Name

GO Biological Process Annotations Dataset

From Gene Ontology

curated annotations of genes with biological processes

Hub Proteins Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Hub Proteins

sets of proteins interacting with hub proteins

NURSA Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

protein-protein interactions inferred from membership in complexes

Pathway Commons Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Pathway Commons

protein-protein interactions from low-throughput or high-throughput studies aggregated by Pathway Commons from the following databases: Reactome, NCI Pathways, PhosphoSite, HumanCyc, HPRD, PANTHER, DIP, BioGRID, IntAct, BIND, Transfac, MiRTarBase, Drugbank, Recon X, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, and KEGG

Virus MINT Protein-Viral Protein Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viral and human proteins manually curated from literature

COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by manual literature curation

COMPARTMENTS Experimental Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by integrating experimental data

COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

gene-cellular compartment co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

CORUM Protein Complexes Dataset

From CORUM

proteins participating in complexes by manual literature curation

Guide to Pharmacology Protein Ligands of Receptors Dataset

From Guide to Pharmacology

ligand-receptor interactions curated by experts

HPA Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

semiquantitative protein expression profiles for tissues

HPM Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Proteome Map

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types

InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations Dataset

From InterPro

protein domains predicted for gene products based on sequence similarity to known domain signatures

LOCATE Curated Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins from low-throughput or high-throughput protein localization assays

NURSA Protein Complexes Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

proteins identified in complexes isolated from cultured cells

ProteomicsDB Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Proteomics Database

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types reprocessed from many proteomics datasets

SILAC Phosphoproteomics Signatures of Differentially Phosphorylated Proteins for Protein Ligands Dataset

From SILAC Phosphoproteomics

phosphorylation levels of proteins in cell lines following ligand treatment

TISSUES Curated Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by manual literature curation

TISSUES Experimental Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by integrating experimental data

TISSUES Text-mining Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

gene-tissue co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

Virus MINT Protein-Virus Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viruses and human proteins manually curated from literature

LOCATE Predicted Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins by sequence similarity to localization sequences

HPA Cell Line Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for cell lines

HPA Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissues

HPA Tissue Sample Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissue samples

PAAF1 Gene

proteasomal ATPase-associated factor 1

This gene encodes a WD repeat-containing protein involved in regulation of association of proteasome components. During HIV infection, the encoded protein is thought to promote provirus transcription through recruitment of the 19S regulatory complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

BISPR Gene

BST2 interferon stimulated positive regulator (non-protein coding)

TESPA1 Gene

thymocyte expressed, positive selection associated 1

GAPLINC Gene

gastric adenocarcinoma associated, positive CD44 regulator, long intergenic non-coding RNA

MDCMP Gene

muscular dystrophy, congenital, merosin-positive

GREB1L Gene

growth regulation by estrogen in breast cancer-like

RPRD1A Gene

regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain containing 1A

This gene encodes a cell-cycle and transcription regulatory protein. The encoded protein interacts with the cell cycle inhibitor cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B and may function as a negative regulator of G(1)/S phase progression. This protein also forms homo- and hetrodimers with the protein, regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain-containing protein 1B, to form a scaffold that interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II subunit B1 and regulates several aspects of transcription. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 16. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

RPRD1B Gene

regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain containing 1B

RPRD2 Gene

regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain containing 2

GREB1 Gene

growth regulation by estrogen in breast cancer 1

This gene is an estrogen-responsive gene that is an early response gene in the estrogen receptor-regulated pathway. It is thought to play an important role in hormone-responsive tissues and cancer. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100130602 Gene

regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain containing 1A pseudogene

UHRF2 Gene

ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a nuclear protein which is involved in cell-cycle regulation. The encoded protein is a ubiquitin-ligase capable of ubiquinating PCNP (PEST-containing nuclear protein), and together they may play a role in tumorigenesis. The encoded protein contains an NIRF_N domain, a PHD finger, a set- and ring-associated (SRA) domain, and a RING finger domain and several of these domains have been shown to be essential for the regulation of cell proliferation. This protein may also have a role in intranuclear degradation of polyglutamine aggregates. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants some of which are non-protein coding. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

LOC100128210 Gene

ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (ubiquitin thiolesterase) pseudogene

UCHL1 Gene

ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (ubiquitin thiolesterase)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the peptidase C12 family. This enzyme is a thiol protease that hydrolyzes a peptide bond at the C-terminal glycine of ubiquitin. This gene is specifically expressed in the neurons and in cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. Mutations in this gene may be associated with Parkinson disease.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

UCHL3 Gene

ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L3 (ubiquitin thiolesterase)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the deubiquitinating enzyme family. Members of this family are proteases that catalyze the removal of ubiquitin from polypeptides and are divided into five classes, depending on the mechanism of catalysis. This protein may hydrolyze the ubiquitinyl-N-epsilon amide bond of ubiquitinated proteins to regenerate ubiquitin for another catalytic cycle. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

LOC100129607 Gene

ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (ubiquitin thiolesterase) pseudogene

PRKAR2A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAR2B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) in activated T cells. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this subunit may play an important role in regulating energy balance and adiposity. The studies also suggest that this subunit may mediate the gene induction and cataleptic behavior induced by haloperidol. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAMKK2 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. The major isoform of this gene plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade by phosphorylating the downstream kinases CaMK1 and CaMK4. Protein products of this gene also phosphorylate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This gene has its strongest expression in the brain and influences signalling cascades involved with learning and memory, neuronal differentiation and migration, neurite outgrowth, and synapse formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. The identified isoforms differ in their ability to undergo autophosphorylation and to phosphorylate downstream kinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CAMKK1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade. Three transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK2AP1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) -associated protein which is thought to negatively regulate CDK2 activity by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting CDK2 for proteolysis. This protein was found to also interact with DNA polymerase alpha/primase and mediate the phosphorylation of the large p180 subunit, which suggests a regulatory role in DNA replication during the S-phase of the cell cycle. This protein also forms a core subunit of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation (NURD) complex that epigenetically regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation. This gene thus plays a role in both cell-cycle and epigenetic regulation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CDK2AP2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 1. Pseudogenes associated with this gene are located on chromosomes 7 and 9. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

PDPK2P Gene

3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 2, pseudogene

LOC101929421 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 pseudogene

LOC101929483 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 pseudogene

PKIG Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor gamma

This gene encodes a member of the protein kinase inhibitor family. Studies of a similar protein in mice suggest that this protein acts as a potent competitive cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, and is a predominant form of inhibitor in various tissues. The encoded protein may be involved in osteogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PKIA Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor family. This protein was demonstrated to interact with and inhibit the activities of both C alpha and C beta catalytic subunits of the PKA. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PKIB Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor beta

This gene encodes a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor family. The encoded protein may play a role in the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway by interacting with the catalytic subunit of PKA, and overexpression of this gene may play a role in prostate cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

LOC400026 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene

CAMK2D Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a delta chain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Distinct isoforms of this chain have different expression patterns.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

CAMK2G Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma

The product of this gene is one of the four subunits of an enzyme which belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a gamma chain. Many alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described but the full-length nature of all the variants has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

CAMK2A Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinases family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. This calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The alpha chain encoded by this gene is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning. In addition to its calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent activity, this protein can undergo autophosphorylation, resulting in CaM-independent activity. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

CAMK2B Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a beta chain. It is possible that distinct isoforms of this chain have different cellular localizations and interact differently with calmodulin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

PRKAR1AP Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha pseudogene

CDK2AP2P1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene 1

CDK2AP2P3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene 3

PRKRAP1 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene 1

PRKACG Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes the gamma form of its catalytic subunit. The gene is intronless and is thought to be a retrotransposon derived from the gene for the alpha form of the PKA catalytic subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKACA Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha

This gene encodes one of the catalytic subunits of protein kinase A, which exists as a tetrameric holoenzyme with two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits, in its inactive form. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinase A is important to many cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Constitutive activation of this gene caused either by somatic mutations, or genomic duplications of regions that include this gene, have been associated with hyperplasias and adenomas of the adrenal cortex and are linked to corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Tissue-specific isoforms that differ at the N-terminus have been described, and these isoforms may differ in the post-translational modifications that occur at the N-terminus of some isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

PRKACB Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein is a catalytic subunit of cAMP (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, which mediates signalling though cAMP. cAMP signaling is important to a number of processes, including cell proliferaton and differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

LOC100418693 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene

LOC100418694 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene

LOC101154643 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene

PRKRIR Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor)

NFATC2IP Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2 interacting protein

PRKG1 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I

Mammals have three different isoforms of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (Ialpha, Ibeta, and II). These PRKG isoforms act as key mediators of the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway and are important components of many signal transduction processes in diverse cell types. This PRKG1 gene on human chromosome 10 encodes the soluble Ialpha and Ibeta isoforms of PRKG by alternative transcript splicing. A separate gene on human chromosome 4, PRKG2, encodes the membrane-bound PRKG isoform II. The PRKG1 proteins play a central role in regulating cardiovascular and neuronal functions in addition to relaxing smooth muscle tone, preventing platelet aggregation, and modulating cell growth. This gene is most strongly expressed in all types of smooth muscle, platelets, cerebellar Purkinje cells, hippocampal neurons, and the lateral amygdala. Isoforms Ialpha and Ibeta have identical cGMP-binding and catalytic domains but differ in their leucine/isoleucine zipper and autoinhibitory sequences and therefore differ in their dimerization substrates and kinase enzyme activity. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PRKG2 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type II

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family of proteins. The encoded protein plays a role in the regulation of fluid balance in the intestine. A similar protein in mouse is thought to regulate differentiation and proliferation of cells in the colon. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PRKRA Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator

This gene encodes a protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA which mediates the effects of interferon in response to viral infection. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

PRKAR1A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. This gene encodes one of the regulatory subunits. This protein was found to be a tissue-specific extinguisher that down-regulates the expression of seven liver genes in hepatoma x fibroblast hybrids. Mutations in this gene cause Carney complex (CNC). This gene can fuse to the RET protooncogene by gene rearrangement and form the thyroid tumor-specific chimeric oncogene known as PTC2. A nonconventional nuclear localization sequence (NLS) has been found for this protein which suggests a role in DNA replication via the protein serving as a nuclear transport protein for the second subunit of the Replication Factor C (RFC40). Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

PRKAR1B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, beta

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is an essential enzyme in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Through phosphorylation of target proteins, PKA controls many biochemical events in the cell including regulation of metabolism, ion transport, and gene transcription. The PKA holoenzyme is composed of 2 regulatory and 2 catalytic subunits and dissociates from the regulatory subunits upon binding of cAMP.[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

CASK Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)

This gene encodes a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase. The encoded protein is a MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) protein family member. These proteins are scaffold proteins and the encoded protein is located at synapses in the brain. Mutations in this gene are associated with FG syndrome 4, mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia, and a form of X-linked mental retardation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CAMK2N2 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 2

This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the rat CaM-KII inhibitory protein, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII). CAMKII regulates numerous physiological functions, including neuronal synaptic plasticity through the phosphorylation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate (AMPA) receptors. Studies of the similar protein in rat suggest that this protein may function as a negative regulator of CaM-KII and may act to inhibit the phosphorylation of AMPA receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAMK2N1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1

LOC100422398 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

PPM1AP1 Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1A, pseudogene 1

CAMK1G Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IG

This gene encodes a protein similar to calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKRIRP8 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 8

PRKRIRP9 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 9

PRKRIRP1 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 1

PRKRIRP2 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 2

PRKRIRP3 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 3

PRKRIRP4 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 4

PRKRIRP5 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 5

PRKRIRP6 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 6

PRKRIRP7 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 7

LOC100422399 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

CAMK1D Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID

This gene is a member of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 family, a subfamily of the serine/threonine kinases. The encoded protein is a component of the calcium-regulated calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade. It has been associated with multiple processes including regulation of granulocyte function, activation of CREB-dependent gene transcription, aldosterone synthesis, differentiation and activation of neutrophil cells, and apoptosis of erythroleukemia cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms of this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

ADTRP Gene

androgen-dependent TFPI-regulating protein

CAMK1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I is expressed in many tissues and is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade. Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly promotes the phosphorylation and synergistic activation of the enzyme by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I kinase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAMK4 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This enzyme is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase with limited tissue distribution, that has been implicated in transcriptional regulation in lymphocytes, neurons and male germ cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100533853 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene

LOC102724985 Gene

pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain-containing protein 1

PPM1G Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1G

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase is found to be responsible for the dephosphorylation of Pre-mRNA splicing factors, which is important for the formation of functional spliceosome. Studies of a similar gene in mice suggested a role of this phosphatase in regulating cell cycle progression. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PPM1F Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1F

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase can interact with Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (PIX), and thus block the effects of p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK), a protein kinase mediating biological effects downstream of Rho GTPases. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma (CAMK2G/CAMK-II) is found to be one of the substrates of this phosphatase. The overexpression of this phosphatase or CAMK2G has been shown to mediate caspase-dependent apoptosis. An alternatively spliced transcript variant has been identified, but its full-length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1E Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1E

This gene encodes a member of the PPM family of serine/threonine-protein phosphatases. The encoded protein is localized to the nucleus and dephosphorylates and inactivates multiple substrates including serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1, 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the multifunctional calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

PPM1D Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1D

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. The expression of this gene is induced in a p53-dependent manner in response to various environmental stresses. While being induced by tumor suppressor protein TP53/p53, this phosphatase negatively regulates the activity of p38 MAP kinase, MAPK/p38, through which it reduces the phosphorylation of p53, and in turn suppresses p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis. This phosphatase thus mediates a feedback regulation of p38-p53 signaling that contributes to growth inhibition and the suppression of stress induced apoptosis. This gene is located in a chromosomal region known to be amplified in breast cancer. The amplification of this gene has been detected in both breast cancer cell line and primary breast tumors, which suggests a role of this gene in cancer development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1B Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase has been shown to dephosphorylate cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and thus may be involved in cell cycle control. Overexpression of this phosphatase is reported to cause cell-growth arrest or cell death. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additional transcript variants have been described, but currently do not represent full-length sequences. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1A Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1A

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. This phosphatase dephosphorylates, and negatively regulates the activities of, MAP kinases and MAP kinase kinases. It has been shown to inhibit the activation of p38 and JNK kinase cascades induced by environmental stresses. This phosphatase can also dephosphorylate cyclin-dependent kinases, and thus may be involved in cell cycle control. Overexpression of this phosphatase is reported to activate the expression of the tumor suppressor gene TP53/p53, which leads to G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1N Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1N (putative)

PPM1M Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1M

PPM1L Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1L

PPM1L, or PP2CE, belongs to the PP2C group of serine/threonine phosphatases, which are distinguished from other phosphatases by their structure, absolute requirement for Mg(2+) or Mn(2+), and insensitivity to okadaic acid. PP2Cs regulate stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK; see MIM 601158) signaling cascades that respond to extracellular stimuli (Jin et al., 2004 [PubMed 15560375]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2008]

PPM1K Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1K

This gene encodes a member of the PPM family of Mn2+/Mg2+-dependent protein phosphatases. The encoded protein, essential for cell survival and development, is targeted to the mitochondria where it plays a key role in regulation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

PPM1J Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1J

This gene encodes the serine/threonine protein phosphatase. The mouse homolog of this gene apparently belongs to the protein phosphatase 2C family of genes. The exact function of this gene is not yet known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPM1H Gene

protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1H

PDPK1 Gene

3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1

CASKP1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family) pseudogene 1

CINP Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 interacting protein

The protein encoded by this gene is reported to be a component of the DNA replication complex as well as a genome-maintenance protein. It may interact with proteins important for replication initiation and has been shown to bind chromatin at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and dissociate from chromatin with replication initiation. It may also serve to regulate checkpoint signaling as part of the DNA damage response. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PROZ Gene

protein Z, vitamin K-dependent plasma glycoprotein

This gene encodes a liver vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein that is synthesized in the liver and secreted into the plasma. The encoded protein plays a role in regulating blood coagulation by complexing with protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor to directly inhibit activated factor X at the phospholipid surface. Deficiencies in this protein are associated with an increased risk of ischemic arterial diseases and fetal loss. Mutations in this gene are the cause of protein Z deficiency. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

PRKRIRP10 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 10

LOC644909 Gene

ligand of numb-protein X 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

MYCBP2 Gene

MYC binding protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

RNF128 Gene

ring finger protein 128, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane protein that localizes to the endocytic pathway. This protein contains a RING zinc-finger motif and has been shown to possess E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Expression of this gene in retrovirally transduced T cell hybridoma significantly inhibits activation-induced IL2 and IL4 cytokine production. Induced expression of this gene was observed in anergic CD4(+) T cells, which suggested a role in the induction of anergic phenotype. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RNF125 Gene

ring finger protein 125, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains a RING finger domain in the N-terminus and three zinc-binding and one ubiquitin-interacting motif in the C-terminus. As a result of myristoylation, this protein associates with membranes and is primarily localized to intracellular membrane systems. The encoded protein may function as a positive regulator in the T-cell receptor signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

LOC101927789 Gene

putative ubiquitin-like protein FUBI-like protein ENSP00000310146

RNF138P1 Gene

ring finger protein 138, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene 1

RNF19A Gene

ring finger protein 19A, RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the ring between ring fingers (RBR) protein family, and the encoded protein contains two RING-finger motifs and an in between RING fingers motif. This protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is localized to Lewy bodies, and ubiquitylates synphilin-1, which is an interacting protein of alpha synuclein in neurons. The encoded protein may be involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

SKP2 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbls class; in addition to an F-box, this protein contains 10 tandem leucine-rich repeats. This protein is an essential element of the cyclin A-CDK2 S-phase kinase. It specifically recognizes phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B, also referred to as p27 or KIP1) predominantly in S phase and interacts with S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1 or p19). In addition, this gene is established as a protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. Alternative splicing of this gene generates three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

RNF138P2 Gene

ring finger protein 138, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene 2

MAP3K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase and is part of some signal transduction cascades, including the ERK and JNK kinase pathways as well as the NF-kappa-B pathway. The encoded protein is activated by autophosphorylation and requires magnesium as a cofactor in phosphorylating other proteins. This protein has E3 ligase activity conferred by a plant homeodomain (PHD) in its N-terminus and phospho-kinase activity conferred by a kinase domain in its C-terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

RNF34 Gene

ring finger protein 34, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RINF finger, a motif known to be involved in protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. This protein interacts with DNAJA3/hTid-1, which is a DnaJ protein reported to function as a modulator of apoptosis. Overexpression of this gene in Hela cells was shown to confer the resistance to TNF-alpha induced apoptosis, suggesting an anti-apoptotic function of this protein. This protein can be cleaved by caspase-3 during the induction of apoptosis. This protein also targets p53 and phospho-p53 for degradation. Alternatively splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

LOC100130500 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

RNF138 Gene

ring finger protein 138, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger, a motif present in a variety of functionally distinct proteins and known to be involved in protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RNF8 Gene

ring finger protein 8, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger motif and an FHA domain. This protein has been shown to interact with several class II ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2), including UBE2E1/UBCH6, UBE2E2, and UBE2E3, and may act as an ubiquitin ligase (E3) in the ubiquitination of certain nuclear proteins. This protein is also known to play a role in the DNA damage response and depletion of this protein causes cell growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

RNF5 Gene

ring finger protein 5, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger, which is a motif known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. This protein is a membrane-bound ubiquitin ligase. It can regulate cell motility by targeting paxillin ubiquitination and altering the distribution and localization of paxillin in cytoplasm and cell focal adhesions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMEM129 Gene

transmembrane protein 129, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

RNF5P1 Gene

ring finger protein 5, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene 1

LOC391465 Gene

STIP1 homology and U-box containing protein 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

RNF41 Gene

ring finger protein 41, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The encoded protein plays a role in type 1 cytokine receptor signaling by controlling the balance between JAK2-associated cytokine receptor degradation and ectodomain shedding. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

RNF168 Gene

ring finger protein 168, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase protein that contains a RING finger, a motif present in a variety of functionally distinct proteins and known to be involved in protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions. The protein is involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Mutations in this gene result in Riddle syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

LNX1 Gene

ligand of numb-protein X 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a membrane-bound protein that is involved in signal transduction and protein interactions. The encoded product is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, which mediates ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of proteins containing phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains. This protein may play an important role in tumorogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. A pseudogene, which is located on chromosome 17, has been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CCNB1IP1 Gene

cyclin B1 interacting protein 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

HEI10 is a member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase family and functions in progression of the cell cycle through G(2)/M.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

RNF40 Gene

ring finger protein 40, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger, a motif known to be involved in protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. This protein was reported to interact with the tumor suppressor protein RB1. Studies of the rat counterpart suggested that this protein may function as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, and facilitate the ubiquitination and degradation of syntaxin 1, which is an essential component of the neurotransmitter release machinery. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

RNF20 Gene

ring finger protein 20, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with BRE1 of S. cerevisiae. The protein encoded by this human gene is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates chromosome structure by monoubiquitinating histone H2B. This protein acts as a putative tumor suppressor and positively regulates the p53 tumor suppressor as well as numerous histone H2A and H2B genes. In contrast, this protein also suppresses the expression of several protooncogenes and growth-related genes, including many genes that are induced by epidermal growth factor. This gene selectively suppresses the expression of some genes by interfering with chromatin recruitment of transcription elongation factor SII (TFIIS). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

STUB1 Gene

STIP1 homology and U-box containing protein 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a protein containing tetratricopeptide repeat and a U-box that functions as a ubiquitin ligase/cochaperone. The encoded protein binds to and ubiquitinates shock cognate 71 kDa protein (Hspa8) and DNA polymerase beta (Polb), among other targets. Mutations in this gene cause spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 16. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

CADPS2 Gene

Ca++-dependent secretion activator 2

This gene encodes a member of the calcium-dependent activator of secretion (CAPS) protein family, which are calcium binding proteins that regulate the exocytosis of synaptic and dense-core vesicles in neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Mutations in this gene may contribute to autism susceptibility. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

ADPGK Gene

ADP-dependent glucokinase

ADPGK (EC 2.7.1.147) catalyzes the ADP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate and may play a role in glycolysis, possibly during ischemic conditions (Ronimus and Morgan, 2004 [PubMed 14975750]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LRIF1 Gene

ligand dependent nuclear receptor interacting factor 1

VDAC1P1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 1

VDAC1P2 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 2

VDAC1P4 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 4

VDAC4 belongs to a family of small, abundant pore-forming proteins found in the outer mitochondrial membrane. These channels are thought to form the major pathway for movement of adenine nucleotides through the outer membrane and may also function as the mitochondrial binding site for hexokinase (see HK1; MIM 142600) and glycerol kinase (GK; MIM 300474) (Blachly-Dyson et al., 1994 [PubMed 7517385]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

VDAC1P5 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 5

VDAC1P6 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 6

VDAC1P7 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 7

VDAC1P9 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 9

NUCKS1 Gene

nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1

This gene encodes a nuclear protein that is highly conserved in vertebrates. The conserved regions of the protein contain several consensus phosphorylation sites for casein kinase II and cyclin-dependent kinases, two putative nuclear localization signals, and a basic DNA-binding domain. It is phosphorylated in vivo by Cdk1 during mitosis of the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

SMARCE1P5 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 5

SMARCC2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and contains a predicted leucine zipper motif typical of many transcription factors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCC1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and contains a predicted leucine zipper motif typical of many transcription factors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK7PS Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 7 pseudogene

LOC101060637 Gene

nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1-like

NFATC1 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1

The product of this gene is a component of the nuclear factor of activated T cells DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and an inducible nuclear component. Proteins belonging to this family of transcription factors play a central role in inducible gene transcription during immune response. The product of this gene is an inducible nuclear component. It functions as a major molecular target for the immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin A. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. Different isoforms of this protein may regulate inducible expression of different cytokine genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

NFATC2 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2

This gene is a member of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family. The product of this gene is a DNA-binding protein with a REL-homology region (RHR) and an NFAT-homology region (NHR). This protein is present in the cytosol and only translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, where it becomes a member of the nuclear factors of activated T cells transcription complex. This complex plays a central role in inducing gene transcription during the immune response. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

NFATC4 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 4

This gene encodes a member of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) protein family. The encoded protein is part of a DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor stimulation and an inducible nuclear component. NFAT proteins are activated by the calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin. The encoded protein plays a role in the inducible expression of cytokine genes in T cells, especially in the induction of interleukin-2 and interleukin-4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

CDK20 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 20

The protein encoded by this gene contains a kinase domain most closely related to the cyclin-dependent protein kinases. The encoded kinase may activate cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and is involved in cell growth. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

