Name

CLC Gene

Charcot-Leyden crystal galectin

Lysophospholipases are enzymes that act on biological membranes to regulate the multifunctional lysophospholipids. The protein encoded by this gene is a lysophospholipase expressed in eosinophils and basophils. It hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine to glycerophosphocholine and a free fatty acid. This protein may possess carbohydrate or IgE-binding activities. It is both structurally and functionally related to the galectin family of beta-galactoside binding proteins. It may be associated with inflammation and some myeloid leukemias. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RNU7-53P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 53 pseudogene

RNU7-54P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 54 pseudogene

RNU6-53P Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear 53, pseudogene

RNU7-51P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 51 pseudogene

RNU6-56P Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear 56, pseudogene

RNU7-59P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 59 pseudogene

RNU7-52P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 52 pseudogene

RNU6-55P Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear 55, pseudogene

CTC-558O2.1 Gene

RNU7-57P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 57 pseudogene

RNU6-52P Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear 52, pseudogene

RNU6-58P Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear 58, pseudogene

RNU6-50P Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear 50, pseudogene

CTB-54I1.1 Gene

uncharacterized LOC105377728

RNU6-57P Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear 57, pseudogene

RNU7-58P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 58 pseudogene

RNU7-55P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 55 pseudogene

RNU7-56P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 56 pseudogene

RNU6-59P Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear 59, pseudogene

GS1-594A7.3 Gene

uncharacterized LOC104798195

RNU7-50P Gene

RNA, U7 small nuclear 50 pseudogene

CLCN3P1 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 3 pseudogene 1

LOC401864 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 1 pseudogene

CLIC6 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 6

This gene encodes a member of the chloride intracellular channel family of proteins. The gene is part of a large triplicated region found on chromosomes 1, 6, and 21. An alternatively spliced transcript variant has been described, but its biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLIC4 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 4

Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. Chloride intracellular channel 4 (CLIC4) protein, encoded by the CLIC4 gene, is a member of the p64 family; the gene is expressed in many tissues and exhibits a intracellular vesicular pattern in Panc-1 cells (pancreatic cancer cells). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLIC5 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 5

This gene encodes a member of the chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) family of chloride ion channels. The encoded protein associates with actin-based cytoskeletal structures and may play a role in multiple processes including hair cell stereocilia formation, myoblast proliferation and glomerular podocyte and endothelial cell maintenance. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

CLIC2 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 2

This gene encodes a chloride intracellular channel protein. Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. This protein may play a role in inhibiting the function of ryanodine receptor 2. A mutation in this gene is the cause of X-linked mental retardation-32. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

CLIC3 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 3

Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. Chloride intracellular channel 3 is a member of the p64 family and is predominantly localized in the nucleus and stimulates chloride ion channel activity. In addition, this protein may participate in cellular growth control, based on its association with ERK7, a member of the MAP kinase family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLIC1 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 1

Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. Chloride intracellular channel 1 is a member of the p64 family; the protein localizes principally to the cell nucleus and exhibits both nuclear and plasma membrane chloride ion channel activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100270670 Gene

chloride channel, nucleotide-sensitive, 1A pseudogene

CLNS1AP1 Gene

chloride channel, nucleotide-sensitive, 1A pseudogene 1

CLCA2 Gene

chloride channel accessory 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the calcium sensitive chloride conductance protein family. To date, all members of this gene family map to the same site on chromosome 1p31-p22 and share high degrees of homology in size, sequence and predicted structure, but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. Since this protein is expressed predominantly in trachea and lung, it is suggested to play a role in the complex pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis. It may also serve as adhesion molecule for lung metastatic cancer cells, mediating vascular arrest and colonization, and furthermore, it has been implicated to act as a tumor suppressor gene for breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLCA1 Gene

chloride channel accessory 1

This gene encodes a member of the calcium sensitive chloride conductance protein family. To date, all members of this gene family map to the same region on chromosome 1p31-p22 and share a high degree of homology in size, sequence, and predicted structure, but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. The encoded protein is expressed as a precursor protein that is processed into two cell-surface-associated subunits, although the site at which the precursor is cleaved has not been precisely determined. The encoded protein may be involved in mediating calcium-activated chloride conductance in the intestine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLCA4 Gene

chloride channel accessory 4

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the calcium sensitive chloride conductance protein family. To date, all members of this gene family map to the same site on chromosome 1p31-p22 and share high degrees of homology in size, sequence and predicted structure, but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, only one of which is thought to be protein coding. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

CLCNKA Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive Ka

This gene is a member of the CLC family of voltage-gated chloride channels. The encoded protein is predicted to have 12 transmembrane domains, and requires a beta subunit called barttin to form a functional channel. It is thought to function in salt reabsorption in the kidney and potassium recycling in the inner ear. The gene is highly similar to CLCNKB, which is located 10 kb downstream from this gene. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLCNKB Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive Kb

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the family of voltage-gated chloride channels. Chloride channels have several functions, including the regulation of cell volume, membrane potential stabilization, signal transduction and transepithelial transport. This gene is expressed predominantly in the kidney and may be important for renal salt reabsorption. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal recessive Bartter syndrome type 3 (BS3). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

CLCN3 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 3

This gene encodes a member of the voltage-gated chloride channel (ClC) family. The encoded protein is present in all cell types and localized in plasma membranes and in intracellular vesicles. It is a multi-pass membrane protein which contains a ClC domain and two additional C-terminal CBS (cystathionine beta-synthase) domains. The ClC domain catalyzes the selective flow of Cl- ions across cell membranes, and the CBS domain may have a regulatory function. This protein plays a role in both acidification and transmitter loading of GABAergic synaptic vesicles, and in smooth muscle cell activation and neointima formation. This protein is required for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-activated Cl- current activity and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. The protein activity is regulated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in glioma cells. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

CLCN2 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 2

This gene encodes a voltage-gated chloride channel. The encoded protein is a transmembrane protein that maintains chloride ion homeostasis in various cells. Defects in this gene may be a cause of certain epilepsies. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

CLCN1 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 1

The CLCN family of voltage-dependent chloride channel genes comprises nine members (CLCN1-7, Ka and Kb) which demonstrate quite diverse functional characteristics while sharing significant sequence homology. The protein encoded by this gene regulates the electric excitability of the skeletal muscle membrane. Mutations in this gene cause two forms of inherited human muscle disorders: recessive generalized myotonia congenita (Becker) and dominant myotonia (Thomsen). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

CLCN7 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 7

The product of this gene belongs to the CLC chloride channel family of proteins. Chloride channels play important roles in the plasma membrane and in intracellular organelles. This gene encodes chloride channel 7. Defects in this gene are the cause of osteopetrosis autosomal recessive type 4 (OPTB4), also called infantile malignant osteopetrosis type 2 as well as the cause of autosomal dominant osteopetrosis type 2 (OPTA2), also called autosomal dominant Albers-Schonberg disease or marble disease autosoml dominant. Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disease characterized by abnormally dense bone, due to defective resorption of immature bone. OPTA2 is the most common form of osteopetrosis, occurring in adolescence or adulthood. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLCN6 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 6

This gene encodes a member of the voltage-dependent chloride channel protein family. Members of this family can function as either chloride channels or antiporters. This protein is primarily localized to late endosomes and functions as a chloride/proton antiporter. Alternate splicing results in both coding and non-coding variants. Additional alternately spliced variants have been described but their full-length structure is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

CLCN5 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 5

This gene encodes a member of the ClC family of chloride ion channels and ion transporters. The encoded protein is primarily localized to endosomal membranes and may function to facilitate albumin uptake by the renal proximal tubule. Mutations in this gene have been found in Dent disease and renal tubular disorders complicated by nephrolithiasis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

CLCN4 Gene

chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 4

The CLCN family of voltage-dependent chloride channel genes comprises nine members (CLCN1-7, Ka and Kb) which demonstrate quite diverse functional characteristics while sharing significant sequence homology. Chloride channel 4 has an evolutionary conserved CpG island and is conserved in both mouse and hamster. This gene is mapped in close proximity to APXL (Apical protein Xenopus laevis-like) and OA1 (Ocular albinism type I), which are both located on the human X chromosome at band p22.3. The physiological role of chloride channel 4 remains unknown but may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuronal disorders. Alternate splicing results in two transcript variants that encode different proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

CLIC4P1 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 4 pseudogene 1

CLIC4P2 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 4 pseudogene 2

CLIC4P3 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 4 pseudogene 3

CLCC1 Gene

chloride channel CLIC-like 1

LOC100420638 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 1 pseudogene

CLIC1P1 Gene

chloride intracellular channel 1 pseudogene 1

BSND Gene

barttin CLCNK-type chloride channel accessory beta subunit

This gene encodes an essential beta subunit for CLC chloride channels. These heteromeric channels localize to basolateral membranes of renal tubules and of potassium-secreting epithelia of the inner ear. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Bartter syndrome with sensorineural deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLNS1A Gene

chloride channel, nucleotide-sensitive, 1A

This gene encodes a protein that functions in multiple regulatory pathways. The encoded protein complexes with numerous cytosolic proteins and performs diverse functions including regulation of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein biosynthesis, platelet activation and cytoskeletal organization. The protein is also found associated with the plasma membrane where it functions as a chloride current regulator. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1, 4 and 6. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

