Name

CHEA Transcription Factor Binding Site Profiles Dataset

From ChIP-X Enrichment Analysis

transcription factor binding site profiles from published ChIP-chip, ChIP-seq, and other transcription factor functional studies

ENCODE Transcription Factor Binding Site Profiles Dataset

From Encyclopedia of DNA Elements

transcription factor binding site profiles for cell lines

Roadmap Epigenomics Cell and Tissue DNA Accessibility Profiles Dataset

From Roadmap Epigenomics

DNA accessibility profiles for primary cell types and tissues

Roadmap Epigenomics Cell and Tissue DNA Methylation Profiles Dataset

From Roadmap Epigenomics

DNA methylation profiles for primary cell types and tissues

CHEA Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From ChIP-X Enrichment Analysis

target genes of transcription factors from published ChIP-chip, ChIP-seq, and other transcription factor binding site profiling studies

ENCODE Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From Encyclopedia of DNA Elements

target genes of transcription factors from transcription factor binding site profiles

GEO Signatures of Differentially Expressed Genes for Transcription Factor Perturbations Dataset

From Gene Expression Omnibus

mRNA expression profiles for cell lines or tissues following transcription factor perturbation (inhibition, activation, knockdown, knockout, over-expression, mutation)

JASPAR Predicted Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From Jaspar PWMs

target genes of transcription factors predicted using known transcription factor binding site motifs

MotifMap Predicted Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From MotifMap

target genes of transcription factors predicted using known transcription factor binding site motifs

TRANSFAC Curated Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From TRANSFAC

target genes of transcription factors manually curated from low-throughput or high-throughput transcription factor functional studies

TRANSFAC Predicted Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From TRANSFAC

target genes of transcription factors predicted using known transcription factor binding site motifs

ENCODE Histone Modification Site Profiles Dataset

From Encyclopedia of DNA Elements

histone modification profiles for cell lines

GCFC2 Gene

GC-rich sequence DNA-binding factor 2

The first mRNA transcript isolated for this gene was part of an artificial chimera derived from two distinct gene transcripts and a primer used in the cloning process (see Genbank accession M29204). A positively charged amino terminus present only in the chimera was determined to bind GC-rich DNA, thus mistakenly thought to identify a transcription factor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DDB2 Gene

damage-specific DNA binding protein 2, 48kDa

This gene encodes a protein that is necessary for the repair of ultraviolet light-damaged DNA. This protein is the smaller subunit of a heterodimeric protein complex that participates in nucleotide excision repair, and this complex mediates the ubiquitylation of histones H3 and H4, which facilitates the cellular response to DNA damage. This subunit appears to be required for DNA binding. Mutations in this gene cause xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E, a recessive disease that is characterized by an increased sensitivity to UV light and a high predisposition for skin cancer development, in some cases accompanied by neurological abnormalities. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

DDB1 Gene

damage-specific DNA binding protein 1, 127kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is the large subunit (p127) of the heterodimeric DNA damage-binding (DDB) complex while another protein (p48) forms the small subunit. This protein complex functions in nucleotide-excision repair and binds to DNA following UV damage. Defective activity of this complex causes the repair defect in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E (XPE) - an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by photosensitivity and early onset of carcinomas. However, it remains for mutation analysis to demonstrate whether the defect in XPE patients is in this gene or the gene encoding the small subunit. In addition, Best vitelliform mascular dystrophy is mapped to the same region as this gene on 11q, but no sequence alternations of this gene are demonstrated in Best disease patients. The protein encoded by this gene also functions as an adaptor molecule for the cullin 4 (CUL4) ubiquitin E3 ligase complex by facilitating the binding of substrates to this complex and the ubiquitination of proteins. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

ELF3 Gene

E74-like factor 3 (ets domain transcription factor, epithelial-specific )

N6AMT1 Gene

N-6 adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 1 (putative)

This gene encodes an N(6)-adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase. The encoded enzyme may be involved in the methylation of release factor I during translation termination. This enzyme is also involved in converting the arsenic metabolite monomethylarsonous acid to the less toxic dimethylarsonic acid. Alternative splicing pf this gene results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 11. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

N6AMT2 Gene

N-6 adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 2 (putative)

LOC642897 Gene

N-6 adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 1 (putative) pseudogene

D6S2723E Gene

DNA segment on chromosome 6 (unique, pseudogene) 2723 expressed sequence

PTF1A Gene

pancreas specific transcription factor, 1a

This gene encodes a protein that is a component of the pancreas transcription factor 1 complex (PTF1) and is known to have a role in mammalian pancreatic development. The protein plays a role in determining whether cells allocated to the pancreatic buds continue towards pancreatic organogenesis or revert back to duodenal fates. The protein is thought to be involved in the maintenance of exocrine pancreas-specific gene expression including elastase 1 and amylase. Mutations in this gene cause cerebellar agenesis and loss of expression is seen in ductal type pancreas cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCF7 Gene

transcription factor 7 (T-cell specific, HMG-box)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator that plays an important role in lymphocyte differentiation. This gene is expressed predominantly in T-cells. The encoded protein can bind an enhancer element and activate the CD3E gene, and it also may repress the CTNNB1 and TCF7L2 genes through a feedback mechanism. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

TCF7L1 Gene

transcription factor 7-like 1 (T-cell specific, HMG-box)

This gene encodes a member of the T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor family of transcription factors. These transcription factors are activated by beta catenin, mediate the Wnt signaling pathway and are antagonized by the transforming growth factor beta signaling pathway. The encoded protein contains a high mobility group-box DNA binding domain and participates in the regulation of cell cycle genes and cellular senescence. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

TCF7L2 Gene

transcription factor 7-like 2 (T-cell specific, HMG-box)

This gene encodes a high mobility group (HMG) box-containing transcription factor that plays a key role in the Wnt signaling pathway. The protein has been implicated in blood glucose homeostasis. Genetic variants of this gene are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Several transcript variants encoding multiple different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

LOC100129955 Gene

RNA polymerase I-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3-like

SRF Gene

serum response factor (c-fos serum response element-binding transcription factor)

This gene encodes a ubiquitous nuclear protein that stimulates both cell proliferation and differentiation. It is a member of the MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and SRF) box superfamily of transcription factors. This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the activity of many immediate-early genes, for example c-fos, and thereby participates in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell growth, and cell differentiation. This gene is the downstream target of many pathways; for example, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) that acts through the ternary complex factors (TCFs). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

NFIC Gene

nuclear factor I/C (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CTF/NF-I family. These are dimeric DNA-binding proteins, and function as cellular transcription factors and as replication factors for adenovirus DNA replication. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

NFIX Gene

nuclear factor I/X (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that binds the palindromic sequence 5'-TTGGCNNNNNGCCAA-3 in viral and cellular promoters. The encoded protein can also stimulate adenovirus replication in vitro. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

TARDBPP1 Gene

TAR DNA binding protein pseudogene 1

TARDBPP2 Gene

TAR DNA binding protein pseudogene 2

LOC646044 Gene

single stranded DNA binding protein 4 pseudogene

SSBP4 Gene

single stranded DNA binding protein 4

LOC100132698 Gene

single stranded DNA binding protein 4 pseudogene

CENPBD1 Gene

CENPB DNA-binding domains containing 1

MSANTD2P1 Gene

Myb/SANT-like DNA-binding domain containing 2 pseudogene 1

LOC401002 Gene

single stranded DNA binding protein 3 pseudogene

LOC646674 Gene

single stranded DNA binding protein 4 pseudogene

LOC100996860 Gene

TAR DNA-binding protein 43 pseudogene

ZBP1 Gene

Z-DNA binding protein 1

This gene encodes a Z-DNA binding protein. The encoded protein plays a role in the innate immune response by binding to foreign DNA and inducing type-I interferon production. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

AHDC1 Gene

AT hook, DNA binding motif, containing 1

This gene encodes a protein containing two AT-hooks, which likely function in DNA binding. Mutations in this gene were found in individuals with Xia-Gibbs syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

RFX8 Gene

RFX family member 8, lacking RFX DNA binding domain

LOC643387 Gene

TAR DNA binding protein pseudogene

LOC101060644 Gene

TAR DNA-binding protein 43 pseudogene

WDHD1 Gene

WD repeat and HMG-box DNA binding protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene contains multiple N-terminal WD40 domains and a C-terminal high mobility group (HMG) box. WD40 domains are found in a variety of eukaryotic proteins and may function as adaptor/regulatory modules in signal transduction, pre-mRNA processing and cytoskeleton assembly. HMG boxes are found in many eukaryotic proteins involved in chromatin assembly, transcription and replication. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100132723 Gene

single stranded DNA binding protein 4 pseudogene

LOC100129321 Gene

single stranded DNA binding protein 3 pseudogene

LOC100128540 Gene

TAR DNA-binding protein 43-like

ID2B Gene

inhibitor of DNA binding 2B, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein (pseudogene)

MSANTD4 Gene

Myb/SANT-like DNA-binding domain containing 4 with coiled-coils

MSANTD1 Gene

Myb/SANT-like DNA-binding domain containing 1

MSANTD2 Gene

Myb/SANT-like DNA-binding domain containing 2

MSANTD3 Gene

Myb/SANT-like DNA-binding domain containing 3

TARDBP Gene

TAR DNA binding protein

HIV-1, the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), contains an RNA genome that produces a chromosomally integrated DNA during the replicative cycle. Activation of HIV-1 gene expression by the transactivator Tat is dependent on an RNA regulatory element (TAR) located downstream of the transcription initiation site. The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional repressor that binds to chromosomally integrated TAR DNA and represses HIV-1 transcription. In addition, this protein regulates alternate splicing of the CFTR gene. A similar pseudogene is present on chromosome 20. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100420848 Gene

Myb/SANT-like DNA-binding domain containing 3 pseudogene

CHD1L Gene

chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 1-like

This gene encodes a DNA helicase protein involved in DNA repair. The protein converts ATP to add poly(ADP-ribose) as it regulates chromatin relaxation following DNA damage. Several alternatively spliced transcripts variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

CHD1 Gene

chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 1

The CHD family of proteins is characterized by the presence of chromo (chromatin organization modifier) domains and SNF2-related helicase/ATPase domains. CHD genes alter gene expression possibly by modification of chromatin structure thus altering access of the transcriptional apparatus to its chromosomal DNA template. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHD3 Gene

chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 3

This gene encodes a member of the CHD family of proteins which are characterized by the presence of chromo (chromatin organization modifier) domains and SNF2-related helicase/ATPase domains. This protein is one of the components of a histone deacetylase complex referred to as the Mi-2/NuRD complex which participates in the remodeling of chromatin by deacetylating histones. Chromatin remodeling is essential for many processes including transcription. Autoantibodies against this protein are found in a subset of patients with dermatomyositis. Three alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHD2 Gene

chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2

The CHD family of proteins is characterized by the presence of chromo (chromatin organization modifier) domains and SNF2-related helicase/ATPase domains. CHD genes alter gene expression possibly by modification of chromatin structure thus altering access of the transcriptional apparatus to its chromosomal DNA template. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHD5 Gene

chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5

This gene encodes a member of the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein family. Members of this family are characterized by a chromodomain, a helicase ATP-binding domain and an additional functional domain. This gene encodes a neuron-specific protein that may function in chromatin remodeling and gene transcription. This gene is a potential tumor suppressor gene that may play a role in the development of neuroblastoma. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

CHD4 Gene

chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 4

The product of this gene belongs to the SNF2/RAD54 helicase family. It represents the main component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex and plays an important role in epigenetic transcriptional repression. Patients with dermatomyositis develop antibodies against this protein. Somatic mutations in this gene are associated with serous endometrial tumors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

CHD7 Gene

chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7

This gene encodes a protein that contains several helicase family domains. Mutations in this gene have been found in some patients with the CHARGE syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHD6 Gene

chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 6

This gene encodes a member of the SNF2/RAD54 helicase protein family. The encoded protein contains two chromodomains, a helicase domain, and an ATPase domain. Several multi-subunit protein complexes remodel chromatin to allow patterns of cell type-specific gene expression, and the encoded protein is thought to be a core member of one or more of these chromatin remodeling complexes. The encoded protein may function as a transcriptional repressor and is involved in the cellular repression of influenza virus replication. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

CHD9 Gene

chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 9

CHD8 Gene

chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 8

This gene encodes a DNA helicase that functions as a transcription repressor by remodeling chromatin structure. It binds beta-catenin and negatively regulates Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a pivotal role in vertebrate early development and morphogenesis. Mice lacking this gene exhibit early embryonic death. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

CENPBD1P1 Gene

CENPB DNA-binding domains containing 1 pseudogene 1

LOC100132659 Gene

single-stranded DNA binding protein 2 pseudogene

SON Gene

SON DNA binding protein

This gene encodes a protein that contains multiple simple repeats. The encoded protein binds RNA and promotes pre-mRNA splicing, particularly of transcripts with poor splice sites. The protein also recognizes a specific DNA sequence found in the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and represses HBV core promoter activity. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KIN Gene

Kin17 DNA and RNA binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear protein that forms intranuclear foci during proliferation and is redistributed in the nucleoplasm during the cell cycle. Short-wave ultraviolet light provokes the relocalization of the protein, suggesting its participation in the cellular response to DNA damage. Originally selected based on protein-binding with RecA antibodies, the mouse protein presents a limited similarity with a functional domain of the bacterial RecA protein, a characteristic shared by this human ortholog. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

SSBP1 Gene

single-stranded DNA binding protein 1, mitochondrial

SSBP1 is a housekeeping gene involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (Tiranti et al., 1995 [PubMed 7789991]). It is also a subunit of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding complex involved in the maintenance of genome stability (Huang et al., 2009) [PubMed 19683501].[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

SSBP3 Gene

single stranded DNA binding protein 3

SSBP2 Gene

single-stranded DNA binding protein 2

SSBP2 is a subunit of a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding complex involved in the maintenance of genome stability (Huang et al., 2009) [PubMed 19683501].[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

TOPBP1 Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) II binding protein 1

This gene encodes a binding protein which interacts with the C-terminal region of topoisomerase II beta. This interaction suggests a supportive role for this protein in the catalytic reactions of topoisomerase II beta through transient breakages of DNA strands. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ID4 Gene

inhibitor of DNA binding 4, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein

This gene encodes a member of the inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) protein family. These proteins are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors which can act as tumor suppressors but lack DNA binding activity. Consequently, the activity of the encoded protein depends on the protein binding partner. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

ID2 Gene

inhibitor of DNA binding 2, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the inhibitor of DNA binding family, members of which are transcriptional regulators that contain a helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain but not a basic domain. Members of the inhibitor of DNA binding family inhibit the functions of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in a dominant-negative manner by suppressing their heterodimerization partners through the HLH domains. This protein may play a role in negatively regulating cell differentiation. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ID3 Gene

inhibitor of DNA binding 3, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that can form heterodimers with other HLH proteins. However, the encoded protein lacks a basic DNA-binding domain and therefore inhibits the DNA binding of any HLH protein with which it interacts. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ID1 Gene

inhibitor of DNA binding 1, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that can form heterodimers with members of the basic HLH family of transcription factors. The encoded protein has no DNA binding activity and therefore can inhibit the DNA binding and transcriptional activation ability of basic HLH proteins with which it interacts. This protein may play a role in cell growth, senescence, and differentiation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC400174 Gene

single stranded DNA binding protein 4 pseudogene

RNU6V Gene

RNA, U6 small nuclear variant sequence with SNRPE pseudogene sequence

GRSF1 Gene

G-rich RNA sequence binding factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a cellular protein that binds RNAs containing the G-rich element. The protein is localized in the cytoplasm, and has been shown to stimulate translation of viral mRNAs in vitro. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDT1 Gene

chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the formation of the pre-replication complex that is necessary for DNA replication. The encoded protein can bind geminin, which prevents replication and may function to prevent this protein from initiating replication at inappropriate origins. Phosphorylation of this protein by cyclin A-dependent kinases results in degradation of the protein. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

DFFA Gene

DNA fragmentation factor, 45kDa, alpha polypeptide

Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for caspase-3 and triggers DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. DFF becomes activated when DFFA is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFFA dissociate from DFFB, the active component of DFF. DFFB has been found to trigger both DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DFFB Gene

DNA fragmentation factor, 40kDa, beta polypeptide (caspase-activated DNase)

Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for caspase-3 and triggers DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. DFF becomes activated when DFFA is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFFA dissociate from DFFB, the active component of DFF. DFFB has been found to trigger both DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene but the biological validity of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

DFFBP1 Gene

DNA fragmentation factor, 40kDa, beta polypeptide pseudogene 1

LOC100130321 Gene

DNA fragmentation factor, 45kDa, alpha polypeptide pseudogene

TFAP4 Gene

transcription factor AP-4 (activating enhancer binding protein 4)

Transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix-zipper (bHLH-ZIP) family contain a basic domain, which is used for DNA binding, and HLH and ZIP domains, which are used for oligomerization. Transcription factor AP4 activates both viral and cellular genes by binding to the symmetrical DNA sequence CAGCTG (Mermod et al., 1988 [PubMed 2833704]; Hu et al., 1990 [PubMed 2123466]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2009]

UBTF Gene

upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I

This gene encodes a member of the HMG-box DNA-binding protein family. The encoded protein plays a critical role in ribosomal RNA transcription as a key component of the pre-initiation complex, mediating the recruitment of RNA polymerase I to rDNA promoter regions. The encoded protein may also play important roles in chromatin remodeling and pre-rRNA processing, and its activity is regulated by both phosphorylation and acetylation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on the short arm of chromosomes 3, 11 and X and the long arm of chromosome 11. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GABPAP Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, alpha subunit pseudogene

TFAP2A Gene

transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that binds the consensus sequence 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3'. The encoded protein functions as either a homodimer or as a heterodimer with similar family members. This protein activates the transcription of some genes while inhibiting the transcription of others. Defects in this gene are a cause of branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS). Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

TFAP2C Gene

transcription factor AP-2 gamma (activating enhancer binding protein 2 gamma)

The protein encoded by this gene is a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor involved in the activation of several developmental genes. The encoded protein can act as either a homodimer or heterodimer with other family members and is induced during retinoic acid-mediated differentiation. It plays a role in the development of the eyes, face, body wall, limbs, and neural tube. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TFAP2B Gene

transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)

This gene encodes a member of the AP-2 family of transcription factors. AP-2 proteins form homo- or hetero-dimers with other AP-2 family members and bind specific DNA sequences. They are thought to stimulate cell proliferation and suppress terminal differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic development. Specific AP-2 family members differ in their expression patterns and binding affinity for different promoters. This protein functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant Char syndrome, suggesting that this gene functions in the differentiation of neural crest cell derivatives. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TFAP2E Gene

transcription factor AP-2 epsilon (activating enhancer binding protein 2 epsilon)

TFAP2D Gene

transcription factor AP-2 delta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 delta)

GABPB2 Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit 2

GABPB1 Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit 1

This gene encodes the GA-binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit. This protein forms a tetrameric complex with the alpha subunit, and stimulates transcription of target genes. The encoded protein may be involved in activation of cytochrome oxidase expression and nuclear control of mitochondrial function. The crystal structure of a similar protein in mouse has been resolved as a ternary protein complex. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NFXL1 Gene

nuclear transcription factor, X-box binding-like 1

NFX1 Gene

nuclear transcription factor, X-box binding 1

MHC class II gene expression is controlled primarily at the transcriptional level by transcription factors that bind to the X and Y boxes, two highly conserved elements in the proximal promoter of MHC class II genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional repressor capable of binding to the conserved X box motif of HLA-DRA and other MHC class II genes in vitro. The protein may play a role in regulating the duration of an inflammatory response by limiting the period in which class II MHC molecules are induced by IFN-gamma. Three alternative splice variants, each of which encodes a different isoform, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

E2F4P1 Gene

E2F transcription factor 4, p107/p130-binding pseudogene 1

GABPA Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, alpha subunit 60kDa

This gene encodes one of three GA-binding protein transcription factor subunits which functions as a DNA-binding subunit. Since this subunit shares identity with a subunit encoding the nuclear respiratory factor 2 gene, it is likely involved in activation of cytochrome oxidase expression and nuclear control of mitochondrial function. This subunit also shares identity with a subunit constituting the transcription factor E4TF1, responsible for expression of the adenovirus E4 gene. Because of its chromosomal localization and ability to form heterodimers with other polypeptides, this gene may play a role in the Down Syndrome phenotype. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

