostatic and lysosomal acid phosphatases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ACPP Gene

acid phosphatase, prostate

This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of orthophosphoric monoester to alcohol and orthophosphate. It is synthesized under androgen regulation and is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. An alternatively spliced transcript variant encoding a longer isoform has been found for this gene. This isoform contains a transmembrane domain and is localized in the plasma membrane-endosomal-lysosomal pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

UBLCP1 Gene

ubiquitin-like domain containing CTD phosphatase 1

TPTE Gene

transmembrane phosphatase with tensin homology

This gene encodes a PTEN-related tyrosine phosphatase which may play a role in the signal transduction pathways of the endocrine or spermatogenic function of the testis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

PGP Gene

phosphoglycolate phosphatase

LOC100422645 Gene

CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) small phosphatase 2 pseudogene

LOC100128056 Gene

CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) small phosphatase 2 pseudogene

DUSP18 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 18

Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) constitute a large heterogeneous subgroup of the type I cysteine-based protein-tyrosine phosphatase superfamily. DUSPs are characterized by their ability to dephosphorylate both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues. They have been implicated as major modulators of critical signaling pathways. DUSP18 contains the consensus DUSP C-terminal catalytic domain but lacks the N-terminal CH2 domain found in the MKP (mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase) class of DUSPs (see MIM 600714) (summary by Patterson et al., 2009 [PubMed 19228121]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2009]

DUSP13 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 13

Members of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase superfamily cooperate with protein kinases to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. This superfamily is separated into two families based on the substrate that is dephosphorylated. One family, the dual specificity phosphatases (DSPs) acts on both phosphotyrosine and phosphoserine/threonine residues. This gene encodes different but related DSP proteins through the use of non-overlapping open reading frames, alternate splicing, and presumed different transcription promoters. Expression of the distinct proteins from this gene has been found to be tissue specific and the proteins may be involved in postnatal development of specific tissues. A protein encoded by the upstream ORF was found in skeletal muscle, whereas the encoded protein from the downstream ORF was found only in testis. In mouse, a similar pattern of expression was found. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants were described, but the full-length sequence of only some were determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DUSP8P4 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 8 pseudogene 4

DUSP8P3 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 8 pseudogene 3

ALPQTL1 Gene

Alkaline phosphatase, plasma level of, QTL1

DUSP9 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. These phosphatases inactivate their target kinases by dephosphorylating both the phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine residues. They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which is associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation. Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases, different tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and different modes of inducibility of their expression by extracellular stimuli. This gene product shows selectivity for members of the ERK family of MAP kinases, is expressed only in placenta, kidney, and fetal liver, and is localized to the cytoplasm and nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DUSP8 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. These phosphatases inactivate their target kinases by dephosphorylating both the phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine residues. They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which is associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation. Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases, different tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and different modes of inducibility of their expression by extracellular stimuli. This gene product inactivates SAPK/JNK and p38, is expressed predominantly in the adult brain, heart, and skeletal muscle, is localized in the cytoplasm, and is induced by nerve growth factor and insulin. An intronless pseudogene for DUSP8 is present on chromosome 10q11.2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DUSP5 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. These phosphatases inactivate their target kinases by dephosphorylating both the phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine residues. They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which are associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation. Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases, different tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and different modes of inducibility of their expression by extracellular stimuli. This gene product inactivates ERK1, is expressed in a variety of tissues with the highest levels in pancreas and brain, and is localized in the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DUSP4 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. These phosphatases inactivate their target kinases by dephosphorylating both the phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine residues. They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which are associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation. Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases, different tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and different modes of inducibility of their expression by extracellular stimuli. This gene product inactivates ERK1, ERK2 and JNK, is expressed in a variety of tissues, and is localized in the nucleus. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding distinct isoforms, have been observed for this gene. In addition, multiple polyadenylation sites have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DUSP7 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 7

Dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs) constitute a large heterogeneous subgroup of the type I cysteine-based protein-tyrosine phosphatase superfamily. DUSPs are characterized by their ability to dephosphorylate both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues. DUSP7 belongs to a class of DUSPs, designated MKPs, that dephosphorylate MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) proteins ERK (see MIM 601795), JNK (see MIM 601158), and p38 (see MIM 600289) with specificity distinct from that of individual MKP proteins. MKPs contain a highly conserved C-terminal catalytic domain and an N-terminal Cdc25 (see MIM 116947)-like (CH2) domain. MAPK activation cascades mediate various physiologic processes, including cellular proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and stress responses (summary by Patterson et al., 2009 [PubMed 19228121]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2009]