LOC402192 Gene

chloride channel, nucleotide-sensitive, 1A pseudogene

CLCA3P Gene

chloride channel accessory 3, pseudogene

This gene is a transcribed pseudogene belonging to the calcium sensitive chloride conductance protein family. To date, all members of this gene family map to the same site on chromosome 1p31-p22 and share high degrees of homology in size, sequence and predicted structure, but differ significantly in their tissue distributions. This gene contains several nonsense codons compared to other family members that render the transcript a candidate for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Therefore, this gene is unlikely to be protein-coding. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

ANO1 Gene

anoctamin 1, calcium activated chloride channel

ANO2 Gene

anoctamin 2, calcium activated chloride channel

ANO2 belongs to a family of calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) (reviewed by Hartzell et al., 2009 [PubMed 19015192]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

BSNDP2 Gene

barttin CLCNK-type chloride channel accessory beta subunit pseudogene 2

SLC12A4 Gene

solute carrier family 12 (potassium/chloride transporter), member 4

This gene encodes a member of the SLC12A transporter family. The encoded protein mediates the coupled movement of potassium and chloride ions across the plasma membrane. This gene is expressed ubiquitously. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

LOC100422510 Gene

solute carrier family 12 (sodium/chloride transporter), member 3 pseudogene

LOC102724223 Gene

sodium- and chloride-dependent creatine transporter 1-like

SLC12A5 Gene

solute carrier family 12 (potassium/chloride transporter), member 5

K-Cl cotransporters are proteins that lower intracellular chloride concentrations below the electrochemical equilibrium potential. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane K-Cl cotransporter that can function in either a net efflux or influx pathway, depending on the chemical concentration gradients of potassium and chloride. The encoded protein can act as a homomultimer, or as a heteromultimer with other K-Cl cotransporters, to maintain chloride homeostasis in neurons. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

SLC12A7 Gene

solute carrier family 12 (potassium/chloride transporter), member 7

SLC12A6 Gene

solute carrier family 12 (potassium/chloride transporter), member 6

This gene is a member of the K-Cl cotransporter (KCC) family. K-Cl cotransporters are integral membrane proteins that lower intracellular chloride concentrations below the electrochemical equilibrium potential. The proteins encoded by this gene are activated by cell swelling induced by hypotonic conditions. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Mutations in this gene are associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum with peripheral neuropathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC12A1 Gene

solute carrier family 12 (sodium/potassium/chloride transporter), member 1

This gene encodes a kidney-specific sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter that is expressed on the luminal membrane of renal epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop and the macula densa. It plays a key role in concentrating urine and accounts for most of the NaCl resorption. It is sensitive to such diuretics as furosemide and bumetanide. Some Bartter-like syndromes result from defects in this gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Additional splice variants have been described but their biological validity in humans has not been experimentally proven.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

SLC12A3 Gene

solute carrier family 12 (sodium/chloride transporter), member 3

This gene encodes a renal thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter that is important for electrolyte homeostasis. This cotransporter mediates sodium and chloride reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. Mutations in this gene cause Gitelman syndrome, a disease similar to Bartter's syndrome, that is characterized by hypokalemic alkalosis combined with hypomagnesemia, low urinary calcium, and increased renin activity associated with normal blood pressure. This cotransporter is the target for thiazide diuretics that are used for treating high blood pressure. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC12A2 Gene

solute carrier family 12 (sodium/potassium/chloride transporter), member 2

The protein encoded by this gene mediates sodium and chloride transport and reabsorption. The encoded protein is a membrane protein and is important in maintaining proper ionic balance and cell volume. This protein is phosphorylated in response to DNA damage. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

LOC101929026 Gene

zinc-activated ligand-gated ion channel-like

CNGB1 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel beta 1

In humans, the rod photoreceptor cGMP-gated cation channel helps regulate ion flow into the rod photoreceptor outer segment in response to light-induced alteration of the levels of intracellular cGMP. This channel consists of two subunits, alpha and beta, with the protein encoded by this gene representing the beta subunit. Defects in this gene are a cause of cause of retinitis pigmentosa type 45. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]

VDAC1P1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 1

VDAC1P2 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 2

VDAC1P4 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 4

VDAC4 belongs to a family of small, abundant pore-forming proteins found in the outer mitochondrial membrane. These channels are thought to form the major pathway for movement of adenine nucleotides through the outer membrane and may also function as the mitochondrial binding site for hexokinase (see HK1; MIM 142600) and glycerol kinase (GK; MIM 300474) (Blachly-Dyson et al., 1994 [PubMed 7517385]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

VDAC1P5 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 5

VDAC1P6 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 6

VDAC1P7 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 7

VDAC1P9 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 9

TMC5 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 5

KCNA7 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 7

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. The gene is expressed preferentially in skeletal muscle, heart and kidney. It is a candidate gene for inherited cardiac disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNA4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 4

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the A-type potassium current class, the members of which may be important in the regulation of the fast repolarizing phase of action potentials in heart and thus may influence the duration of cardiac action potential.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

KCNA5 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 5

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ino channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the delayed rectifier class, the function of which could restore the resting membrane potential of beta cells after depolarization and thereby contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion. This gene is intronless, and the gene is clustered with genes KCNA1 and KCNA6 on chromosome 12. Defects in this gene are a cause of familial atrial fibrillation type 7 (ATFB7). [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

KCNA2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 2

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the delayed rectifier class, members of which allow nerve cells to efficiently repolarize following an action potential. The coding region of this gene is intronless, and the gene is clustered with genes KCNA3 and KCNA10 on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNA3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 3

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the delayed rectifier class, members of which allow nerve cells to efficiently repolarize following an action potential. It plays an essential role in T-cell proliferation and activation. This gene appears to be intronless and it is clustered together with KCNA2 and KCNA10 genes on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNA1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 1

This gene encodes a voltage-gated delayed potassium channel that is phylogenetically related to the Drosophila Shaker channel. The encoded protein has six putative transmembrane segments (S1-S6), and the loop between S5 and S6 forms the pore and contains the conserved selectivity filter motif (GYGD). The functional channel is a homotetramer. The N-terminus of the channel is associated with beta subunits that can modify the inactivation properties of the channel as well as affect expression levels. The C-terminus of the channel is complexed to a PDZ domain protein that is responsible for channel targeting. Mutations in this gene have been associated with myokymia with periodic ataxia (AEMK). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCTD9P6 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 pseudogene 6

KCTD13 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 13

KCTD12 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 12

KCTD10 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 10

KCTD17 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 17

KCTD16 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 16

KCTD15 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 15

KCTD14 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 14

KCTD19 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 19

KCTD18 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 18

TCAF1P1 Gene

TRPM8 channel-associated factor 1 pseudogene 1

KCNMB3P1 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 3 pseudogene 1

SCN1B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type I beta subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are heteromeric proteins that function in the generation and propagation of action potentials in muscle and neuronal cells. They are composed of one alpha and two beta subunits, where the alpha subunit provides channel activity and the beta-1 subunit modulates the kinetics of channel inactivation. This gene encodes a sodium channel beta-1 subunit. Mutations in this gene result in generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, Brugada syndrome 5, and defects in cardiac conduction. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SCN1A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type I alpha subunit

The vertebrate sodium channel is a voltage-gated ion channel essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials, mainly in nerve and muscle. Voltage-sensitive sodium channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of a large central pore-forming glycosylated alpha subunit, and two smaller auxiliary beta subunits. This gene encodes the large alpha subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with several epilepsy, convulsion and migraine disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. The RefSeq Project has decided to create four representative RefSeq records. Three of the transcript variants are supported by experimental evidence and the fourth contains alternate 5' untranslated exons, the exact combination of which have not been experimentally confirmed for the full-length transcript.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

LOC100288724 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6 pseudogene

LOC392232 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 pseudogene

SCNN1D Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 delta subunit

SCNN1B Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 beta subunit

Nonvoltage-gated, amiloride-sensitive, sodium channels control fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelia in many organs. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the beta subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1), and Liddle syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

SCNN1A Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 alpha subunit

Nonvoltage-gated, amiloride-sensitive, sodium channels control fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelia in many organs. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the alpha subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1), a rare salt wasting disease resulting from target organ unresponsiveness to mineralocorticoids. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

LOC100422478 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 12 pseudogene

TPCN1 Gene

two pore segment channel 1

Voltage-gated Ca(2+) and Na+ channels have 4 homologous domains, each containing 6 transmembrane segments, S1 to S6. TPCN1 is similar to these channels, but it has only 2 domains containing S1 to S6 (Ishibashi et al., 2000 [PubMed 10753632]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100420252 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 6 pseudogene

KCMF1 Gene

potassium channel modulatory factor 1

KCNA10 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 10

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It is specifically regulated by cGMP and postulated to mediate the effects of substances that increase intracellular cGMP. This gene is intronless, and the gene is clustered with genes KCNA2 and KCNA3 on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN9A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type IX alpha subunit

This gene encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel which plays a significant role in nociception signaling. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary erythermalgia, channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain, and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