SREBF2 Gene

sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2

This gene encodes a member of the a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that controls cholesterol homeostasis by regulating transcription of sterol-regulated genes. The encoded protein contains a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) domain and binds the sterol regulatory element 1 motif. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

SREBF1 Gene

sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1

This gene encodes a transcription factor that binds to the sterol regulatory element-1 (SRE1), which is a decamer flanking the low density lipoprotein receptor gene and some genes involved in sterol biosynthesis. The protein is synthesized as a precursor that is attached to the nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. Following cleavage, the mature protein translocates to the nucleus and activates transcription by binding to the SRE1. Sterols inhibit the cleavage of the precursor, and the mature nuclear form is rapidly catabolized, thereby reducing transcription. The protein is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factor family. This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

E2F5 Gene

E2F transcription factor 5, p130-binding

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionarily conserved domains that are present in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein is differentially phosphorylated and is expressed in a wide variety of human tissues. It has higher identity to E2F4 than to other family members. Both this protein and E2F4 interact with tumor suppressor proteins p130 and p107, but not with pRB. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

E2F4 Gene

E2F transcription factor 4, p107/p130-binding

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein binds to all three of the tumor suppressor proteins pRB, p107 and p130, but with higher affinity to the last two. It plays an important role in the suppression of proliferation-associated genes, and its gene mutation and increased expression may be associated with human cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DMTF1 Gene

cyclin D binding myb-like transcription factor 1

This gene encodes a transcription factor that contains a cyclin D-binding domain, three central Myb-like repeats, and two flanking acidic transactivation domains at the N- and C-termini. The encoded protein is induced by the oncogenic Ras signaling pathway and functions as a tumor suppressor by activating the transcription of ARF and thus the ARF-p53 pathway to arrest cell growth or induce apoptosis. It also activates the transcription of aminopeptidase N and may play a role in hematopoietic cell differentiation. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated by binding of D-cyclins. This gene is hemizygously deleted in approximately 40% of human non-small-cell lung cancer and is a potential prognostic and gene-therapy target for non-small-cell lung cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

MAZ Gene

MYC-associated zinc finger protein (purine-binding transcription factor)

TFE3 Gene

transcription factor binding to IGHM enhancer 3

This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix domain-containing transcription factor that binds MUE3-type E-box sequences in the promoter of genes. The encoded protein promotes the expression of genes downstream of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling. This gene may be involved in chromosomal translocations in renal cell carcinomas and other cancers, resulting in the production of fusion proteins. Translocation partners include PRCC (papillary renal cell carcinoma), NONO (non-POU domain containing, octamer-binding), and ASPSCR1 (alveolar soft part sarcoma chromosome region, candidate 1), among other genes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

LOC100128427 Gene

upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I pseudogene

HSF2BP Gene

heat shock transcription factor 2 binding protein

HSF2 binding protein (HSF2BP) associates with HSF2. The interaction occurs between the trimerization domain of HSF2 and the amino terminal hydrophilic region of HSF2BP that comprises two leucine zipper motifs. HSF2BP may therefore be involved in modulating HSF2 activation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBTFL5 Gene

upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I-like 5 (pseudogene)

UBTFL7 Gene

upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I-like 7 (pseudogene)

UBTFL6 Gene

upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I-like 6 (pseudogene)

UBTFL1 Gene

upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I-like 1

UBTFL1 is a preimplantation-specific gene and is involved in early development, implantation, and embryonic stem (ES) cell derivation (summary by Yamada et al., 2010 [PubMed 19915186]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

UBTFL3 Gene

upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I-like 3 (pseudogene)

UBTFL2 Gene

upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I-like 2 (pseudogene)

UBTFL8 Gene

upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I-like 8 (pseudogene)

GATA1 Gene

GATA binding protein 1 (globin transcription factor 1)

This gene encodes a protein which belongs to the GATA family of transcription factors. The protein plays an important role in erythroid development by regulating the switch of fetal hemoglobin to adult hemoglobin. Mutations in this gene have been associated with X-linked dyserythropoietic anemia and thrombocytopenia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC442446 Gene

upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I pseudogene

MTF2 Gene

metal response element binding transcription factor 2

HMCES Gene

5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) binding, ES cell-specific

LOC100422687 Gene

pleckstrin homology domain containing, family A (phosphoinositide binding specific) member 1 pseudogene

CABS1 Gene

calcium-binding protein, spermatid-specific 1

ELAVL4 Gene

ELAV like neuron-specific RNA binding protein 4

ELAVL2 Gene

ELAV like neuron-specific RNA binding protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a neural-specific RNA-binding protein that is known to bind to several 3' UTRs, including its own and also that of FOS and ID. The encoded protein may recognize a GAAA motif in the RNA. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

ELAVL3 Gene

ELAV like neuron-specific RNA binding protein 3

A member of the ELAVL protein family, ELAV-like 3 is a neural-specific RNA-binding protein which contains three RNP-type RNA recognition motifs. The observation that ELAVL3 is one of several Hu antigens (neuronal-specific RNA-binding proteins) recognized by the anti-Hu serum antibody present in sera from patients with paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis and sensory neuronopathy (PEM/PSN) suggests it has a role in neurogenesis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PLEKHA4 Gene

pleckstrin homology domain containing, family A (phosphoinositide binding specific) member 4

PLEKHA1 Gene

pleckstrin homology domain containing, family A (phosphoinositide binding specific) member 1

This gene encodes a pleckstrin homology domain-containing adapter protein. The encoded protein is localized to the plasma membrane where it specifically binds phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate. This protein may be involved in the formation of signaling complexes in the plasma membrane. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with age-related macular degeneration. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 5.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

GC Gene

group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the albumin gene family. It is a multifunctional protein found in plasma, ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid and on the surface of many cell types. It binds to vitamin D and its plasma metabolites and transports them to target tissues. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

PLEKHA2 Gene

pleckstrin homology domain containing, family A (phosphoinositide binding specific) member 2

PLEKHA3 Gene

pleckstrin homology domain containing, family A (phosphoinositide binding specific) member 3

PLEKHA8 Gene

pleckstrin homology domain containing, family A (phosphoinositide binding specific) member 8

LOC100129135 Gene

selenocysteine insertion sequence-binding protein 2-like

HIF1AP1 Gene

hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) pseudogene 1

HIF1A Gene

hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor)

This gene encodes the alpha subunit of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which is a heterodimer composed of an alpha and a beta subunit. HIF-1 functions as a master regulator of cellular and systemic homeostatic response to hypoxia by activating transcription of many genes, including those involved in energy metabolism, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and other genes whose protein products increase oxygen delivery or facilitate metabolic adaptation to hypoxia. HIF-1 thus plays an essential role in embryonic vascularization, tumor angiogenesis and pathophysiology of ischemic disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

ELF1 Gene

E74-like factor 1 (ets domain transcription factor)

This gene encodes an E26 transformation-specific related transcription factor. The encoded protein is primarily expressed in lymphoid cells and acts as both an enhancer and a repressor to regulate transcription of various genes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

ELF2 Gene

E74-like factor 2 (ets domain transcription factor)

ELF5 Gene

E74-like factor 5 (ets domain transcription factor)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of an epithelium-specific subclass of the Ets transcritpion factor family. In addition to its role in regulating the later stages of terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, it appears to regulate a number of epithelium-specific genes found in tissues containing glandular epithelium such as salivary gland and prostate. It has very low affinity to DNA due to its negative regulatory domain at the amino terminus. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

ELF4 Gene

E74-like factor 4 (ets domain transcription factor)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator that binds and activates the promoters of the CSF2, IL3, IL8, and PRF1 genes. The encoded protein is involved in natural killer cell development and function, innate immunity, and induction of cell cycle arrest in naive CD8+ cells. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

LOC442042 Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide D pseudogene

TDG Gene

thymine-DNA glycosylase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the TDG/mug DNA glycosylase family. Thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) removes thymine moieties from G/T mismatches by hydrolyzing the carbon-nitrogen bond between the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA and the mispaired thymine. With lower activity, this enzyme also removes thymine from C/T and T/T mispairings. TDG can also remove uracil and 5-bromouracil from mispairings with guanine. This enzyme plays a central role in cellular defense against genetic mutation caused by the spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine. This gene may have a pseudogene in the p arm of chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DDIT3 Gene

DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3

This gene encodes a member of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family of transcription factors. The protein functions as a dominant-negative inhibitor by forming heterodimers with other C/EBP members, such as C/EBP and LAP (liver activator protein), and preventing their DNA binding activity. The protein is implicated in adipogenesis and erythropoiesis, is activated by endoplasmic reticulum stress, and promotes apoptosis. Fusion of this gene and FUS on chromosome 16 or EWSR1 on chromosome 22 induced by translocation generates chimeric proteins in myxoid liposarcomas or Ewing sarcoma. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two isoforms with different length have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

DDIT4 Gene

DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4

DDI2 Gene

DNA-damage inducible 1 homolog 2 (S. cerevisiae)

DDI1 Gene

DNA-damage inducible 1 homolog 1 (S. cerevisiae)

LOC102724184 Gene

DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3-like

LOC100421620 Gene

polymerase (RNA) mitochondrial (DNA directed) pseudogene

LOC105377532 Gene

DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3G-like

TDP2 Gene

tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2

This gene encodes a member of a superfamily of divalent cation-dependent phosphodiesterases. The encoded protein associates with CD40, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-75 and TNF receptor associated factors (TRAFs), and inhibits nuclear factor-kappa-B activation. This protein has sequence and structural similarities with APE1 endonuclease, which is involved in both DNA repair and the activation of transcription factors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GADD45A Gene

growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, alpha

This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The protein encoded by this gene responds to environmental stresses by mediating activation of the p38/JNK pathway via MTK1/MEKK4 kinase. The DNA damage-induced transcription of this gene is mediated by both p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

GADD45B Gene

growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, beta

This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The genes in this group respond to environmental stresses by mediating activation of the p38/JNK pathway. This activation is mediated via their proteins binding and activating MTK1/MEKK4 kinase, which is an upstream activator of both p38 and JNK MAPKs. The function of these genes or their protein products is involved in the regulation of growth and apoptosis. These genes are regulated by different mechanisms, but they are often coordinately expressed and can function cooperatively in inhibiting cell growth. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GADD45G Gene

growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, gamma

This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The protein encoded by this gene responds to environmental stresses by mediating activation of the p38/JNK pathway via MTK1/MEKK4 kinase. The GADD45G is highly expressed in placenta. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLR3GP2 Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD) pseudogene 2

POLR3GP1 Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD) pseudogene 1

POLN Gene

polymerase (DNA directed) nu

This gene encodes a DNA polymerase type-A family member. The encoded protein plays a role in DNA repair and homologous recombination. This gene shares its 5' exons with some transcripts from overlapping GeneID: 79441, which encodes an augmentin-like protein complex subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

POLR2CP Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide C, pseudogene

DNTT Gene

DNA nucleotidylexotransferase

This gene is a member of the DNA polymerase type-X family and encodes a template-independent DNA polymerase that catalyzes the addition of deoxynucleotides to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus of oligonucleotide primers. In vivo, the encoded protein is expressed in a restricted population of normal and malignant pre-B and pre-T lymphocytes during early differentiation, where it generates antigen receptor diversity by synthesizing non-germ line elements (N-regions) at the junctions of rearranged Ig heavy chain and T cell receptor gene segments. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms of this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRIM1 Gene

primase, DNA, polypeptide 1 (49kDa)

The replication of DNA in eukaryotic cells is carried out by a complex chromosomal replication apparatus, in which DNA polymerase alpha and primase are two key enzymatic components. Primase, which is a heterodimer of a small subunit and a large subunit, synthesizes small RNA primers for the Okazaki fragments made during discontinuous DNA replication. The protein encoded by this gene is the small, 49 kDa primase subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRIM2 Gene

primase, DNA, polypeptide 2 (58kDa)

This gene encodes the 58 kilodalton subunit of DNA primase, an enzyme that plays a key role in the replication of DNA. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a 49 kilodalton subunit. This heterodimer functions as a DNA-directed RNA polymerase to synthesize small RNA primers that are used to create Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand of the DNA. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. This gene has a related pseudogene, which is also present on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

LOC390250 Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide E, 25kDa pseudogene

PRIMPOL Gene

primase and polymerase (DNA-directed)

TDP1 Gene

tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in repairing stalled topoisomerase I-DNA complexes by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond between the tyrosine residue of topoisomerase I and the 3-prime phosphate of DNA. This protein may also remove glycolate from single-stranded DNA containing 3-prime phosphoglycolate, suggesting a role in repair of free-radical mediated DNA double-strand breaks. This gene is a member of the phospholipase D family and contains two PLD phosphodiesterase domains. Mutations in this gene are associated with the disease spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy (SCAN1). While several transcript variants may exist for this gene, the full-length natures of only two have been described to date. These two represent the major variants of this gene and encode the same isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC101060521 Gene

DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC5

POLR3F Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide F, 39 kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is one of more than a dozen subunits forming eukaryotic RNA polymerase III (RNA Pol III), which transcribes 5S ribosomal RNA and tRNA genes. This protein has been shown to bind both TFIIIB90 and TBP, two subunits of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor IIIB (TFIIIB). Unlike most of the other RNA Pol III subunits, the encoded protein is unique to this polymerase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

POLR3G Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD)

POLR3D Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide D, 44kDa

This gene complements a temperature-sensitive mutant isolated from the BHK-21 Syrian hamster cell line. It leads to a block in progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle at nonpermissive temperatures. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLR3E Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide E (80kD)

POLR3B Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide B

This gene encodes the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase III, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing transfer and small ribosomal RNAs in eukaryotes. The largest subunit and the encoded protein form the catalytic center of RNA polymerase III. Mutations in this gene are a cause of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

POLR3C Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide C (62kD)

POLR3A Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide A, 155kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is the catalytic component of RNA polymerase III, which synthesizes small RNAs. The encoded protein also acts as a sensor to detect foreign DNA and trigger an innate immune response. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

POLR3K Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide K, 12.3 kDa

This gene encodes a small essential subunit of RNA polymerase III, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing transfer and small ribosomal RNAs in eukaryotes. The carboxy-terminal domain of this subunit shares a high degree of sequence similarity to the carboxy-terminal domain of an RNA polymerase II elongation factor. This similarity in sequence is supported by functional studies showing that this subunit is required for proper pausing and termination during transcription. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 13 and 17.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

POLR3H Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide H (22.9kD)

DNMT1 Gene

DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1

DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1 has a role in the establishment and regulation of tissue-specific patterns of methylated cytosine residues. Aberrant methylation patterns are associated with certain human tumors and developmental abnormalities. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

PRKDC Gene

protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). It functions with the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer protein in DNA double strand break repair and recombination. The protein encoded is a member of the PI3/PI4-kinase family.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

DSCC1 Gene

DNA replication and sister chromatid cohesion 1

CHTF18 (MIM 613201), CHTF8 (MIM 613202), and DSCC1 are components of an alternative replication factor C (RFC) (see MIM 600404) complex that loads PCNA (MIM 176740) onto DNA during S phase of the cell cycle (Merkle et al., 2003 [PubMed 12766176]; Bermudez et al., 2003 [PubMed 12930902]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2009]

LOC100130177 Gene

uracil-DNA glycosylase pseudogene

DCLRE1CP1 Gene

DNA cross-link repair 1C pseudogene 1

DNA2 Gene

DNA replication helicase/nuclease 2

This gene encodes a member of the DNA2/NAM7 helicase family. The encoded protein is a conserved helicase/nuclease involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA stability. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia-6 (PEOA6) and Seckel syndrome 8. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

DNMT3AP1 Gene

DNA methyltransferase 3A pseudogene 1

POLD4 Gene

polymerase (DNA-directed), delta 4, accessory subunit

This gene encodes the smallest subunit of DNA polymerase delta. DNA polymerase delta possesses both polymerase and 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and plays a critical role in DNA replication and repair. The encoded protein enhances the activity of DNA polymerase delta and plays a role in fork repair and stabilization through interactions with the DNA helicase Bloom syndrome protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

HELB Gene

helicase (DNA) B

This gene encodes a DNA-dependent ATPase which catalyzes the unwinding of DNA necessary for DNA replication, repair, recombination, and transcription. This gene is thought to function specifically during the S phase entry of the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

POLE3 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon 3, accessory subunit

POLE3 is a histone-fold protein that interacts with other histone-fold proteins to bind DNA in a sequence-independent manner. These histone-fold protein dimers combine within larger enzymatic complexes for DNA transcription, replication, and packaging.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

LPSA Gene

Oncogene liposarcoma (DNA segment, single copy, expressed, probes

LOC246724 Gene

DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J-related gene

LOC246725 Gene

DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J-related gene

LOC646804 Gene

alkylated DNA repair protein alkB homolog 8-like

POLR3KP2 Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide K, 12.3 kDa pseudogene 2

POLR3KP1 Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide K, 12.3 kDa pseudogene 1

POLDIP3 Gene

polymerase (DNA-directed), delta interacting protein 3

This gene encodes an RRM (RNA recognition motif)-containing protein that participates in the regulation of translation by recruiting ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 to mRNAs. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

POLDIP2 Gene

polymerase (DNA-directed), delta interacting protein 2

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the DNA polymerase delta p50 subunit, as well as with proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The encoded protein maybe play a role in the ability of the replication fork to bypass DNA lesions. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

REV3L Gene

REV3-like, polymerase (DNA directed), zeta, catalytic subunit

LOC101059974 Gene

p53 and DNA damage-regulated protein 1 pseudogene

MCIDAS Gene

multiciliate differentiation and DNA synthesis associated cell cycle protein

LOC101930420 Gene

DNA primase large subunit-like

LIG4 Gene

ligase IV, DNA, ATP-dependent

The protein encoded by this gene is a DNA ligase that joins single-strand breaks in a double-stranded polydeoxynucleotide in an ATP-dependent reaction. This protein is essential for V(D)J recombination and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). This protein forms a complex with the X-ray repair cross complementing protein 4 (XRCC4), and further interacts with the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Both XRCC4 and DNA-PK are known to be required for NHEJ. The crystal structure of the complex formed by this protein and XRCC4 has been resolved. Defects in this gene are the cause of LIG4 syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LIG1 Gene

ligase I, DNA, ATP-dependent

This gene encodes a member of the ATP-dependent DNA ligase protein family. The encoded protein functions in DNA replication, recombination, and the base excision repair process. Mutations in this gene that lead to DNA ligase I deficiency result in immunodeficiency and increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Disruption of this gene may also be associated with a variety of cancers. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

LIG3 Gene

ligase III, DNA, ATP-dependent

This gene is a member of the DNA ligase family. Each member of this family encodes a protein that catalyzes the joining of DNA ends but they each have a distinct role in DNA metabolism. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in excision repair and is located in both the mitochondria and nucleus, with translation initiation from the upstream start codon allowing for transport to the mitochondria and translation initiation from a downstream start codon allowing for transport to the nucleus. Additionally, alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TDGP1 Gene

thymine-DNA glycosylase pseudogene 1

REV1 Gene

REV1, polymerase (DNA directed)

This gene encodes a protein with similarity to the S. cerevisiae mutagenesis protein Rev1. The Rev1 proteins contain a BRCT domain, which is important in protein-protein interactions. A suggested role for the human Rev1-like protein is as a scaffold that recruits DNA polymerases involved in translesion synthesis (TLS) of damaged DNA. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different proteins have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAD1 Gene

RAD1 checkpoint DNA exonuclease

This gene encodes a component of a heterotrimeric cell cycle checkpoint complex, known as the 9-1-1 complex, that is activated to stop cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication. The 9-1-1 complex is recruited by RAD17 to affected sites where it may attract specialized DNA polymerases and other DNA repair effectors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