VDAC1P3 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 3

HCFC1R1 Gene

host cell factor C1 regulator 1 (XPO1 dependent)

VDAC1P8 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 8

FOXRED2 Gene

FAD-dependent oxidoreductase domain containing 2

FOXRED1 Gene

FAD-dependent oxidoreductase domain containing 1

This gene encodes a protein that contains a FAD-dependent oxidoreductase domain. The encoded protein is localized to the mitochondria and may function as a chaperone protein required for the function of mitochondrial complex I. Mutations in this gene are associated with mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

SFR1 Gene

SWI5-dependent recombination repair 1

C2CD4A Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 4A

C2CD4B Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 4B

C2CD4C Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 4C

C2CD4D Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 4D

CDKN3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the dual specificity protein phosphatase family. It was identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate CDK2 kinase, thus prevent the activation of CDK2 kinase. This gene was reported to be deleted, mutated, or overexpressed in several kinds of cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

LOC100130466 Gene

nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1-like

MTHFD2P6 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 6

CDK11A Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 11A

This gene encodes a member of the p34Cdc2 protein kinase family. p34Cdc2 kinase family members are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. This gene is in close proximity to CDC2L1, a nearly identical gene in the same chromosomal region. The gene loci including this gene, CDC2L1, as well as metalloprotease MMP21/22, consist of two identical, tandemly linked genomic regions, which are thought to be a part of the larger region that has been duplicated. This gene and CDC2L1 were shown to be deleted or altered frequently in neuroblastoma with amplified MYCN genes. The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. Many transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene, but the full-length nature of only two have been determined so far. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK11B Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 11B

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. Members of this kinase family are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. Due to a segmental duplication, this gene shares very high sequence identity with a neighboring gene. These two genes are frequently deleted or altered in neuroblastoma. The protein kinase encoded by this gene can be cleaved by caspases and may play a role in cell apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

MTHFD2P1 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 1

MTHFD2P7 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 7

MTHFD2P5 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 5

MTHFD2P4 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase pseudogene 4

PDXDC1 Gene

pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain containing 1

MTHFD2 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase

This gene encodes a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial bifunctional enzyme with methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase activities. The enzyme functions as a homodimer and is unique in its absolute requirement for magnesium and inorganic phosphate. Formation of the enzyme-magnesium complex allows binding of NAD. Alternative splicing results in two different transcripts, one protein-coding and the other not protein-coding. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

CACNA2D1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 1

The preproprotein encoded by this gene is cleaved into multiple chains that comprise the alpha-2 and delta subunits of the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. Mutations in this gene can cause cardiac deficiencies, including Brugada syndrome and short QT syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants, some of which may lack the delta subunit portion. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DQX1 Gene

DEAQ box RNA-dependent ATPase 1

RNLS Gene

renalase, FAD-dependent amine oxidase

Renalase is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent amine oxidase that is secreted into the blood from the kidney (Xu et al., 2005 [PubMed 15841207]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

NIDDM4 Gene

Diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent

PREX2 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 2

PREX1 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the RHO family of small GTP-binding proteins (RACs). It has been shown to bind to and activate RAC1 by exchanging bound GDP for free GTP. The encoded protein, which is found mainly in the cytoplasm, is activated by phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate and the beta-gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC13A2 Gene

solute carrier family 13 (sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter), member 2

SLC13A3 Gene

solute carrier family 13 (sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter), member 3

Mammalian sodium-dicarboxylate cotransporters transport succinate and other Krebs cycle intermediates. They fall into 2 categories based on their substrate affinity: low affinity and high affinity. Both the low- and high-affinity transporters play an important role in the handling of citrate by the kidneys. The protein encoded by this gene represents the high-affinity form. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, although the full-length nature of some of them have not been characterized yet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC13A5 Gene

solute carrier family 13 (sodium-dependent citrate transporter), member 5

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the solute carrier family 13 group of proteins. This family member is a sodium-dependent citrate cotransporter that may regulate metabolic processes. Mutations in this gene cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 25. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

ADNP Gene

activity-dependent neuroprotector homeobox

Vasoactive intestinal peptide is a neuroprotective factor that has a stimulatory effect on the growth of some tumor cells and an inhibitory effect on others. This gene encodes a protein that is upregulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide and may be involved in its stimulatory effect on certain tumor cells. The encoded protein contains one homeobox and nine zinc finger domains, suggesting that it functions as a transcription factor. This gene is also upregulated in normal proliferative tissues. Finally, the encoded protein may increase the viability of certain cell types through modulation of p53 activity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ME2P1 Gene

malic enzyme 2, NAD(+)-dependent, mitochondrial pseudogene 1

GLYCAM1 Gene

glycosylation dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 (pseudogene)

ME3 Gene

malic enzyme 3, NADP(+)-dependent, mitochondrial

Malic enzyme catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate using either NAD+ or NADP+ as a cofactor. Mammalian tissues contain 3 distinct isoforms of malic enzyme: a cytosolic NADP(+)-dependent isoform, a mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isoform, and a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent isoform. This gene encodes a mitochondrial NADP(+)-dependent isoform. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ME2 Gene

malic enzyme 2, NAD(+)-dependent, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial NAD-dependent malic enzyme, a homotetrameric protein, that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate. It had previously been weakly linked to a syndrome known as Friedreich ataxia that has since been shown to be the result of mutation in a completely different gene. Certain single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes of this gene have been shown to increase the risk for idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

PLA2G4A Gene

phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)

This gene encodes a member of the cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IV family. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to release arachidonic acid which is subsequently metabolized into eicosanoids. Eicosanoids, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes, are lipid-based cellular hormones that regulate hemodynamics, inflammatory responses, and other intracellular pathways. The hydrolysis reaction also produces lysophospholipids that are converted into platelet-activating factor. The enzyme is activated by increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels and phosphorylation, resulting in its translocation from the cytosol and nucleus to perinuclear membrane vesicles. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCE1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. The encoded protein, either alone or when in the SWI/SNF complex, can bind to 4-way junction DNA, which is thought to mimic the topology of DNA as it enters or exits the nucleosome. The protein contains a DNA-binding HMG domain, but disruption of this domain does not abolish the DNA-binding or nucleosome-displacement activities of the SWI/SNF complex. Unlike most of the SWI/SNF complex proteins, this protein has no yeast counterpart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LIG4 Gene

ligase IV, DNA, ATP-dependent

The protein encoded by this gene is a DNA ligase that joins single-strand breaks in a double-stranded polydeoxynucleotide in an ATP-dependent reaction. This protein is essential for V(D)J recombination and DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). This protein forms a complex with the X-ray repair cross complementing protein 4 (XRCC4), and further interacts with the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Both XRCC4 and DNA-PK are known to be required for NHEJ. The crystal structure of the complex formed by this protein and XRCC4 has been resolved. Defects in this gene are the cause of LIG4 syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LIG1 Gene

ligase I, DNA, ATP-dependent

This gene encodes a member of the ATP-dependent DNA ligase protein family. The encoded protein functions in DNA replication, recombination, and the base excision repair process. Mutations in this gene that lead to DNA ligase I deficiency result in immunodeficiency and increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. Disruption of this gene may also be associated with a variety of cancers. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

LIG3 Gene

ligase III, DNA, ATP-dependent

This gene is a member of the DNA ligase family. Each member of this family encodes a protein that catalyzes the joining of DNA ends but they each have a distinct role in DNA metabolism. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in excision repair and is located in both the mitochondria and nucleus, with translation initiation from the upstream start codon allowing for transport to the mitochondria and translation initiation from a downstream start codon allowing for transport to the nucleus. Additionally, alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RPRM Gene

reprimo, TP53 dependent G2 arrest mediator candidate

NDOR1 Gene

NADPH dependent diflavin oxidoreductase 1

This gene encodes an NADPH-dependent diflavin reductase that contains both flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding domains. The encoded protein catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADPH through FAD and FMN cofactors to potential redox partners. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

LOC100419916 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 8 pseudogene

CACNA2D2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 2

Calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. This gene encodes the alpha-2/delta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. The complex consists of the main channel-forming subunit alpha-1, and auxiliary subunits alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma. The auxiliary subunits function in the assembly and membrane localization of the complex, and modulate calcium currents and channel activation/inactivation kinetics. The subunit encoded by this gene undergoes post-translational cleavage to yield the extracellular alpha2 peptide and a membrane-anchored delta polypeptide. This subunit is a receptor for the antiepileptic drug, gabapentin. Mutations in this gene are associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are correlated with increased sensitivity to opioid drugs. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CACNA2D3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3

This gene encodes a member of the alpha-2/delta subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. Research on a highly similar protein in rabbit suggests the protein described in this record is cleaved into alpha-2 and delta subunits. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA2D4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 4

This gene encodes a member of the alpha-2/delta subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. Research on a highly similar protein in rabbit suggests the protein described in this record is cleaved into alpha-2 and delta subunits. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NIDDM2 Gene

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (common, type 2) 2

NIDDM3 Gene

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 3

NIDDM1 Gene

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (common, type 2) 1

M6PR Gene

mannose-6-phosphate receptor (cation dependent)

This gene encodes a member of the P-type lectin family. P-type lectins play a critical role in lysosome function through the specific transport of mannose-6-phosphate-containing acid hydrolases from the Golgi complex to lysosomes. The encoded protein functions as a homodimer and requires divalent cations for ligand binding. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

VDAC3P1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 3 pseudogene 1

CLNK Gene

cytokine-dependent hematopoietic cell linker

MIST is a member of the SLP76 family of adaptors (see LCP2, MIM 601603; BLNK, MIM 604515). MIST plays a role in the regulation of immunoreceptor signaling, including PLC-gamma (PLCG1; MIM 172420)-mediated B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling and FC-epsilon R1 (see FCER1A, MIM 147140)-mediated mast cell degranulation (Cao et al., 1999 [PubMed 10562326]; Goitsuka et al., 2000, 2001 [PubMed 10744659] [PubMed 11463797]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RNU4ATAC Gene

RNA, U4atac small nuclear (U12-dependent splicing)

The small nuclear RNA (snRNA) encoded by this gene is part of the U12-dependent minor spliceosome complex. In addition to the encoded RNA, this ribonucleoprotein complex consists of U11, U12, U5, and U6atac snRNAs. The U12-dependent spliceosome acts on approximately 700 specific introns in the human genome. Defects in this gene are a cause of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 1 (MOPD). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

IDDM18 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 18

IDDM15 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 15

IDDM13 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 13

IDDM11 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 11

CACNG8 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type II TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. The mRNA for this gene is believed to initiate translation from a non-AUG (CUG) start codon. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is a susceptibility locus for childhood absence epilepsy. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG6 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 6

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of two known gamma subunit proteins. This particular gamma subunit is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members that function as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Variants in this gene have been associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG7 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type I TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

LOC102725121 Gene

putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX12

SMARCB1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily b, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex that relieves repressive chromatin structures, allowing the transcriptional machinery to access its targets more effectively. The encoded nuclear protein may also bind to and enhance the DNA joining activity of HIV-1 integrase. This gene has been found to be a tumor suppressor, and mutations in it have been associated with malignant rhabdoid tumors. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CTIF Gene

CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation factor

CTIF is a component of the CBP80 (NCBP1; MIM 600469)/CBP20 (NCBP2; MIM 605133) translation initiation complex that binds cotranscriptionally to the cap end of nascent mRNA. The CBP80/CBP20 complex is involved in a simultaneous editing and translation step that recognizes premature termination codons (PTCs) in mRNAs and directs PTC-containing mRNAs toward nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). On mRNAs without PTCs, the CBP80/CBP20 complex is replaced with cytoplasmic mRNA cap-binding proteins, including EIF4G (MIM 600495), and steady-state translation of the mRNAs resumes in the cytoplasm (Kim et al., 2009 [PubMed 19648179]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2009]

OGFOD1 Gene

2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain containing 1

OGFOD3 Gene

2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain containing 3

OGFOD2 Gene

2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain containing 2

NOXRED1 Gene

NADP-dependent oxidoreductase domain containing 1

RNASEL Gene

ribonuclease L (2',5'-oligoisoadenylate synthetase-dependent)

This gene encodes a component of the interferon-regulated 2-5A system that functions in the antiviral and antiproliferative roles of interferons. Mutations in this gene have been associated with predisposition to prostate cancer and this gene is a candidate for the hereditary prostate cancer 1 (HPC1) allele. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK5R1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 5, regulatory subunit 1 (p35)