KCNV2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily V, member 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily V. This member is identified as a 'silent subunit', and it does not form homomultimers, but forms heteromultimers with several other subfamily members. Through obligatory heteromerization, it exerts a function-altering effect on other potassium channel subunits. This protein is strongly expressed in pancreas and has a weaker expression in several other tissues. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNV1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily V, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily V. This protein is essentially present in the brain, and its role might be to inhibit the function of a particular class of outward rectifier potassium channel types. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

P2RX1 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the P2X family of G-protein-coupled receptors. These proteins can form homo-and heterotimers and function as ATP-gated ion channels and mediate rapid and selective permeability to cations. This protein is primarily localized to smooth muscle where binds ATP and mediates synaptic transmission between neurons and from neurons to smooth muscle and may being responsible for sympathetic vasoconstriction in small arteries, arterioles and vas deferens. Mouse studies suggest that this receptor is essential for normal male reproductive function. This protein may also be involved in promoting apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

P2RX3 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 3

The product of this gene belongs to the family of purinoceptors for ATP. This receptor functions as a ligand-gated ion channel and may transduce ATP-evoked nociceptor activation. Mouse studies suggest that this receptor is important for peripheral pain responses, and also participates in pathways controlling urinary bladder volume reflexes. It is possible that the development of selective antagonists for this receptor may have a therapeutic potential in pain relief and in the treatment of disorders of urine storage. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

P2RX2 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 2

The product of this gene belongs to the family of purinoceptors for ATP. This receptor functions as a ligand-gated ion channel. Binding to ATP mediates synaptic transmission between neurons and from neurons to smooth muscle. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

P2RX5 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 5

The product of this gene belongs to the family of purinoceptors for ATP. This receptor functions as a ligand-gated ion channel. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the neighboring downstream gene, TAX1BP3 (Tax1 binding protein 3). [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

P2RX4 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 4

The product of this gene belongs to the family of purinoceptors for ATP. This receptor functions as a ligand-gated ion channel with high calcium permeability. The main pharmacological distinction between the members of the purinoceptor family is the relative sensitivity to the antagonists suramin and PPADS. The product of this gene has the lowest sensitivity for these antagonists. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants, some protein-coding and some not protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

P2RX6 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 6

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P2X receptors, which are ATP-gated ion channels and mediate rapid and selective permeability to cations. This gene is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle, and regulated by p53. The encoded protein is associated with VE-cadherin at the adherens junctions of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene, which is also located on chromosome 22, has been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

CNGB3 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel beta 3

This gene encodes the beta subunit of a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. The encoded beta subunit appears to play a role in modulation of channel function in cone photoreceptors. This heterotetrameric channel is necessary for sensory transduction, and mutations in this gene have been associated with achromatopsia 3, progressive cone dystrophy, and juvenile macular degeneration, also known as Stargardt Disease. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

TRPC4AP Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 4 associated protein

KCNN4 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a potentially heterotetrameric voltage-independent potassium channel that is activated by intracellular calcium. Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization, which promotes calcium influx. The encoded protein may be part of the predominant calcium-activated potassium channel in T-lymphocytes. This gene is similar to other KCNN family potassium channel genes, but it differs enough to possibly be considered as part of a new subfamily. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNN3 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 3

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. This gene belongs to the KCNN family of potassium channels. It encodes an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel, which is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. This gene contains two CAG repeat regions in the coding sequence. It was thought that expansion of one or both of these repeats could lead to an increased susceptibility to schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, but studies indicate that this is probably not the case. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

KCNN2 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 2

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. The protein encoded by this gene is activated before membrane hyperpolarization and is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. This gene is a member of the KCNN family of potassium channel genes. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel with three other calmodulin-binding subunits. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

KCNN1 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 1

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. The protein encoded by this gene is activated before membrane hyperpolarization and is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel with three other calmodulin-binding subunits. This gene is a member of the KCNN family of potassium channel genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VDAC1P3 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 3

VDAC1P8 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 8

KCNT2 Gene

potassium channel, sodium activated subfamily T, member 2

LOC100422094 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 5 pseudogene

KCTD20 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 20

KCTD21 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 21

KCNF1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily F, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily F. This gene is intronless and expressed in all tissues tested, including the heart, skeletal muscle, brain, kidney, and pancreas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN11A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type XI alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are membrane protein complexes that play a fundamental role in the rising phase of the action potential in most excitable cells. Alpha subunits, such as SCN11A, mediate voltage-dependent gating and conductance, while auxiliary beta subunits regulate the kinetic properties of the channel and facilitate membrane localization of the complex. Aberrant expression patterns or mutations of alpha subunits underlie a number of disorders. Each alpha subunit consists of 4 domains connected by 3 intracellular loops; each domain consists of 6 transmembrane segments and intra- and extracellular linkers.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

LOC100422548 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4 pseudogene

LOC100422549 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4 pseudogene

P2RX6P Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 6 pseudogene

KCNS1 Gene

potassium voltage-gated channel, modifier subfamily S, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium channels form the largest and most diversified class of ion channels and are present in both excitable and nonexcitable cells. Their main functions are associated with the regulation of the resting membrane potential and the control of the shape and frequency of action potentials. The alpha subunits are of 2 types: those that are functional by themselves and those that are electrically silent but capable of modulating the activity of specific functional alpha subunits. The protein encoded by this gene is not functional by itself but can form heteromultimers with member 1 and with member 2 (and possibly other members) of the Shab-related subfamily of potassium voltage-gated channel proteins. This gene belongs to the S subfamily of the potassium channel family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNS2 Gene

potassium voltage-gated channel, modifier subfamily S, member 2

KCNS3 Gene

potassium voltage-gated channel, modifier subfamily S, member 3

Voltage-gated potassium channels form the largest and most diversified class of ion channels and are present in both excitable and nonexcitable cells. Their main functions are associated with the regulation of the resting membrane potential and the control of the shape and frequency of action potentials. The alpha subunits are of 2 types: those that are functional by themselves and those that are electrically silent but capable of modulating the activity of specific functional alpha subunits. The protein encoded by this gene is not functional by itself but can form heteromultimers with member 1 and with member 2 (and possibly other members) of the Shab-related subfamily of potassium voltage-gated channel proteins. This gene belongs to the S subfamily of the potassium channel family. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

CACNA2D1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 1

The preproprotein encoded by this gene is cleaved into multiple chains that comprise the alpha-2 and delta subunits of the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. Mutations in this gene can cause cardiac deficiencies, including Brugada syndrome and short QT syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants, some of which may lack the delta subunit portion. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

KCNMA1 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated large conductance subfamily M alpha, member 1

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit, which is the product of this gene, and the modulatory beta subunit. Intracellular calcium regulates the physical association between the alpha and beta subunits. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNA6 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 6

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the delayed rectifier class. The coding region of this gene is intronless, and the gene is clustered with genes KCNA1 and KCNA5 on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC389768 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 1 pseudogene

KCNK9 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 9

This gene encodes a protein that contains multiple transmembrane regions and two pore-forming P domains and functions as a pH-dependent potassium channel. Amplification and overexpression of this gene have been observed in several types of human carcinomas. This gene is imprinted in the brain, with preferential expression from the maternal allele. A mutation in this gene was associated with Birk-Barel mental retardation dysmorphism syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

KCNK4 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 4

Potassium channels play a role in many cellular processes including maintenance of the action potential, muscle contraction, hormone secretion, osmotic regulation, and ion flow. This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The encoded protein homodimerizes and functions as an outwardly rectifying channel. It is expressed primarily in neural tissues and is stimulated by membrane stretch and polyunsaturated fatty acids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK5 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 5

This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The message for this gene is mainly expressed in the cortical distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney. The protein is highly sensitive to external pH and this, in combination with its expression pattern, suggests it may play an important role in renal potassium transport. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK6 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 6

This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. This channel protein, considered an open rectifier, is widely expressed. It is stimulated by arachidonic acid, and inhibited by internal acidification and volatile anaesthetics. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK7 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 7

This gene encodes a member of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The product of this gene has not been shown to be a functional channel; however, it may require other non-pore-forming proteins for activity. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK1 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 1

This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The product of this gene has not been shown to be a functional channel, however, it may require other non-pore-forming proteins for activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK2 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 2

This gene encodes one of the members of the two-pore-domain background potassium channel protein family. This type of potassium channel is formed by two homodimers that create a channel that leaks potassium out of the cell to control resting membrane potential. The channel can be opened, however, by certain anesthetics, membrane stretching, intracellular acidosis, and heat. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK3 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 3

This gene encodes a member of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins that contain two pore-forming P domains. The encoded protein is an outwardly rectifying channel that is sensitive to changes in extracellular pH and is inhibited by extracellular acidification. Also referred to as an acid-sensitive potassium channel, it is activated by the anesthetics halothane and isoflurane. Although three transcripts are detected in northern blots, there is currently no sequence available to confirm transcript variants for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

HVCN1 Gene

hydrogen voltage gated channel 1

This gene encodes a voltage-gated protein channel protein expressed more highly in certain cells of the immune system. Phagocytic cells produce superoxide anions which require this channel protein, and in B cells this same process facilitates antibody production. This same channel protein, however, can also regulate functions in other cells including spermatozoa. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