DUSP6 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. These phosphatases inactivate their target kinases by dephosphorylating both the phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine residues. They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which are associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation. Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases, different tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and different modes of inducibility of their expression by extracellular stimuli. This gene product inactivates ERK2, is expressed in a variety of tissues with the highest levels in heart and pancreas, and unlike most other members of this family, is localized in the cytoplasm. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

DUSP1 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 1

The expression of DUSP1 gene is induced in human skin fibroblasts by oxidative/heat stress and growth factors. It specifies a protein with structural features similar to members of the non-receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase family, and which has significant amino-acid sequence similarity to a Tyr/Ser-protein phosphatase encoded by the late gene H1 of vaccinia virus. The bacterially expressed and purified DUSP1 protein has intrinsic phosphatase activity, and specifically inactivates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in vitro by the concomitant dephosphorylation of both its phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine residues. Furthermore, it suppresses the activation of MAP kinase by oncogenic ras in extracts of Xenopus oocytes. Thus, DUSP1 may play an important role in the human cellular response to environmental stress as well as in the negative regulation of cellular proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DUSP3 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. These phosphatases inactivate their target kinases by dephosphorylating both the phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine residues. They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which are associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation. Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases, different tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and different modes of inducibility of their expression by extracellular stimuli. This gene maps in a region that contains the BRCA1 locus which confers susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer. Although DUSP3 is expressed in both breast and ovarian tissues, mutation screening in breast cancer pedigrees and in sporadic tumors was negative, leading to the conclusion that this gene is not BRCA1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DUSP2 Gene

dual specificity phosphatase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein phosphatase subfamily. These phosphatases inactivate their target kinases by dephosphorylating both the phosphoserine/threonine and phosphotyrosine residues. They negatively regulate members of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase superfamily (MAPK/ERK, SAPK/JNK, p38), which are associated with cellular proliferation and differentiation. Different members of the family of dual specificity phosphatases show distinct substrate specificities for various MAP kinases, different tissue distribution and subcellular localization, and different modes of inducibility of their expression by extracellular stimuli. This gene product inactivates ERK1 and ERK2, is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic tissues, and is localized in the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TPTE2P2 Gene

transmembrane phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase and tensin homolog 2 pseudogene 2

TPTE2P3 Gene

transmembrane phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase and tensin homolog 2 pseudogene 3

TPTE2P1 Gene

transmembrane phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase and tensin homolog 2 pseudogene 1

TPTE2P6 Gene

transmembrane phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase and tensin homolog 2 pseudogene 6

TPTE2P4 Gene

transmembrane phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase and tensin homolog 2 pseudogene 4

CTDSPL2 Gene

CTD (carboxy-terminal domain, RNA polymerase II, polypeptide A) small phosphatase like 2

CNEP1R1 Gene

CTD nuclear envelope phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 1

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein that belongs to the Tmemb_18A family. A similar protein in yeast is a component of an endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein phosphatase complex and is thought to play a role in the synthesis of triacylglycerol. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

PSPH Gene

phosphoserine phosphatase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a subfamily of the phosphotransferases. This encoded enzyme is responsible for the third and last step in L-serine formation. It catalyzes magnesium-dependent hydrolysis of L-phosphoserine and is also involved in an exchange reaction between L-serine and L-phosphoserine. Deficiency of this protein is thought to be linked to Williams syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV6-7 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-7 (non-functional)

TRBV23OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 23/OR9-2 (non-functional)

TRBV7-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-1 (non-functional)

TRAJ25 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 25 (non-functional)

TRGV10 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 10 (non-functional)

TRAJ19 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 19 (non-functional)

TRBJ2-2P Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-2P (non-functional)