LOC101928945 Gene

uracil-DNA glycosylase pseudogene

PIF1 Gene

PIF1 5'-to-3' DNA helicase

This gene encodes a DNA-dependent adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-metabolizing enzyme that functions as a 5' to 3' DNA helicase. The encoded protein can resolve G-quadruplex structures and RNA-DNA hybrids at the ends of chromosomes. It also prevents telomere elongation by inhibiting the actions of telomerase. Alternative splicing and the use of alternative start codons results in multiple isoforms that are differentially localized to either the mitochondria or the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

POLR2KP1 Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide K, 7.0kDa pseudogene 1

TOP3BP1 Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) III beta pseudogene 1

This gene was predicted by automated computational analysis. It encodes a protein with similarity to human topoisomerase (DNA) III beta, which is thought to relax supercoiled DNA upon replication, transcription, and cell division. This gene lies in the immunoglobulin lambda gene cluster on chromosome 22q11.21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BKMA1 Gene

Banded krait minor satellite DNA-1

POLG Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), gamma

Mitochondrial DNA polymerase is heterotrimeric, consisting of a homodimer of accessory subunits plus a catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase. The encoded protein contains a polyglutamine tract near its N-terminus that may be polymorphic. Defects in this gene are a cause of progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions 1 (PEOA1), sensory ataxic neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoparesis (SANDO), Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), and mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy syndrome (MNGIE). Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLE Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon, catalytic subunit

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon. The enzyme is involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. Mutations in this gene have been associated with colorectal cancer 12 and facial dysmorphism, immunodeficiency, livedo, and short stature. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

POLB Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a DNA polymerase involved in base excision and repair, also called gap-filling DNA synthesis. The encoded protein, acting as a monomer, is normally found in the cytoplasm, but it translocates to the nucleus upon DNA damage. Several transcript variants of this gene exist, but the full-length nature of only one has been described to date. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

POLM Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), mu

POLL Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), lambda

This gene encodes a DNA polymerase. DNA polymerases catalyze DNA-template-directed extension of the 3'-end of a DNA strand. This particular polymerase, which is a member of the X family of DNA polymerases, likely plays a role in non-homologous end joining and other DNA repair processes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

POLK Gene

polymerase (DNA directed) kappa

External and internal DNA-damaging agents continually threaten the integrity of genetic material in cells. Although a variety of repair mechanisms exist to remove the resulting lesions, some lesions escape repair and block the replication machinery. Members of the Y family of DNA polymerases, such as POLK, permit the continuity of the replication fork by allowing replication through such DNA lesions. Each Y family polymerase has a unique DNA-damage bypass and fidelity profile. POLK is specialized for the extension step of lesion bypass (summary by Lone et al., 2007 [PubMed 17317631]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2010]

POLI Gene

polymerase (DNA directed) iota

POLH Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), eta

This gene encodes a member of the Y family of specialized DNA polymerases. It copies undamaged DNA with a lower fidelity than other DNA-directed polymerases. However, it accurately replicates UV-damaged DNA; when thymine dimers are present, this polymerase inserts the complementary nucleotides in the newly synthesized DNA, thereby bypassing the lesion and suppressing the mutagenic effect of UV-induced DNA damage. This polymerase is thought to be involved in hypermutation during immunoglobulin class switch recombination. Mutations in this gene result in XPV, a variant type of xeroderma pigmentosum. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

POLE2 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon 2, accessory subunit

POLE4 Gene

polymerase (DNA-directed), epsilon 4, accessory subunit

POLE4 is a histone-fold protein that interacts with other histone-fold proteins to bind DNA in a sequence-independent manner. These histone-fold protein dimers combine within larger enzymatic complexes for DNA transcription, replication, and packaging.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

TOP2B Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) II beta 180kDa

This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This nuclear enzyme is involved in processes such as chromosome condensation, chromatid separation, and the relief of torsional stress that occurs during DNA transcription and replication. It catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of two strands of duplex DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus altering the topology of DNA. Two forms of this enzyme exist as likely products of a gene duplication event. The gene encoding this form, beta, is localized to chromosome 3 and the alpha form is localized to chromosome 17. The gene encoding this enzyme functions as the target for several anticancer agents and a variety of mutations in this gene have been associated with the development of drug resistance. Reduced activity of this enzyme may also play a role in ataxia-telangiectasia. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants; however, the second variant has not yet been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TOP2A Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) II alpha 170kDa

This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This nuclear enzyme is involved in processes such as chromosome condensation, chromatid separation, and the relief of torsional stress that occurs during DNA transcription and replication. It catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of two strands of duplex DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus altering the topology of DNA. Two forms of this enzyme exist as likely products of a gene duplication event. The gene encoding this form, alpha, is localized to chromosome 17 and the beta gene is localized to chromosome 3. The gene encoding this enzyme functions as the target for several anticancer agents and a variety of mutations in this gene have been associated with the development of drug resistance. Reduced activity of this enzyme may also play a role in ataxia-telangiectasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

GADD45GIP1 Gene

growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, gamma interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a nuclear-localized protein that may be induced by p53 and regulates the cell cycle by inhibiting G1 to S phase progression. The encoded protein may interact with other cell cycle regulators. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

DCLRE1B Gene

DNA cross-link repair 1B

DNA interstrand cross-links prevent strand separation, thereby physically blocking transcription, replication, and segregation of DNA. DCLRE1B is one of several evolutionarily conserved genes involved in repair of interstrand cross-links (Dronkert et al., 2000 [PubMed 10848582]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

DCLRE1C Gene

DNA cross-link repair 1C

This gene encodes a nuclear protein that is involved in V(D)J recombination and DNA repair. The encoded protein has single-strand-specific 5'-3' exonuclease activity; it also exhibits endonuclease activity on 5' and 3' overhangs and hairpins. The protein also functions in the regulation of the cell cycle in response to DNA damage. Mutations in this gene can cause Athabascan-type severe combined immunodeficiency (SCIDA) and Omenn syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

DCLRE1A Gene

DNA cross-link repair 1A

This gene encodes a conserved protein that is involved in the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links. DNA cross-links suppress transcription, replication, and DNA segregation. The encoded protein is a regulator of the mitotic cell cycle checkpoint. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

HFM1 Gene

HFM1, ATP-dependent DNA helicase homolog (S. cerevisiae)

The protein encoded by this gene is thought to be an ATP-dependent DNA helicase and is expressed mainly in germ-line cells. Defects in this gene are a cause of premature ovarian failure 9 (POF9). [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

KLLN Gene

killin, p53-regulated DNA replication inhibitor

The protein encoded by this intronless gene is found in the nucleus, where it can inhibit DNA synthesis and promote S phase arrest coupled to apoptosis. The expression of this DNA binding protein is upregulated by transcription factor p53. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

MPG Gene

N-methylpurine-DNA glycosylase

POLRMT Gene

polymerase (RNA) mitochondrial (DNA directed)

This gene encodes a mitochondrial DNA-directed RNA polymerase. The gene product is responsible for mitochondrial gene expression as well as for providing RNA primers for initiation of replication of the mitochondrial genome. Although this polypeptide has the same function as the three nuclear DNA-directed RNA polymerases, it is more closely related to RNA polymerases of phage and mitochondrial polymerases of lower eukaryotes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC727709 Gene

DNA-damage regulated autophagy modulator 1 pseudogene

MGMT Gene

O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase

GMNN Gene

geminin, DNA replication inhibitor

This gene encodes a protein that plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation. The encoded protein inhibits DNA replication by binding to DNA replication factor Cdt1, preventing the incorporation of minichromosome maintenance proteins into the pre-replication complex. The encoded protein is expressed during the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle and is degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex during the metaphase-anaphase transition. Increased expression of this gene may play a role in several malignancies including colon, rectal and breast cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and two pseudogenes of this gene are located on the short arm of chromosome 16. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

POLQ Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), theta

GADD45AP1 Gene

growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, alpha pseudogene 1

POLR3GL Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD)-like

POLR2LP Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide L pseudogene

DRAM1 Gene

DNA-damage regulated autophagy modulator 1

This gene is regulated as part of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway. The gene encodes a lysosomal membrane protein that is required for the induction of autophagy by the pathway. Decreased transcriptional expression of this gene is associated with various tumors. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DRAM2 Gene

DNA-damage regulated autophagy modulator 2

APEX1 Gene

APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1

Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites occur frequently in DNA molecules by spontaneous hydrolysis, by DNA damaging agents or by DNA glycosylases that remove specific abnormal bases. AP sites are pre-mutagenic lesions that can prevent normal DNA replication so the cell contains systems to identify and repair such sites. Class II AP endonucleases cleave the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the AP site. This gene encodes the major AP endonuclease in human cells. Splice variants have been found for this gene; all encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OGG1 Gene

8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase

This gene encodes the enzyme responsible for the excision of 8-oxoguanine, a mutagenic base byproduct which occurs as a result of exposure to reactive oxygen. The action of this enzyme includes lyase activity for chain cleavage. Alternative splicing of the C-terminal region of this gene classifies splice variants into two major groups, type 1 and type 2, depending on the last exon of the sequence. Type 1 alternative splice variants end with exon 7 and type 2 end with exon 8. All variants share the N-terminal region in common, which contains a mitochondrial targeting signal that is essential for mitochondrial localization. Many alternative splice variants for this gene have been described, but the full-length nature for every variant has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

TOP1P1 Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) I pseudogene 1

TOP1P2 Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) I pseudogene 2

SPIDR Gene

scaffolding protein involved in DNA repair

PDRG1 Gene

p53 and DNA-damage regulated 1

DMAP1 Gene

DNA methyltransferase 1 associated protein 1

This gene encodes a subunit of several, distinct complexes involved in the repression or activation of transcription. The encoded protein can independently repress transcription and is targeted to replication foci throughout S phase by interacting directly with the N-terminus of DNA methyltransferase 1. During late S phase, histone deacetylase 2 is added to this complex, providing a means to deacetylate histones in transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin following replication. The encoded protein is also a component of the nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4 complex and interacts with the transcriptional corepressor tumor susceptibility gene 101 and the pro-apoptotic death-associated protein 6, among others. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMUG1 Gene

single-strand-selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase 1

This gene encodes a protein that participates in base excision repair by removing uracil from single- and double-stranded DNA. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants exist for this gene; the full-length nature is known for some but not all of the variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

DDIT4L Gene

DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4-like

LOC100419572 Gene

uracil-DNA glycosylase pseudogene

LOC100133127 Gene

geminin, DNA replication inhibitor pseudogene 1

POLA2 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), alpha 2, accessory subunit

POLA1 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), alpha 1, catalytic subunit

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase, which together with a regulatory and two primase subunits, forms the DNA polymerase alpha complex. The catalytic subunit plays an essential role in the initiation of DNA replication. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

POLR2KP2 Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide K, 7.0kDa pseudogene 2

MMS22L Gene

MMS22-like, DNA repair protein

POLR3DP1 Gene

polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide D, 44kDa pseudogene 1

TOP1MT Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) I, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial DNA topoisomerase that plays a role in the modification of DNA topology. The encoded protein is a type IB topoisomerase and catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of DNA to relieve tension and DNA supercoiling generated in the mitochondrial genome during replication and transcription. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

DNMT3B Gene

DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta

CpG methylation is an epigenetic modification that is important for embryonic development, imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. Studies in mice have demonstrated that DNA methylation is required for mammalian development. This gene encodes a DNA methyltransferase which is thought to function in de novo methylation, rather than maintenance methylation. The protein localizes primarily to the nucleus and its expression is developmentally regulated. Mutations in this gene cause the immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome. Eight alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. The full length sequences of variants 4 and 5 have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

DNMT3A Gene

DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 alpha

CpG methylation is an epigenetic modification that is important for embryonic development, imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. Studies in mice have demonstrated that DNA methylation is required for mammalian development. This gene encodes a DNA methyltransferase that is thought to function in de novo methylation, rather than maintenance methylation. The protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus and its expression is developmentally regulated. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DNMT3L Gene

DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3-like

CpG methylation is an epigenetic modification that is important for embryonic development, imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. Studies in mice have demonstrated that DNA methylation is required for mammalian development. This gene encodes a nuclear protein with similarity to DNA methyltransferases, but is not thought to function as a DNA methyltransferase as it does not contain the amino acid residues necessary for methyltransferase activity. However, it does stimulate de novo methylation by DNA cytosine methyltransferase 3 alpha and is thought to be required for the establishment of maternal genomic imprints. This protein also mediates transcriptional repression through interaction with histone deacetylase 1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

LOC105373057 Gene

DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1-like

UNG Gene

uracil-DNA glycosylase

This gene encodes one of several uracil-DNA glycosylases. One important function of uracil-DNA glycosylases is to prevent mutagenesis by eliminating uracil from DNA molecules by cleaving the N-glycosylic bond and initiating the base-excision repair (BER) pathway. Uracil bases occur from cytosine deamination or misincorporation of dUMP residues. Alternative promoter usage and splicing of this gene leads to two different isoforms: the mitochondrial UNG1 and the nuclear UNG2. The UNG2 term was used as a previous symbol for the CCNO gene (GeneID 10309), which has been confused with this gene, in the literature and some databases. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

POLR2J4 Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide J4, pseudogene

POLR2J2 Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide J2

This gene is a member of the RNA polymerase II subunit 11 gene family, which includes three genes in a cluster on chromosome 7q22.1 and a pseudogene on chromosome 7p13. The founding member of this family, DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J, has been shown to encode a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. This locus produces multiple, alternatively spliced transcripts that potentially express isoforms with distinct C-termini compared to DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J. Most or all variants are spliced to include additional non-coding exons at the 3' end which makes them candidates for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Consequently, it is not known if this locus expresses a protein or proteins in vivo. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLR2J3 Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide J3

This gene is a member of the RNA polymerase II subunit 11 gene family, which includes three genes in a cluster on chromosome 7q22.1 and a pseudogene on chromosome 7p13. The founding member of this family, DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J, has been shown to encode a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. This locus produces multiple, alternatively spliced transcripts that potentially express isoforms with distinct C-termini compared to DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J. Most or all variants are spliced to include additional non-coding exons at the 3' end which makes them candidates for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Consequently, it is not known if this locus expresses a protein or proteins in vivo. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLD2P1 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), delta 2, accessory subunit pseudogene 1

POLR2E Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide E, 25kDa

This gene encodes the fifth largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. This subunit is shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases and is present in two-fold molar excess over the other polymerase subunits. An interaction between this subunit and a hepatitis virus transactivating protein has been demonstrated, suggesting that interaction between transcriptional activators and the polymerase can occur through this subunit. A pseudogene is located on chromosome 11. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLR2D Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide D

This gene encodes the fourth largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. In yeast, this polymerase subunit is associated with the polymerase under suboptimal growth conditions and may have a stress protective role. A sequence for a ribosomal pseudogene is contained within the 3' untranslated region of the transcript from this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLR2G Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide G

This gene encodes the seventh largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The protein functions in transcription initiation, and is also thought to help stabilize transcribing polyermase molecules during elongation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

POLR2F Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide F

This gene encodes the sixth largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. In yeast, this polymerase subunit, in combination with at least two other subunits, forms a structure that stabilizes the transcribing polymerase on the DNA template. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

POLR2A Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A, 220kDa

This gene encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The product of this gene contains a carboxy terminal domain composed of heptapeptide repeats that are essential for polymerase activity. These repeats contain serine and threonine residues that are phosphorylated in actively transcribing RNA polymerase. In addition, this subunit, in combination with several other polymerase subunits, forms the DNA binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLR2C Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide C, 33kDa

This gene encodes the third largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The product of this gene contains a cysteine rich region and exists as a heterodimer with another polymerase subunit, POLR2J. These two subunits form a core subassembly unit of the polymerase. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLR2B Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide B, 140kDa

This gene encodes the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that catalyzes the transcription of DNA into precursors of mRNA, snRNA and microRNA. This subunit and the largest subunit form opposite sides of the center cleft of Pol II. Deletion of the flap loop region of this subunit results in a decrease in the rate of transcriptional elongation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

POLR2M Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide M

This gene encodes a subunit of a specific form of RNA polymerase II termed Pol II(G). The encoded protein may act as a negative regulator of transcriptional activation by the Mediator complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 4. Readthrough transcription between this gene and the neighboring upstream gene MYZAP (myocardial zonula adherens protein) is represented with GeneID 145781. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]

POLR2L Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide L, 7.6kDa

This gene encodes a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The product of this gene contains four conserved cysteines characteristic of an atypical zinc-binding domain. Like its counterpart in yeast, this subunit may be shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLR2I Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide I, 14.5kDa

This gene encodes a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. This subunit, in combination with two other polymerase subunits, forms the DNA binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. The product of this gene has two zinc finger motifs with conserved cysteines and the subunit does possess zinc binding activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLR2H Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide H

The three eukaryotic RNA polymerases are complex multisubunit enzymes that play a central role in the transcription of nuclear genes. This gene encodes an essential and highly conserved subunit of RNA polymerase II that is shared by the other two eukaryotic DNA-directed RNA polymerases, I and III. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

POLR2K Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide K, 7.0kDa

This gene encodes one of the smallest subunits of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. This subunit is shared by the other two DNA-directed RNA polymerases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLR2J Gene

polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide J, 13.3kDa

This gene encodes a subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The product of this gene exists as a heterodimer with another polymerase subunit; together they form a core subassembly unit of the polymerase. Two similar genes are located nearby on chromosome 7q22.1 and a pseudogene is found on chromosome 7p13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC196469 Gene

DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3G-like

TOP3A Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) III alpha

This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This enzyme catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of a single strand of DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus reducing the number of supercoils and altering the topology of DNA. This enzyme forms a complex with BLM which functions in the regulation of recombination in somatic cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TOP3B Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) III beta

This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This enzyme catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of a single strand of DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus relaxing the supercoils and altering the topology of DNA. The enzyme interacts with DNA helicase SGS1 and plays a role in DNA recombination, cellular aging and maintenance of genome stability. Low expression of this gene may be related to higher survival rates in breast cancer patients. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 22. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

DMC1 Gene

DNA meiotic recombinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the superfamily of recombinases (also called DNA strand-exchange proteins). Recombinases are important for repairing double-strand DNA breaks during mitosis and meiosis. This protein, which is evolutionarily conserved, is reported to be essential for meiotic homologous recombination and may thus play an important role in generating diversity of genetic information. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

LOC100422453 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), delta 1, catalytic subunit 125kDa pseudogene

POLD1 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), delta 1, catalytic subunit

This gene encodes the 125-kDa catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta. DNA polymerase delta possesses both polymerase and 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and plays a critical role in DNA replication and repair. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

POLD2 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), delta 2, accessory subunit

This gene encodes the 50-kDa catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta. DNA polymerase delta possesses both polymerase and 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and plays a critical role in DNA replication and repair. The encoded protein is required for the stimulation of DNA polymerase delta activity by the processivity cofactor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Expression of this gene may be a marker for ovarian carcinomas. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

POLD3 Gene

polymerase (DNA-directed), delta 3, accessory subunit

This gene encodes the 66-kDa subunit of DNA polymerase delta. DNA polymerase delta possesses both polymerase and 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and plays a critical role in DNA replication and repair. The encoded protein plays a role in regulating the activity of DNA polymerase delta through interactions with other subunits and the processivity cofactor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

LOC100420880 Gene

primase, DNA, polypeptide 1 (49kDa) pseudogene

POLRMTP1 Gene

polymerase (RNA) mitochondrial (DNA directed) pseudogene 1

LOC100133137 Gene

geminin, DNA replication inhibitor pseudogene 2

DDIAS Gene

DNA damage-induced apoptosis suppressor

TOP1 Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) I

This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This enzyme catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of a single strand of DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus altering the topology of DNA. This gene is localized to chromosome 20 and has pseudogenes which reside on chromosomes 1 and 22. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRIM2B Gene

primase, DNA, polypeptide 2 (58kDa) pseudogene

TONSL Gene

tonsoku-like, DNA repair protein

The protein encoded by this gene is thought to be a negative regulator of NF-kappa-B mediated transcription. The encoded protein may bind NF-kappa-B complexes and trap them in the cytoplasm, preventing them from entering the nucleus and interacting with the DNA. Phosphorylation of this protein targets it for degradation by the ubiquitination pathway, which frees the NF-kappa-B complexes to enter the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421824 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon 2, accessory subunit pseudogene