P2RX7 Gene

purinergic receptor P2X, ligand gated ion channel, 7

The product of this gene belongs to the family of purinoceptors for ATP. This receptor functions as a ligand-gated ion channel and is responsible for ATP-dependent lysis of macrophages through the formation of membrane pores permeable to large molecules. Activation of this nuclear receptor by ATP in the cytoplasm may be a mechanism by which cellular activity can be coupled to changes in gene expression. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been identified, most of which fit nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) criteria. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

KCNC1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shaw related subfamily C, member 1

This gene encodes a member of a family of integral membrane proteins that mediate the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Alternative splicing is thought to result in two transcript variants encoding isoforms that differ at their C-termini. These isoforms have had conflicting names in the literature: the longer isoform has been called both "b" and "alpha", while the shorter isoform has been called both "a" and "beta" (PMIDs 1432046, 12091563). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

KCNC2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shaw related subfamily C, member 2

The Shaker gene family of Drosophila encodes components of voltage-gated potassium channels and is comprised of four subfamilies. Based on sequence similarity, this gene is similar to one of these subfamilies, namely the Shaw subfamily. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the delayed rectifier class of channel proteins and is an integral membrane protein that mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

KCNC3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shaw related subfamily C, member 3

The Shaker gene family of Drosophila encodes components of voltage-gated potassium channels and is comprised of four subfamilies. Based on sequence similarity, this gene is similar to one of these subfamilies, namely the Shaw subfamily. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the delayed rectifier class of channel proteins and is an integral membrane protein that mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Alternate splicing results in several transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

PIEZO1P1 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1 pseudogene 1

PIEZO1P2 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1 pseudogene 2

CACFD1 Gene

calcium channel flower domain containing 1

SCN3A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type III alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit with 24 transmembrane domains and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family, and is found in a cluster of five alpha subunit genes on chromosome 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN3B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type III beta subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel beta subunit gene family, and influences the inactivation kinetics of the sodium channel. Two alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100533814 Gene

TRPM8 channel-associated factor 2 pseudogene

KCTD11 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 11

KCNJ13 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 13

This gene encodes a member of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel family of proteins. Members of this family form ion channel pores that allow potassium ions to pass into a cell. The encoded protein belongs to a subfamily of low signal channel conductance proteins that have a low dependence on potassium concentration. Mutations in this gene are associated with snowflake vitreoretinal degeneration. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

KCNJ12 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 12

This gene encodes an inwardly rectifying K+ channel which may be blocked by divalent cations. This protein is thought to be one of multiple inwardly rectifying channels which contribute to the cardiac inward rectifier current (IK1). The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ11 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 11

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell, is controlled by G-proteins and is found associated with the sulfonylurea receptor SUR. Mutations in this gene are a cause of familial persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by unregulated insulin secretion. Defects in this gene may also contribute to autosomal dominant non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type II (NIDDM), transient neonatal diabetes mellitus type 3 (TNDM3), and permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM). Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

KCNJ10 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 10

This gene encodes a member of the inward rectifier-type potassium channel family, characterized by having a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into, rather than out of, a cell. The encoded protein may form a heterodimer with another potassium channel protein and may be responsible for the potassium buffering action of glial cells in the brain. Mutations in this gene have been associated with seizure susceptibility of common idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndromes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ16 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 16

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which tends to allow potassium to flow into rather than out of a cell, can form heterodimers with two other inward-rectifier type potassium channels. It may function in fluid and pH balance regulation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

KCNJ15 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 15

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell. Eight transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

KCNJ14 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 14

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel, and probably has a role in controlling the excitability of motor neurons. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

KCNJ18 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 18

This gene encodes a member of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel family. Transcription of this locus is regulated by thyroid hormone, and the encoded protein plays a role in resting membrane potential maintenance. Mutations in this locus have been associated with thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

TRPC6P Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6 pseudogene

TRPM8 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 8

TRPM4 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a calcium-activated nonselective ion channel that mediates transport of monovalent cations across membranes, thereby depolarizing the membrane. The activity of the encoded protein increases with increasing intracellular calcium concentration, but this channel does not transport calcium. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

TRPM5 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 5

This gene encodes a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) protein family, which is a diverse group of proteins with structural features typical of ion channels. This protein plays an important role in taste transduction, and has characteristics of a calcium-activated, non-selective cation channel that carries Na+, K+, and Cs+ ions equally well, but not Ca(2+) ions. It is activated by lower concentrations of intracellular Ca(2+), and inhibited by higher concentrations. It is also a highly temperature-sensitive, heat activated channel showing a steep increase of inward currents at temperatures between 15 and 35 degrees Celsius. This gene is located within the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome critical region-1 on chromosome 11p15.5, and has been shown to be imprinted, with exclusive expression from the paternal allele. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

TRPM6 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 6

This gene is predominantly expressed in the kidney and colon, and encodes a protein containing an ion channel domain and a protein kinase domain. It is crucial for magnesium homeostasis, and plays an essential role in epithelial magnesium transport and in the active magnesium absorption in the gut and kidney. Mutations in this gene are associated with hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

TRPM7 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7

The protein encoded by this gene is both an ion channel and a serine/threonine protein kinase. The kinase activity is essential for the ion channel function, which serves to increase intracellular calcium levels and to help regulate magnesium ion homeostasis. Defects in this gene are a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-parkinsonism/dementia complex of Guam. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

TRPM1 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 1

This gene encodes a member of the transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily of transient receptor potential ion channels. The encoded protein is a calcium permeable cation channel that is expressed in melanocytes and may play a role in melanin synthesis. Specific mutations in this gene are the cause autosomal recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness-1C. The expression of this protein is inversely correlated with melanoma aggressiveness and as such it is used as a prognostic marker for melanoma metastasis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

TRPM2 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a calcium-permeable cation channel that is regulated by free intracellular ADP-ribose. The encoded protein is activated by oxidative stress and confers susceptibility to cell death. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRPM3 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 3

The product of this gene belongs to the family of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. TRP channels are cation-selective channels important for cellular calcium signaling and homeostasis. The protein encoded by this gene mediates calcium entry, and this entry is potentiated by calcium store depletion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA2D2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 2

Calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. This gene encodes the alpha-2/delta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. The complex consists of the main channel-forming subunit alpha-1, and auxiliary subunits alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma. The auxiliary subunits function in the assembly and membrane localization of the complex, and modulate calcium currents and channel activation/inactivation kinetics. The subunit encoded by this gene undergoes post-translational cleavage to yield the extracellular alpha2 peptide and a membrane-anchored delta polypeptide. This subunit is a receptor for the antiepileptic drug, gabapentin. Mutations in this gene are associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are correlated with increased sensitivity to opioid drugs. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CACNA2D3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3

This gene encodes a member of the alpha-2/delta subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. Research on a highly similar protein in rabbit suggests the protein described in this record is cleaved into alpha-2 and delta subunits. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA2D4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 4

This gene encodes a member of the alpha-2/delta subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. Research on a highly similar protein in rabbit suggests the protein described in this record is cleaved into alpha-2 and delta subunits. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNH5 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 5

This gene encodes a member of voltage-gated potassium channels. Members of this family have diverse functions, including regulating neurotransmitter and hormone release, cardiac function, and cell volume. This protein is an outward-rectifying, noninactivating channel. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KCNH4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 4

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit. The gene is brain-specific, and located in the neocortex and the striatum. It may be involved in cellular excitability of restricted neurons in the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNH7 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 7

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit. There are at least two alternatively spliced transcript variants derived from this gene and encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNH6 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 6

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KCNH1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit of a voltage-gated non-inactivating delayed rectifier potassium channel. It is activated at the onset of myoblast differentiation. The gene is highly expressed in brain and in myoblasts. Overexpression of the gene may confer a growth advantage to cancer cells and favor tumor cell proliferation. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNH3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 3

KCNH2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 2

This gene encodes a voltage-activated potassium channel belonging to the eag family. It shares sequence similarity with the Drosophila ether-a-go-go (eag) gene. Mutations in this gene can cause long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2). Transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNH8 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 8

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCTD3 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 3

KCTD2 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 2

KCTD1 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 1

KCTD7 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 7

This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel tetramerization domain-containing protein family. Family members are identified on a structural basis and contain an amino-terminal domain similar to the T1 domain present in the voltage-gated potassium channel. Mutations in this gene have been associated with progressive myoclonic epilepsy-3. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

KCTD6 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 6

KCTD5 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 5

KCTD4 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 4

KCTD9 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9

KCTD8 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 8

KCNK18 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 18

Potassium channels play a role in many cellular processes including maintenance of the action potential, muscle contraction, hormone secretion, osmotic regulation, and ion flow. This gene encodes a member of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains and the encoded protein functions as an outward rectifying potassium channel. A mutation in this gene has been found to be associated with migraine with aura.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

KCNK16 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 16

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. This channel is an open rectifier which primarily passes outward current under physiological K+ concentrations. This gene is expressed predominantly in the pancreas and is activated at alkaline pH. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

KCNK17 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 17

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. This channel is an open rectifier which primarily passes outward current under physiological K+ concentrations. This gene is activated at alkaline pH. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