SIGMAR1 Gene

sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1

This gene encodes a receptor protein that interacts with a variety of psychotomimetic drugs, including cocaine and amphetamines. The receptor is believed to play an important role in the cellular functions of various tissues associated with the endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. As indicated by its previous name, opioid receptor sigma 1 (OPRS1), the product of this gene was erroneously thought to function as an opioid receptor; it is now thought to be a non-opioid receptor. Mutations in this gene has been associated with juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 16. Alternative splicing of this gene results in transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

TRBV17 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 17 (non-functional)

TRAJ35 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 35 (non-functional)

OR10D3 Gene

olfactory receptor, family 10, subfamily D, member 3 (non-functional)

Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV20OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 20/OR9-2 (non-functional)

TRGV1 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 1 (non-functional)

TRAJ58 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 58 (non-functional)

TRAJ61 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 61 (non-functional)

TRAV8-7 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 8-7 (non-functional)

TRBV5-7 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-7 (non-functional)

TRBV5-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-3 (non-functional)

TRBV23-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 23-1 (non-functional)

TRAJ59 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 59 (non-functional)

TRBV29OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 29/OR9-2 (non-functional)

TRGV11 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 11 (non-functional)

TRAJ1 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 1 (non-functional)

TRAJ2 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 2 (non-functional)

GNAL Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide, olfactory type

This gene encodes a stimulatory G protein alpha subunit which mediates odorant signaling in the olfactory epithelium. This protein couples dopamine type 1 receptors and adenosine A2A receptors and is widely expressed in the central nervous system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia 25 and this gene is located in a susceptibility region for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

LRP8 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8, apolipoprotein e receptor

This gene encodes a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Low density lipoprotein receptors are cell surface proteins that play roles in both signal transduction and receptor-mediated endocytosis of specific ligands for lysosomal degradation. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the migration of neurons during development by mediating Reelin signaling, and also functions as a receptor for the cholesterol transport protein apolipoprotein E. Expression of this gene may be a marker for major depressive disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

TP53COR1 Gene

tumor protein p53 pathway corepressor 1 (non-protein coding)

PRKAR2A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAR2B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) in activated T cells. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this subunit may play an important role in regulating energy balance and adiposity. The studies also suggest that this subunit may mediate the gene induction and cataleptic behavior induced by haloperidol. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CNBP Gene

CCHC-type zinc finger, nucleic acid binding protein

This gene encodes a nucleic-acid binding protein with seven zinc-finger domains. The protein has a preference for binding single stranded DNA and RNA. The protein functions in cap-independent translation of ornithine decarboxylase mRNA, and may also function in sterol-mediated transcriptional regulation. A CCTG expansion in the first intron of this gene results in myotonic dystrophy type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CCNDBP1 Gene

cyclin D-type binding-protein 1

This gene was identified by the interaction of its gene product with Grap2, a leukocyte-specific adaptor protein important for immune cell signaling. The protein encoded by this gene was shown to interact with cyclin D. Transfection of this gene in cells was reported to reduce the phosphorylation of Rb gene product by cyclin D-dependent protein kinase, and inhibit E2F1-mediated transcription activity. This protein was also found to interact with helix-loop-helix protein E12 and is thought to be a negative regulator of liver-specific gene expression. Several alternatively spliced variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

SWSAP1 Gene

SWIM-type zinc finger 7 associated protein 1

PRKAR1AP Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha pseudogene

SPOP Gene

speckle-type POZ protein

This gene encodes a protein that may modulate the transcriptional repression activities of death-associated protein 6 (DAXX), which interacts with histone deacetylase, core histones, and other histone-associated proteins. In mouse, the encoded protein binds to the putative leucine zipper domain of macroH2A1.2, a variant H2A histone that is enriched on inactivated X chromosomes. The BTB/POZ domain of this protein has been shown in other proteins to mediate transcriptional repression and to interact with components of histone deacetylase co-repressor complexes. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PGGT1BP1 Gene

protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I, beta subunit pseudogene 1