UNGP1 Gene

uracil-DNA glycosylase pseudogene 1

UNGP3 Gene

uracil-DNA glycosylase pseudogene 3

UNGP2 Gene

uracil-DNA glycosylase pseudogene 2

DNCM Gene

DNA associated with cytoplasmic membrane

SMUG1P1 Gene

single-strand-selective monofunctional uracil-DNA glycosylase 1 pseudogene 1

POLG2 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), gamma 2, accessory subunit

This gene encodes the processivity subunit of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. The encoded protein forms a heterotrimer containing one catalytic subunit and two processivity subunits. This protein enhances DNA binding and promotes processive DNA synthesis. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

MDC1 Gene

mediator of DNA-damage checkpoint 1

The protein encoded by this gene contains an N-terminal forkhead domain, two BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) motifs and a central domain with 13 repetitions of an approximately 41-amino acid sequence. The encoded protein is required to activate the intra-S phase and G2/M phase cell cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage. This nuclear protein interacts with phosphorylated histone H2AX near sites of DNA double-strand breaks through its BRCT motifs, and facilitates recruitment of the ATM kinase and meiotic recombination 11 protein complex to DNA damage foci. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PANDAR Gene

promoter of CDKN1A antisense DNA damage activated RNA

CAMTA2 Gene

calmodulin binding transcription activator 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the calmodulin-binding transcription activator protein family. Members of this family share a common domain structure that consists of a transcription activation domain, a DNA-binding domain, and a calmodulin-binding domain. The encoded protein may be a transcriptional coactivator of genes involved in cardiac growth. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

CAMTA1 Gene

calmodulin binding transcription activator 1

DR1 Gene

down-regulator of transcription 1, TBP-binding (negative cofactor 2)

This gene encodes a TBP- (TATA box-binding protein) associated phosphoprotein that represses both basal and activated levels of transcription. The encoded protein is phosphorylated in vivo and this phosphorylation affects its interaction with TBP. This protein contains a histone fold motif at the amino terminus, a TBP-binding domain, and a glutamine- and alanine-rich region. The binding of DR1 repressor complexes to TBP-promoter complexes may establish a mechanism in which an altered DNA conformation, together with the formation of higher order complexes, inhibits the assembly of the preinitiation complex and controls the rate of RNA polymerase II transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CPSF3L Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 3-like

The Integrator complex contains at least 12 subunits and associates with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II large subunit (POLR2A; MIM 180660) and mediates the 3-prime end processing of small nuclear RNAs U1 (RNU1; MIM 180680) and U2 (RNU2; MIM 180690). INTS11, or CPSF3L, is the catalytic subunit of the Integrator complex (Baillat et al., 2005 [PubMed 16239144]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CPSF4L Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4-like

GTSF1L Gene

gametocyte specific factor 1-like

RASGRF1 Gene

Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) similar to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC25 gene product. Functional analysis has demonstrated that this protein stimulates the dissociation of GDP from RAS protein. The studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that the Ras-GEF activity of this protein in brain can be activated by Ca2+ influx, muscarinic receptors, and G protein beta-gamma subunit. Mouse studies also indicated that the Ras-GEF signaling pathway mediated by this protein may be important for long-term memory. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

RASGRF2 Gene

Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2

RAS GTPases cycle between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state. This gene encodes a calcium-regulated nucleotide exchange factor activating both RAS and RAS-related protein, RAC1, through the exchange of bound GDP for GTP, thereby, coordinating the signaling of distinct mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CPSF7 Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 7, 59kDa

CPSF6 Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 6, 68kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a cleavage factor required for 3' RNA cleavage and polyadenylation processing. The interaction of the protein with the RNA is one of the earliest steps in the assembly of the 3' end processing complex and facilitates the recruitment of other processing factors. The cleavage factor complex is composed of four polypeptides. This gene encodes the 68kD subunit. It has a domain organization reminiscent of spliceosomal proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CPSF4 Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4, 30kDa

Inhibition of the nuclear export of poly(A)-containing mRNAs caused by the influenza A virus NS1 protein requires its effector domain. The NS1 effector domain functionally interacts with the cellular 30 kDa subunit of cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4, an essential component of the 3' end processing machinery of cellular pre-mRNAs. In influenza virus-infected cells, the NS1 protein is physically associated with cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4, 30kD subunit. Binding of the NS1 protein to the 30 kDa protein in vitro prevents CPSF binding to the RNA substrate and inhibits 3' end cleavage and polyadenylation of host pre-mRNAs. Thus the NS1 protein selectively inhibits the nuclear export of cellular, and not viral, mRNAs. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CPSF3 Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 3, 73kDa

This gene encodes a member of the metallo-beta-lactamase family. The encoded protein is a 73kDa subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor and functions as an endonuclease that recognizes the pre-mRNA 3'-cleavage site AAUAAA prior to polyadenylation. It also cleaves after the pre-mRNA sequence ACCCA during histone 3'-end pre-mRNA processing. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

CPSF2 Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 2, 100kDa

CPSF1 Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 1, 160kDa

Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) is a multisubunit complex that plays a central role in 3-prime processing of pre-mRNAs. CPSF recognizes the AAUAAA signal in the pre-mRNA and interacts with other proteins to facilitate both RNA cleavage and poly(A) synthesis. CPSF1 is the largest subunit of the CPSF complex (Murthy and Manley, 1995 [PubMed 7590244]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

POSTN Gene

periostin, osteoblast specific factor

CPSF1P1 Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 1, 160kDa pseudogene 1

EEFSEC Gene

eukaryotic elongation factor, selenocysteine-tRNA-specific

HTATSF1P1 Gene

HIV-1 Tat specific factor 1 pseudogene 1

HTATSF1P2 Gene

HIV-1 Tat specific factor 1 pseudogene 2

GTSF1 Gene

gametocyte specific factor 1

LOC100422285 Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 1, 160kDa pseudogene

HTATSF1 Gene

HIV-1 Tat specific factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene functions as a cofactor for the stimulation of transcriptional elongation by HIV-1 Tat, which binds to the HIV-1 promoter through Tat-TAR interaction. This protein may also serve as a dual-function factor to couple transcription and splicing and to facilitate their reciprocal activation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

LGALS3BP Gene

lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3 binding protein

The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. LGALS3BP has been found elevated in the serum of patients with cancer and in those infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It appears to be implicated in immune response associated with natural killer (NK) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell cytotoxicity. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization the full length 90K cDNA has been localized to chromosome 17q25. The native protein binds specifically to a human macrophage-associated lectin known as Mac-2 and also binds galectin 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DBI Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein)

This gene encodes diazepam binding inhibitor, a protein that is regulated by hormones and is involved in lipid metabolism and the displacement of beta-carbolines and benzodiazepines, which modulate signal transduction at type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors located in brain synapses. The protein is conserved from yeast to mammals, with the most highly conserved domain consisting of seven contiguous residues that constitute the hydrophobic binding site for medium- and long-chain acyl-Coenzyme A esters. Diazepam binding inhibitor is also known to mediate the feedback regulation of pancreatic secretion and the postprandial release of cholecystokinin, in addition to its role as a mediator in corticotropin-dependent adrenal steroidogenesis. Three pseudogenes located on chromosomes 6, 8 and 16 have been identified. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NAB1 Gene

NGFI-A binding protein 1 (EGR1 binding protein 1)

NAB2 Gene

NGFI-A binding protein 2 (EGR1 binding protein 2)

This gene encodes a member of the family of NGFI-A binding (NAB) proteins, which function in the nucleus to repress transcription induced by some members of the EGR (early growth response) family of transactivators. NAB proteins can homo- or hetero-multimerize with other EGR or NAB proteins through a conserved N-terminal domain, and repress transcription through two partially redundant C-terminal domains. Transcriptional repression by the encoded protein is mediated in part by interactions with the nucleosome remodeling and deactylase (NuRD) complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DBIP2 Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein) pseudogene 2

DBIP3 Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein) pseudogene 3

DBIP1 Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein) pseudogene 1

LOC286456 Gene

NGFI-A binding protein 1 (EGR1 binding protein 1) pseudogene

GTF3AP1 Gene

general transcription factor IIIA pseudogene 1

GTF3AP6 Gene

general transcription factor IIIA pseudogene 6

GTF3AP4 Gene

general transcription factor IIIA pseudogene 4

GTF3AP5 Gene

general transcription factor IIIA pseudogene 5

HSFX2 Gene

heat shock transcription factor family, X linked 2

BCLAF1 Gene

BCL2-associated transcription factor 1

This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that interacts with several members of the BCL2 family of proteins. Overexpression of this protein induces apoptosis, which can be suppressed by co-expression of BCL2 proteins. The protein localizes to dot-like structures throughout the nucleus, and redistributes to a zone near the nuclear envelope in cells undergoing apoptosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GTF2F2P1 Gene

general transcription factor IIF, polypeptide 2 pseudogene 1

GTF2F2P2 Gene

general transcription factor IIF, polypeptide 2 pseudogene 2

LMX1A Gene

LIM homeobox transcription factor 1, alpha

This gene encodes a homeodomain and LIM-domain containing protein. The encoded protein is a transcription factor that acts as a positive regulator of insulin gene transcription. This gene also plays a role in the development of dopamine producing neurons during embryogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

LMX1B Gene

LIM homeobox transcription factor 1, beta

This gene encodes a member of LIM-homeodomain family of proteins containing two N-terminal zinc-binding LIM domains, 1 homeodomain, and a C-terminal glutamine-rich domain. It functions as a transcription factor, and is essential for the normal development of dorsal limb structures, the glomerular basement membrane, the anterior segment of the eye, and dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Mutations in this gene are associated with nail-patella syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC642929 Gene

general transcription factor II, i pseudogene

HES1 Gene

hes family bHLH transcription factor 1

This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. It is a transcriptional repressor of genes that require a bHLH protein for their transcription. The protein has a particular type of basic domain that contains a helix interrupting protein that binds to the N-box rather than the canonical E-box. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

E2F6P3 Gene

E2F transcription factor 6 pseudogene 3

E2F6P2 Gene

E2F transcription factor 6 pseudogene 2

E2F6P1 Gene

E2F transcription factor 6 pseudogene 1

E2F6P4 Gene

E2F transcription factor 6 pseudogene 4

TCEB1P24 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 24

TCEB1P22 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 22

LOC731605 Gene

bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 pseudogene

NFYC Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, gamma

This gene encodes one subunit of a trimeric complex forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds with high specificity to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of a variety of genes. The encoded protein, subunit C, forms a tight dimer with the B subunit, a prerequisite for subunit A association. The resulting trimer binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. Subunits B and C each contain a histone-like motif. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

NFYB Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a trimeric complex, forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds with high specificity to CCAAT motifs in the promoter regions in a variety of genes. This gene product, subunit B, forms a tight dimer with the C subunit, a prerequisite for subunit A association. The resulting trimer binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. Subunits B and C each contain a histone-like motif. Observation of the histone nature of these subunits is supported by two types of evidence; protein sequence alignments and experiments with mutants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NFYA Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a trimeric complex, forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoter regions in a variety of genes. Subunit A associates with a tight dimer composed of the B and C subunits, resulting in a trimer that binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. The sequence specific interactions of the complex are made by the A subunit, suggesting a role as the regulatory subunit. In addition, there is evidence of post-transcriptional regulation in this gene product, either by protein degradation or control of translation. Further regulation is represented by alternative splicing in the glutamine-rich activation domain, with clear tissue-specific preferences for the two isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

E2F3P2 Gene

E2F transcription factor 3 pseudogene 2

E2F3P1 Gene

E2F transcription factor 3 pseudogene 1

GTF2H3 Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 3, 34kDa

This gene encodes a member of the TFB4 family. The encoded protein is a subunit of the core-TFIIH basal transcription factor and localizes to the nucleus. The encoded protein is involved in RNA transcription by RNA polymerase II and nucleotide excision repair and associates with the Cdk-activating kinase complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

GTF2H2 Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 2, 44kDa

This gene is part of a 500 kb inverted duplication on chromosome 5q13. This duplicated region contains at least four genes and repetitive elements which make it prone to rearrangements and deletions. The repetitiveness and complexity of the sequence have also caused difficulty in determining the organization of this genomic region. This gene is within the telomeric copy of the duplication. Deletion of this gene sometimes accompanies deletion of the neighboring SMN1 gene in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients but it is unclear if deletion of this gene contributes to the SMA phenotype. This gene encodes the 44 kDa subunit of RNA polymerase II transcription initiation factor IIH which is involved in basal transcription and nucleotide excision repair. Transcript variants for this gene have been described, but their full length nature has not been determined. A second copy of this gene within the centromeric copy of the duplication has been described in the literature. It is reported to be different by either two or four base pairs; however, no sequence data is currently available for the centromeric copy of the gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GTF2H1 Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 1, 62kDa

GTF2H5 Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 5

This gene encodes a subunit of transcription/repair factor TFIIH, which functions in gene transcription and DNA repair. This protein stimulates ERCC3/XPB ATPase activity to trigger DNA opening during DNA repair, and is implicated in regulating cellular levels of TFIIH. Mutations in this gene result in trichothiodystrophy, complementation group A. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

GTF2H4 Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 4, 52kDa

BTF3P8 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 8

BTF3P4 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 4

BTF3P7 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 7

BTF3P1 Gene

basic transcription factor 3, pseudogene 1

BTF3P3 Gene

basic transcription factor 3, pseudogene 3

LOC105377135 Gene

transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 4-like

LOC102724865 Gene

transcription factor E2F6 pseudogene

DMRT1 Gene

doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1

This gene is found in a cluster with two other members of the gene family, having in common a zinc finger-like DNA-binding motif (DM domain). The DM domain is an ancient, conserved component of the vertebrate sex-determining pathway that is also a key regulator of male development in flies and nematodes. This gene exhibits a gonad-specific and sexually dimorphic expression pattern. Defective testicular development and XY feminization occur when this gene is hemizygous. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DMRT2 Gene

doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the DMRT gene family, sharing a DM DNA-binding domain with Drosophila 'doublesex' (dsx) and C. elegans mab3, genes involved in sex determination in these organisms. Also, this gene is located in a region of the human genome (chromosome 9p24.3) associated with gonadal dysgenesis and XY sex reversal. Hence this gene is one of the candidates for sex-determining gene(s) on chr 9. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

DMRT3 Gene

doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3

LOC646120 Gene

Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related) pseudogene

BTF3P5 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 5

ATF6B Gene

activating transcription factor 6 beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor in the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway during ER stress. Either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with ATF6-alpha, the encoded protein binds to the ER stress response element, interacting with nuclear transcription factor Y to activate UPR target genes. The protein is normally found in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum; however, under ER stress, the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain is cleaved from the rest of the protein and translocates to the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

BTF3P6 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 6

BTF3P2 Gene

basic transcription factor 3, pseudogene 2

TEFM Gene

transcription elongation factor, mitochondrial

MESP1 Gene

mesoderm posterior basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1

MESP2 Gene

mesoderm posterior basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 2

This gene encodes a member of the bHLH family of transcription factors and plays a key role in defining the rostrocaudal patterning of somites via interactions with multiple Notch signaling pathways. This gene is expressed in the anterior presomitic mesoderm and is downregulated immediately after the formation of segmented somites. This gene also plays a role in the formation of epithelial somitic mesoderm and cardiac mesoderm. Mutations in the MESP2 gene cause autosomal recessive spondylocostal dystosis 2 (SCD02). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

HSFX1 Gene

heat shock transcription factor family, X linked 1

RRN3P3 Gene

RNA polymerase I transcription factor homolog (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene 3

RRN3P2 Gene

RNA polymerase I transcription factor homolog (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene 2

RRN3P1 Gene

RNA polymerase I transcription factor homolog (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene 1

GTF2A1L Gene

general transcription factor IIA, 1-like

The assembly and stability of the RNA polymerase II transcription pre-initiation complex on a eukaryotic core promoter involve the effects of transcription factor IIA (TFIIA) on the interaction between TATA-binding protein (TBP) and DNA. This gene encodes a germ cell-specific counterpart of the large (alpha/beta) subunit of general transcription factor TFIIA that is able to stabilize the binding of TBP to DNA and may be uniquely important to testis biology. Alternative splicing for this locus has been observed and two variants, encoding distinct isoforms, have been identified. Co-transcription of this gene and the neighboring upstream gene generates a rare transcript (SALF), which encodes a fusion protein comprised of sequence sharing identity with each individual gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

LOC100420944 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, beta pseudogene

TCEB1P19 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 19

TCEB1P10 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 10

TCEB1P16 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 16

TCEB1P15 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 15

HELT Gene

helt bHLH transcription factor

TCEANC2 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII) N-terminal and central domain containing 2

SALL4P3 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4 pseudogene 3

SALL4P1 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4 pseudogene 1

SALL4P7 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4 pseudogene 7

SALL4P5 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4 pseudogene 5

ATF1P1 Gene

activating transcription factor 1 pseudogene 1

GTF3C1 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 1, alpha 220kDa

GTF3C6 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 6, alpha 35kDa

RNA polymerases are unable to initiate RNA synthesis in the absence of additional proteins called general transcription factors (GTFs). GTFs assemble in a complex on the DNA promoter and recruit the RNA polymerase. GTF3C family proteins (e.g., GTF3C1, MIM 603246) are essential for RNA polymerase III to make a number of small nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs, including 5S RNA (MIM 180420), tRNA, and adenovirus-associated (VA) RNA of both cellular and viral origin.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GTF3C5 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 5, 63kDa

GTF3C4 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 4, 90kDa

AHCTF1 Gene

AT hook containing transcription factor 1

LOC101929862 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

SCX Gene

scleraxis basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor

REST Gene

RE1-silencing transcription factor

This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that represses neuronal genes in non-neuronal tissues. It is a member of the Kruppel-type zinc finger transcription factor family. It represses transcription by binding a DNA sequence element called the neuron-restrictive silencer element. The protein is also found in undifferentiated neuronal progenitor cells and it is thought that this repressor may act as a master negative regular of neurogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

SALL4 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4

The protein encoded by this gene may be a zinc finger transcription factor. Defects in this gene are a cause of Duane-radial ray syndrome (DRRS). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SALL1 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger transcriptional repressor and may be part of the NuRD histone deacetylase complex (HDAC). Defects in this gene are a cause of Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) as well as bronchio-oto-renal syndrome (BOR). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SALL3 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 3

This gene encodes a sal-like C2H2-type zinc-finger protein, and belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved genes found in species as diverse as Drosophila, C. elegans, and vertebrates. Mutations in some of these genes are associated with congenital disorders in human, suggesting their importance in embryonic development. This protein binds to DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A), and reduces DNMT3A-mediated CpG island methylation. It is suggested that silencing of this gene, resulting in acceleration of DNA methylation, may have a role in oncogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

SALL2 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 2

HBP1 Gene

HMG-box transcription factor 1

LOC260339 Gene

transcription factor A, mitochondrial pseudogene

MYPOP Gene

Myb-related transcription factor, partner of profilin

BCLAF1P1 Gene

BCL2-associated transcription factor 1 pseudogene 1

TCEANC Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII) N-terminal and central domain containing

TFB2M Gene

transcription factor B2, mitochondrial

GTF2IP1 Gene

general transcription factor IIi pseudogene 1

GTF2IP3 Gene

general transcription factor IIi pseudogene 3

GTF2IP2 Gene

general transcription factor IIi pseudogene 2

GTF2IP5 Gene

general transcription factor IIi pseudogene 5

GTF2IP4 Gene

general transcription factor IIi, pseudogene 4

GTF2IP6 Gene

general transcription factor IIi pseudogene 6

TCEA2 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII), 2

The protein encoded by this gene is found in the nucleus, where it functions as an SII class transcription elongation factor. Elongation factors in this class are responsible for releasing RNA polymerase II ternary complexes from transcriptional arrest at template-encoded arresting sites. The encoded protein has been shown to interact with general transcription factor IIB, a basal transcription factor. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCEA3 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII), 3

TCEA1 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII), 1

GTF2F1 Gene

general transcription factor IIF, polypeptide 1, 74kDa

GTF2F2 Gene

general transcription factor IIF, polypeptide 2, 30kDa

LOC100129001 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 6, alpha 35kDa pseudogene