KCNK15 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 15

This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The product of this gene has not been shown to be a functional channel, however, it may require other non-pore-forming proteins for activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK12 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 12

This gene encodes one of the members of the superfamily of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. The product of this gene has not been shown to be a functional channel, however, it may require other non-pore-forming proteins for activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNK13 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 13

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a potassium channel containing two pore-forming domains. This protein is an open channel that can be stimulated by arachidonic acid and inhibited by the anesthetic halothane. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KCNK10 Gene

potassium channel, two pore domain subfamily K, member 10

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of potassium channel proteins containing two pore-forming P domains. This channel is an open rectifier which primarily passes outward current under physiological K+ concentrations, and is stimulated strongly by arachidonic acid and to a lesser degree by membrane stretching, intracellular acidification, and general anaesthetics. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

SCLT1 Gene

sodium channel and clathrin linker 1

This gene encodes an adaptor protein. Studies of a related gene in rat suggest that the encoded protein functions to link clathrin to the sodium channel protein type 10 subunit alpha protein. The encoded protein has also been identified as a component of distal appendages of centrioles that is necessary for ciliogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

VDAC3P1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 3 pseudogene 1

SCNM1 Gene

sodium channel modifier 1

SCNM1 is a zinc finger protein and putative splicing factor. In mice, Scnm1 modifies phenotypic expression of Scn8a (MIM 600702) mutations (Buchner et al., 2003 [PubMed 12920299]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

CACNG8 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type II TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. The mRNA for this gene is believed to initiate translation from a non-AUG (CUG) start codon. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is a susceptibility locus for childhood absence epilepsy. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG6 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 6

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of two known gamma subunit proteins. This particular gamma subunit is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members that function as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Variants in this gene have been associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG7 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type I TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PIEZO2 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2

The protein encoded by this gene contains more than thirty transmembrane domains and likely functions as part of mechanically-activated (MA) cation channels. These channels serve to connect mechanical forces to biological signals. The encoded protein quickly adapts MA currents in somatosensory neurons. Defects in this gene are a cause of type 5 distal arthrogryposis. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PIEZO1 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1

Piezos are large transmembrane proteins conserved among various species, all having between 24 and 36 predicted transmembrane domains. 'Piezo' comes from the Greek 'piesi,' meaning 'pressure.' The FAM38A gene encodes PIEZO1, a protein that induces mechanically activated (MA) currents in various cell types (Coste et al., 2010 [PubMed 20813920]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

LOC280665 Gene

anti-CNG alpha 1 cation channel translation product-like

LOC652276 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 5 pseudogene

SCN8A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type VIII alpha subunit

This gene encodes a member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family. The encoded protein forms the ion pore region of the voltage-gated sodium channel. This protein is essential for the rapid membrane depolarization that occurs during the formation of the action potential in excitable neurons. Mutations in this gene are associated with mental retardation, pancerebellar atrophy and ataxia. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

KCNU1 Gene

potassium channel, subfamily U, member 1

TMC4 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 4

TMC6 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 6

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is an autosomal recessive dermatosis characterized by abnormal susceptibility to human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and a high rate of progression to squamous cell carcinoma on sun-exposed skin. EV is caused by mutations in either of two adjacent genes located on chromosome 17q25.3. Both of these genes encode integral membrane proteins that localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and are predicted to form transmembrane channels. This gene encodes a transmembrane channel-like protein with 10 transmembrane domains and 2 leucine zipper motifs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMC7 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 7

TMC1 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 1

This gene is considered a member of a gene family predicted to encode transmembrane proteins. The specific function of this gene is unknown; however, it is known to be required for normal function of cochlear hair cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with progressive postlingual hearing loss and profound prelingual deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMC2 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 2

This gene is considered a member of a gene family predicted to encode transmembrane proteins. The specific function of this gene is unknown; however, expression in the inner ear suggests that it may be crucial for normal auditory function. Mutations in this gene may underlie hereditary disorders of balance and hearing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMC3 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 3

TMC8 Gene

transmembrane channel-like 8

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is an autosomal recessive dermatosis characterized by abnormal susceptibility to human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and a high rate of progression to squamous cell carcinoma on sun-exposed skin. EV is caused by mutations in either of two adjacent genes located on chromosome 17q25.3. Both of these genes encode integral membrane proteins that localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and are predicted to form transmembrane channels. This gene encodes a transmembrane channel-like protein with 8 predicted transmembrane domains and 3 leucine zipper motifs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TPCN2 Gene

two pore segment channel 2

This gene encodes a putative cation-selective ion channel with two repeats of a six-transmembrane-domain. The protein localizes to lysosomal membranes and enables nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) -induced calcium ion release from lysosome-related stores. This ubiquitously expressed gene has elevated expression in liver and kidney. Two common nonsynonymous SNPs in this gene strongly associate with blond versus brown hair pigmentation.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

VDAC2P2 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene 2

VDAC2P1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene 1

VDAC1P12 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 12

VDAC1P13 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 13

VDAC1P10 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 10

VDAC1P11 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 11

KCNE2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, isk-related subfamily. This member is a small integral membrane subunit that assembles with the KCNH2 gene product, a pore-forming protein, to alter its function. This gene is expressed in heart and muscle and the gene mutations are associated with cardiac arrhythmia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNE3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 3

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, isk-related subfamily. This member is a type I membrane protein, and a beta subunit that assembles with a potassium channel alpha-subunit to modulate the gating kinetics and enhance stability of the multimeric complex. This gene is prominently expressed in the kidney. A missense mutation in this gene is associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNE1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 1

The product of this gene belongs to the potassium channel KCNE family. Potassium ion channels are essential to many cellular functions and show a high degree of diversity, varying in their electrophysiologic and pharmacologic properties. This gene encodes a transmembrane protein known to associate with the product of the KVLQT1 gene to form the delayed rectifier potassium channel. Mutation in this gene are associated with both Jervell and Lange-Nielsen and Romano-Ward forms of long-QT syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNE4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 4

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, isk-related subfamily. This member is a type I membrane protein, and a beta subunit that assembles with a potassium channel alpha-subunit to modulate the gating kinetics and enhance stability of the multimeric complex. This gene is prominently expressed in the embryo and in adult uterus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNE5 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 5

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a membrane protein which has sequence similarity to the KCNE1 gene product, a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, isk-related subfamily. This intronless gene is deleted in AMME contiguous gene syndrome and may be involved in the cardiac and neurologic abnormalities found in the AMME contiguous gene syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNIP4 Gene

Kv channel interacting protein 4

This gene encodes a member of the family of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel-interacting proteins (KCNIPs), which belong to the recoverin branch of the EF-hand superfamily. Members of the KCNIP family are small calcium binding proteins. They all have EF-hand-like domains, and differ from each other in the N-terminus. They are integral subunit components of native Kv4 channel complexes. They may regulate A-type currents, and hence neuronal excitability, in response to changes in intracellular calcium. This protein member also interacts with presenilin. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNIP3 Gene

Kv channel interacting protein 3, calsenilin

This gene encodes a member of the family of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel-interacting proteins, which belong to the recoverin branch of the EF-hand superfamily. Members of this family are small calcium binding proteins containing EF-hand-like domains. They are integral subunit components of native Kv4 channel complexes that may regulate A-type currents, and hence neuronal excitability, in response to changes in intracellular calcium. The encoded protein also functions as a calcium-regulated transcriptional repressor, and interacts with presenilins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNIP2 Gene

Kv channel interacting protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the family of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel-interacting proteins (KCNIPs), which belongs to the recoverin branch of the EF-hand superfamily. Members of the KCNIP family are small calcium binding proteins. They all have EF-hand-like domains, and differ from each other in the N-terminus. They are integral subunit components of native Kv4 channel complexes. They may regulate A-type currents, and hence neuronal excitability, in response to changes in intracellular calcium. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified from this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNIP1 Gene

Kv channel interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the family of cytosolic voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel-interacting proteins (KCNIPs), which belong to the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) family of the calcium binding EF-hand proteins. They associate with Kv4 alpha subunits to form native Kv4 channel complexes. The encoded protein may regulate rapidly inactivating (A-type) currents, and hence neuronal membrane excitability, in response to changes in the concentration of intracellular calcium. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

NALCN Gene

sodium leak channel, non selective

NALCN forms a voltage-independent, nonselective, noninactivating cation channel permeable to Na+, K+, and Ca(2+). It is responsible for the neuronal background sodium leak conductance (Lu et al., 2007 [PubMed 17448995]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CACNB3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 3 subunit

This gene encodes a regulatory beta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel. Beta subunits are composed of five domains, which contribute to the regulation of surface expression and gating of calcium channels and may also play a role in the regulation of transcription factors and calcium transport. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CACNB2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 2 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel protein that is a member of the voltage-gated calcium channel superfamily. The gene product was originally identified as an antigen target in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, an autoimmune disorder. Mutations in this gene are associated with Brugada syndrome. Alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

CACNB1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the calcium channel beta subunit family. It plays an important role in the calcium channel by modulating G protein inhibition, increasing peak calcium current, controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting and shifting the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and three transcript variants encoding three distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNB4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 4 subunit

