Mitochondrial inner membrane calcium uniporter that mediates calcium uptake into mitochondria. Mitochondrial calcium homeostasis plays key roles in cellular physiology and regulates cell bioenergetics, cytoplasmic calcium signals and activation of cell death pathways. Activity is regulated by MICU1 and MICU2 that stimulate and inhibit MCU activity, respectively. Regulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells by regulating mitochondrial calcium uptake. Involved in buffering the amplitude of systolic calcium rises in cardiomyocytes.