GFI1B Gene

growth factor independent 1B transcription repressor

This gene encodes a zinc-finger containing transcriptional regulator that is primarily expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineage. The encoded protein complexes with numerous other transcriptional regulatory proteins including GATA-1, runt-related transcription factor 1 and histone deacetylases to control expression of genes involved in the development and maturation of erythrocytes and megakaryocytes. Mutations in this gene are the cause of the autosomal dominant platelet disorder, platelet-type bleeding disorder-17. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

HLTF Gene

helicase-like transcription factor

This gene encodes a member of the SWI/SNF family. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein contains a RING finger DNA binding motif. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. However, use of an alternative translation start site produces an isoform that is truncated at the N-terminus compared to the full-length protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RUNX1T1 Gene

runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1 (cyclin D-related)

This gene encodes a member of the myeloid translocation gene family which interact with DNA-bound transcription factors and recruit a range of corepressors to facilitate transcriptional repression. The t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is one of the most frequent karyotypic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia. The translocation produces a chimeric gene made up of the 5'-region of the runt-related transcription factor 1 gene fused to the 3'-region of this gene. The chimeric protein is thought to associate with the nuclear corepressor/histone deacetylase complex to block hematopoietic differentiation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

LOC100421023 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, gamma pseudogene

TCEB1P31 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 31

LOC105370554 Gene

transcription factor NF-E4-like

GTF2IP20 Gene

general transcription factor IIi pseudogene 20

HSF1 Gene

heat shock transcription factor 1

The product of this gene is a heat-shock transcription factor. Transcription of heat-shock genes is rapidly induced after temperature stress. Hsp90, by itself and/or associated with multichaperone complexes, is a major repressor of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HSF2 Gene

heat shock transcription factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the HSF family of transcription factors that bind specifically to the heat-shock promoter element and activate transcription. Heat shock transcription factors activate heat-shock response genes under conditions of heat or other stresses. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

HSF5 Gene

heat shock transcription factor family member 5

HSF4 Gene

heat shock transcription factor 4

Heat-shock transcription factors (HSFs) activate heat-shock response genes under conditions of heat or other stresses. HSF4 lacks the carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic repeat which is shared among all vertebrate HSFs and has been suggested to be involved in the negative regulation of DNA binding activity. Two alternatively spliced transcripts encoding distinct isoforms and possessing different transcriptional activity have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCF21 Gene

transcription factor 21

TCF21 encodes a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix family. The TCF21 product is mesoderm specific, and expressed in embryonic epicardium, mesenchyme-derived tissues of lung, gut, gonad, and both mesenchymal and glomerular epithelial cells in the kidney. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BTF3P11 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 11

BTF3P10 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 10

BTF3P13 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 13

This locus defines a putative member of the BTF3 family of transcription factors and is thought to represent a pseudogene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AHCTF1P1 Gene

AT hook containing transcription factor 1 pseudogene 1

GTF3A Gene

general transcription factor IIIA

The product of this gene is a zinc finger protein with nine Cis[2]-His[2] zinc finger domains. It functions as an RNA polymerase III transcription factor to induce transcription of the 5S rRNA genes. The protein binds to a 50 bp internal promoter in the 5S genes called the internal control region (ICR), and nucleates formation of a stable preinitiation complex. This complex recruits the TFIIIC and TFIIIB transcription factors and RNA polymerase III to form the complete transcription complex. The protein is thought to be translated using a non-AUG translation initiation site in mammals based on sequence analysis, protein homology, and the size of the purified protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BATF2 Gene

basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like 2

TFAMP2 Gene

transcription factor A, mitochondrial pseudogene 2

TFAMP1 Gene

transcription factor A, mitochondrial pseudogene 1

TFAM Gene

transcription factor A, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a key mitochondrial transcription factor containing two high mobility group motifs. The encoded protein also functions in mitochondrial DNA replication and repair. Sequence polymorphisms in this gene are associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 6, 7, and 11. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

GTF2H2B Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 2B (pseudogene)

TFDP3 Gene

transcription factor Dp family, member 3

This gene encodes a member of the DP family of transcription factors. These factors heterodimerize with E2F proteins to enhance their DNA-binding activity and promote transcription from E2F target genes. This protein functions as a negative regulator and inhibits the DNA binding and transcriptional activities of E2F factors.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

TFDP2 Gene

transcription factor Dp-2 (E2F dimerization partner 2)

The gene is a member of the transcription factor DP family. The encoded protein forms heterodimers with the E2F transcription factors resulting in transcriptional activation of cell cycle regulated genes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

TFDP1 Gene

transcription factor Dp-1

This gene encodes a member of a family of transcription factors that heterodimerize with E2F proteins to enhance their DNA-binding activity and promote transcription from E2F target genes. The encoded protein functions as part of this complex to control the transcriptional activity of numerous genes involved in cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1, 15, and X.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

LOC101929748 Gene

transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 4-like

TCEB1P18 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 18

TCEB1P14 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 14

BTF3 Gene

basic transcription factor 3

This gene encodes the basic transcription factor 3. This protein forms a stable complex with RNA polymerase IIB and is required for transcriptional initiation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. This gene has multiple pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC440973 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, beta pseudogene

TCEB3CL Gene

transcription elongation factor B polypeptide 3C-like

HSFY1 Gene

heat shock transcription factor, Y-linked 1

This gene encodes a member of the heat shock factor (HSF) family of transcriptional activators for heat shock proteins. This gene is a candidate gene for azoospermia, since it localizes to a region of chromosome Y that is sometimes deleted in infertile males. The genome has two identical copies of this gene within a palindromic region; this record represents the more centromeric copy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HSFY2 Gene

heat shock transcription factor, Y linked 2

This gene encodes a member of the heat shock factor (HSF) family of transcriptional activators for heat shock proteins. This gene is a candidate gene for azoospermia, since it localizes to a region of chromosome Y that is sometimes deleted in infertile males. The genome has two identical copies of this gene within a palindromic region; this record represents the more telomeric copy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC101930161 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

LOC101930165 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

TTF2 Gene

transcription termination factor, RNA polymerase II

This gene encodes a member of the SWI2/SNF2 family of proteins, which play a critical role in altering protein-DNA interactions. The encoded protein has been shown to have dsDNA-dependent ATPase activity and RNA polymerase II termination activity. This protein interacts with cell division cycle 5-like, associates with human splicing complexes, and plays a role in pre-mRNA splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TTF1 Gene

transcription termination factor, RNA polymerase I

This gene encodes a transcription termination factor that is localized to the nucleolus and plays a critical role in ribosomal gene transcription. The encoded protein mediates the termination of RNA polymerase I transcription by binding to Sal box terminator elements downstream of pre-rRNA coding regions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. This gene shares the symbol/alias 'TFF1' with another gene, NK2 homeobox 1, also known as thyroid transcription factor 1, which plays a role in the regulation of thyroid-specific gene expression. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

POU5F2 Gene

POU domain class 5, transcription factor 2

LOC101929578 Gene

transcription factor CP2-like

GTF2A1 Gene

general transcription factor IIA, 1, 19/37kDa

Accurate transcription initiation on TATA-containing class II genes involves the ordered assembly of RNA polymerase II (POLR2A; MIM 180660) and several general initiation factors (summarized by DeJong and Roeder, 1993 [PubMed 8224848]). One of these factors is TFIIA, which when purified from HeLa extracts consists of 35-, 19-, and 12-kD subunits.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]

GTF2A2 Gene

general transcription factor IIA, 2, 12kDa

Accurate transcription initiation on TATA-containing class II genes involves the ordered assembly of RNA polymerase II (POLR2A; MIM 180660) and the general initiation factors TFIIA, TFIIB (MIM 189963), TFIID (MIM 313650), TFIIE (MIM 189962), TFIIF (MIM 189968), TFIIG/TFIIJ, and TFIIH (MIM 189972). The first step involves recognition of the TATA element by the TATA-binding subunit (TBP; MIM 600075) and may be regulated by TFIIA, a factor that interacts with both TBP and a TBP-associated factor (TAF; MIM 600475) in TFIID. TFIIA has 2 subunits (43 and 12 kD) in yeast and 3 subunits in higher eukaryotes. In HeLa extracts, it consists of a 35-kD alpha subunit and a 19-kD beta subunit encoded by the N- and C-terminal regions of GTF2A1 (MIM 600520), respectively, and a 12-kD gamma subunit encoded by GTF2A2 (DeJong et al., 1995 [PubMed 7724559]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

BPTF Gene

bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor

This gene was identified by the reactivity of its encoded protein to a monoclonal antibody prepared against brain homogenates from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Analysis of the original protein (fetal Alz-50 reactive clone 1, or FAC1), identified as an 810 aa protein containing a DNA-binding domain and a zinc finger motif, suggested it might play a role in the regulation of transcription. High levels of FAC1 were detected in fetal brain and in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The protein encoded by this gene is actually much larger than originally thought, and it also contains a C-terminal bromodomain characteristic of proteins that regulate transcription during proliferation. The encoded protein is highly similar to the largest subunit of the Drosophila NURF (nucleosome remodeling factor) complex. In Drosophila, the NURF complex, which catalyzes nucleosome sliding on DNA and interacts with sequence-specific transcription factors, is necessary for the chromatin remodeling required for transcription. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described completely. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCEB1P13 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 13

YY1P1 Gene

YY1 transcription factor pseudogene 1

TCF15 Gene

transcription factor 15 (basic helix-loop-helix)

The protein encoded by this gene is found in the nucleus and may be involved in the early transcriptional regulation of patterning of the mesoderm. The encoded basic helix-loop-helix protein requires dimerization with another basic helix-loop-helix protein for efficient DNA binding. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCF12 Gene

transcription factor 12

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) E-protein family that recognizes the consensus binding site (E-box) CANNTG. This encoded protein is expressed in many tissues, among them skeletal muscle, thymus, B- and T-cells, and may participate in regulating lineage-specific gene expression through the formation of heterodimers with other bHLH E-proteins. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCF19 Gene

transcription factor 19

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the Plant Homeo Domain finger family of transcription factors. The encoded protein is thought to function during the G1/S transition in the cell cycle. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

ASCL2 Gene

achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 2

This gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors. It activates transcription by binding to the E box (5'-CANNTG-3'). Dimerization with other BHLH proteins is required for efficient DNA binding. Involved in the determination of the neuronal precursors in the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASCL3 Gene

achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 3

Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, such as ASCL3, are essential for the determination of cell fate and the development and differentiation of numerous tissues (Jonsson et al., 2004 [PubMed 15475265]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ASCL1 Gene

achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 1

This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors. The protein activates transcription by binding to the E box (5'-CANNTG-3'). Dimerization with other BHLH proteins is required for efficient DNA binding. This protein plays a role in the neuronal commitment and differentiation and in the generation of olfactory and autonomic neurons. Mutations in this gene may contribute to the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) phenotype in rare cases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASCL4 Gene

achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 4

Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, such as ASCL4, are essential for the determination of cell fate and the development and differentiation of numerous tissues (Jonsson et al., 2004 [PubMed 15475265]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ASCL5 Gene

achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 5

TCEA1P2 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII), 1 pseudogene 2

TFCP2L1 Gene

transcription factor CP2-like 1

TFCP2 Gene

transcription factor CP2

This gene encodes a transcription factor that binds the alpha-globin promoter and activates transcription of the alpha-globin gene. The encoded protein regulates erythroid gene expression, plays a role in the transcriptional switch of globin gene promoters, and it activates many other cellular and viral gene promoters. The gene product interacts with certain inflammatory response factors, and polymorphisms of this gene may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

HSFY3P Gene

heat shock transcription factor, Y-linked 3, pseudogene

TCF4 Gene

transcription factor 4

This gene encodes transcription factor 4, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. The encoded protein recognizes an Ephrussi-box ('E-box') binding site ('CANNTG') - a motif first identified in immunoglobulin enhancers. This gene is broadly expressed, and may play an important role in nervous system development. Defects in this gene are a cause of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different proteins have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

TCF3 Gene

transcription factor 3

This gene encodes a member of the E protein (class I) family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors. E proteins activate transcription by binding to regulatory E-box sequences on target genes as heterodimers or homodimers, and are inhibited by heterodimerization with inhibitor of DNA-binding (class IV) helix-loop-helix proteins. E proteins play a critical role in lymphopoiesis, and the encoded protein is required for B and T lymphocyte development. Deletion of this gene or diminished activity of the encoded protein may play a role in lymphoid malignancies. This gene is also involved in several chromosomal translocations that are associated with lymphoid malignancies including pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (t(1;19), with PBX1), childhood leukemia (t(19;19), with TFPT) and acute leukemia (t(12;19), with ZNF384). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

LOC390617 Gene

transcription factor Dp-1 pseudogene

SPDEF Gene

SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ETS family of transcription factors. It is highly expressed in the prostate epithelial cells, and functions as an androgen-independent transactivator of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter. Higher expression of this protein has also been reported in brain, breast, lung and ovarian tumors, compared to the corresponding normal tissues, and it shows better tumor-association than other cancer-associated molecules, making it a more suitable target for developing specific cancer therapies. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

TWIST1 Gene

twist family bHLH transcription factor 1

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors have been implicated in cell lineage determination and differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene is a bHLH transcription factor and shares similarity with another bHLH transcription factor, Dermo1. The strongest expression of this mRNA is in placental tissue; in adults, mesodermally derived tissues express this mRNA preferentially. Mutations in this gene have been found in patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TWIST2 Gene

twist family bHLH transcription factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor and shares similarity with Twist. This protein may inhibit osteoblast maturation and maintain cells in a preosteoblast phenotype during osteoblast development. This gene may be upregulated in certain cancers. Mutations in this gene cause focal facial dermal dysplasia 3, Setleis type. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

DEAF1 Gene

DEAF1 transcription factor

This gene encodes a zinc finger domain-containing protein that functions as a regulator of transcription. The encoded proteins binds to its own promoter as well as to that of several target genes. Activity of this protein is important in the regulation of embryonic development. Mutations in this gene have been found in individuals with autosomal dominant mental retardation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

BTF3P9 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 9

LOC100422440 Gene

general transcription factor IIE, polypeptide 2, beta 34kDa pseudogene

LOC105369241 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

HES2 Gene

hes family bHLH transcription factor 2

TCEB1P26 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 26

BTF3L4 Gene

basic transcription factor 3-like 4

TCEAL3 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like 3

This gene encodes a member of the transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like (TCEAL) gene family. Members of this family contain TFA domains and may function as nuclear phosphoproteins that modulate transcription in a promoter context-dependent manner. Multiple family members are located on the X chromosome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding a single isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCEAL2 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like 2

This gene encodes a member of the transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like (TCEAL) gene family. Members of this family contain TFA domains and may function as nuclear phosphoproteins that modulate transcription in a promoter context-dependent manner. Multiple family members are located on the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCEAL1 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like 1

This gene encodes a member of the transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like (TCEAL) gene family. Members of this family may function as nuclear phosphoproteins that modulate transcription in a promoter context-dependent manner. The encoded protein is similar to transcription elongation factor A/transcription factor SII and contains a zinc finger-like motif as well as a sequence related to the transcription factor SII Pol II-binding region. It may exert its effects via protein-protein interactions with other transcriptional regulators rather than via direct binding of DNA. Multiple family members are located on the X chromosome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding a single isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCEAL7 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like 7

TCEAL6 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like 6

TCEAL5 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like 5

This gene, which is located on the X chromosome, encodes a protein which contains a BEX (brain expressed X-liked like family) domain. This domain is found in proteins encoded by the TCEAL elongation factor (transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like) gene family also located on the X chromosome. The coding region for this gene is located entirely in the terminal exon. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

TCEAL4 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like 4

This gene encodes a member of the transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like (TCEAL) gene family. This family is comprised of nuclear phosphoproteins that modulate transcription in a promoter context-dependent manner. Multiple family members are located on the X chromosome. Alternatively splicing results in multiple transcript variants. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 13. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

TCEAL8 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like 8

This gene encodes a member of the transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like (TCEAL) gene family. Members of this family contain TFA domains and may function as nuclear phosphoproteins that modulate transcription in a promoter context-dependent manner. Multiple family members are located on the X chromosome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding a single isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GTF2IP8 Gene

general transcription factor IIi pseudogene 8

SP8 Gene

Sp8 transcription factor

The protein encoded by this gene is an SP family transcription factor that in mouse has been shown to be essential for proper limb development. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

SP9 Gene

Sp9 transcription factor

SP1 Gene

Sp1 transcription factor

The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger transcription factor that binds to GC-rich motifs of many promoters. The encoded protein is involved in many cellular processes, including cell differentiation, cell growth, apoptosis, immune responses, response to DNA damage, and chromatin remodeling. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, and proteolytic processing significantly affect the activity of this protein, which can be an activator or a repressor. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

SP2 Gene

Sp2 transcription factor

This gene encodes a member of the Sp subfamily of Sp/XKLF transcription factors. Sp family proteins are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins characterized by an amino-terminal trans-activation domain and three carboxy-terminal zinc finger motifs. This protein contains the least conserved DNA-binding domain within the Sp subfamily of proteins, and its DNA sequence specificity differs from the other Sp proteins. It localizes primarily within subnuclear foci associated with the nuclear matrix, and can activate or in some cases repress expression from different promoters. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SP3 Gene

Sp3 transcription factor

This gene belongs to a family of Sp1 related genes that encode transcription factors that regulate transcription by binding to consensus GC- and GT-box regulatory elements in target genes. This protein contains a zinc finger DNA-binding domain and several transactivation domains, and has been reported to function as a bifunctional transcription factor that either stimulates or represses the transcription of numerous genes. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene, and one has been reported to initiate translation from a non-AUG (AUA) start codon. Additional isoforms, resulting from the use of alternate downstream translation initiation sites, have also been noted. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 13. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

SP4 Gene

Sp4 transcription factor

SP5 Gene

Sp5 transcription factor

SP6 Gene

Sp6 transcription factor

SP6 belongs to a family of transcription factors that contain 3 classical zinc finger DNA-binding domains consisting of a zinc atom tetrahedrally coordinated by 2 cysteines and 2 histidines (C2H2 motif). These transcription factors bind to GC-rich sequences and related GT and CACCC boxes (Scohy et al., 2000 [PubMed 11087666]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TCEB1P23 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 23

TCEB1P21 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 21

TCEB1P20 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 20

TCEB1P29 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 29

TCEB1P28 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 28

LOC105377637 Gene

transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 4-like

BRF2 Gene

BRF2, RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor 50 kDa subunit

This gene encodes one of the multiple subunits of the RNA polymerase III transcription factor complex required for transcription of genes with promoter elements upstream of the initiation site. The product of this gene, a TFIIB-like factor, is directly recruited to the TATA-box of polymerase III small nuclear RNA gene promoters through its interaction with the TATA-binding protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BRF1 Gene

BRF1, RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor 90 kDa subunit

This gene encodes one of the three subunits of the RNA polymerase III transcription factor complex. This complex plays a central role in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase III on genes encoding tRNA, 5S rRNA, and other small structural RNAs. The gene product belongs to the TF2B family. Several alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms, that function at different promoters transcribed by RNA polymerase III, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

YY1P2 Gene

YY1 transcription factor pseudogene 2

LOC101928917 Gene

heat shock transcription factor, X-linked-like

FERD3L Gene

Fer3-like bHLH transcription factor

TCFL5 Gene

transcription factor-like 5 (basic helix-loop-helix)

YY1 Gene

YY1 transcription factor

YY1 is a ubiquitously distributed transcription factor belonging to the GLI-Kruppel class of zinc finger proteins. The protein is involved in repressing and activating a diverse number of promoters. YY1 may direct histone deacetylases and histone acetyltransferases to a promoter in order to activate or repress the promoter, thus implicating histone modification in the function of YY1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

YY2 Gene

YY2 transcription factor

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that includes several Kruppel-like zinc fingers in its C-terminal region. It possesses both activation and repression domains, and it can therefore have both positive and negative effects on the transcription of target genes. This gene has an intronless coding region, and it appears to have arisen by retrotransposition of the related YY1 transcription factor gene, which is located on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