This gene encodes a member of the beta subunit family of voltage-dependent calcium channel complex proteins. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. The protein encoded by this locus plays an important role in calcium channel function by modulating G protein inhibition, increasing peak calcium current, controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting and shifting the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation. Certain mutations in this gene have been associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

CACNG1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 1

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of two known gamma subunit proteins. This particular gamma subunit is part of skeletal muscle 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels and is an integral membrane protein that plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members that function as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

TRPV5 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 5

This gene is a member of the transient receptor family and the TrpV subfamily. The calcium-selective channel encoded by this gene has 6 transmembrane-spanning domains, multiple potential phosphorylation sites, an N-linked glycosylation site, and 5 ANK repeats. This protein forms homotetramers or heterotetramers and is activated by a low internal calcium level. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRPV4 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 4

This gene encodes a member of the OSM9-like transient receptor potential channel (OTRPC) subfamily in the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily of ion channels. The encoded protein is a Ca2+-permeable, nonselective cation channel that is thought to be involved in the regulation of systemic osmotic pressure. Mutations in this gene are the cause of spondylometaphyseal and metatropic dysplasia and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type IIC. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

TRPV6 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 6

This gene encodes a member of a family of multipass membrane proteins that functions as calcium channels. The encoded protein contains N-terminal ankyrin repeats, which are required for channel assembly and regulation. Translation initiation for this protein occurs at a non-AUG start codon that is decoded as methionine. This gene is situated next to a closely related gene for transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 5 (TRPV5). This locus has experienced positive selection in non-African populations, resulting in several non-synonymous codon differences among individuals of different genetic backgrounds. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

TRPV1 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1

Capsaicin, the main pungent ingredient in hot chili peppers, elicits a sensation of burning pain by selectively activating sensory neurons that convey information about noxious stimuli to the central nervous system. The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for capsaicin and is a non-selective cation channel that is structurally related to members of the TRP family of ion channels. This receptor is also activated by increases in temperature in the noxious range, suggesting that it functions as a transducer of painful thermal stimuli in vivo. Four transcript variants encoding the same protein, but with different 5' UTR sequence, have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRPV3 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 3

This gene product belongs to a family of nonselective cation channels that function in a variety of processes, including temperature sensation and vasoregulation. The thermosensitive members of this family are expressed in subsets of sensory neurons that terminate in the skin, and are activated at distinct physiological temperatures. This channel is activated at temperatures between 22 and 40 degrees C. This gene lies in close proximity to another family member gene on chromosome 17, and the two encoded proteins are thought to associate with each other to form heteromeric channels. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

TRPV2 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 2

This gene encodes an ion channel that is activated by high temperatures above 52 degrees Celsius. The protein may be involved in transduction of high-temperature heat responses in sensory ganglia. It is thought that in other tissues the channel may be activated by stimuli other than heat. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCAF2 Gene

TRPM8 channel-associated factor 2

TCAF1 Gene

TRPM8 channel-associated factor 1

SCN5A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type V alpha subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel subunit. This protein is found primarily in cardiac muscle and is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential in an electrocardiogram. Defects in this gene are a cause of long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3), an autosomal dominant cardiac disease. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNRG Gene

potassium channel regulator

This gene encodes a protein which regulates the activity of voltage-gated potassium channels. This gene is on chromosome 13 and overlaps the gene for tripartite motif containing 13 on the same strand. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

KCNMB1 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 1

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit and the product of this gene, the modulatory beta subunit. Intracellular calcium regulates the physical association between the alpha and beta subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNMB3 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 3

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit and the modulatory beta subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is an auxiliary beta subunit which may partially inactivate or slightly decrease the activation time of MaxiK alpha subunit currents. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

KCNMB2 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 2

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit and the modulatory beta subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is an auxiliary beta subunit which decreases the activation time of MaxiK alpha subunit currents. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. Additional variants are discussed in the literature, but their full length nature has not been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KCNMB4 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 4

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit and the modulatory beta subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is an auxiliary beta subunit which slows activation kinetics, leads to steeper calcium sensitivity, and shifts the voltage range of current activation to more negative potentials than does the beta 1 subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCNN1G Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 gamma subunit

Nonvoltage-gated, amiloride-sensitive, sodium channels control fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelia in many organs. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the gamma subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with Liddle syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

CACNA1H Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1H subunit

This gene encodes a T-type member of the alpha-1 subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. The alpha-1 subunit has 24 transmembrane segments and forms the pore through which ions pass into the cell. There are multiple isoforms of each of the proteins in the complex, either encoded by different genes or the result of alternative splicing of transcripts. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized for the gene described here. Studies suggest certain mutations in this gene lead to childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA1I Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1I subunit

This gene encodes the pore-forming alpha subunit of a voltage gated calcium channel. The encoded protein is a member of a subfamily of calcium channels referred to as is a low voltage-activated, T-type, calcium channel. The channel encoded by this protein is characterized by a slower activation and inactivation compared to other T-type calcium channels. This protein may be involved in calcium signaling in neurons. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CACNA1A Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. Calcium channels are multisubunit complexes composed of alpha-1, beta, alpha-2/delta, and gamma subunits. The channel activity is directed by the pore-forming alpha-1 subunit, whereas, the others act as auxiliary subunits regulating this activity. The distinctive properties of the calcium channel types are related primarily to the expression of a variety of alpha-1 isoforms, alpha-1A, B, C, D, E, and S. This gene encodes the alpha-1A subunit, which is predominantly expressed in neuronal tissue. Mutations in this gene are associated with 2 neurologic disorders, familial hemiplegic migraine and episodic ataxia 2. This gene also exhibits polymorphic variation due to (CAG)n-repeats. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. In one set of transcript variants, the (CAG)n-repeats occur in the 3' UTR, and are not associated with any disease. But in another set of variants, an insertion extends the coding region to include the (CAG)n-repeats which encode a polyglutamine tract. Expansion of the (CAG)n-repeats from the normal 4-16 to 21-28 in the coding region is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CACNA1B Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, N type, alpha 1B subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is the pore-forming subunit of an N-type voltage-dependent calcium channel, which controls neurotransmitter release from neurons. The encoded protein forms a complex with alpha-2, beta, and delta subunits to form the high-voltage activated channel. This channel is sensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA and omega-agatoxin-IIIA but insensitive to dihydropyridines. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

CACNA1C Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit

This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. The alpha-1 subunit consists of 24 transmembrane segments and forms the pore through which ions pass into the cell. The calcium channel consists of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. There are multiple isoforms of each of these proteins, either encoded by different genes or the result of alternative splicing of transcripts. The protein encoded by this gene binds to and is inhibited by dihydropyridine. Alternative splicing results in many transcript variants encoding different proteins. Some of the predicted proteins may not produce functional ion channel subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

CACNA1D Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. Calcium channels are multisubunit complexes composed of alpha-1, beta, alpha-2/delta, and gamma subunits. The channel activity is directed by the pore-forming alpha-1 subunit, whereas the others act as auxiliary subunits regulating this activity. The distinctive properties of the calcium channel types are related primarily to the expression of a variety of alpha-1 isoforms, namely alpha-1A, B, C, D, E, and S. This gene encodes the alpha-1D subunit. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

CACNA1E Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are multisubunit complexes consisting of alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, and delta subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. These channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. This gene encodes the alpha-1E subunit of the R-type calcium channels, which belong to the 'high-voltage activated' group that maybe involved in the modulation of firing patterns of neurons important for information processing. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

CACNA1F Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit

This gene encodes a multipass transmembrane protein that functions as an alpha-1 subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, which mediates the influx of calcium ions into the cell. The encoded protein forms a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Mutations in this gene can cause X-linked eye disorders, including congenital stationary night blindness type 2A, cone-rod dystropy, and Aland Island eye disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

KCNJ3 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 3

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell, is controlled by G-proteins and plays an important role in regulating heartbeat. It associates with three other G-protein-activated potassium channels to form a heteromultimeric pore-forming complex that also couples to neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and whereby channel activation can inhibit action potential firing by hyperpolarizing the plasma membrane. These multimeric G-protein-gated inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels may play a role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, addiction, Down's syndrome, ataxia, and Parkinson's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct proteins. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

KCNJ2 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 2

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell, probably participates in establishing action potential waveform and excitability of neuronal and muscle tissues. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Andersen syndrome, which is characterized by periodic paralysis, cardiac arrhythmias, and dysmorphic features. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ1 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 1

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. It is activated by internal ATP and probably plays an important role in potassium homeostasis. The encoded protein has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell. Mutations in this gene have been associated with antenatal Bartter syndrome, which is characterized by salt wasting, hypokalemic alkalosis, hypercalciuria, and low blood pressure. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ6 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 6

This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel family of inward rectifier potassium channels. This type of potassium channel allows a greater flow of potassium into the cell than out of it. These proteins modulate many physiological processes, including heart rate in cardiac cells and circuit activity in neuronal cells, through G-protein coupled receptor stimulation. Mutations in this gene are associated with Keppen-Lubinsky Syndrome, a rare condition characterized by severe developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, and intellectual disability. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

KCNJ5 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 5

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell, is controlled by G-proteins. It may associate with two other G-protein-activated potassium channels to form a heteromultimeric pore-forming complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ4 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 4