The protein encoded by this gene (p35) is a neuron-specific activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5); the activation of CDK5 is required for proper development of the central nervous system. The p35 form of this protein is proteolytically cleaved by calpain, generating a p25 form. The cleavage of p35 into p25 results in relocalization of the protein from the cell periphery to nuclear and perinuclear regions. P25 deregulates CDK5 activity by prolonging its activation and changing its cellular location. The p25 form accumulates in the brain neurons of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This accumulation correlates with an increase in CDK5 kinase activity, and may lead to aberrantly phosphorylated forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau, which contributes to Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RNU6ATAC Gene

RNA, U6atac small nuclear (U12-dependent splicing)

PDXDC2P Gene

pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase domain containing 2, pseudogene

MTHFD2L Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 2-like

LOC100131200 Gene

mannose-6-phosphate receptor (cation dependent) pseudogene

HFM1 Gene

HFM1, ATP-dependent DNA helicase homolog (S. cerevisiae)

The protein encoded by this gene is thought to be an ATP-dependent DNA helicase and is expressed mainly in germ-line cells. Defects in this gene are a cause of premature ovarian failure 9 (POF9). [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

LOC102724223 Gene

sodium- and chloride-dependent creatine transporter 1-like

SMARCE1P3 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 3

SMARCE1P2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 2

CDK18 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 18

CDK19 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 19

This gene encodes a protein that is one of the components of the Mediator co-activator complex. The Mediator complex is a multi-protein complex required for transcriptional activation by DNA binding transcription factors of genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. The protein encoded by this gene is similar to cyclin-dependent kinase 8 which can also be a component of the Mediator complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

CDK12 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 12

CDK13 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 13

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase family. Members of this family are well known for their essential roles as master switches in cell cycle control. The exact function of this protein has not yet been determined, but it may play a role in mRNA processing and may be involved in regulation of hematopoiesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

CDK10 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 10

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CDK subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The CDK subfamily members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and are known to be essential for cell cycle progression. This kinase has been shown to play a role in cellular proliferation and its function is limited to cell cycle G2-M phase. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

CDK16 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 16

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It may play a role in signal transduction cascades in terminally differentiated cells; in exocytosis; and in transport of secretory cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum. This gene is thought to escape X inactivation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

CDK17 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 17

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cdc2/cdkx subfamily of the ser/thr family of protein kinases. It has similarity to a rat protein that is thought to play a role in terminally differentiated neurons. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

CDK14 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 14

PFTK1 is a member of the CDC2 (MIM 116940)-related protein kinase family (Yang and Chen, 2001 [PubMed 11313143]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CDK15 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 15

SMARCE1P6 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 6

SMARCE1P4 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 4

CDKN1C Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (p57, Kip2)

This gene is imprinted, with preferential expression of the maternal allele. The encoded protein is a tight-binding, strong inhibitor of several G1 cyclin/Cdk complexes and a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are implicated in sporadic cancers and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndorome, suggesting that this gene is a tumor suppressor candidate. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

CDKN1B Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1)

This gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which shares a limited similarity with CDK inhibitor CDKN1A/p21. The encoded protein binds to and prevents the activation of cyclin E-CDK2 or cyclin D-CDK4 complexes, and thus controls the cell cycle progression at G1. The degradation of this protein, which is triggered by its CDK dependent phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination by SCF complexes, is required for the cellular transition from quiescence to the proliferative state. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type IV (MEN4). [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

CDKN1A Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)

This gene encodes a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. The encoded protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin-CDK2 or -CDK4 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1. The expression of this gene is tightly controlled by the tumor suppressor protein p53, through which this protein mediates the p53-dependent cell cycle G1 phase arrest in response to a variety of stress stimuli. This protein can interact with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3-like caspases, which thus leads to a dramatic activation of CDK2, and may be instrumental in the execution of apoptosis following caspase activation. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

VDAC2P2 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene 2

VDAC2P1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene 1

IDDM24 Gene

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 24

IDDM23 Gene

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 23

LOC105379282 Gene

glucose-dependent insulinotropic receptor-like

VDAC1P12 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 12

VDAC1P13 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 13

VDAC1P10 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 10

VDAC1P11 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene 11

CDK8PS Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 8 pseudogene

OGFOD1P1 Gene

2-oxoglutarate and iron-dependent oxygenase domain containing 1 pseudogene 1

LOC645397 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1-like pseudogene

IDDM17 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 17

IDDM16 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 16

IDDM14 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 14

CACNB3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 3 subunit

This gene encodes a regulatory beta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel. Beta subunits are composed of five domains, which contribute to the regulation of surface expression and gating of calcium channels and may also play a role in the regulation of transcription factors and calcium transport. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CACNB2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 2 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel protein that is a member of the voltage-gated calcium channel superfamily. The gene product was originally identified as an antigen target in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, an autoimmune disorder. Mutations in this gene are associated with Brugada syndrome. Alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

CACNB1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the calcium channel beta subunit family. It plays an important role in the calcium channel by modulating G protein inhibition, increasing peak calcium current, controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting and shifting the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and three transcript variants encoding three distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNB4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 4 subunit

This gene encodes a member of the beta subunit family of voltage-dependent calcium channel complex proteins. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. The protein encoded by this locus plays an important role in calcium channel function by modulating G protein inhibition, increasing peak calcium current, controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting and shifting the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation. Certain mutations in this gene have been associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

CACNG1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 1

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of two known gamma subunit proteins. This particular gamma subunit is part of skeletal muscle 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels and is an integral membrane protein that plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members that function as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

LCOR Gene

ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor

LCOR is a transcriptional corepressor widely expressed in fetal and adult tissues that is recruited to agonist-bound nuclear receptors through a single LxxLL motif, also referred to as a nuclear receptor (NR) box (Fernandes et al., 2003 [PubMed 12535528]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MTHFD1L Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1-like

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate (THF) in the mitochondrion. THF is important in the de novo synthesis of purines and thymidylate and in the regeneration of methionine from homocysteine. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

LOC100287419 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 8 pseudogene

LCORL Gene

ligand dependent nuclear receptor corepressor-like

This gene encodes a transcription factor that appears to function in spermatogenesis. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with measures of skeletal frame size and adult height. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

CACNA1H Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1H subunit

This gene encodes a T-type member of the alpha-1 subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. The alpha-1 subunit has 24 transmembrane segments and forms the pore through which ions pass into the cell. There are multiple isoforms of each of the proteins in the complex, either encoded by different genes or the result of alternative splicing of transcripts. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized for the gene described here. Studies suggest certain mutations in this gene lead to childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA1I Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1I subunit

This gene encodes the pore-forming alpha subunit of a voltage gated calcium channel. The encoded protein is a member of a subfamily of calcium channels referred to as is a low voltage-activated, T-type, calcium channel. The channel encoded by this protein is characterized by a slower activation and inactivation compared to other T-type calcium channels. This protein may be involved in calcium signaling in neurons. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CACNA1A Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. Calcium channels are multisubunit complexes composed of alpha-1, beta, alpha-2/delta, and gamma subunits. The channel activity is directed by the pore-forming alpha-1 subunit, whereas, the others act as auxiliary subunits regulating this activity. The distinctive properties of the calcium channel types are related primarily to the expression of a variety of alpha-1 isoforms, alpha-1A, B, C, D, E, and S. This gene encodes the alpha-1A subunit, which is predominantly expressed in neuronal tissue. Mutations in this gene are associated with 2 neurologic disorders, familial hemiplegic migraine and episodic ataxia 2. This gene also exhibits polymorphic variation due to (CAG)n-repeats. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. In one set of transcript variants, the (CAG)n-repeats occur in the 3' UTR, and are not associated with any disease. But in another set of variants, an insertion extends the coding region to include the (CAG)n-repeats which encode a polyglutamine tract. Expansion of the (CAG)n-repeats from the normal 4-16 to 21-28 in the coding region is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CACNA1B Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, N type, alpha 1B subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is the pore-forming subunit of an N-type voltage-dependent calcium channel, which controls neurotransmitter release from neurons. The encoded protein forms a complex with alpha-2, beta, and delta subunits to form the high-voltage activated channel. This channel is sensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA and omega-agatoxin-IIIA but insensitive to dihydropyridines. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

CACNA1C Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit

This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. The alpha-1 subunit consists of 24 transmembrane segments and forms the pore through which ions pass into the cell. The calcium channel consists of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. There are multiple isoforms of each of these proteins, either encoded by different genes or the result of alternative splicing of transcripts. The protein encoded by this gene binds to and is inhibited by dihydropyridine. Alternative splicing results in many transcript variants encoding different proteins. Some of the predicted proteins may not produce functional ion channel subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

CACNA1D Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. Calcium channels are multisubunit complexes composed of alpha-1, beta, alpha-2/delta, and gamma subunits. The channel activity is directed by the pore-forming alpha-1 subunit, whereas the others act as auxiliary subunits regulating this activity. The distinctive properties of the calcium channel types are related primarily to the expression of a variety of alpha-1 isoforms, namely alpha-1A, B, C, D, E, and S. This gene encodes the alpha-1D subunit. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

CACNA1E Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are multisubunit complexes consisting of alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, and delta subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. These channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. This gene encodes the alpha-1E subunit of the R-type calcium channels, which belong to the 'high-voltage activated' group that maybe involved in the modulation of firing patterns of neurons important for information processing. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

CACNA1F Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit

This gene encodes a multipass transmembrane protein that functions as an alpha-1 subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, which mediates the influx of calcium ions into the cell. The encoded protein forms a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Mutations in this gene can cause X-linked eye disorders, including congenital stationary night blindness type 2A, cone-rod dystropy, and Aland Island eye disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

CACNG5 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type I TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. This gene is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CDKN2B Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (p15, inhibits CDK4)

This gene lies adjacent to the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A in a region that is frequently mutated and deleted in a wide variety of tumors. This gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which forms a complex with CDK4 or CDK6, and prevents the activation of the CDK kinases, thus the encoded protein functions as a cell growth regulator that controls cell cycle G1 progression. The expression of this gene was found to be dramatically induced by TGF beta, which suggested its role in the TGF beta induced growth inhibition. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKN2D Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2D (p19, inhibits CDK4)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been shown to form a stable complex with CDK4 or CDK6, and prevent the activation of the CDK kinases, thus function as a cell growth regulator that controls cell cycle G1 progression. The abundance of the transcript of this gene was found to oscillate in a cell-cycle dependent manner with the lowest expression at mid G1 and a maximal expression during S phase. The negative regulation of the cell cycle involved in this protein was shown to participate in repressing neuronal proliferation, as well as spermatogenesis. Two alternatively spliced variants of this gene, which encode an identical protein, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCD3 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCD2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCD1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC644169 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1 pseudogene

SMARCAL1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein shows sequence similarity to the E. coli RNA polymerase-binding protein HepA. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD), an autosomal recessive disorder with the diagnostic features of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, renal dysfunction, and T-cell immunodeficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422463 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit pseudogene

CDK5PS Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 5 pseudogene

SMARCAD1 Gene

SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, containing DEAD/H box 1

This gene encodes a member of the SNF subfamily of helicase proteins. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the restoration of heterochromatin organization and propagation of epigenetic patterns following DNA replication by mediating histone H3/H4 deacetylation. Mutations in this gene are associated with adermatoglyphia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

LOC401959 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene

CADPS Gene

Ca++-dependent secretion activator

This gene encodes a novel neural/endocrine-specific cytosolic and peripheral membrane protein required for the Ca2+-regulated exocytosis of secretory vesicles. The protein acts at a stage in exocytosis that follows ATP-dependent priming, which involves the essential synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2). Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and three variants, encoding distinct isoforms, are described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

LOC100420647 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 3 pseudogene

ME1 Gene

malic enzyme 1, NADP(+)-dependent, cytosolic

This gene encodes a cytosolic, NADP-dependent enzyme that generates NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis. The activity of this enzyme, the reversible oxidative decarboxylation of malate, links the glycolytic and citric acid cycles. The regulation of expression for this gene is complex. Increased expression can result from elevated levels of thyroid hormones or by higher proportions of carbohydrates in the diet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MDP1 Gene

magnesium-dependent phosphatase 1

MTHFD1 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1, methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase, formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase

This gene encodes a protein that possesses three distinct enzymatic activities, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase. Each of these activities catalyzes one of three sequential reactions in the interconversion of 1-carbon derivatives of tetrahydrofolate, which are substrates for methionine, thymidylate, and de novo purine syntheses. The trifunctional enzymatic activities are conferred by two major domains, an aminoterminal portion containing the dehydrogenase and cyclohydrolase activities and a larger synthetase domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCE1P1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 1

CACNA1G Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit

Voltage-sensitive calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division, and cell death. This gene encodes a T-type, low-voltage activated calcium channel. The T-type channels generate currents that are both transient, owing to fast inactivation, and tiny, owing to small conductance. T-type channels are thought to be involved in pacemaker activity, low-threshold calcium spikes, neuronal oscillations and resonance, and rebound burst firing. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

MEDAG Gene

mesenteric estrogen-dependent adipogenesis

NSDHL Gene

NAD(P) dependent steroid dehydrogenase-like

The protein encoded by this gene is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with CHILD syndrome, which is a X-linked dominant disorder of lipid metabolism with disturbed cholesterol biosynthesis, and typically lethal in males. Alternatively spliced transcript variants with differing 5' UTR have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCA1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 1

This gene encodes a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins. The encoded protein is an ATPase which is expressed in diverse tissues and contributes to the chromatin remodeling complex that is involved in transcription. The protein may also play a role in DNA damage, growth inhibition and apoptosis of cancer cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

SMARCA2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is highly similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, which contains a trinucleotide repeat (CAG) length polymorphism. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

SMARCA4 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. In addition, this protein can bind BRCA1, as well as regulate the expression of the tumorigenic protein CD44. Mutations in this gene cause rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

SMARCA5 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the chromatin remodeling and spacing factor RSF, a facilitator of the transcription of class II genes by RNA polymerase II. The encoded protein is similar in sequence to the Drosophila ISWI chromatin remodeling protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA1S Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit

This gene encodes one of the five subunits of the slowly inactivating L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel in skeletal muscle cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis, thyrotoxic periodic paralysis and malignant hyperthermia susceptibility. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is a catalytic subunit of the highly conserved protein kinase complex known as M-phase promoting factor (MPF), which is essential for G1/S and G2/M phase transitions of eukaryotic cell cycle. Mitotic cyclins stably associate with this protein and function as regulatory subunits. The kinase activity of this protein is controlled by cyclin accumulation and destruction through the cell cycle. The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of this protein also play important regulatory roles in cell cycle control. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

CDK2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that participate in cell cycle regulation. The encoded protein is the catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, which regulates progression through the cell cycle. Activity of this protein is especially critical during the G1 to S phase transition. This protein associates with and regulated by other subunits of the complex including cyclin A or E, CDK inhibitor p21Cip1 (CDKN1A), and p27Kip1 (CDKN1B). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CDK3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase family. The protein promotes entry into S phase, in part by activating members of the E2F family of transcription factors. The protein also associates with cyclin C and phosphorylates the retinoblastoma 1 protein to promote exit from G0. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK4 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. The activity of this kinase is restricted to the G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and CDK inhibitor p16(INK4a). This kinase was shown to be responsible for the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma gene product (Rb). Mutations in this gene as well as in its related proteins including D-type cyclins, p16(INK4a) and Rb were all found to be associated with tumorigenesis of a variety of cancers. Multiple polyadenylation sites of this gene have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK5 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 5

This gene encodes a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase that is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of proteins. Unlike other members of the family, the protein encoded by this gene does not directly control cell cycle regulation. Instead the protein, which is predominantly expressed at high levels in mammalian postmitotic central nervous system neurons, functions in diverse processes such as synaptic plasticity and neuronal migration through phosphorylation of proteins required for cytoskeletal organization, endocytosis and exocytosis, and apoptosis. In humans, an allelic variant of the gene that results in undetectable levels of the protein has been associated with lethal autosomal recessive lissencephaly-7. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2015]

CDK6 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression. This kinase is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression and G1/S transition. The activity of this kinase first appears in mid-G1 phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits including D-type cyclins and members of INK4 family of CDK inhibitors. This kinase, as well as CDK4, has been shown to phosphorylate, and thus regulate the activity of, tumor suppressor protein Rb. Expression of this gene is up-regulated in some types of cancer. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

CDK7 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression. This protein forms a trimeric complex with cyclin H and MAT1, which functions as a Cdk-activating kinase (CAK). It is an essential component of the transcription factor TFIIH, that is involved in transcription initiation and DNA repair. This protein is thought to serve as a direct link between the regulation of transcription and the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK8 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression. This kinase and its regulatory subunit cyclin C are components of the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme complex, which phosphorylates the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. This kinase has also been shown to regulate transcription by targeting the CDK7/cyclin H subunits of the general transcription initiation factor IIH (TFIIH), thus providing a link between the 'Mediator-like' protein complexes and the basal transcription machinery. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK9 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and known as important cell cycle regulators. This kinase was found to be a component of the multiprotein complex TAK/P-TEFb, which is an elongation factor for RNA polymerase II-directed transcription and functions by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found to interact with this protein and cyclin T, which suggested a possible involvement of this protein in AIDS. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTHFD1P1 Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (NADP+ dependent) 1 pseudogene 1

PDE1C Gene

phosphodiesterase 1C, calmodulin-dependent 70kDa

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) catalyze hydrolysis of the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP to the corresponding nucleoside 5-prime-monophosphates. Mammalian PDEs have been classified into several families based on their biochemical properties. Members of the PDE1 family, such as PDE1C, are calmodulin (see MIM 114180)-dependent PDEs (CaM-PDEs) that are stimulated by a calcium-calmodulin complex (Repaske et al., 1992 [PubMed 1326532]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

PDE1B Gene

phosphodiesterase 1B, calmodulin-dependent

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) family, and PDE1 subfamily. Members of the PDE1 family are calmodulin-dependent PDEs that are stimulated by a calcium-calmodulin complex. This PDE has dual-specificity for the second messengers, cAMP and cGMP, with a preference for cGMP as a substrate. cAMP and cGMP function as key regulators of many important physiological processes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

PDE1A Gene

phosphodiesterase 1A, calmodulin-dependent

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a role in signal transduction by regulating intracellular cyclic nucleotide concentrations through hydrolysis of cAMP and/or cGMP to their respective nucleoside 5-prime monophosphates. Members of the PDE1 family, such as PDE1A, are Ca(2+)/calmodulin (see CALM1; MIM 114180)-dependent PDEs (CaM-PDEs) that are activated by calmodulin in the presence of Ca(2+) (Michibata et al., 2001 [PubMed 11342109]; Fidock et al., 2002 [PubMed 11747989]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

LOC100422696 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5 pseudogene

LOC100422695 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5 pseudogene

CDK4PS Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 4 pseudogene

CDK5R2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 5, regulatory subunit 2 (p39)

The protein encoded by this gene is a neuron-specific activator of CDK5 kinase. It associates with CDK5 to form an active kinase. This protein and neuron-specific CDK5 activator CDK5R1/p39NCK5A both share limited similarity to cyclins, and thus may define a distinct family of cyclin-dependent kinase activating proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKN2C Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been shown to interact with CDK4 or CDK6, and prevent the activation of the CDK kinases, thus function as a cell growth regulator that controls cell cycle G1 progression. Ectopic expression of this gene was shown to suppress the growth of human cells in a manner that appears to correlate with the presence of a wild-type RB1 function. Studies in the knockout mice suggested the roles of this gene in regulating spermatogenesis, as well as in suppressing tumorigenesis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode an identical protein, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKN2A Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A

This gene generates several transcript variants which differ in their first exons. At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported, two of which encode structurally related isoforms known to function as inhibitors of CDK4 kinase. The remaining transcript includes an alternate first exon located 20 Kb upstream of the remainder of the gene; this transcript contains an alternate open reading frame (ARF) that specifies a protein which is structurally unrelated to the products of the other variants. This ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53 as it can interact with, and sequester, the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. In spite of the structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in cell cycle G1 control. This gene is frequently mutated or deleted in a wide variety of tumors, and is known to be an important tumor suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

CACNG2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type II TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

NFATC3 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 3

The product of this gene is a member of the nuclear factors of activated T cells DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and an inducible nuclear component. Other members of this family participate to form this complex also. The product of this gene plays a role in the regulation of gene expression in T cells and immature thymocytes. Several transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

C2CD3 Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 3

This gene encodes a protein that functions as a regulator of centriole elongation. Studies of the orthologous mouse protein show that it promotes centriolar distal appendage assembly and is also required for the recruitment of other ciliogenic proteins, including intraflagellar transport proteins. Mutations in this gene cause orofaciodigital syndrome XIV (OFD14), a ciliopathy resulting in malformations of the oral cavity, face and digits. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

C2CD2 Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 2

C2CD5 Gene

C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 5

ADPRM Gene

ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatase, manganese-dependent

LOC100420574 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene

LOC644303 Gene

ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX24-like

CDKL5 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5

This gene is a member of Ser/Thr protein kinase family and encodes a phosphorylated protein with protein kinase activity. Mutations in this gene have been associated with X-linked infantile spasm syndrome (ISSX), also known as X-linked West syndrome, and Rett syndrome (RTT). Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKL4 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 4

CDKL1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 1 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

CDKL3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc28, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe cdc2, and are known to be important regulators of cell cycle progression. This gene was identified as a gene absent in leukemic patients with chromosome 5q deletion. This loss may be an important determinant of dysmyelopoiesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKL2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the cytoplasm, with lower levels in the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IDDMX Gene

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, X-linked, susceptibility to

IDDM7 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 7

IDDM6 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 6

IDDM4 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 4

IDDM3 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 3

IDDM9 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 9

IDDM8 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 8

LOC729317 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2 pseudogene

VDAC3 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 3

This gene encodes a voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), and belongs to the mitochondrial porin family. VDACs are small, integral membrane proteins that traverse the outer mitochondrial membrane and conduct ATP and other small metabolites. They are known to bind several kinases of intermediary metabolism, thought to be involved in translocation of adenine nucleotides, and are hypothesized to form part of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, which results in the release of cytochrome c at the onset of apoptotic cell death. Alternatively transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

VDAC2 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 2

This gene encodes a member of the voltage-dependent anion channel pore-forming family of proteins that are considered the main pathway for metabolite diffusion across the mitochondrial outer membrane. The encoded protein is also thought to be involved in the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway via regulation of BCL2-antagonist/killer 1 protein activity. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1, 2, 12 and 21, and alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

VDAC1 Gene

voltage-dependent anion channel 1

This gene encodes a voltage-dependent anion channel protein that is a major component of the outer mitochondrial membrane. The encoded protein facilitates the exchange of metabolites and ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane and may regulate mitochondrial functions. This protein also forms channels in the plasma membrane and may be involved in transmembrane electron transport. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Multiple pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1, 2 3, 6, 9, 12, X and Y.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

LTN1 Gene

listerin E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

Like most RING finger proteins, LTN1 functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase (Chu et al., 2009 [PubMed 19196968]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

ITCH Gene

itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the Nedd4 family of HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases. HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin from E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes to protein substrates, thus targeting specific proteins for lysosomal degradation. The encoded protein plays a role in multiple cellular processes including erythroid and lymphoid cell differentiation and the regulation of immune responses. Mutations in this gene are a cause of syndromic multisystem autoimmune disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

RFWD2P1 Gene

ring finger and WD repeat domain 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene 1

RFFL Gene

ring finger and FYVE-like domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

USP17L Gene

ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 17-like protein

MARCH10 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 10, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MARCH10 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH enzymes add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments (Morokuma et al., 2007 [PubMed 17604280]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

CBLL1 Gene

Cbl proto-oncogene-like 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin-ligase for the E-cadherin complex and mediates its ubiquitination, endocytosis, and degradation in the lysosomes. The encoded protein contains a RING-finger domain and is also thought to have a role in control of cell proliferation. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome X. Alternative splicing results in a non-coding transcript variant. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

UBA52 Gene

ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product 1

Ubiquitin is a highly conserved nuclear and cytoplasmic protein that has a major role in targeting cellular proteins for degradation by the 26S proteosome. It is also involved in the maintenance of chromatin structure, the regulation of gene expression, and the stress response. Ubiquitin is synthesized as a precursor protein consisting of either polyubiquitin chains or a single ubiquitin moiety fused to an unrelated protein. This gene encodes a fusion protein consisting of ubiquitin at the N terminus and ribosomal protein L40 at the C terminus, a C-terminal extension protein (CEP). Multiple processed pseudogenes derived from this gene are present in the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WWP2 Gene

WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2

This gene encodes a member of the Nedd4 family of E3 ligases, which play an important role in protein ubiquitination. The encoded protein contains four WW domains and may play a role in multiple processes including chondrogenesis and the regulation of oncogenic signaling pathways via interactions with Smad proteins and the tumor suppressor PTEN. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 10. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

WWP1 Gene

WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

WW domain-containing proteins are found in all eukaryotes and play an important role in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular functions such as protein degradation, transcription, and RNA splicing. This gene encodes a protein which contains 4 tandem WW domains and a HECT (homologous to the E6-associated protein carboxyl terminus) domain. The encoded protein belongs to a family of NEDD4-like proteins, which are E3 ubiquitin-ligase molecules and regulate key trafficking decisions, including targeting of proteins to proteosomes or lysosomes. Alternative splicing of this gene generates at least 6 transcript variants; however, the full length nature of these transcripts has not been defined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HACE1 Gene

HECT domain and ankyrin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

LOC101927751 Gene

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RING1-like

BTRCP1 Gene

beta-transducin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene 1

HERC1 Gene

HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 1

This gen encodes a member of the HERC protein family. This protein stimulates guanine nucleotide exchange on ARF1 and Rab proteins. This protein may be involved in membrane transport processes. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

HERC3 Gene

HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 3

This gene encodes a member the HERC ubiquitin ligase family. The encoded protein is located in the cytosol and binds ubiquitin via a HECT domain. Mutations in this gene have been associated with colorectal and gastric carcinomas. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

HERC2 Gene

HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2

This gene belongs to the HERC gene family that encodes a group of unusually large proteins, which contain multiple structural domains. All members have at least 1 copy of an N-terminal region showing homology to the cell cycle regulator RCC1 and a C-terminal HECT (homologous to E6-AP C terminus) domain found in a number of E3 ubiquitin protein ligases. Genetic variations in this gene are associated with skin/hair/eye pigmentation variability. Multiple pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 15 and 16. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

HERC5 Gene

HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 5

This gene is a member of the HERC family of ubiquitin ligases and encodes a protein with a HECT domain and five RCC1 repeats. Pro-inflammatory cytokines upregulate expression of this gene in endothelial cells. The protein localizes to the cytoplasm and perinuclear region and functions as an interferon-induced E3 protein ligase that mediates ISGylation of protein targets. The gene lies in a cluster of HERC family genes on chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HERC4 Gene

HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 4

HERC4 belongs to the HERC family of ubiquitin ligases, all of which contain a HECT domain and at least 1 RCC1 (MIM 179710)-like domain (RLD). The 350-amino acid HECT domain is predicted to catalyze the formation of a thioester with ubiquitin before transferring it to a substrate, and the RLD is predicted to act as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for small G proteins (Hochrainer et al., 2005 [PubMed 15676274]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

HERC6 Gene

HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 6

HERC6 belongs to the HERC family of ubiquitin ligases, all of which contain a HECT domain and at least 1 RCC1 (MIM 179710)-like domain (RLD). The 350-amino acid HECT domain is predicted to catalyze the formation of a thioester with ubiquitin before transferring it to a substrate, and the RLD is predicted to act as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for small G proteins (Hochrainer et al., 2005 [PubMed 15676274]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC101060191 Gene

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RING2-like

SIAH1 Gene

siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the seven in absentia homolog (SIAH) family. The protein is an E3 ligase and is involved in ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of specific proteins. The activity of this ubiquitin ligase has been implicated in the development of certain forms of Parkinson's disease, the regulation of the cellular response to hypoxia and induction of apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in several additional transcript variants, some encoding different isoforms and others that have not been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SIAH2 Gene

siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the seven in absentia homolog (SIAH) family. The protein is an E3 ligase and is involved in ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of specific proteins. The activity of this ubiquitin ligase has been implicated in regulating cellular response to hypoxia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SIAH3 Gene

siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3

BAP1 Gene

BRCA1 associated protein-1 (ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase)

This gene belongs to the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes that are involved in the removal of ubiquitin from proteins. The encoded enzyme binds to the breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) via the RING finger domain of the latter and acts as a tumor suppressor. In addition, the enzyme may be involved in regulation of transcription, regulation of cell cycle and growth, response to DNA damage and chromatin dynamics. Germline mutations in this gene may be associated with tumor predisposition syndrome (TPDS), which involves increased risk of cancers including malignant mesothelioma, uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

LOC100288437 Gene

ring finger and WD repeat domain 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

VHL Gene

von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL) is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome predisposing to a variety of malignant and benign tumors. A germline mutation of this gene is the basis of familial inheritance of VHL syndrome. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the protein complex that includes elongin B, elongin C, and cullin-2, and possesses ubiquitin ligase E3 activity. This protein is involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of hypoxia-inducible-factor (HIF), which is a transcription factor that plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression by oxygen. RNA polymerase II subunit POLR2G/RPB7 is also reported to be a target of this protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100289117 Gene

ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product 1 pseudogene

LOC100419574 Gene

HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 pseudogene

UBA52P8 Gene

ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product 1 pseudogene 8

UBA52P9 Gene

ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product 1 pseudogene 9

UBA52P1 Gene

ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product 1 pseudogene 1

UBA52P2 Gene

ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product 1 pseudogene 2

UBA52P3 Gene

ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product 1 pseudogene 3

UBA52P4 Gene

ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product 1 pseudogene 4

UBA52P6 Gene

ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product 1 pseudogene 6

UBA52P7 Gene

ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product 1 pseudogene 7

UBE3B Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3B

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: E1 ubiquitin-activating enzymes, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases. This gene encodes a member of the E3 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family which accepts ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and transfers the ubiquitin to the targeted substrates. A HECT (homology to E6-AP C-terminus) domain in the C-terminus of the longer isoform of this protein is the catalytic site of ubiquitin transfer and forms a complex with E2 conjugases. Shorter isoforms of this protein which lack the C-terminal HECT domain are therefore unlikely to bind E2 enzymes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

UBE3C Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3C

UBE3A Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3A

This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, part of the ubiquitin protein degradation system. This imprinted gene is maternally expressed in brain and biallelically expressed in other tissues. Maternally inherited deletion of this gene causes Angelman Syndrome, characterized by severe motor and intellectual retardation, ataxia, hypotonia, epilepsy, absence of speech, and characteristic facies. The protein also interacts with the E6 protein of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18, resulting in ubiquitination and proteolysis of tumor protein p53. Alternative splicing of this gene results in three transcript variants encoding three isoforms with different N-termini. Additional transcript variants have been described, but their full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBE3D Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3D

LOC402329 Gene

ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 17-like protein 2-like

ZNRF1 Gene

zinc and ring finger 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that plays a role in neural-cell differentiation. Overexpression of this gene causes neurite-like elongation. The encoded protein contains both a zinc finger and a RING finger motif and is localized in the endosome/lysosome compartment, indicating that it may be involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein modification, and in synaptic vessicle membranes in neurons. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ZNRF2 Gene

zinc and ring finger 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

UBA52P5 Gene

ubiquitin A-52 residue ribosomal protein fusion product 1 pseudogene 5

UBAP1L Gene

ubiquitin associated protein 1-like

MGRN1 Gene

mahogunin ring finger 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

Mahogunin (MGRN1) is a C3HC4 RING-containing protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

CHFR Gene

checkpoint with forkhead and ring finger domains, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase required for the maintenance of the antephase checkpoint that regulates cell cycle entry into mitosis and, therefore, may play a key role in cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. The encoded protein has an N-terminal forkhead-associated domain, a central RING-finger domain, and a cysteine-rich C-terminal region. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

LOC100421870 Gene

WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 pseudogene

ARIH2 Gene

ariadne RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2

ARIH1 Gene

ariadne RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

UBE3AP1 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3A pseudogene 1

UBE3AP2 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3A pseudogene 2

AMFR Gene

autocrine motility factor receptor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This locus encodes a glycosylated transmembrane receptor. Its ligand, autocrine motility factor, is a tumor motility-stimulating protein secreted by tumor cells. The encoded receptor is also a member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase family of proteins. It catalyzes ubiquitination and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of specific proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

LOC100128122 Gene

Cbl proto-oncogene-like 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

LOC100996851 Gene

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase XIAP pseudogene

NEURL1B Gene

neuralized E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1B

UBAP2L Gene

ubiquitin associated protein 2-like

HECW1 Gene

HECT, C2 and WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

HECW2 Gene

HECT, C2 and WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2

XIAP Gene

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a family of apoptotic suppressor proteins. Members of this family share a conserved motif termed, baculovirus IAP repeat, which is necessary for their anti-apoptotic function. This protein functions through binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors TRAF1 and TRAF2 and inhibits apoptosis induced by menadione, a potent inducer of free radicals, and interleukin 1-beta converting enzyme. This protein also inhibits at least two members of the caspase family of cell-death proteases, caspase-3 and caspase-7. Mutations in this gene are the cause of X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 2 and 11.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

LOC102723743 Gene

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF12-B-like

UBR3 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 3 (putative)

UBR2 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 2

This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase of the N-end rule proteolytic pathway that targets proteins with destabilizing N-terminal residues for polyubiquitylation and proteasome-mediated degradation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

UBR1 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 1

The N-end rule pathway is one proteolytic pathway of the ubiquitin system. The recognition component of this pathway, encoded by this gene, binds to a destabilizing N-terminal residue of a substrate protein and participates in the formation of a substrate-linked multiubiquitin chain. This leads to the eventual degradation of the substrate protein. The protein described in this record has a RING-type zinc finger and a UBR-type zinc finger. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Johanson-Blizzard syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBR7 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 7 (putative)

UBR5 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 5

This gene encodes a progestin-induced protein, which belongs to the HECT (homology to E6-AP carboxyl terminus) family. The HECT family proteins function as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases, targeting specific proteins for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This gene is localized to chromosome 8q22 which is disrupted in a variety of cancers. This gene potentially has a role in regulation of cell proliferation or differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBR4 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 4

The protein encoded by this gene is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that interacts with the retinoblastoma-associated protein in the nucleus and with calcium-bound calmodulin in the cytoplasm. The encoded protein appears to be a cytoskeletal component in the cytoplasm and part of the chromatin scaffold in the nucleus. In addition, this protein is a target of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

NEDD4L Gene

neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4-like, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the Nedd4 family of HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases. HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin from E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes to protein substrates, thus targeting specific proteins for lysosomal degradation. The encoded protein mediates the ubiquitination of multiple target substrates and plays a critical role in epithelial sodium transport by regulating the cell surface expression of the epithelial sodium channel, ENaC. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with essential hypertension. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

RBX1 Gene

ring-box 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This locus encodes a RING finger-like domain-containing protein. The encoded protein interacts with cullin proteins and likely plays a role in ubiquitination processes necessary for cell cycle progression. This protein may also affect protein turnover. Related pseudogenes exist on chromosomes 2 and 5.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

LOC100128108 Gene

putative ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q2-like protein

LOC100421248 Gene

siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 pseudogene

TRIM71 Gene

tripartite motif containing 71, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

TOPORS Gene

topoisomerase I binding, arginine/serine-rich, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a nuclear protein which is serine and arginine rich, and contains a RING-type zinc finger domain. It is highly expressed in the testis, and functions as an ubiquitin-protein E3 ligase. Mutations in this gene are associated with retinitis pigmentosa type 31. Alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding different isoforms, have been observed for this locus. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

LOC649352 Gene

ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 17-like protein 2-like

TRAF6 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 6, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) protein family. TRAF proteins are associated with, and mediate signal transduction from, members of the TNF receptor superfamily. This protein mediates signaling from members of the TNF receptor superfamily as well as the Toll/IL-1 family. Signals from receptors such as CD40, TNFSF11/RANCE and IL-1 have been shown to be mediated by this protein. This protein also interacts with various protein kinases including IRAK1/IRAK, SRC and PKCzeta, which provides a link between distinct signaling pathways. This protein functions as a signal transducer in the NF-kappaB pathway that activates IkappaB kinase (IKK) in response to proinflammatory cytokines. The interaction of this protein with UBE2N/UBC13, and UBE2V1/UEV1A, which are ubiquitin conjugating enzymes catalyzing the formation of polyubiquitin chains, has been found to be required for IKK activation by this protein. This protein also interacts with the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta receptor complex and is required for Smad-independent activation of the JNK and p38 kinases. This protein has an amino terminal RING domain which is followed by four zinc-finger motifs, a central coiled-coil region and a highly conserved carboxyl terminal domain, known as the TRAF-C domain. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding an identical protein, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