BACH2 Gene

BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2

BACH1 Gene

BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 1

This gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the cap'n'collar type of basic region leucine zipper factor family (CNC-bZip). The encoded protein contains broad complex, tramtrack, bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) domains, which is atypical of CNC-bZip family members. These BTB/POZ domains facilitate protein-protein interactions and formation of homo- and/or hetero-oligomers. When this encoded protein forms a heterodimer with MafK, it functions as a repressor of Maf recognition element (MARE) and transcription is repressed. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

TUB Gene

tubby bipartite transcription factor

This gene encodes a member of the Tubby family of bipartite transcription factors. The encoded protein may play a role in obesity and sensorineural degradation. The crystal structure has been determined for a similar protein in mouse, and it functions as a membrane-bound transcription regulator that translocates to the nucleus in response to phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC101929851 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

MBTPS2 Gene

membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase, site 2

This gene encodes a intramembrane zinc metalloprotease, which is essential in development. This protease functions in the signal protein activation involved in sterol control of transcription and the ER stress response. Mutations in this gene have been associated with ichthyosis follicularis with atrichia and photophobia (IFAP syndrome); IFAP syndrome has been quantitatively linked to a reduction in cholesterol homeostasis and ER stress response.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

MBTPS1 Gene

membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase, site 1

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER to generate a heterodimer which exits the ER and sorts to the cis/medial-Golgi where a second autocatalytic event takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. It encodes a type 1 membrane bound protease which is ubiquitously expressed and regulates cholesterol or lipid homeostasis via cleavage of substrates at non-basic residues. Mutations in this gene may be associated with lysosomal dysfunction. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

ATF5 Gene

activating transcription factor 5

ATF4 Gene

activating transcription factor 4

This gene encodes a transcription factor that was originally identified as a widely expressed mammalian DNA binding protein that could bind a tax-responsive enhancer element in the LTR of HTLV-1. The encoded protein was also isolated and characterized as the cAMP-response element binding protein 2 (CREB-2). The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of DNA-binding proteins that includes the AP-1 family of transcription factors, cAMP-response element binding proteins (CREBs) and CREB-like proteins. These transcription factors share a leucine zipper region that is involved in protein-protein interactions, located C-terminal to a stretch of basic amino acids that functions as a DNA binding domain. Two alternative transcripts encoding the same protein have been described. Two pseudogenes are located on the X chromosome at q28 in a region containing a large inverted duplication. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

ATF7 Gene

activating transcription factor 7

ATF6 Gene

activating transcription factor 6

This gene encodes a transcription factor that activates target genes for the unfolded protein response (UPR) during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Although it is a transcription factor, this protein is unusual in that it is synthesized as a transmembrane protein that is embedded in the ER. It functions as an ER stress sensor/transducer, and following ER stress-induced proteolysis, it functions as a nuclear transcription factor via a cis-acting ER stress response element (ERSE) that is present in the promoters of genes encoding ER chaperones. This protein has been identified as a survival factor for quiescent but not proliferative squamous carcinoma cells. There have been conflicting reports about the association of polymorphisms in this gene with diabetes in different populations, but another polymorphism has been associated with increased plasma cholesterol levels. This gene is also thought to be a potential therapeutic target for cystic fibrosis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ATF1 Gene

activating transcription factor 1

This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper) family. It influences cellular physiologic processes by regulating the expression of downstream target genes, which are related to growth, survival, and other cellular activities. This protein is phosphorylated at serine 63 in its kinase-inducible domain by serine/threonine kinases, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I/II, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk-3). Its phosphorylation enhances its transactivation and transcriptional activities, and enhances cell transformation. Fusion of this gene and FUS on chromosome 16 or EWSR1 on chromosome 22 induced by translocation generates chimeric proteins in angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma and clear cell sarcoma. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

ATF3 Gene

activating transcription factor 3

This gene encodes a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding (CREB) protein family of transcription factors. This gene is induced by a variety of signals, including many of those encountered by cancer cells, and is involved in the complex process of cellular stress response. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. It is possible that alternative splicing of this gene may be physiologically important in the regulation of target genes. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

ATF2 Gene

activating transcription factor 2

This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. The encoded protein may also be involved in cell's DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

TFDP1P Gene

transcription factor Dp-1 pseudogene

TCEB3B Gene

transcription elongation factor B polypeptide 3B (elongin A2)

This gene encodes the transcriptionally active subunit of the SIII (or elongin) transcription elongation factor complex, which also includes two regulatory subunits, elongins B and C. This complex acts to increase the rate of RNA chain elongation by RNA polymerase II by suppressing transient pausing of the polymerase at many sites along the DNA template. Whereas a related protein with similar function, elongin A, is ubiquitously expressed, the encoded protein is specifically expressed in the testis, suggesting it may have a role in spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100128441 Gene

general transcription factor IIA, 2, 12kDa pseudogene

LOC441488 Gene

transcription factor Dp-1-like pseudogene

GFI1 Gene

growth factor independent 1 transcription repressor

This gene encodes a nuclear zinc finger protein that functions as a transcriptional repressor. This protein plays a role in diverse developmental contexts, including hematopoiesis and oncogenesis. It functions as part of a complex along with other cofactors to control histone modifications that lead to silencing of the target gene promoters. Mutations in this gene cause autosomal dominant severe congenital neutropenia, and also dominant nonimmune chronic idiopathic neutropenia of adults, which are heterogeneous hematopoietic disorders that cause predispositions to leukemias and infections. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HINFP Gene

histone H4 transcription factor

This gene encodes a transcription factor that interacts with methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MBD2), a component of the MeCP1 histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex, and plays a role in DNA methylation and transcription repression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

SP7 Gene

Sp7 transcription factor

This gene encodes a member of the Sp subfamily of Sp/XKLF transcription factors. Sp family proteins are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins characterized by an amino-terminal trans-activation domain and three carboxy-terminal zinc finger motifs. This protein is a bone specific transcription factor and is required for osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

TCEA1P4 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII), 1 pseudogene 4

TCEA1P1 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII), 1 pseudogene 1

TCEA1P3 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII), 1 pseudogene 3

MTERF2 Gene

mitochondrial transcription termination factor 2

MTERF3 Gene

mitochondrial transcription termination factor 3

MTERF1 Gene

mitochondrial transcription termination factor 1

This gene encodes a mitochondrial transcription termination factor. This protein participates in attenuating transcription from the mitochondrial genome; this attenuation allows higher levels of expression of 16S ribosomal RNA relative to the tRNA gene downstream. The product of this gene has three leucine zipper motifs bracketed by two basic domains that are all required for DNA binding. There is evidence that, for this protein, the zippers participate in intramolecular interactions that establish the three-dimensional structure required for DNA binding. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTERF4 Gene

mitochondrial transcription termination factor 4

LOC105376549 Gene

activating transcription factor 7-interacting protein 2 pseudogene

LZTFL1 Gene

leucine zipper transcription factor-like 1

This gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed protein that localizes to the cytoplasm. This protein interacts with Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) proteins and, through its interaction with BBS protein complexes, regulates protein trafficking to the ciliary membrane. Nonsense mutations in this gene cause a form of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome; a ciliopathy characterized in part by polydactyly, obesity, cognitive impairment, hypogonadism, and kidney failure. This gene may also function as a tumor suppressor; possibly by interacting with E-cadherin and the actin cytoskeleton and thereby regulating the transition of epithelial cells to mesenchymal cells. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

FLI1 Gene

Fli-1 proto-oncogene, ETS transcription factor

This gene encodes a transcription factor containing an ETS DNA-binding domain. The gene can undergo a t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation with the Ewing sarcoma gene on chromosome 22, which results in a fusion gene that is present in the majority of Ewing sarcoma cases. An acute lymphoblastic leukemia-associated t(4;11)(q21;q23) translocation involving this gene has also been identified. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

TCEB2P3 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 2 (18kDa, elongin B) pseudogene 3

TCEB2P2 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 2 (18kDa, elongin B) pseudogene 2

TCEB2P1 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 2 (18kDa, elongin B) pseudogene 1

TCEB2P4 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 2 (18kDa, elongin B) pseudogene 4

LOC100421664 Gene

Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related) pseudogene

TFB1M Gene

transcription factor B1, mitochondrial

The protein encoded by this gene is a dimethyltransferase that methylates the conserved stem loop of mitochondrial 12S rRNA. The encoded protein also is part of the basal mitochondrial transcription complex and is necessary for mitochondrial gene expression. The methylation and transcriptional activities of this protein are independent of one another. Variations in this gene may influence the severity of aminoglycoside-induced deafness (AID).[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

BATF Gene

basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like

The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear basic leucine zipper protein that belongs to the AP-1/ATF superfamily of transcription factors. The leucine zipper of this protein mediates dimerization with members of the Jun family of proteins. This protein is thought to be a negative regulator of AP-1/ATF transcriptional events. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OLIG2 Gene

oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2

This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor which is expressed in oligodendroglial tumors of the brain. The protein is an essential regulator of ventral neuroectodermal progenitor cell fate. The gene is involved in a chromosomal translocation t(14;21)(q11.2;q22) associated with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Its chromosomal location is within a region of chromosome 21 which has been suggested to play a role in learning deficits associated with Down syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OLIG3 Gene

oligodendrocyte transcription factor 3

OLIG1 Gene

oligodendrocyte transcription factor 1

LOC101930171 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

LOC101060206 Gene

transcription termination factor 1, mitochondrial-like

USF2 Gene

upstream transcription factor 2, c-fos interacting

This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and can function as a cellular transcription factor. The encoded protein can activate transcription through pyrimidine-rich initiator (Inr) elements and E-box motifs. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USF1 Gene

upstream transcription factor 1

This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and can function as a cellular transcription factor. The encoded protein can activate transcription through pyrimidine-rich initiator (Inr) elements and E-box motifs. This gene has been linked to familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been defined on chromosome 21. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

HSFY4P Gene

heat shock transcription factor, Y-linked 4, pseudogene

LOC100420794 Gene

RE1-silencing transcription factor pseudogene

LOC105369255 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

HES3 Gene

hes family bHLH transcription factor 3

HES4 Gene

hes family bHLH transcription factor 4

HES5 Gene

hes family bHLH transcription factor 5

This gene encodes a member of a family of basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressors. The protein product of this gene, which is activated downstream of the Notch pathway, regulates cell differentiation in multiple tissues. Disruptions in the normal expression of this gene have been associated with developmental diseases and cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

HES6 Gene

hes family bHLH transcription factor 6

This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix transcription repressors that have homology to the Drosophila enhancer of split genes. Members of this gene family regulate cell differentiation in numerous cell types. The protein encoded by this gene functions as a cofactor, interacting with other transcription factors through a tetrapeptide domain in its C-terminus. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

HES7 Gene

hes family bHLH transcription factor 7

This gene encodes a member of the hairy and enhancer of split family of bHLH transcription factors. The mouse ortholog of this gene is regulated by Notch signaling. The protein functions as a transcriptional repressor, and is implicated in correct patterning of the axial skeleton. A mutation in this gene has been shown to result in spondylocostal dysostosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

MITF Gene

microphthalmia-associated transcription factor

This gene encodes a transcription factor that contains both basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper structural features. It regulates the differentiation and development of melanocytes retinal pigment epithelium and is also responsible for pigment cell-specific transcription of the melanogenesis enzyme genes. Heterozygous mutations in the this gene cause auditory-pigmentary syndromes, such as Waardenburg syndrome type 2 and Tietz syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC442155 Gene

transcription factor B2, mitochondrial pseudogene

DACH1 Gene

dachshund family transcription factor 1

This gene encodes a chromatin-associated protein that associates with other DNA-binding transcription factors to regulate gene expression and cell fate determination during development. The protein contains a Ski domain that is highly conserved from Drosophila to human. Expression of this gene is lost in some forms of metastatic cancer, and is correlated with poor prognosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

DACH2 Gene

dachshund family transcription factor 2

This gene is one of two genes which encode a protein similar to the Drosophila protein dachshund, a transcription factor involved in cell fate determination in the eye, limb and genital disc of the fly. The encoded protein contains two characteristic dachshund domains: an N-terminal domain responsible for DNA binding and a C-terminal domain responsible for protein-protein interactions. This gene is located on the X chromosome and is subject to inactivation by DNA methylation. The encoded protein may be involved in regulation of organogenesis and myogenesis, and may play a role in premature ovarian failure. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

LOC100288365 Gene

activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2 pseudogene

LOC102724563 Gene

transcription factor E2F6 pseudogene

E2F7 Gene

E2F transcription factor 7

E2F transcription factors, such as E2F7, play an essential role in the regulation of cell cycle progression (Di Stefano et al., 2003 [PubMed 14633988]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2008]

E4F1 Gene

E4F transcription factor 1

The zinc finger protein encoded by this gene is one of several cellular transcription factors whose DNA-binding activities are regulated through the action of adenovirus E1A. A 50-kDa amino-terminal product is generated from the full-length protein through proteolytic cleavage. The protein is differentially regulated by E1A-induced phosphorylation. The full-length gene product represses transcription from the E4 promoter in the absence of E1A, while the 50-kDa form acts as a transcriptional activator in its presence. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcripts encoding different proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

HSFY1P1 Gene

heat shock transcription factor, Y-linked 1 pseudogene 1

RRN3 Gene

RRN3 RNA polymerase I transcription factor homolog (S. cerevisiae)

LOC102725069 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

LOC102725060 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

LOC342784 Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 1, 62kDa pseudogene

LOC644563 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 6, alpha 35kDa pseudogene

BTAF1 Gene

BTAF1 RNA polymerase II, B-TFIID transcription factor-associated, 170kDa

This gene encodes a TAF (TATA box-binding protein-associated factor), which associates with TBP (TATA box-binding protein) to form the B-TFIID complex that is required for transcription initiation of genes by RNA polymerase II. This TAF has DNA-dependent ATPase activity, which drives the dissociation of TBP from DNA, freeing the TBP to associate with other TATA boxes or TATA-less promoters. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

TCEB3CL2 Gene

transcription elongation factor B polypeptide 3C-like 2

MYT1L Gene

myelin transcription factor 1-like

LOC100128007 Gene

Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related) pseudogene

TCEB3C Gene

transcription elongation factor B polypeptide 3C (elongin A3)

The SIII (or elongin) transcription elongation factor complex stimulates the rate of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II by suppressing the transient pausing of the polymerase at many sites along the DNA template. This complex is a heterotrimer, composed of the transcriptionally active subunit A, A2 or A3 (or elongin A, A2 or A3) and two regulatory subunits, B and C (or elongin B and C). This gene encodes subunit A3. A3 and A are ubiquitously expressed, whereas A2 is specifically expressed in the testis. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

E2F6 Gene

E2F transcription factor 6

This gene encodes a member of a family of transcription factors that play a crucial role in the control of the cell cycle. The protein encoded by this gene lacks the transactivation and tumor suppressor protein association domains found in other family members, and contains a modular suppression domain that functions in the inhibition of transcription. It interacts in a complex with chromatin modifying factors. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 22 and X. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

E2F3 Gene

E2F transcription factor 3

This gene encodes a member of a small family of transcription factors that function through binding of DP interaction partner proteins. The encoded protein recognizes a specific sequence motif in DNA and interacts directly with the retinoblastoma protein (pRB) to regulate the expression of genes involved in the cell cycle. Altered copy number and activity of this gene have been observed in a number of human cancers. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 2 and 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

E2F2 Gene

E2F transcription factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein and another 2 members, E2F1 and E2F3, have an additional cyclin binding domain. This protein binds specifically to retinoblastoma protein pRB in a cell-cycle dependent manner, and it exhibits overall 46% amino acid identity to E2F1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

E2F1 Gene

E2F transcription factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein and another 2 members, E2F2 and E2F3, have an additional cyclin binding domain. This protein binds preferentially to retinoblastoma protein pRB in a cell-cycle dependent manner. It can mediate both cell proliferation and p53-dependent/independent apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

E2F8 Gene

E2F transcription factor 8

This gene encodes a member of a family of transcription factors which regulate the expression of genes required for progression through the cell cycle. The encoded protein regulates progression from G1 to S phase by ensuring the nucleus divides at the proper time. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

GTF3C3 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 3, 102kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is part of the TFIIIC2 complex, which binds to the promoters of small nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA genes in order to recruit RNA polymerase III. The TFIIIC2 complex is composed of six subunits. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GTF3C2 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 2, beta 110kDa

BTF3L4P3 Gene

basic transcription factor 3-like 4 pseudogene 3

BTF3L4P1 Gene

basic transcription factor 3-like 4 pseudogene 1

BTF3L4P2 Gene

basic transcription factor 3-like 4 pseudogene 2

BTF3L4P4 Gene

basic transcription factor 3-like 4 pseudogene 4

SALL1P1 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 1 pseudogene 1

NFYAP1 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, alpha pseudogene 1

SALL4P4 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4 pseudogene 4

LOC101929870 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

TCEB1P12 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 12

TCEB1P11 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 11

TCEB1P17 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 17

SIM2 Gene

single-minded family bHLH transcription factor 2

This gene represents a homolog of the Drosophila single-minded (sim) gene, which encodes a transcription factor that is a master regulator of neurogenesis. The encoded protein is ubiquitinated by RING-IBR-RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases, including the parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase. This gene maps within the so-called Down syndrome chromosomal region, and is thus thought to contribute to some specific Down syndrome phenotypes. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

TFEC Gene

transcription factor EC

This gene encodes a member of the micropthalmia (MiT) family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors. MiT transcription factors regulate the expression of target genes by binding to E-box recognition sequences as homo- or heterodimers, and play roles in multiple cellular processes including survival, growth and differentiation. The encoded protein is a transcriptional activator of the nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain-A gene, and may also co-regulate target genes in osteoclasts as a heterodimer with micropthalmia-associated transcription factor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

TFEB Gene

transcription factor EB

CREBZF Gene

CREB/ATF bZIP transcription factor

RUNX2 Gene

runt-related transcription factor 2

This gene is a member of the RUNX family of transcription factors and encodes a nuclear protein with an Runt DNA-binding domain. This protein is essential for osteoblastic differentiation and skeletal morphogenesis and acts as a scaffold for nucleic acids and regulatory factors involved in skeletal gene expression. The protein can bind DNA both as a monomer or, with more affinity, as a subunit of a heterodimeric complex. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the bone development disorder cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD). Transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms result from the use of alternate promoters as well as alternate splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RUNX3 Gene

runt-related transcription factor 3

This gene encodes a member of the runt domain-containing family of transcription factors. A heterodimer of this protein and a beta subunit forms a complex that binds to the core DNA sequence 5'-PYGPYGGT-3' found in a number of enhancers and promoters, and can either activate or suppress transcription. It also interacts with other transcription factors. It functions as a tumor suppressor, and the gene is frequently deleted or transcriptionally silenced in cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RUNX1 Gene

runt-related transcription factor 1

Core binding factor (CBF) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that binds to the core element of many enhancers and promoters. The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit of CBF and is thought to be involved in the development of normal hematopoiesis. Chromosomal translocations involving this gene are well-documented and have been associated with several types of leukemia. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BDP1 Gene

B double prime 1, subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor IIIB

The product of this gene is a subunit of the TFIIIB transcription initiation complex, which recruits RNA polymerase III to target promoters in order to initiate transcription. The encoded protein localizes to concentrated aggregates in the nucleus, and is required for transcription from all three types of polymerase III promoters. It is phosphorylated by casein kinase II during mitosis, resulting in its release from chromatin and suppression of polymerase III transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATF7IP2 Gene

activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2

MYT1 Gene

myelin transcription factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of neural specific, zinc finger-containing DNA-binding proteins. The protein binds to the promoter regions of proteolipid proteins of the central nervous system and plays a role in the developing nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCF24 Gene

transcription factor 24

TCF25 Gene

transcription factor 25 (basic helix-loop-helix)

TCF25 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors that are important in embryonic development (Steen and Lindholm, 2008 [PubMed 18068114]).[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2008]

TCF20 Gene

transcription factor 20 (AR1)

This gene encodes a transcription factor that recognizes the platelet-derived growth factor-responsive element in the matrix metalloproteinase 3 promoter. The encoded protein is thought to be a transcriptional coactivator, enhancing the activity of transcription factors such as JUN and SP1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