Several different potassium channels are known to be involved with electrical signaling in the nervous system. One class is activated by depolarization whereas a second class is not. The latter are referred to as inwardly rectifying K+ channels, and they have a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into the cell rather than out of it. This asymmetry in potassium ion conductance plays a key role in the excitability of muscle cells and neurons. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and member of the inward rectifier potassium channel family. The encoded protein has a small unitary conductance compared to other members of this protein family. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ9 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 9

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell, is controlled by G-proteins. It associates with another G-protein-activated potassium channel to form a heteromultimeric pore-forming complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNJ8 Gene

potassium channel, inwardly rectifying subfamily J, member 8

Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein, which has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell, is controlled by G-proteins. Defects in this gene may be a cause of J-wave syndromes and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

CACNG5 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type I TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. This gene is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

TRPC2 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 2, pseudogene

TRPC3 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane protein that can form a non-selective channel permeable to calcium and other cations. The encoded protein appears to be induced to form channels by a receptor tyrosine kinase-activated phosphatidylinositol second messenger system and also by depletion of intracellular calcium stores. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

TRPC6 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6

The protein encoded by this gene forms a receptor-activated calcium channel in the cell membrane. The channel is activated by diacylglycerol and is thought to be under the control of a phosphatidylinositol second messenger system. Activation of this channel occurs independently of protein kinase C and is not triggered by low levels of intracellular calcium. Defects in this gene are a cause of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 2 (FSGS2). [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

TRPC4 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 4

This gene encodes a member of the canonical subfamily of transient receptor potential cation channels. The encoded protein forms a non-selective calcium-permeable cation channel that is activated by Gq-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinases, and plays a role in multiple processes including endothelial permeability, vasodilation, neurotransmitter release and cell proliferation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with generalized epilepsy with photosensitivity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC440895 Gene

two pore channel 3 pseudogene

KCNB2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shab related subfamily B, member 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shab-related subfamily. This member is a delayed rectifier potassium channel. The gene is expressed in gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNB1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shab related subfamily B, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shab-related subfamily. This member is a delayed rectifier potassium channel and its activity is modulated by some other family members. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCTD9P1 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 pseudogene 1

KCTD9P2 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 pseudogene 2

KCTD9P3 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 pseudogene 3

KCTD9P4 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 pseudogene 4

KCTD9P5 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 9 pseudogene 5

LOC100422502 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6 pseudogene

LOC100422500 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6 pseudogene

LOC644169 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene

SCN2B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type II beta subunit

SCN2A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type II alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit with 24 transmembrane domains and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family. It is heterogeneously expressed in the brain, and mutations in this gene have been linked to several seizure disorders. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100127986 Gene

cation channel, sperm associated 2 pseudogene

SLC5A4 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4

LOC100422463 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit pseudogene

ZACN Gene

zinc activated ligand-gated ion channel

LGICZ1 is a zinc-activated ligand-gated ion channel that defines a new subgroup of the cysteine-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (Davies et al., 2003 [PubMed 12381728]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC401959 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene

LOC100420647 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 3 pseudogene

LOC100133315 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 2-like

KCNC4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shaw related subfamily C, member 4

The Shaker gene family of Drosophila encodes components of voltage-gated potassium channels and is comprised of four subfamilies. Based on sequence similarity, this gene is similar to the Shaw subfamily. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the delayed rectifier class of channel proteins and is an integral membrane protein that mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. It generates atypical voltage-dependent transient current that may be important for neuronal excitability. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

CACNA1G Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit

Voltage-sensitive calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division, and cell death. This gene encodes a T-type, low-voltage activated calcium channel. The T-type channels generate currents that are both transient, owing to fast inactivation, and tiny, owing to small conductance. T-type channels are thought to be involved in pacemaker activity, low-threshold calcium spikes, neuronal oscillations and resonance, and rebound burst firing. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

LOC644110 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 2 pseudogene

LOC650866 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 6 pseudogene

SCN4A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type IV alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit with 24 transmembrane domains and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family. It is expressed in skeletal muscle, and mutations in this gene have been linked to several myotonia and periodic paralysis disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNG1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily G, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily G. This gene is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found in normal and cancerous tissues. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNG2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily G, member 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily G. This member is a gamma subunit of the voltage-gated potassium channel. The delayed-rectifier type channels containing this subunit may contribute to cardiac action potential repolarization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNG3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily G, member 3

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily G. This member is a gamma subunit functioning as a modulatory molecule. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNG4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated modifier subfamily G, member 4

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily G. This member functions as a modulatory subunit. The gene has strong expression in brain. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been found in normal and cancerous tissues. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN10A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type X alpha subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunit. The properties of the channel formed by the encoded transmembrane protein can be altered by interaction with different beta subunits. This protein may be involved in the onset of pain associated with peripheral neuropathy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

CATSPER4 Gene

cation channel, sperm associated 4

CATSPER1 Gene

cation channel, sperm associated 1

Calcium ions play a primary role in the regulation of sperm motility. This gene belongs to a family of putative cation channels that are specific to spermatozoa and localize to the flagellum. The protein family features a single repeat with six membrane-spanning segments and a predicted calcium-selective pore region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CATSPER2 Gene

cation channel, sperm associated 2

Calcium ions play a primary role in the regulation of sperm motility. This gene belongs to a family of putative cation channels that are specific to spermatozoa and localize to the flagellum. The protein family features a single repeat with six membrane-spanning segments and a predicted calcium-selective pore region. This gene is part of a tandem repeat on chromosome 15q15; the second copy of this gene is thought to be a pseudogene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

CATSPER3 Gene

cation channel, sperm associated 3

CATSPERD Gene

catsper channel auxiliary subunit delta

CATSPERG Gene

catsper channel auxiliary subunit gamma

CATSPERG is a subunit of the CATSPER (see CATSPER1; MIM 606389) sperm calcium channel, which is required for sperm hyperactivated motility and male fertility (Wang et al., 2009 [PubMed 19516020]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]

HCN1 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 1

The membrane protein encoded by this gene is a hyperpolarization-activated cation channel that contributes to the native pacemaker currents in heart and neurons. The encoded protein can homodimerize or heterodimerize with other pore-forming subunits to form a potassium channel. This channel may act as a receptor for sour tastes. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

HCN3 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 3

This gene encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that functions as a voltage gated cation channel. The encoded protein is a member of a family of closely related cyclic adenosine monophosphate-binding channel proteins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

HCN2 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 2

Hyperpolarization-activated cation channels of the HCN gene family, such as HCN2, contribute to spontaneous rhythmic activity in both heart and brain.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]

HCN4 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 4

This gene encodes a member of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channels. The encoded protein shows slow kinetics of activation and inactivation, and is necessary for the cardiac pacemaking process. This channel may also mediate responses to sour stimuli. Mutations in this gene have been linked to sick sinus syndrome 2, also known as atrial fibrillation with bradyarrhythmia or familial sinus bradycardia. Two pseudogenes have been identified on chromosome 15. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

CACNA1S Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit

This gene encodes one of the five subunits of the slowly inactivating L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel in skeletal muscle cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNAB1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily A regulatory beta subunit 1

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member includes distinct isoforms which are encoded by alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene. Some of these isoforms are beta subunits, which form heteromultimeric complexes with alpha subunits and modulate the activity of the pore-forming alpha subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

KCNAB3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily A regulatory beta subunit 3

This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. The encoded protein is one of the beta subunits, which are auxiliary proteins associating with functional Kv-alpha subunits. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with the potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related subfamily, member 5 gene product and regulates the activity of the alpha subunit. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

KCNAB2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily A regulatory beta subunit 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member is one of the beta subunits, which are auxiliary proteins associating with functional Kv-alpha subunits. This member alters functional properties of the KCNA4 gene product. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

TCAF2P1 Gene

TRPM8 channel-associated factor 2 pseudogene 1

SCN7A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type VII alpha subunit

This gene encodes one of the many voltage-gated sodium channel proteins. For proper functioning of neurons and muscles during action potentials, voltage-gated sodium channels direct sodium ion diffusion for membrane depolarization. This sodium channel protein has some atypical characteristics; the similarity between the human and mouse proteins is lower compared to other orthologous sodium channel pairs. Also, the S4 segments, which sense voltage changes, have fewer positive charged residues that in other sodium channels; domain 4 has fewer arginine and lysine residues compared to other sodium channel proteins. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants exist, but the full-length natures of all of them remain unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

KCNT1 Gene

potassium channel, sodium activated subfamily T, member 1

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a sodium-activated potassium channel subunit which is thought to function in ion conductance and developmental signaling pathways. Mutations in this gene cause the early-onset epileptic disorders, malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy and autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

CRACR2B Gene

calcium release activated channel regulator 2B

CRACR2A Gene

calcium release activated channel regulator 2A

CACNG2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type II TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CATSPER2P1 Gene

cation channel, sperm associated 2 pseudogene 1

Catsper genes belong to a family of putative cation channels that are specific to spermatozoa and localize to the flagellum. This gene is part of a tandem repeat on chromosome 15q15; this copy of the gene is thought to be a pseudogene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

