Tumor suppressor serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in synaptic plasticity, centriole duplication and G1/S phase transition. Polo-like kinases act by binding and phosphorylating proteins are that already phosphorylated on a specific motif recognized by the POLO box domains. Phosphorylates CENPJ, NPM1, RAPGEF2, RASGRF1, SNCA, SIPA1L1 and SYNGAP1. Plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and memory by regulating the Ras and Rap protein signaling: required for overactivity-dependent spine remodeling by phosphorylating the Ras activator RASGRF1 and the Rap inhibitor SIPA1L1 leading to their degradation by the proteasome. Conversely, phosphorylates the Rap activator RAPGEF2 and the Ras inhibitor SYNGAP1, promoting their activity. Also regulates synaptic plasticity independently of kinase activity, via its interaction with NSF that disrupts the interaction between NSF and the GRIA2 subunit of AMPARs, leading to a rapid rundown of AMPAR-mediated current that occludes long term depression. Required for procentriole formation and centriole duplication by phosphorylating CENPJ and NPM1, respectively. Its induction by p53/TP53 suggests that it may participate in the mitotic checkpoint following stress.