TCF23 Gene

transcription factor 23

The gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family. Studies of the orthologous gene in mouse have shown the encoded protein does not bind DNA but may negatively regulate other basic helix-loop-helix factors via the formation of a functionally inactive heterodimeric complex. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

TCEAL4P1 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like 4 pseudogene 1

LOC100422334 Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 3, 34kDa pseudogene

LOC100128803 Gene

Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related) pseudogene

TCEB1P33 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 33

TCEB3 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 3 (110kDa, elongin A)

This gene encodes the protein elongin A, which is a subunit of the transcription factor B (SIII) complex. The SIII complex is composed of elongins A/A2, B and C. It activates elongation by RNA polymerase II by suppressing transient pausing of the polymerase at many sites within transcription units. Elongin A functions as the transcriptionally active component of the SIII complex, whereas elongins B and C are regulatory subunits. Elongin A2 is specifically expressed in the testis, and capable of forming a stable complex with elongins B and C. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein binds to elongins B and C, and thereby inhibits transcription elongation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCEB2 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 2 (18kDa, elongin B)

This gene encodes the protein elongin B, which is a subunit of the transcription factor B (SIII) complex. The SIII complex is composed of elongins A/A2, B and C. It activates elongation by RNA polymerase II by suppressing transient pausing of the polymerase at many sites within transcription units. Elongin A functions as the transcriptionally active component of the SIII complex, whereas elongins B and C are regulatory subunits. Elongin A2 is specifically expressed in the testis, and capable of forming a stable complex with elongins B and C. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein binds to elongins B and C, and thereby inhibits transcription elongation. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 11 and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

TCEB1 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 (15kDa, elongin C)

This gene encodes the protein elongin C, which is a subunit of the transcription factor B (SIII) complex. The SIII complex is composed of elongins A/A2, B and C. It activates elongation by RNA polymerase II by suppressing transient pausing of the polymerase at many sites within transcription units. Elongin A functions as the transcriptionally active component of the SIII complex, whereas elongins B and C are regulatory subunits. Elongin A2 is specifically expressed in the testis, and capable of forming a stable complex with elongins B and C. The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein binds to elongins B and C, and thereby inhibits transcription elongation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

LOC101930122 Gene

general transcription factor II-I-like

ATF4P2 Gene

activating transcription factor 4 pseudogene 2

ATF4P4 Gene

activating transcription factor 4 pseudogene 4

LOC100422580 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 3 (110kDa, elongin A) pseudogene

GTF2E1 Gene

general transcription factor IIE, polypeptide 1, alpha 56kDa

GTF2E2 Gene

general transcription factor IIE, polypeptide 2, beta 34kDa

ATF7IP Gene

activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein

ATF7IP is a multifunctional nuclear protein that associates with heterochromatin. It can act as a transcriptional coactivator or corepressor depending upon its binding partners (summary by Liu et al., 2009 [PubMed 19106100]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

PHTF2 Gene

putative homeodomain transcription factor 2

PHTF1 Gene

putative homeodomain transcription factor 1

BTF3P12 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 12

This locus represents a putative member of the BTF3 family of transcription factors. With no transcription yet documented, it is thought that this locus represents a pseudogene. [provided by RefSeq]

BTF3P15 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 15

BTF3P14 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 14

BTF3P16 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 16

SP3P Gene

Sp3 transcription factor pseudogene

LOC101927685 Gene

heat shock transcription factor, X-linked-like

LOC646745 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 6, alpha 35kDa pseudogene

USF1P1 Gene

upstream transcription factor 1 pseudogene 1

AATF Gene

apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor

The protein encoded by this gene was identified on the basis of its interaction with MAP3K12/DLK, a protein kinase known to be involved in the induction of cell apoptosis. This gene product contains a leucine zipper, which is a characteristic motif of transcription factors, and was shown to exhibit strong transactivation activity when fused to Gal4 DNA binding domain. Overexpression of this gene interfered with MAP3K12 induced apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100128345 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, gamma pseudogene

LOC644383 Gene

heat shock transcription factor 2 pseudogene

ATF4P3 Gene

activating transcription factor 4 pseudogene 3

ATF4P1 Gene

activating transcription factor 4 pseudogene 1

SALL4P2 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4 pseudogene 2

SALL4P6 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4 pseudogene 6

TCF3P1 Gene

transcription factor 3 pseudogene 1

GTF2B Gene

general transcription factor IIB

This gene encodes the general transcription factor IIB, one of the ubiquitous factors required for transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II. The protein localizes to the nucleus where it forms a complex (the DAB complex) with transcription factors IID and IIA. Transcription factor IIB serves as a bridge between IID, the factor which initially recognizes the promoter sequence, and RNA polymerase II. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GTF2I Gene

general transcription factor IIi

This gene encodes a phosphoprotein containing six characteristic repeat motifs. The encoded protein binds to the initiator element (Inr) and E-box element in promoters and functions as a regulator of transcription. This locus, along with several other neighboring genes, is deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome. There are many closely related genes and pseudogenes for this gene on chromosome 7. This gene also has pseudogenes on chromosomes 9, 13, and 21. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

UTF1 Gene

undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1

BATF3 Gene

basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like 3

This gene encodes a member of the basic leucine zipper protein family. The encoded protein functions as a transcriptional repressor when heterodimerizing with JUN. The protein may play a role in repression of interleukin-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 transcription.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

AKNA Gene

AT-hook transcription factor

TCEB1P2 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 2

TCEB1P3 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 3

TCEB1P4 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 4

TCEB1P5 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 5

TCEB1P6 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 6

TCEB1P7 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 7

TCEB1P8 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 8

TCEB1P9 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 9

HEYL Gene

hes-related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif-like

This gene encodes a member of the hairy and enhancer of split-related (HESR) family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factors. The sequence of the encoded protein contains a conserved bHLH and orange domain, but its YRPW motif has diverged from other HESR family members. It is thought to be an effector of Notch signaling and a regulator of cell fate decisions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HEY2 Gene

hes-related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 2

This gene encodes a member of the hairy and enhancer of split-related (HESR) family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factors. The encoded protein forms homo- or hetero-dimers that localize to the nucleus and interact with a histone deacetylase complex to repress transcription. Expression of this gene is induced by the Notch signal transduction pathway. Two similar and redundant genes in mouse are required for embryonic cardiovascular development, and are also implicated in neurogenesis and somitogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HEY1 Gene

hes-related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 1

This gene encodes a nuclear protein belonging to the hairy and enhancer of split-related (HESR) family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcriptional repressors. Expression of this gene is induced by the Notch and c-Jun signal transduction pathways. Two similar and redundant genes in mouse are required for embryonic cardiovascular development, and are also implicated in neurogenesis and somitogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTF1 Gene

metal-regulatory transcription factor 1

This gene encodes a transcription factor that induces expression of metallothioneins and other genes involved in metal homeostasis in response to heavy metals such as cadmium, zinc, copper, and silver. The protein is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein that accumulates in the nucleus upon heavy metal exposure and binds to promoters containing a metal-responsive element (MRE). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100130114 Gene

Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related) pseudogene

CARF Gene

calcium responsive transcription factor

SPIB Gene

Spi-B transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator that binds to the PU-box (5'-GAGGAA-3') and acts as a lymphoid-specific enhancer. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

SPIC Gene

Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related)

SIM1 Gene

single-minded family bHLH transcription factor 1

SIM1 and SIM2 genes are Drosophila single-minded (sim) gene homologs. SIM1 transcript was detected only in fetal kidney out of various adult and fetal tissues tested. Since the sim gene plays an important role in Drosophila development and has peak levels of expression during the period of neurogenesis,it was proposed that the human SIM gene is a candidate for involvement in certain dysmorphic features (particularly the facial and skull characteristics), abnormalities of brain development, and/or mental retardation of Down syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100419912 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4 pseudogene

TCEAL8P1 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII)-like 8 pseudogene 1

STAT3 Gene

signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. This protein is activated through phosphorylation in response to various cytokines and growth factors including IFNs, EGF, IL5, IL6, HGF, LIF and BMP2. This protein mediates the expression of a variety of genes in response to cell stimuli, and thus plays a key role in many cellular processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. The small GTPase Rac1 has been shown to bind and regulate the activity of this protein. PIAS3 protein is a specific inhibitor of this protein. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC102725046 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

UFSP1 Gene

UFM1-specific peptidase 1 (non-functional)

This gene encodes a protein that is similar to other Ufm1-specific proteases. Studies in mouse determined that Ufsp1 releases Ufm1 (ubiquitin-fold modifier 1) from its bound conjugated complexes which also makes it into an active form. Because the human UFSP1 protein is shorter on the N-terminus and lacks a conserved Cys active site, it is predicted to be non-functional.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

UFSP2 Gene

UFM1-specific peptidase 2

Like ubiquitin (see MIM 191339), ubiquitin-fold modifier-1 (UFM1; MIM 610553) must be processed by a protease before it can conjugate with its target proteins. UFSP2 is a thiol protease that specifically processes the C terminus of UFM1 (Kang et al., 2007 [PubMed 17182609]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

TTTY25P Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 25, pseudogene

USP17L30 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 30

MSL3P1 Gene

male-specific lethal 3 homolog (Drosophila) pseudogene 1

MZB1 Gene

marginal zone B and B1 cell-specific protein

KDM1A Gene

lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1A

This gene encodes a nuclear protein containing a SWIRM domain, a FAD-binding motif, and an amine oxidase domain. This protein is a component of several histone deacetylase complexes, though it silences genes by functioning as a histone demethylase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

KDM1B Gene

lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1B

Flavin-dependent histone demethylases, such as KDM1B, regulate histone lysine methylation, an epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression and chromatin function (Karytinos et al., 2009 [PubMed 19407342]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

USP10P1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 10 pseudogene 1

USP10P2 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase10 pseudogene 2

TSPY8 Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 8

TSPY2 Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 2

TSPY1 Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 1

The protein encoded by this gene is found only in testicular tissue and may be involved in spermatogenesis. Approximately 35 copies of this gene are present in humans, but only a single, nonfunctional orthologous gene is found in mouse. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

LOC100420351 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

GAS2L1 Gene

growth arrest-specific 2 like 1

This gene encodes a member of the growth arrest-specific 2 protein family. This protein binds components of the cytoskeleton and may be involved in mediating interactions between microtubules and microfilaments. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GAS2L3 Gene

growth arrest-specific 2 like 3

GAS2L2 Gene

growth arrest-specific 2 like 2

The protein encoded by this gene appears to crosslink microtubules and microfilaments and may be part of the cytoskeleton. This gene is mainly expressed in skeletal muscle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

AOC2 Gene

amine oxidase, copper containing 2 (retina-specific)

Copper amine oxidases catalyze the oxidative conversion of amines to aldehydes and ammonia in the presence of copper and quinone cofactor. This gene shows high sequence similarity to copper amine oxidases from various species ranging from bacteria to mammals. The protein contains several conserved motifs including the active site of amine oxidases and the histidine residues that likely bind copper. It may be a critical modulator of signal transmission in retina, possibly by degrading the biogenic amines dopamine, histamine, and putrescine. This gene may be a candidate gene for hereditary ocular diseases. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP32P1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 32 pseudogene 1

USP32P2 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 32 pseudogene 2

USP32P4 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 32 pseudogene 4

LOC100420666 Gene

lysine (K)-specific demethylase 3A pseudogene

USP9X Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, X-linked

This gene is a member of the peptidase C19 family and encodes a protein that is similar to ubiquitin-specific proteases. Though this gene is located on the X chromosome, it escapes X-inactivation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Turner syndrome. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP9Y Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked

This gene is a member of the peptidase C19 family. It encodes a protein that is similar to ubiquitin-specific proteases, which cleave the ubiquitin moiety from ubiquitin-fused precursors and ubiquitinylated proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

USP9YP34 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 34

USP9YP30 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 30

SSRP1 Gene

structure specific recognition protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of a heterodimer that, along with SUPT16H, forms chromatin transcriptional elongation factor FACT. FACT interacts specifically with histones H2A/H2B to effect nucleosome disassembly and transcription elongation. FACT and cisplatin-damaged DNA may be crucial to the anticancer mechanism of cisplatin. This encoded protein contains a high mobility group box which most likely constitutes the structure recognition element for cisplatin-modified DNA. This protein also functions as a co-activator of the transcriptional activator p63. An alternatively spliced transcript variant of this gene has been described, but its full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CALY Gene

calcyon neuron-specific vesicular protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II single transmembrane protein. It is required for maximal stimulated calcium release after stimulation of purinergic or muscarinic but not beta-adrenergic receptors. The encoded protein interacts with D1 dopamine receptor and may interact with other DA receptor subtypes and/or GPCRs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP17L3 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 3

PSG8 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 8

The human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are a group of molecules that are mainly produced by the placental syncytiotrophoblasts during pregnancy. PSGs comprise a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. For additional general information about the PSG gene family, see PSG1 (MIM 176390).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

PSG9 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) family. This protein family and the closely related carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) gene family are both members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and are organized as a large gene cluster. This protein is thought to inhibit platelet-fibrinogen interactions. Several studies suggest that reduced serum concentrations of PSGs are associated with fetal growth restrictions, while up-regulation of this gene has been observed in colorectal cancers. Several pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosome 19. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode multiple protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

PSG6 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 6

This gene is a member of the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) gene family. The PSG genes are a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family of immunoglobulin-like genes, and are found in a gene cluster at 19q13.1-q13.2 telomeric to another cluster of CEA-related genes. The PSG genes are expressed by placental trophoblasts and released into the maternal circulation during pregnancy, and are thought to be essential for maintenance of normal pregnancy. The protein encoded by this gene contains the Arg-Gly-Asp tripeptide associated with cellular adhesion and recognition. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSG7 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 7 (gene/pseudogene)

This gene is a member of the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) gene family. The PSG genes are a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family of immunoglobulin-like genes, and are found in a gene cluster at 19q13.1-q13.2 telomeric to another cluster of CEA-related genes. The PSG genes are expressed by placental trophoblasts and released into the maternal circulation during pregnancy, and are thought to be essential for maintenance of normal pregnancy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PSG4 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 4

The human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are a family of proteins that are synthesized in large amounts by placental trophoblasts and released into the maternal circulation during pregnancy. Molecular cloning and analysis of several PSG genes has indicated that the PSGs form a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily of genes. Members of the CEA family consist of a single N domain, with structural similarity to the immunoglobulin variable domains, followed by a variable number of immunoglobulin constant-like A and/or B domains. Most PSGs have an arg-gly-asp (RGD) motif, which has been shown to function as an adhesion recognition signal for several integrins, in the N-terminal domain (summary by Teglund et al., 1994 [PubMed 7851896]). For additional general information about the PSG gene family, see PSG1 (MIM 176390).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

PSG5 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 5

The human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are a group of molecules that are mainly produced by the placental syncytiotrophoblasts during pregnancy. PSGs comprise a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. For additional general information about the PSG gene family, see PSG1 (MIM 176390).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

PSG2 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 2

The human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are a family of proteins that are synthesized in large amounts by placental trophoblasts and released into the maternal circulation during pregnancy. Molecular cloning and analysis of several PSG genes has indicated that the PSGs form a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily of genes. Members of the CEA family consist of a single N domain, with structural similarity to the immunoglobulin variable domains, followed by a variable number of immunoglobulin constant-like A and/or B domains. Most PSGs have an arg-gly-asp (RGD) motif, which has been shown to function as an adhesion recognition signal for several integrins, in the N-terminal domain (summary by Teglund et al., 1994 [PubMed 7851896]). For additional general information about the PSG gene family, see PSG1 (MIM 176390).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

PSG3 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 3

The human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are a family of proteins that are synthesized in large amounts by placental trophoblasts and released into the maternal circulation during pregnancy. Molecular cloning and analysis of several PSG genes has indicated that the PSGs form a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily of genes. Members of the CEA family consist of a single N domain, with structural similarity to the immunoglobulin variable domains, followed by a variable number of immunoglobulin constant-like A and/or B domains. Most PSGs have an arg-gly-asp (RGD) motif, which has been shown to function as an adhesion recognition signal for several integrins, in the N-terminal domain (summary by Teglund et al., 1994 [PubMed 7851896]). For additional general information about the PSG gene family, see PSG1 (MIM 176390).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

PSG1 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 1

The human placenta is a multihormonal endocrine organ that produces hormones, enzymes, and other molecules that support fetal survival and development. Pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (PSBG, PSG) is a major product of the syncytiotrophoblast, reaching concentrations of 100 to 290 mg/l at term in the serum of pregnant women (Horne et al., 1976 [PubMed 971765]). PSG is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily (Watanabe and Chou, 1988 [PubMed 3257488]; Streydio et al., 1988 [PubMed 3260773]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

TSPY18P Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 18, pseudogene

NPSA Gene

novel prostate-specific antigen

TSPY23P Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 23, pseudogene

PLAC1 Gene

placenta-specific 1

PLAC4 Gene

placenta-specific 4

PLAC9 Gene

placenta-specific 9

PLAC8 Gene

placenta-specific 8

USP12 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 12

USP10 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 10

Ubiquitin is a highly conserved protein that is covalently linked to other proteins to regulate their function and degradation. This gene encodes a member of the ubiquitin-specific protease family of cysteine proteases. The enzyme specifically cleaves ubiquitin from ubiquitin-conjugated protein substrates. The protein is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm. It functions as a co-factor of the DNA-bound androgen receptor complex, and is inhibited by a protein in the Ras-GTPase pathway. The human genome contains several pseudogenes similar to this gene. Several transcript variants, some protein-coding and others not protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

USP11 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 11

Protein ubiquitination controls many intracellular processes, including cell cycle progression, transcriptional activation, and signal transduction. This dynamic process, involving ubiquitin conjugating enzymes and deubiquitinating enzymes, adds and removes ubiquitin. Deubiquitinating enzymes are cysteine proteases that specifically cleave ubiquitin from ubiquitin-conjugated protein substrates. This gene encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme which lies in a gene cluster on chromosome Xp11.23 [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP16 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 16

This gene encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme that is phosphorylated at the onset of mitosis and then dephosphorylated at the metaphase/anaphase transition. It can deubiquitinate H2A, one of two major ubiquitinated proteins of chromatin, in vitro and a mutant form of the protein was shown to block cell division. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP14 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 14 (tRNA-guanine transglycosylase)

This gene encodes a member of the ubiquitin-specific processing (UBP) family of proteases that is a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) with His and Cys domains. This protein is located in the cytoplasm and cleaves the ubiquitin moiety from ubiquitin-fused precursors and ubiquitinylated proteins. Mice with a mutation that results in reduced expression of the ortholog of this protein are retarded for growth, develop severe tremors by 2 to 3 weeks of age followed by hindlimb paralysis and death by 6 to 10 weeks of age. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP15 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 15

This gene encodes a member of the ubiquitin specific protease (USP) family of deubiquitinating enzymes. USP enzymes play critical roles in ubiquitin-dependent processes through polyubiquitin chain disassembly and hydrolysis of ubiquitin-substrate bonds. The encoded protein associates with the COP9 signalosome, and also plays a role in transforming growth factor beta signalling through deubiquitination of receptor-activated SMAD transcription factors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

USP18 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 18

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ubiquitin-specific proteases (UBP) family of enzymes that cleave ubiquitin from ubiquitinated protein substrates. It is highly expressed in liver and thymus, and is localized to the nucleus. This protein efficiently cleaves only ISG15 (a ubiquitin-like protein) fusions, and deletion of this gene in mice results in a massive increase of ISG15 conjugates in tissues, indicating that this protein is a major ISG15-specific protease. Mice lacking this gene are also hypersensitive to interferon, suggesting a function of this protein in downregulating interferon responses, independent of its isopeptidase activity towards ISG15. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