VMAC Gene

vimentin-type intermediate filament associated coiled-coil protein

PRKG1 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I

Mammals have three different isoforms of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (Ialpha, Ibeta, and II). These PRKG isoforms act as key mediators of the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway and are important components of many signal transduction processes in diverse cell types. This PRKG1 gene on human chromosome 10 encodes the soluble Ialpha and Ibeta isoforms of PRKG by alternative transcript splicing. A separate gene on human chromosome 4, PRKG2, encodes the membrane-bound PRKG isoform II. The PRKG1 proteins play a central role in regulating cardiovascular and neuronal functions in addition to relaxing smooth muscle tone, preventing platelet aggregation, and modulating cell growth. This gene is most strongly expressed in all types of smooth muscle, platelets, cerebellar Purkinje cells, hippocampal neurons, and the lateral amygdala. Isoforms Ialpha and Ibeta have identical cGMP-binding and catalytic domains but differ in their leucine/isoleucine zipper and autoinhibitory sequences and therefore differ in their dimerization substrates and kinase enzyme activity. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PRKG2 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type II

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family of proteins. The encoded protein plays a role in the regulation of fluid balance in the intestine. A similar protein in mouse is thought to regulate differentiation and proliferation of cells in the colon. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

LOC105369259 Gene

putative L-type amino acid transporter 1-like protein MLAS

PRKAR1A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. This gene encodes one of the regulatory subunits. This protein was found to be a tissue-specific extinguisher that down-regulates the expression of seven liver genes in hepatoma x fibroblast hybrids. Mutations in this gene cause Carney complex (CNC). This gene can fuse to the RET protooncogene by gene rearrangement and form the thyroid tumor-specific chimeric oncogene known as PTC2. A nonconventional nuclear localization sequence (NLS) has been found for this protein which suggests a role in DNA replication via the protein serving as a nuclear transport protein for the second subunit of the Replication Factor C (RFC40). Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

PRKAR1B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, beta

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is an essential enzyme in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Through phosphorylation of target proteins, PKA controls many biochemical events in the cell including regulation of metabolism, ion transport, and gene transcription. The PKA holoenzyme is composed of 2 regulatory and 2 catalytic subunits and dissociates from the regulatory subunits upon binding of cAMP.[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

RNF6P1 Gene

ring finger protein (C3H2C3 type) 6 pseudogene 1

LOC100422398 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

LOC642381 Gene

speckle-type POZ protein-like pseudogene

PGGT1B Gene

protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I, beta subunit

Protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I) transfers a geranylgeranyl group to the cysteine residue of candidate proteins containing a C-terminal CAAX motif in which 'A' is an aliphatic amino acid and 'X' is leucine (summarized by Zhang et al., 1994 [PubMed 8106351]). The enzyme is composed of a 48-kD alpha subunit (FNTA; MIM 134635) and a 43-kD beta subunit, encoded by the PGGT1B gene. The FNTA gene encodes the alpha subunit for both GGTase-I and the related enzyme farnesyltransferase.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

TAX1BP1 Gene

Tax1 (human T-cell leukemia virus type I) binding protein 1

This gene encodes a HTLV-1 tax1 binding protein. The encoded protein interacts with TNFAIP3, and inhibits TNF-induced apoptosis by mediating the TNFAIP3 anti-apoptotic activity. Degradation of this protein by caspase-3-like family proteins is associated with apoptosis induced by TNF. This protein may also have a role in the inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

TAX1BP3 Gene

Tax1 (human T-cell leukemia virus type I) binding protein 3

RNF6 Gene

ring finger protein (C3H2C3 type) 6

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING-H2 finger motif. Deletions and mutations in this gene were detected in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), suggesting that this protein may be a potential tumor suppressor. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggested a role of this protein in the transcription regulation that controls germinal differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein are observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PGGT1BP2 Gene

protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I, beta subunit pseudogene 2

LOC100422399 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

KHSRP Gene

KH-type splicing regulatory protein

The KHSRP gene encodes a multifunctional RNA-binding protein implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including transcription, alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and mRNA localization (Min et al., 1997 [PubMed 9136930]; Gherzi et al., 2004 [PubMed 15175153]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

MYBPC2 Gene

myosin binding protein C, fast type

This gene encodes a member of the myosin-binding protein C family. This family includes the fast-, slow- and cardiac-type isoforms, each of which is a myosin-associated protein found in the cross-bridge-bearing zone (C region) of A bands in striated muscle. The protein encoded by this locus is referred to as the fast-type isoform. Mutations in the related but distinct genes encoding the slow-type and cardiac-type isoforms have been associated with distal arthrogryposis, type 1 and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, respectively. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