KCTD10P1 Gene

potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 10 pseudogene 1

LOC100420574 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene

ASIC5 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel family member 5

This gene belongs to the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel and degenerin (NaC/DEG) family, members of which have been identified in many animal species ranging from the nematode to human. The amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channel encoded by this gene is primarily expressed in the small intestine, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASIC4 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel family member 4

This gene belongs to the superfamily of acid-sensing ion channels, which are proton-gated, amiloride-sensitive sodium channels. These channels have been implicated in synaptic transmission, pain perception as well as mechanoperception. This gene is predominantly expressed in the pituitary gland, and was considered a candidate for paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC), a movement disorder, however, no correlation was found between mutations in this gene and PDC. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ASIC1 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 1

This gene encodes a member of the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) family of proteins, which are part of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. Members of the ASIC family are sensitive to amiloride and function in neurotransmission. The encoded proteins function in learning, pain transduction, touch sensation, and development of memory and fear. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ASIC3 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 3

This gene encodes a member of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. The members of this family are amiloride-sensitive sodium channels that contain intracellular N and C termini, two hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and a large extracellular loop, which has many cysteine residues with conserved spacing. The member encoded by this gene is an acid sensor and may play an important role in the detection of lasting pH changes. In addition, a heteromeric association between this member and acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channel 2 has been observed as proton-gated channels sensitive to gadolinium. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ASIC2 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 2

This gene encodes a member of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. The members of this family are amiloride-sensitive sodium channels that contain intracellular N and C termini, 2 hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and a large extracellular loop, which has many cysteine residues with conserved spacing. The member encoded by this gene may play a role in neurotransmission. In addition, a heteromeric association between this member and acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channel 3 has been observed to co-assemble into proton-gated channels sensitive to gadolinium. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and two variants, encoding distinct isoforms, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

SLC5A4P1 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4 pseudogene 1

CNGA1 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 1

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in phototransduction. Along with another protein, the encoded protein forms a cGMP-gated cation channel in the plasma membrane, allowing depolarization of rod photoreceptors. This represents the last step in the phototransduction pathway. Defects in this gene are a cause of retinitis pigmentosa autosomal recessive (ARRP) disease. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

CNGA2 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 2

The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit of a cyclic nucleotide-gated olfactory channel. The encoded protein contains a carboxy-terminal leucine zipper that mediates channel formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

CNGA3 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 3

This gene encodes a member of the cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel protein family which is required for normal vision and olfactory signal transduction. Mutations in this gene are associated with achromatopsia (rod monochromacy) and color blindness. Two alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CNGA4 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 4

CNGA4 is a modulatory subunit of vertebrate cyclic nucleotide-gated membrane channels that transduce odorant signals (Munger et al., 2001 [PubMed 11739959]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC728424 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 2 pseudogene

LOC100421204 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 1 pseudogene

TRPA1 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1

The structure of the protein encoded by this gene is highly related to both the protein ankyrin and transmembrane proteins. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined; however, studies indicate the function may involve a role in signal transduction and growth control. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCND1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shal related subfamily D, member 1

This gene encodes a multipass membrane protein that comprises the pore subunit of the voltage-gated A-type potassium channel, which functions in the repolarization of membrane action potentials. Activity of voltage-gated potassium channels is important in a number of physiological processes, among them the regulation of neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, and smooth muscle contraction. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

KCND3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shal related subfamily D, member 3

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shal-related subfamily, members of which form voltage-activated A-type potassium ion channels and are prominent in the repolarization phase of the action potential. This member includes two isoforms with different sizes, which are encoded by alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCND2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shal related subfamily D, member 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shal-related subfamily, members of which form voltage-activated A-type potassium ion channels and are prominent in the repolarization phase of the action potential. This member mediates a rapidly inactivating, A-type outward potassium current which is not under the control of the N terminus as it is in Shaker channels. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC729317 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene

ENKUR Gene

enkurin, TRPC channel interacting protein

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with calmodulin and several transient receptor potential canonical cation channel proteins. The encoded protein may function as an adaptor to localize signal transduction machinery to calcium channels. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

CATSPERB Gene

catsper channel auxiliary subunit beta

VDAC3 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 3

This gene encodes a voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and belongs to the mitochondrial porin family. VDACs are small, integral membrane proteins that traverse the outer mitochondrial membrane and conduct ATP and other small metabolites. They are known to bind several kinases of intermediary metabolism, thought to be involved in translocation of adenine nucleotides, and are hypothesized to form part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which results in the release of cytochrome c at the onset of apoptotic cell death. Alternatively transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

VDAC2 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2

This gene encodes a member of the voltage-dependent anion channel pore-forming family of proteins that are considered the main pathway for metabolite diffusion across the mitochondrial outer membrane. The encoded protein is also thought to be involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via regulation of BCL2-antagonist/killer 1 protein activity. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1, 2, 12 and 21, and alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

VDAC1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1

This gene encodes a voltage-dependent anion channel protein that is a major component of the outer mitochondrial membrane. The encoded protein facilitates the exchange of metabolites and ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane and may regulate mitochondrial functions. This protein also forms channels in the plasma membrane and may be involved in transmembrane electron transport. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Multiple pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1, 2 3, 6, 9, 12, X and Y.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SCN4B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type IV beta subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is one of several sodium channel beta subunits. These subunits interact with voltage-gated alpha subunits to change sodium channel kinetics. The encoded transmembrane protein forms interchain disulfide bonds with SCN2A. Defects in this gene are a cause of long QT syndrome type 10 (LQT10). Three protein-coding and one non-coding transcript variant have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

KCNQ4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated KQT-like subfamily Q, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene forms a potassium channel that is thought to play a critical role in the regulation of neuronal excitability, particularly in sensory cells of the cochlea. The current generated by this channel is inhibited by M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and activated by retigabine, a novel anti-convulsant drug. The encoded protein can form a homomultimeric potassium channel or possibly a heteromultimeric channel in association with the protein encoded by the KCNQ3 gene. Defects in this gene are a cause of nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness type 2 (DFNA2), an autosomal dominant form of progressive hearing loss. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNQ5 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated KQT-like subfamily Q, member 5

This gene is a member of the KCNQ potassium channel gene family that is differentially expressed in subregions of the brain and in skeletal muscle. The protein encoded by this gene yields currents that activate slowly with depolarization and can form heteromeric channels with the protein encoded by the KCNQ3 gene. Currents expressed from this protein have voltage dependences and inhibitor sensitivities in common with M-currents. They are also inhibited by M1 muscarinic receptor activation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

KCNQ2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated KQT-like subfamily Q, member 2

The M channel is a slowly activating and deactivating potassium channel that plays a critical role in the regulation of neuronal excitability. The M channel is formed by the association of the protein encoded by this gene and a related protein encoded by the KCNQ3 gene, both integral membrane proteins. M channel currents are inhibited by M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and activated by retigabine, a novel anti-convulsant drug. Defects in this gene are a cause of benign familial neonatal convulsions type 1 (BFNC), also known as epilepsy, benign neonatal type 1 (EBN1). At least five transcript variants encoding five different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNQ3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated KQT-like subfamily Q, member 3

This gene encodes a protein that functions in the regulation of neuronal excitability. The encoded protein forms an M-channel by associating with the products of the related KCNQ2 or KCNQ5 genes, which both encode integral membrane proteins. M-channel currents are inhibited by M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and are activated by retigabine, a novel anti-convulsant drug. Defects in this gene are a cause of benign familial neonatal convulsions type 2 (BFNC2), also known as epilepsy, benign neonatal type 2 (EBN2). Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

KCNQ1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated KQT-like subfamily Q, member 1

This gene encodes a voltage-gated potassium channel required for repolarization phase of the cardiac action potential. This protein can form heteromultimers with two other potassium channel proteins, KCNE1 and KCNE3. Mutations in this gene are associated with hereditary long QT syndrome 1 (also known as Romano-Ward syndrome), Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, and familial atrial fibrillation. This gene exhibits tissue-specific imprinting, with preferential expression from the maternal allele in some tissues, and biallelic expression in others. This gene is located in a region of chromosome 11 amongst other imprinted genes that are associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), and itself has been shown to be disrupted by chromosomal rearrangements in patients with BWS. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

TRPC1 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane protein that can form a non-selective channel permeable to calcium and other cations. The encoded protein appears to be induced to form channels by a receptor tyrosine kinase-activated phosphatidylinositol second messenger system and also by depletion of intracellular calcium stores. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

TRPC7 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 7

TRPC5 Gene

transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 5

This gene belongs to the transient receptor family. It encodes one of the seven mammalian TRPC (transient receptor potential channel) proteins. The encoded protein is a multi-pass membrane protein and is thought to form a receptor-activated non-selective calcium permeant cation channel. The protein is active alone or as a heteromultimeric assembly with TRPC1, TRPC3, and TRPC4. It also interacts with multiple proteins including calmodulin, CABP1, enkurin, Na(+)-H+ exchange regulatory factor (NHERF ), interferon-induced GTP-binding protein (MX1), ring finger protein 24 (RNF24), and SEC14 domain and spectrin repeat-containing protein 1 (SESTD1). [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LOC100507334 Gene

two pore channel 3 pseudogene