USP19 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 19

DEFA6 Gene

defensin, alpha 6, Paneth cell-specific

Defensins are a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides thought to be involved in host defense. They are abundant in the granules of neutrophils and also found in the epithelia of mucosal surfaces such as those of the intestine, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and vagina. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence and distinguished by a conserved cysteine motif. Several alpha defensin genes appear to be clustered on chromosome 8. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, alpha 6, is highly expressed in the secretory granules of Paneth cells of the small intestine, and likely plays a role in host defense of human bowel. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFA5 Gene

defensin, alpha 5, Paneth cell-specific

Defensins are a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides thought to be involved in host defense. They are abundant in the granules of neutrophils and also found in the epithelia of mucosal surfaces such as those of the intestine, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and vagina. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence and distinguished by a conserved cysteine motif. Several of the alpha defensin genes appear to be clustered on chromosome 8. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, alpha 5, is highly expressed in the secretory granules of Paneth cells of the ileum. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFA3 Gene

defensin, alpha 3, neutrophil-specific

Defensins are a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides thought to be involved in host defense. They are abundant in the granules of neutrophils and also found in the epithelia of mucosal surfaces such as those of the intestine, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and vagina. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence and distinguished by a conserved cysteine motif. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, alpha 3, is found in the microbicidal granules of neutrophils and likely plays a role in phagocyte-mediated host defense. Several alpha defensin genes are clustered on chromosome 8. This gene differs from defensin, alpha 1 by only one amino acid. This gene and the gene encoding defensin, alpha 1 are both subject to copy number variation. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

AGER Gene

advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor

The advanced glycosylation end product (AGE) receptor encoded by this gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface receptors. It is a multiligand receptor, and besides AGE, interacts with other molecules implicated in homeostasis, development, and inflammation, and certain diseases, such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms, as well as non-protein-coding variants, have been described for this gene (PMID:18089847). [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PLD1 Gene

phospholipase D1, phosphatidylcholine-specific

This gene encodes a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase which catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine in order to yield phosphatidic acid and choline. The enzyme may play a role in signal transduction and subcellular trafficking. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants with both catalytic and regulatory properties. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

HOTAIRM1 Gene

HOXA transcript antisense RNA, myeloid-specific 1

This non-coding locus is located in the HOX gene cluster. Transcription of this locus is induced by retinoic acid, and transcripts likely function in regulation of myelopoiesis through transcriptional activation of several genes in the HOXA cluster, in addition to several beta-2 integrins. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

TTTY13B Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 13B

TSPY4 Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 4

TSPY3 Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 3

TTTY28P Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 28, pseudogene

USP35 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 35

USP36 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 36

Modification of cellular proteins by ubiquitin is an essential regulatory mechanism controlled by the coordinated action of multiple ubiquitin-conjugating and deubiquitinating enzymes. USP36 belongs to a large family of cysteine proteases that function as deubiquitinating enzymes (Quesada et al., 2004 [PubMed 14715245]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2009]

KDM2A Gene

lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2A

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbls class and, in addition to an F-box, contains at least six highly degenerated leucine-rich repeats. This family member plays a role in epigenetic silencing. It nucleates at CpG islands and specifically demethylates both mono- and di-methylated lysine-36 of histone H3. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

KDM2B Gene

lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2B

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbls class. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TSPY17P Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 17, pseudogene

USP8P1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene 1

LOC100421094 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 2 pseudogene

LSP1P1 Gene

lymphocyte-specific protein 1 pseudogene 1

LSP1P2 Gene

lymphocyte-specific protein 1 pseudogene 2

AIS3 Gene

autoimmune susceptibility 3 (vitiligo specific)

SNCG Gene

synuclein, gamma (breast cancer-specific protein 1)

This gene encodes a member of the synuclein family of proteins which are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mutations in this gene have also been associated with breast tumor development. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

ADARB2 Gene

adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B2 (non-functional)

This gene encodes a member of the double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase family of RNA-editing enzymes and may play a regulatory role in RNA editing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADARB1 Gene

adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B1

This gene encodes the enzyme responsible for pre-mRNA editing of the glutamate receptor subunit B by site-specific deamination of adenosines. Studies in rat found that this enzyme acted on its own pre-mRNA molecules to convert an AA dinucleotide to an AI dinucleotide which resulted in a new splice site. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants, some of which have been characterized by the presence or absence of an ALU cassette insert and a short or long C-terminal region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105369236 Gene

structure-specific endonuclease subunit SLX1-like

LOC100129053 Gene

lysine (K)-specific demethylase 4E pseudogene

HCLS1 Gene

hematopoietic cell-specific Lyn substrate 1

MESTP4 Gene

mesoderm specific transcript pseudogene 4

MESTP1 Gene

mesoderm specific transcript pseudogene 1

MESTP3 Gene

mesoderm specific transcript pseudogene 3

MESTP2 Gene

mesoderm specific transcript pseudogene 2

XIST Gene

X inactive specific transcript (non-protein coding)

X inactivation is an early developmental process in mammalian females that transcriptionally silences one of the pair of X chromosomes, thus providing dosage equivalence between males and females. The process is regulated by several factors, including a region of chromosome X called the X inactivation center (XIC). The XIC comprises several non-coding and protein-coding genes, and this gene was the first non-coding gene identified within the XIC. This gene is expressed exclusively from the XIC of the inactive X chromosome, and is essential for the initiation and spread of X-inactivation. The transcript is a spliced RNA. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, but their full length sequences have not been determined. Mutations in the XIST promoter cause familial skewed X inactivation. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

KDM8 Gene

lysine (K)-specific demethylase 8

This gene likely encodes a histone lysine demethylase. Studies of a similar protein in mouse indicate a potential role for this protein as a tumor suppressor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

USP17L21 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 21

TSPY20P Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 20, pseudogene

TTTY3B Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 3B (non-protein coding)

There are two copies of this gene within the P1 palindrome on chromosome Y. This record represents the more centromeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KDM4E Gene

lysine (K)-specific demethylase 4E

KDM4D Gene

lysine (K)-specific demethylase 4D

USP9YP3 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 3

USP9YP5 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 5

USP9YP4 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 4

FEN1 Gene

flap structure-specific endonuclease 1

The protein encoded by this gene removes 5' overhanging flaps in DNA repair and processes the 5' ends of Okazaki fragments in lagging strand DNA synthesis. Direct physical interaction between this protein and AP endonuclease 1 during long-patch base excision repair provides coordinated loading of the proteins onto the substrate, thus passing the substrate from one enzyme to another. The protein is a member of the XPG/RAD2 endonuclease family and is one of ten proteins essential for cell-free DNA replication. DNA secondary structure can inhibit flap processing at certain trinucleotide repeats in a length-dependent manner by concealing the 5' end of the flap that is necessary for both binding and cleavage by the protein encoded by this gene. Therefore, secondary structure can deter the protective function of this protein, leading to site-specific trinucleotide expansions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP9YP1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 1

USP9YP2 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 2

TTTY17A Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 17A (non-protein coding)

There are three copies of this gene on chromosome Y. This record represents the most centromeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TTTY17B Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 17B (non-protein coding)

There are three copies of this gene on chromosome Y. This record represents the middle copy, which is within the P1 palindrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TTTY17C Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 17C (non-protein coding)

There are three copies of this gene on chromosome Y. This record represents the most telomeric copy, which is within the P1 palindrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EME1 Gene

essential meiotic structure-specific endonuclease 1

This gene encodes a protein that complexes with methyl methanesulfonate-sensitive UV-sensitive 81 protein to form an endonuclease complex. The encoded protein interacts with specifc DNA structures including nicked Holliday junctions, 3'-flap structures and aberrant replication fork structures. This protein may be involved in repairing DNA damage and in maintaining genomic stability. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

EME2 Gene

essential meiotic structure-specific endonuclease subunit 2

EME2 forms a heterodimer with MUS81 (MIM 606591) that functions as an XPF (MIM 278760)-type flap/fork endonuclease in DNA repair (Ciccia et al., 2007 [PubMed 17289582]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MPLKIP Gene

M-phase specific PLK1 interacting protein

The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the centrosome during mitosis and to the midbody during cytokinesis. The protein is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 during mitosis and subsequently interacts with polo-like kinase 1. The protein is thought to function in regulating mitosis and cytokinesis. Mutations in this gene result in nonphotosensitive trichothiodystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

AQP6 Gene

aquaporin 6, kidney specific

The protein encoded by this gene is an aquaporin protein, which functions as a water channel in cells. Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major intrinsic protein (MIP or AQP0). This protein is specific for the kidney. This gene and related family members AQP0, AQP2, and AQP5 reside in a cluster on chromosome 12q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RESP18 Gene

regulated endocrine-specific protein 18

SLI4 Gene

Specific language impairment 4

SLI2 Gene

Specific language impairment QTL, 2

SLI3 Gene

Specific language impairment QTL, 3

SLI1 Gene

Specific language impairment QTL, 1

TSPY12P Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 12, pseudogene

PLCG2 Gene

phospholipase C, gamma 2 (phosphatidylinositol-specific)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane signaling enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate to 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) using calcium as a cofactor. IP3 and DAG are second messenger molecules important for transmitting signals from growth factor receptors and immune system receptors across the cell membrane. Mutations in this gene have been found in autoinflammation, antibody deficiency, and immune dysregulation syndrome and familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

KDM7A Gene

lysine (K)-specific demethylase 7A

USP17L28 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 28

USP17L22 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 22

USP17L23 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 23

USP17L20 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 20

CST8 Gene

cystatin 8 (cystatin-related epididymal specific)

The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the kininogens. The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes a protein similar to type 2 cystatins. The encoded protein exhibits highly tissue-specific expression in the reproductive tract, suggesting implicit roles in reproduction. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

LOC100421737 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 4 (proto-oncogene) pseudogene

LOC100420435 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 21 pseudogene

MUS81 Gene

MUS81 structure-specific endonuclease subunit

LOC101930132 Gene

pollen-specific leucine-rich repeat extensin-like protein 1

BRDT Gene

bromodomain, testis-specific

BRDT is similar to the RING3 protein family. It possesses 2 bromodomain motifs and a PEST sequence (a cluster of proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine residues), characteristic of proteins that undergo rapid intracellular degradation. The bromodomain is found in proteins that regulate transcription. Several transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

TTTY23B Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 23B (non-protein coding)

H1FNT Gene

H1 histone family, member N, testis-specific

PCGEM1 Gene

PCGEM1, prostate-specific transcript (non-protein coding)

ENDOU Gene

endonuclease, polyU-specific

This gene encodes a protein with protease activity and is expressed in the placenta. The protein may be useful as a tumor marker. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

MSL2 Gene

male-specific lethal 2 homolog (Drosophila)

LOC345576 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 7 (herpes virus-associated) pseudogene

TTTY6B Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 6B (non-protein coding)

There are two copies of this locus in the P3 palindrome on chromosome Y. This record represents the more centromeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FIGLA Gene

folliculogenesis specific basic helix-loop-helix

This gene encodes a protein that functions in postnatal oocyte-specific gene expression. The protein is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that regulates multiple oocyte-specific genes, including genes involved in folliculogenesis and those that encode the zona pellucida. Mutations in this gene cause premature ovarian failure type 6. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

SSFA2 Gene

sperm specific antigen 2

PRNT Gene

prion protein (testis specific)

TOPAZ1 Gene

testis and ovary specific PAZ domain containing 1

USP9YP11 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 11

USP9YP10 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 10

USP9YP13 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 13

USP9YP12 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 12

LOC100420440 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 12 pseudogene

ECM2 Gene

extracellular matrix protein 2, female organ and adipocyte specific

ECM2 encodes extracellular matrix protein 2, so named because it shares extensive similarity with known extracelluar matrix proteins. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

SCARNA27 Gene

small Cajal body-specific RNA 27

SCARNA22 Gene

small Cajal body-specific RNA 22

SCARNA23 Gene

small Cajal body-specific RNA 23

SCARNA20 Gene

small Cajal body-specific RNA 20

SCARNA21 Gene

small Cajal body-specific RNA 21

LOC100420428 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 21 pseudogene

USP22 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 22

PARN Gene

poly(A)-specific ribonuclease

The protein encoded by this gene is a 3'-exoribonuclease, with similarity to the RNase D family of 3'-exonucleases. It prefers poly(A) as the substrate, hence, efficiently degrades poly(A) tails of mRNAs. Exonucleolytic degradation of the poly(A) tail is often the first step in the decay of eukaryotic mRNAs. This protein is also involved in silencing of certain maternal mRNAs during oocyte maturation and early embryonic development, as well as in nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) of mRNAs that contain premature stop codons. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

TSPY25P Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 25, pseudogene

LST1 Gene

leukocyte specific transcript 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane protein that can inhibit the proliferation of lymphocytes. Expression of this gene is enhanced by lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma, and bacteria. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

USP17L2 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 2

DUB3 is a member of the ubiquitin processing protease (UBP) subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes. See USP1 (MIM 603478) for background information.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

USP17L1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 1

USP17L7 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 7

USP17L5 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 5

USP17L4 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 4

USP17L8 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 8

FUT4 Gene

fucosyltransferase 4 (alpha (1,3) fucosyltransferase, myeloid-specific)

The product of this gene transfers fucose to N-acetyllactosamine polysaccharides to generate fucosylated carbohydrate structures. It catalyzes the synthesis of the non-sialylated antigen, Lewis x (CD15). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

PXT1 Gene

peroxisomal, testis specific 1

TSPY11P Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 11, pseudogene

LOC100533913 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

LOC100533914 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

USP38 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 38

USP39 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 39

USP30 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 30

USP30, a member of the ubiquitin-specific protease family (see USP1, MIM 603478), is a novel mitochondrial deubiquitinating (DUB) enzyme (Nakamura and Hirose, 2008 [PubMed 18287522]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2008]

USP31 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 31

USP32 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 32

USP33 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 33

This gene encodes a deubiquinating enzyme important in a variety of processes, including Slit-dependent cell migration and beta-2 adrenergic receptor signaling. The protein is negatively regulated through ubiquitination by von Hippel-Lindau tumor protein (VHL). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

USP34 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 34

USP37 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 37

LOC100288628 Gene

SUMO1/sentrin specific peptidase 6 pseudogene

SCARNA5 Gene

small Cajal body-specific RNA 5

SCARNA4 Gene

small Cajal body-specific RNA 4

SCARNA2 Gene

small Cajal body-specific RNA 2

TESK1 Gene

testis-specific kinase 1

This gene product is a serine/threonine protein kinase that contains an N-terminal protein kinase domain and a C-terminal proline-rich domain. Its protein kinase domain is most closely related to those of the LIM motif-containing protein kinases (LIMKs). The encoded protein can phosphorylate myelin basic protein and histone in vitro. The testicular germ cell-specific expression and developmental pattern of expression of the mouse gene suggests that this gene plays an important role at and after the meiotic phase of spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TESK2 Gene

testis-specific kinase 2

This gene product is a serine/threonine protein kinase that contains an N-terminal protein kinase domain that is structurally similar to the kinase domains of testis-specific protein kinase-1 and the LIM motif-containing protein kinases (LIMKs). Its overall structure is most related to the former, indicating that it belongs to the TESK subgroup of the LIMK/TESK family of protein kinases. This gene is predominantly expressed in testis and prostate. The developmental expression pattern of the rat gene in testis suggests an important role for this gene in meitoic stages and/or early stages of spermiogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PDE5A Gene

phosphodiesterase 5A, cGMP-specific

This gene encodes a cGMP-binding, cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase, a member of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family. This phosphodiesterase specifically hydrolyzes cGMP to 5'-GMP. It is involved in the regulation of intracellular concentrations of cyclic nucleotides and is important for smooth muscle relaxation in the cardiovascular system. Alternative splicing of this gene results in three transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GAS2L1P1 Gene

growth arrest-specific 2 like 1 pseudogene 1

LOC100421300 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 9 pseudogene

TTTY26P Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 26, pseudogene

USP17L29 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 29

USP17L26 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 26

USP17L27 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 27

USP17L24 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 24

USP17L25 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 25

TSKS Gene

testis-specific serine kinase substrate

This gene may play a role in testicular physiology, spermatogenesis or spermiogenesis. Expression of the encoded protein is highest in the testis and down-regulated in testicular cancer. The gene is localized to the region 19q13.3 among the related RAS viral oncogene homolog (RRAS) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) genes, which are both involved in tumorigenesis pathways and progression. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TTTY2 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 2 (non-protein coding)

TTTY3 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 3 (non-protein coding)

There are two copies of this gene within the P1 palindrome on chromosome Y. This record represents the more telomeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TTTY1 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 1 (non-protein coding)

TTTY6 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 6 (non-protein coding)

There are two copies of this locus in the P3 palindrome on chromosome Y. This record represents the more telomeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TTTY7 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 7 (non-protein coding)

TTTY4 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 4 (non-protein coding)

There are three copies of this gene on chromosome Y. This record represents the most centromeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TTTY5 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 5 (non-protein coding)

There is a single copy of this gene on chromosome Y at the center of the P3 palindrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TTTY8 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 8 (non-protein coding)

MSL3 Gene

male-specific lethal 3 homolog (Drosophila)

This gene encodes a nuclear protein that is similar to the product of the Drosophila male-specific lethal-3 gene. The Drosophila protein plays a critical role in a dosage-compensation pathway, which equalizes X-linked gene expression in males and females. Thus, the human protein is thought to play a similar function in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation, and it has been found as part of a complex that is responsible for histone H4 lysine-16 acetylation. This gene can undergo X inactivation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 2, 7 and 8. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

TSPY19P Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 19, pseudogene

PSG11 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 11

The human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are a group of molecules that are mainly produced by the placental syncytiotrophoblasts during pregnancy. PSGs comprise a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. For additional general information about the PSG gene family, see PSG1 (MIM 176390).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

XACT Gene

X active specific transcript (non-protein coding)

This gene produces a spliced long non-coding RNA that is thought to play a role in the control of X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). This transcript has been shown to specifically coat the active X chromosome in human pluripotent cells. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

LOC100533911 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

LOC100533912 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

LOC100533915 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

LOC100533916 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

SLX1A Gene

SLX1 structure-specific endonuclease subunit homolog A (S. cerevisiae)

This gene encodes a protein that is an important regulator of genome stability. The protein represents the catalytic subunit of the SLX1-SLX4 structure-specific endonuclease, which can resolve DNA secondary structures that are formed during repair and recombination processes. Two identical copies of this gene are located on the p arm of chromosome 16 due to a segmental duplication; this record represents the more centromeric copy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also occurs between this gene and the downstream SULT1A3 (sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 1A, phenol-preferring, member 3) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

SLX1B Gene

SLX1 structure-specific endonuclease subunit homolog B (S. cerevisiae)

This gene encodes a protein that is an important regulator of genome stability. The protein represents the catalytic subunit of the SLX1-SLX4 structure-specific endonuclease, which can resolve DNA secondary structures that are formed during repair and recombination processes. Two identical copies of this gene are located on the p arm of chromosome 16 due to a segmental duplication; this record represents the more telomeric copy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also occurs between this gene and the downstream SULT1A4 (sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 1A, phenol-preferring, member 4) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

ISX Gene

intestine-specific homeobox

Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This gene is a member of the RAXLX homeobox gene family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NSG1 Gene

neuron specific gene family member 1

MEST Gene

mesoderm specific transcript

This gene encodes a member of the alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily. It is imprinted, exhibiting preferential expression from the paternal allele in fetal tissues, and isoform-specific imprinting in lymphocytes. The loss of imprinting of this gene has been linked to certain types of cancer and may be due to promotor switching. The encoded protein may play a role in development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been identified for this gene. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on the short arm of chromosomes 3 and 4, and the long arm of chromosomes 6 and 15. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

USPL1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase like 1

LOC642487 Gene

H1 histone family, member O, oocyte-specific pseudogene

BRKS1 Gene

Telopeptide lysyl hydroxylase, bone-specific

MEIOB Gene

meiosis specific with OB domains

TSPY9P Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 9, pseudogene

USP9YP22 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 22

USP9YP23 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 23

LOC100887079 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 22 pseudogene

MSL1 Gene

male-specific lethal 1 homolog (Drosophila)

TSSK1A Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 1A pseudogene

TSSK1B Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 1B

TSSK1 belongs to a family of serine/threonine kinases highly expressed in testis (Hao et al., 2004 [PubMed 15044604]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

USP17L16P Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 16, pseudogene

TSPY10 Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 10

TSPY22P Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 22, pseudogene

TTTY14 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 14 (non-protein coding)

TTTY15 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 15 (non-protein coding)

TTTY16 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 16 (non-protein coding)

TTTY10 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 10 (non-protein coding)

TTTY11 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 11 (non-protein coding)

TTTY12 Gene

testis-specific transcript, Y-linked 12 (non-protein coding)