MYBPC1 Gene

myosin binding protein C, slow type

This gene encodes a member of the myosin-binding protein C family. Myosin-binding protein C family members are myosin-associated proteins found in the cross-bridge-bearing zone (C region) of A bands in striated muscle. The encoded protein is the slow skeletal muscle isoform of myosin-binding protein C and plays an important role in muscle contraction by recruiting muscle-type creatine kinase to myosin filaments. Mutations in this gene are associated with distal arthrogryposis type I. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

LOC100174950 Gene

speckle-type POZ protein-like pseudogene

LOC100127903 Gene

speckle-type POZ protein-like pseudogene

SPOPL Gene

speckle-type POZ protein-like

LOC101060604 Gene

putative L-type amino acid transporter 1-like protein IMAA

COL4A3BP Gene

collagen, type IV, alpha 3 (Goodpasture antigen) binding protein

This gene encodes a kinase that specifically phosphorylates the N-terminal region of the non-collagenous domain of the alpha 3 chain of type IV collagen, known as the Goodpasture antigen. Goodpasture disease is the result of an autoimmune response directed at this antigen. One isoform of this protein is also involved in ceramide intracellular transport. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC732229 Gene

AN1-type zinc finger protein 5 pseudogene

HIVEP1 Gene

human immunodeficiency virus type I enhancer binding protein 1

This gene encodes a transcription factor belonging to the ZAS family, members of which are large proteins that contain a ZAS domain - a modular protein structure consisting of a pair of C2H2 zinc fingers with an acidic-rich region and a serine/threonine-rich sequence. These proteins bind specifically to the DNA sequence motif, GGGACTTTCC, found in the enhancer elements of several viral promoters, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and to related sequences found in the enhancer elements of a number of cellular promoters. This protein binds to this sequence motif, suggesting a role in the transcriptional regulation of both viral and cellular genes. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

HIVEP2 Gene

human immunodeficiency virus type I enhancer binding protein 2

This gene encodes a member of a family of closely related, large, zinc finger-containing transcription factors. The encoded protein regulates transcription by binding to regulatory regions of various cellular and viral genes that maybe involved in growth, development and metastasis. The protein contains the ZAS domain comprised of two widely separated regions of zinc finger motifs, a stretch of highly acidic amino acids and a serine/threonine-rich sequence. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

HIVEP3 Gene

human immunodeficiency virus type I enhancer binding protein 3

This gene encodes a member of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhancer-binding protein family. Members of this protein family contain multiple zinc finger and acid-rich (ZAS) domains and serine-threonine rich regions. This protein acts as a transcription factor and is able to regulate nuclear factor kappaB-mediated transcription by binding the kappaB motif in target genes. This protein also binds the recombination signal sequence that flanks the V, D, and J regions of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptors. Alternate splicing results in both coding and non-coding transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

KHSRPP1 Gene

KH-type splicing regulatory protein pseudogene 1

NR3C1 Gene

nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor)

This gene encodes glucocorticoid receptor, which can function both as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements in the promoters of glucocorticoid responsive genes to activate their transcription, and as a regulator of other transcription factors. This receptor is typically found in the cytoplasm, but upon ligand binding, is transported into the nucleus. It is involved in inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation, and differentiation in target tissues. Mutations in this gene are associated with generalized glucocorticoid resistance. Alternative splicing of this gene results in transcript variants encoding either the same or different isoforms. Additional isoforms resulting from the use of alternate in-frame translation initiation sites have also been described, and shown to be functional, displaying diverse cytoplasm-to-nucleus trafficking patterns and distinct transcriptional activities (PMID:15866175). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

MC1R Gene

melanocortin 1 receptor (alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor)

This intronless gene encodes the receptor protein for melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). The encoded protein, a seven pass transmembrane G protein coupled receptor, controls melanogenesis. Two types of melanin exist: red pheomelanin and black eumelanin. Gene mutations that lead to a loss in function are associated with increased pheomelanin production, which leads to lighter skin and hair color. Eumelanin is photoprotective but pheomelanin may contribute to UV-induced skin damage by generating free radicals upon UV radiation. Binding of MSH to its receptor activates the receptor and stimulates eumelanin synthesis. This receptor is a major determining factor in sun sensitivity and is a genetic risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Over 30 variant alleles have been identified which correlate with skin and hair color, providing evidence that this gene is an important component in determining normal human pigment variation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INSRR Gene

insulin receptor-related receptor

LINC01221 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1221

HPYR1 Gene

Helicobacter pylori responsive 1 (non-protein coding)

LINC01227 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1227

PISRT1 Gene

polled intersex syndrome regulated transcript 1 (non-protein coding RNA)

LINC01091 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1091

LINC01090 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1090

LINC01093 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1093

LINC01095 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1095

LINC01094 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1094

LINC01097 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1097

LINC01096 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1096

LINC01098 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1098

LINC00320 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 320

LINC00323 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 323

LINC00324 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 324

LINC00326 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 326

LINC00327 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 327

LINC00328 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 328

RAB3GAP2 Gene

RAB3 GTPase activating protein subunit 2 (non-catalytic)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the RAB3 protein family, members of which are involved in regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters and hormones. This protein forms the Rab3 GTPase-activating complex with RAB3GAP1, where it constitutes the regulatory subunit, whereas the latter functions as the catalytic subunit. This gene has the highest level of expression in the brain, consistent with it having a key role in neurodevelopment. Mutations in this gene are associated with Martsolf syndrome.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

LINC01215 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1215

LINC01214 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1214

LINC00847 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 847

LINC00849 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 849

GACAT2 Gene

gastric cancer associated transcript 2 (non-protein coding)

GACAT1 Gene

gastric cancer associated transcript 1 (non-protein coding)

LINC01251 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1251

LINC01250 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1250

LINC01257 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1257

FOXCUT Gene

FOXC1 upstream transcript (non-protein coding)

PCAT1 Gene

prostate cancer associated transcript 1 (non-protein coding)

PCAT2 Gene

prostate cancer associated transcript 2 (non-protein coding)

PCAT4 Gene

prostate cancer associated transcript 4 (non-protein coding)

PCAT7 Gene

prostate cancer associated transcript 7 (non-protein coding)

LINC01255 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1255

LINC01491 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1491

LINC01490 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1490

LINC01198 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1198

LINC01194 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1194

LINC01195 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1195

LINC01197 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1197

LINC01191 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1191

LINC01192 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1192

LINC01193 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1193

LINC01360 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1360

LINC01365 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1365

LINC01547 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1547

LINC01546 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1546

LINC01545 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1545

LINC01549 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1549

LINC01548 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1548

LINC00633 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 633

LINC00630 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 630

LINC00636 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 636

LINC00637 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 637

LINC00635 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 635

LINC00638 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 638

LINC00639 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 639

HAR1A Gene

highly accelerated region 1A (non-protein coding)

LINC01348 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1348

SCHLAP1 Gene

SWI/SNF complex antagonist associated with prostate cancer 1 (non-protein coding)

LINC01550 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1550

LINC01551 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1551

LINC01552 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1552

LINC00879 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 879

LINC00877 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 877

LINC00870 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 870

LINC00871 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 871

LINC00265-3P Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 265-3, pseudogene

LINC00969 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 969

LINC00404 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 404

LINC00400 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 400

LINC00403 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 403

LINC00402 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 402

LINC00408 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 408

ATXN8OS Gene

ATXN8 opposite strand (non-protein coding)

This gene is an antisense transcript to the KLHL1 gene (homolog to the Drosophila KELCH gene); it does not itself appear to be protein coding. A TAC/TGC trinucleotide repeat expansion that is incorporated into this gene transcript, but not the KLHL1 transcript, causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 8. Presumably the expansion interferes with normal antisense function of this transcript. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

LINC01510 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1510

LINC01114 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1114

LINC01115 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1115

LINC01116 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1116

LINC01117 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1117

LINC01111 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1111

LINC01118 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1118

LINC01514 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1514

LINC00244 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 244

LINC00243 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 243

LINC00242 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 242

LINC00240 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 240

KCNQ1DN Gene

KCNQ1 downstream neighbor (non-protein coding)

Imprinting is a phenomenon in which epigenetic modifications lead to expression or suppression of alleles of some genes based on their parental origin. Wilms tumor-2 (WT2; MIM 194071) is defined by maternal-specific loss of heterozygosity of a critical region on chromosome 11p15.5 that includes several imprinted genes. KCNQ1DN is an imprinted gene located within the WT2 critical region that is expressed from the maternal allele (Xin et al., 2000 [PubMed 11056398]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LINC00939 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 939

LINC00938 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 938

LINC00930 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 930

LINC00933 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 933

LINC00935 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 935

LINC00934 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 934

LINC00937 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 937

LINC00443 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 443

LINC01099 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1099

LINC00322 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 322

LINC01327 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1327

LINC01324 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1324

LINC01322 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1322

LINC01320 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1320

INE2 Gene

inactivation escape 2 (non-protein coding)

INE1 Gene

inactivation escape 1 (non-protein coding)

X chromosome inactivation provides dosage compensation for the expression level of X-linked genes from the single X in males and the two in females. This X chromosome gene is intronless and was identified because its transcription escapes X inactivation in females. This gene does not make a protein.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

HCG18 Gene

HLA complex group 18 (non-protein coding)

LINC00433 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 433

LINC01424 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1424

LINC01425 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1425

LINC01426 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1426

LINC01427 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1427

LINC01420 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1420

LINC01422 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1422

LINC01423 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1423

LINC01428 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1428

FAM223A Gene

family with sequence similarity 223, member A (non-protein coding)

LINC01280 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1280

LINC01281 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1281

LINC01282 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1282

LINC01284 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1284

LINC01285 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1285

LINC01287 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1287

LINC01288 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1288

LINC01289 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1289

LINC00488 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 488

LINC00484 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 484

LINC00487 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 487

LINC00486 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 486

LINC00483 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 483

LINC00482 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 482

LINC00266-4P Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 266-4, pseudogene

LINC01363 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1363

FAM225A Gene

family with sequence similarity 225, member A (non-protein coding)

FAM225B Gene

family with sequence similarity 225, member B (non-protein coding)

LINC00526 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 526

LINC00527 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 527

LINC00524 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 524

LINC00525 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 525

LINC00523 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 523

LINC00520 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 520

LINC00521 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 521

LINC00528 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 528

LINC00529 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 529

LINC01499 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1499

LINC00200 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 200

LINC00207 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 207

GACAT3 Gene

gastric cancer associated transcript 3 (non-protein coding)

LINC00052 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 52

LINC00165 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 165

LINC01252 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1252

LINC01256 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1256

LINC01254 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1254

LINC01258 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1258

NHCP1 Gene

non-histone chromosome protein 1

LINC01590 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1590

LINC01591 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1591

LINC01592 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1592

LINC01594 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1594

LINC01599 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1599

LINC01046 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1046

LINC01047 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1047

LINC01044 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1044

LINC01043 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1043

LINC01040 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1040

LINC01049 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1049

LINC00311 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 311

LINC00310 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 310

LINC00313 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 313

LINC00312 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 312

LINC00315 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 315

LINC00314 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 314

LINC00316 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 316

TUG1 Gene

taurine up-regulated 1 (non-protein coding)

LINCMD1 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA, muscle differentiation 1

LINC-ROR Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA, regulator of reprogramming

LINC00571 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 571

LINC01209 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1209

LINC01201 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1201

LINC01202 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1202

LINC01203 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1203

LINC01204 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1204

LINC01205 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1205

LINC01206 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1206

LINC01207 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1207

LINC01452 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1452

CDRT7 Gene

CMT1A duplicated region transcript 7 (non-protein coding)

LINC01166 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1166

BISPR Gene

BST2 interferon stimulated positive regulator (non-protein coding)

LINC00415 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 415

LINC00411 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 411

TCL6 Gene

T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 6 (non-protein coding)

SPATA41 Gene

spermatogenesis associated 41 (non-protein coding)

SPATA42 Gene

spermatogenesis associated 42 (non-protein coding)

LINC01088 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1088

LINC01518 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1518

LINC01519 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1519

LINC01516 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1516

LINC00391 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 391

LINC00393 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 393

LINC00392 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 392

LINC00395 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 395

LINC00396 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 396

LINC00399 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 399

LINC00398 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 398

PCAT6 Gene

prostate cancer associated transcript 6 (non-protein coding)

HCG4 Gene

HLA complex group 4 (non-protein coding)

HCG9 Gene

HLA complex group 9 (non-protein coding)

This gene lies within the MHC class I region on chromosome 6p21.3. This gene is believed to be non-coding, but its function has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

LINC00152 Gene