TRAF7 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 7, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF; see MIM 191160) receptor-associated factors, such as TRAF7, are signal transducers for members of the TNF receptor superfamily (see MIM 191190). TRAFs are composed of an N-terminal cysteine/histidine-rich region containing zinc RING and/or zinc finger motifs; a coiled-coil (leucine zipper) motif; and a homologous region that defines the TRAF family, the TRAF domain, which is involved in self-association and receptor binding.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

LOC100631354 Gene

SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 pseudogene

WWP1P1 Gene

WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 pseudogene 1

CBL Gene

Cbl proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene is a proto-oncogene that encodes a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase. The encoded protein is one of the enzymes required for targeting substrates for degradation by the proteasome. This protein mediates the transfer of ubiquitin from ubiquitin conjugating enzymes (E2) to specific substrates. This protein also contains an N-terminal phosphotyrosine binding domain that allows it to interact with numerous tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates and target them for proteasome degradation. As such it functions as a negative regulator of many signal transduction pathways. This gene has been found to be mutated or translocated in many cancers including acute myeloid leukaemia. Mutations in this gene are also the cause of Noonan syndrome-like disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

LOC100420509 Gene

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

LOC100500934 Gene

ring-box 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

SMURF1 Gene

SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

This gene encodes a ubiquitin ligase that is specific for receptor-regulated SMAD proteins in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway. This protein plays a key roll in the regulation of cell motility, cell signalling, and cell polarity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

SMURF2 Gene

SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2

LOC105379587 Gene

putative ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 17-like protein 23

MDM2 Gene

MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a nuclear-localized E3 ubiquitin ligase. The encoded protein can promote tumor formation by targeting tumor suppressor proteins, such as p53, for proteasomal degradation. This gene is itself transcriptionally-regulated by p53. Overexpression or amplification of this locus is detected in a variety of different cancers. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 2. Alternative splicing results in a multitude of transcript variants, many of which may be expressed only in tumor cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

FBXW7 Gene

F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene was previously referred to as FBX30, and belongs to the Fbws class; in addition to an F-box, this protein contains 7 tandem WD40 repeats. This protein binds directly to cyclin E and probably targets cyclin E for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Mutations in this gene are detected in ovarian and breast cancer cell lines, implicating the gene's potential role in the pathogenesis of human cancers. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

G2E3 Gene

G2/M-phase specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

TRIM72 Gene

tripartite motif containing 72, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

HECTD2 Gene

HECT domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2

HECTD3 Gene

HECT domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 3

The protein encoded by this gene transfers ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to targeted substrates, leading to the degradation of those substrates. The encoded protein has been shown to transfer ubiquitin to TRIOBP to facilitate cell cycle progression, and to STX8. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

HECTD4 Gene

HECT domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 4

CBLC Gene

Cbl proto-oncogene C, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the Cbl family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Cbl proteins play important roles in cell signaling through the ubiquitination and subsequent downregulation of tyrosine kinases. Expression of this gene may be restricted to epithelial cells, and alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

CBLB Gene

Cbl proto-oncogene B, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

HECTD1 Gene

HECT domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

PJA1 Gene

praja ring finger 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes an enzyme that has E2-dependent E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. This enzyme belongs to a class of ubiquitin ligases that include a RING finger motif, and it can interact with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5B. This gene is located in an area of chromosome X where several X-linked mental retardation disorders have been associated, and it has also been found as part of a contiguous gene deletion associated with craniofrontonasal syndrome, though a direct link to any disorder has yet to be demonstrated. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PJA2 Gene

praja ring finger 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MARCH4 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 4, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MARCH4 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH enzymes add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments. MARCH4 reduces surface accumulation of several membrane glycoproteins by directing them to the endosomal compartment (Bartee et al., 2004 [PubMed 14722266]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

MARCH7 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 7, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MARCH7 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH proteins add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments (Bartee et al., 2004 [PubMed 14722266]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

MARCH6 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 6, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of a family of membrane-associated E3 ubiquitin ligases containing RING-CH-type zinc finger motifs. Ubiquitination of type II deiodinase by the encoded protein is an important regulatory step in thyroid hormone signalling. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

MARCH1 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MARCH1 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH proteins add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments. MARCH1 downregulates the surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules (see MIM 142880) and other glycoproteins by directing them to the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment (Bartee et al., 2004 [PubMed 14722266]; Thibodeau et al., 2008 [PubMed 18389477]; De Gassart et al., 2008 [PubMed 18305173]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

MARCH3 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 3, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) family. The encoded protein is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that may be involved in regulation of the endosomal transport pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

MARCH2 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MARCH2 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH enzymes add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments. MARCH2 reduces surface accumulation of several glycoproteins and appears to regulate early endosome-to-trans-Golgi network (TGN) trafficking (Bartee et al., 2004 [PubMed 14722266]; Nakamura et al., 2005 [PubMed 15689499]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

MARCH8 Gene

membrane-associated ring finger (C3HC4) 8, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MARCH8 is a member of the MARCH family of membrane-bound E3 ubiquitin ligases (EC 6.3.2.19). MARCH enzymes add ubiquitin (see MIM 191339) to target lysines in substrate proteins, thereby signaling their vesicular transport between membrane compartments. MARCH8 induces the internalization of several membrane glycoproteins (Goto et al., 2003 [PubMed 12582153]; Bartee et al., 2004 [PubMed 14722266]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

RCHY1 Gene

ring finger and CHY zinc finger domain containing 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene has ubiquitin ligase activity. It mediates E3-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of target proteins, including tumor protein 53, histone deacetylase 1, and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B, thus regulating their levels and cell cycle progression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

AREL1 Gene

apoptosis resistant E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

HUWE1 Gene

HECT, UBA and WWE domain containing 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a protein containing a C-terminal HECT (E6AP type E3 ubiquitin protein ligase) domain that functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The encoded protein is required for the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl1 (myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (BCL2-related)). This protein also ubiquitinates the p53 tumor suppressor, core histones, and DNA polymerase beta. Mutations in this gene are associated with Turner type X-linked syndromic mental retardation. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

LOC100419579 Gene

HECT and RLD domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 pseudogene

LOC101929235 Gene

putative ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q2-like protein

DTL Gene

denticleless E3 ubiquitin protein ligase homolog (Drosophila)

LOC100128413 Gene

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

LOC105369242 Gene

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HERC2-like

LOC392187 Gene

ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 17-like protein 2-like

LOC100996911 Gene

putative ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q2-like protein

LOC100420641 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 7, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

UBAP2 Gene

ubiquitin associated protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene contains a UBA (ubiquitin associated) domain, which is characteristic of proteins that function in the ubiquitination pathway. This gene may show increased expression in the adrenal gland and lymphatic tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

UBAP1 Gene

ubiquitin associated protein 1

This gene is a member of the UBA domain family, whose members include proteins having connections to ubiquitin and the ubiquitination pathway. The ubiquitin associated domain is thought to be a non-covalent ubiquitin binding domain consisting of a compact three helix bundle. This particular protein originates from a gene locus in a refined region on chromosome 9 undergoing loss of heterozygosity in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Taking into account its cytogenetic location, this UBA domain family member is being studies as a putative target for mutation in nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

TRIM63 Gene

tripartite motif containing 63, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the RING zinc finger protein family found in striated muscle and iris. The product of this gene is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that localizes to the Z-line and M-line lattices of myofibrils. This protein plays an important role in the atrophy of skeletal and cardiac muscle and is required for the degradation of myosin heavy chain proteins, myosin light chain, myosin binding protein, and for muscle-type creatine kinase. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

PARK2 Gene

parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The precise function of this gene is unknown; however, the encoded protein is a component of a multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that mediates the targeting of substrate proteins for proteasomal degradation. Mutations in this gene are known to cause Parkinson disease and autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson disease. Alternative splicing of this gene produces multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Additional splice variants of this gene have been described but currently lack transcript support. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100130841 Gene

MDM2 oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

LOC100996379 Gene

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HERC2-like

MIB1 Gene

mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

This gene encodes a protein containing multiple ankyrin repeats and RING finger domains that functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The encoded protein positively regulates Notch signaling by ubiquitinating the Notch receptors, thereby facilitating their endocytosis. This protein may also promote the ubiquitination and degradation of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1). [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

MIB2 Gene

mindbomb E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2

BTRC Gene

beta-transducin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbws class; in addition to an F-box, this protein contains multiple WD-40 repeats. The encoded protein mediates degradation of CD4 via its interaction with HIV-1 Vpu. It has also been shown to ubiquitinate phosphorylated NFKBIA (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha), targeting it for degradation and thus activating nuclear factor kappa-B. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. A related pseudogene exists in chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

MUL1 Gene

mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

NHLRC1 Gene

NHL repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a single subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase. Laforin is polyubiquitinated by the encoded protein. Defects in this intronless gene lead to an accumulation of laforin and onset of Lafora disease, also known as progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 2 (EPM2).[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

RFWD2 Gene

ring finger and WD repeat domain 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

LOC102723534 Gene

E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase HERC2-like

LOC100130550 Gene

g2/M phase-specific E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase-like

SHPRH Gene

SNF2 histone linker PHD RING helicase, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

SHPRH is a ubiquitously expressed protein that contains motifs characteristics of several DNA repair proteins, transcription factors, and helicases. SHPRH is a functional homolog of S. cerevisiae RAD5 (Unk et al., 2006 [PubMed 17108083]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100287985 Gene

ring-box 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

PELI1 Gene

pellino E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

PELI3 Gene

pellino E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a scaffold protein and an intermediate signaling protein in the innate immune response pathway. The encoded protein helps transmit the immune response signal from Toll-like receptors to IRAK1/TRAF6 complexes. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

PELI2 Gene

pellino E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 2

NEDD4 Gene

neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 4, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

NEURL1 Gene

neuralized E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

NEURL2 Gene

neuralized E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2

This gene encodes a protein that is involved in the regulation of myofibril organization. This protein is likely the adaptor component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex in striated muscle, and it regulates the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of beta-catenin during myogenesis. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

NEURL3 Gene

neuralized E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 3

NEURL4 Gene

neuralized E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is predicted and it includes two isoforms resulting from two alternatively spliced transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASB11 Gene

ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 11, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing (ASB) family of proteins. They contain ankyrin repeat sequence and SOCS box domain. The SOCS box serves to couple suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins and their binding partners with the elongin B and C complex, possibly targeting them for degradation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

RAD18 Gene

RAD18 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to S. cerevisiae DNA damage repair protein Rad18. Yeast Rad18 functions through its interaction with Rad6, which is an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme required for post-replication repair of damaged DNA. Similar to its yeast counterpart, this protein is able to interact with the human homolog of yeast Rad6 protein through a conserved ring-finger motif. Mutation of this motif results in defective replication of UV-damaged DNA and hypersensitivity to multiple mutagens. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SIAH1P1 Gene

siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 pseudogene 1

LOC102724605 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene

UBE2Q2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 2

USP17L30 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 30

USP10P1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 10 pseudogene 1

USP10P2 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase10 pseudogene 2

UBE2J1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, J1

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. This enzyme is located in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and may contribute to quality control ER-associated degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100288170 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene

LOC100506633 Gene

ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 pseudogene

LOC100420351 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

UFD1L Gene

ubiquitin fusion degradation 1 like (yeast)

The protein encoded by this gene forms a complex with two other proteins, nuclear protein localization-4 and valosin-containing protein, and this complex is necessary for the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. In addition, this complex controls the disassembly of the mitotic spindle and the formation of a closed nuclear envelope after mitosis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Catch 22 syndrome as well as cardiac and craniofacial defects. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 18. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

LOC100422227 Gene

small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 pseudogene

USP32P1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 32 pseudogene 1

USP32P2 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 32 pseudogene 2

USP32P4 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 32 pseudogene 4

UBE2Q2P11 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 2 pseudogene 11

UBE2Q2P12 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 2 pseudogene 12

TMUB1 Gene

transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain containing 1

TMUB2 Gene

transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain containing 2

USP9X Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, X-linked

This gene is a member of the peptidase C19 family and encodes a protein that is similar to ubiquitin-specific proteases. Though this gene is located on the X chromosome, it escapes X-inactivation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Turner syndrome. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP9Y Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked

This gene is a member of the peptidase C19 family. It encodes a protein that is similar to ubiquitin-specific proteases, which cleave the ubiquitin moiety from ubiquitin-fused precursors and ubiquitinylated proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

USP9YP34 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 34

USP9YP30 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 30

USP17L3 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 3

UBA6 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 6

Modification of proteins with ubiquitin (UBB; MIM 191339) or ubiquitin-like proteins controls many signaling networks and requires a ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), a ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2), and a ubiquitin protein ligase (E3). UBE1L2 is an E1 enzyme that initiates the activation and conjugation of ubiquitin-like proteins (Jin et al., 2007 [PubMed 17597759]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

UBA5 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 5

This gene encodes a member of the E1-like ubiquitin-activating enzyme family. This protein activates ubiquitin-fold modifier 1, a ubiquitin-like post-translational modifier protein, via the formation of a high-energy thioester bond. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. A pseudogene located on chromosome 1 has also been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBA2 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 2

Posttranslational modification of proteins by the addition of the small protein SUMO (see SUMO1; MIM 601912), or sumoylation, regulates protein structure and intracellular localization. SAE1 (MIM 613294) and UBA2 form a heterodimer that functions as a SUMO-activating enzyme for the sumoylation of proteins (Okuma et al., 1999 [PubMed 9920803]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

UBA3 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 3

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme family. The encoded enzyme associates with AppBp1, an amyloid beta precursor protein binding protein, to form a heterodimer, and then the enzyme complex activates NEDD8, a ubiquitin-like protein, which regulates cell division, signaling and embryogenesis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBA1 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 1

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the first step in ubiquitin conjugation to mark cellular proteins for degradation. This gene complements an X-linked mouse temperature-sensitive defect in DNA synthesis, and thus may function in DNA repair. It is part of a gene cluster on chromosome Xp11.23. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBE2D3P3 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 3 pseudogene 3

UBE2D3P2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 3 pseudogene 2

UBE2D3P1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 3 pseudogene 1

UBE2D3P4 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 3 pseudogene 4

USP12 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 12

USP10 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 10

Ubiquitin is a highly conserved protein that is covalently linked to other proteins to regulate their function and degradation. This gene encodes a member of the ubiquitin-specific protease family of cysteine proteases. The enzyme specifically cleaves ubiquitin from ubiquitin-conjugated protein substrates. The protein is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm. It functions as a co-factor of the DNA-bound androgen receptor complex, and is inhibited by a protein in the Ras-GTPase pathway. The human genome contains several pseudogenes similar to this gene. Several transcript variants, some protein-coding and others not protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

USP11 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 11

Protein ubiquitination controls many intracellular processes, including cell cycle progression, transcriptional activation, and signal transduction. This dynamic process, involving ubiquitin conjugating enzymes and deubiquitinating enzymes, adds and removes ubiquitin. Deubiquitinating enzymes are cysteine proteases that specifically cleave ubiquitin from ubiquitin-conjugated protein substrates. This gene encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme which lies in a gene cluster on chromosome Xp11.23 [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP16 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 16

This gene encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme that is phosphorylated at the onset of mitosis and then dephosphorylated at the metaphase/anaphase transition. It can deubiquitinate H2A, one of two major ubiquitinated proteins of chromatin, in vitro and a mutant form of the protein was shown to block cell division. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP14 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 14 (tRNA-guanine transglycosylase)

This gene encodes a member of the ubiquitin-specific processing (UBP) family of proteases that is a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) with His and Cys domains. This protein is located in the cytoplasm and cleaves the ubiquitin moiety from ubiquitin-fused precursors and ubiquitinylated proteins. Mice with a mutation that results in reduced expression of the ortholog of this protein are retarded for growth, develop severe tremors by 2 to 3 weeks of age followed by hindlimb paralysis and death by 6 to 10 weeks of age. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP15 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 15

This gene encodes a member of the ubiquitin specific protease (USP) family of deubiquitinating enzymes. USP enzymes play critical roles in ubiquitin-dependent processes through polyubiquitin chain disassembly and hydrolysis of ubiquitin-substrate bonds. The encoded protein associates with the COP9 signalosome, and also plays a role in transforming growth factor beta signalling through deubiquitination of receptor-activated SMAD transcription factors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

USP18 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 18

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ubiquitin-specific proteases (UBP) family of enzymes that cleave ubiquitin from ubiquitinated protein substrates. It is highly expressed in liver and thymus, and is localized to the nucleus. This protein efficiently cleaves only ISG15 (a ubiquitin-like protein) fusions, and deletion of this gene in mice results in a massive increase of ISG15 conjugates in tissues, indicating that this protein is a major ISG15-specific protease. Mice lacking this gene are also hypersensitive to interferon, suggesting a function of this protein in downregulating interferon responses, independent of its isopeptidase activity towards ISG15. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

USP19 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 19

UBL4A Gene

ubiquitin-like 4A

USP35 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 35

USP36 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 36

Modification of cellular proteins by ubiquitin is an essential regulatory mechanism controlled by the coordinated action of multiple ubiquitin-conjugating and deubiquitinating enzymes. USP36 belongs to a large family of cysteine proteases that function as deubiquitinating enzymes (Quesada et al., 2004 [PubMed 14715245]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2009]

UBE2V1P9 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene 9

UBE2V1P6 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene 6

UBE2V1P5 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene 5

UBE2V1P3 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene 3

UBE2V1P2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene 2

UBE2V1P1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene 1

UBE2R2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2R 2

Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous and pleiotropic Ser/Thr protein kinase involved in cell growth and transformation. This gene encodes a protein similar to the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme UBC3/CDC34. Studies suggest that CK2-dependent phosphorylation of this ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme functions by regulating beta-TrCP substrate recognition and induces its interaction with beta-TrCP, enhancing beta-catenin degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP8P1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene 1

LOC100421094 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 2 pseudogene

UBE2J2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, J2

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. This enzyme is located in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been defined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100289193 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2L 3 pseudogene

LOC102723977 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene

LOC100129586 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 4 (putative) pseudogene

UBE2Q2P4Y Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 2 pseudogene 4, Y-linked

UBE2NP1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N pseudogene 1

UBE2CP1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C pseudogene 1

UBE2CP2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C pseudogene 2

UBE2CP3 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C pseudogene 3

UBE2CP4 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C pseudogene 4

UBE2CP5 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C pseudogene 5

LOC100506576 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2L 3 pseudogene

UBE2G2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2G 2

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. The encoded protein shares 100% sequence identity with the mouse counterpart. This gene is ubiquitously expressed, with high expression seen in adult muscle. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

UBE2G1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2G 1

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family and catalyzes the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to other proteins. The protein may be involved in degradation of muscle-specific proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBE2Q2P5Y Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 2 pseudogene 5, Y-linked

USP17L21 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 21

OTUB1 Gene

OTU deubiquitinase, ubiquitin aldehyde binding 1

The product of this gene is a member of the OTU (ovarian tumor) superfamily of predicted cysteine proteases. The encoded protein is a highly specific ubiquitin iso-peptidase, and cleaves ubiquitin from branched poly-ubiquitin chains but not from ubiquitinated substrates. It interacts with another ubiquitin protease and an E3 ubiquitin ligase that inhibits cytokine gene transcription in the immune system. It is proposed to function in specific ubiquitin-dependent pathways, possibly by providing an editing function for polyubiquitin chain growth. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OTUB2 Gene

OTU deubiquitinase, ubiquitin aldehyde binding 2

This gene encodes one of several deubiquitylating enzymes. Ubiquitin modification of proteins is needed for their stability and function; to reverse the process, deubiquityling enzymes remove ubiquitin. This protein contains an OTU domain and binds Ubal (ubiquitin aldehyde); an active cysteine protease site is present in the OTU domain. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

USP9YP3 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 3

USP9YP5 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 5

USP9YP4 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 4

USP9YP1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 1

USP9YP2 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 2

LOC105375665 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene

LOC101927785 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene

LOC100131962 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 4 (putative) pseudogene

UHRF1 Gene

ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 1

This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of RING-finger type E3 ubiquitin ligases. The protein binds to specific DNA sequences, and recruits a histone deacetylase to regulate gene expression. Its expression peaks at late G1 phase and continues during G2 and M phases of the cell cycle. It plays a major role in the G1/S transition by regulating topoisomerase IIalpha and retinoblastoma gene expression, and functions in the p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint. It is regarded as a hub protein for the integration of epigenetic information. This gene is up-regulated in various cancers, and it is therefore considered to be a therapeutic target. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. A related pseudogene exists on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

UBL5 Gene

ubiquitin-like 5

This gene encodes a member of a group of proteins similar to ubiquitin. The encoded protein is not thought to degrade proteins like ubiquitin but to affect their function through being bound to target proteins by an isopeptide bond. The gene product has been studied as a link to predisposition to obesity based on its expression in Psammomys obesus, the fat sand rat, which is an animal model for obesity studies. Variation in this gene was found to be significantly associated with some metabolic traits (PMID: 15331561) but not associated with childhood obesity (PMID: 19189687). Pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 3, 5 and 17. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

UBL7 Gene

ubiquitin-like 7

UBL3 Gene

ubiquitin-like 3

USP17L28 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 28

USP17L22 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 22

USP17L23 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 23

USP17L20 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 20

UBE2L6 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2L 6

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1s), ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s). This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. This enzyme is highly similar in primary structure to the enzyme encoded by the UBE2L3 gene. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

UBE2L4 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2L 4 (pseudogene)

UBE2L3 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2L 3

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1s), ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s). This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. This enzyme is demonstrated to participate in the ubiquitination of p53, c-Fos, and the NF-kB precursor p105 in vitro. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

UBE2L1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2L 1 (pseudogene)

LOC100421737 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 4 (proto-oncogene) pseudogene

LOC100420435 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 21 pseudogene

LOC440489 Gene

ubiquitin fusion degradation 1 like (yeast) pseudogene

UBFD1 Gene

ubiquitin family domain containing 1

UBE2E4P Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2E 4 pseudogene

UBE2L5P Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2L 5 (pseudogene)

UBE2D4 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 4 (putative)

UBE2D2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 2

Regulated degradation of misfolded, damaged or short-lived proteins in eukaryotes occurs via the ubiquitin (Ub)-proteasome system (UPS). An integral part of the UPS system is the ubiquitination of target proteins and covalent linkage of Ub-containing proteins to form polymeric chains, marking them as targets for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. Ubiquitination of proteins is mediated by a cascade of enzymes which includes E1 (ubiquitin activating), E2 (ubiquitin conjugating), and E3 (ubiquitin ligases) enzymes. This gene encodes a member of the E2 enzyme family. Substrates of this enzyme include the tumor suppressor protein p53 and peroxisomal biogenesis factor 5 (PEX5). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

UBE2D3 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 3

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. This enzyme functions in the ubiquitination of the tumor-suppressor protein p53, which is induced by an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Multiple spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBE2D1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 1

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. This enzyme is closely related to a stimulator of iron transport (SFT), and is up-regulated in hereditary hemochromatosis. It also functions in the ubiquitination of the tumor-suppressor protein p53 and the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF1alpha by interacting with the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme and the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

UBE2Q2P10 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 2 pseudogene 10

LOC345576 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 7 (herpes virus-associated) pseudogene

UBDP1 Gene

ubiquitin D pseudogene 1

LOC102724706 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1-like

LOC101060189 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2F (putative) pseudogene

USP9YP11 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 11

USP9YP10 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 10

USP9YP13 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 13

USP9YP12 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 12

LOC100420440 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 12 pseudogene

LOC100420428 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 21 pseudogene

USP22 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 22

UFM1 Gene

ubiquitin-fold modifier 1

UFM1 is a ubiquitin-like protein that is conjugated to target proteins by E1-like activating enzyme UBA5 (UBE1DC1; MIM 610552) and E2-like conjugating enzyme UFC1 (MIM 610554) in a manner analogous to ubiquitylation (see UBE2M; MIM 603173) (Komatsu et al., 2004 [PubMed 15071506]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2008]

USP17L2 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 2

DUB3 is a member of the ubiquitin processing protease (UBP) subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes. See USP1 (MIM 603478) for background information.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

USP17L1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 1

USP17L7 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 7

USP17L5 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 5

USP17L4 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 4

USP17L8 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 8

LOC100533913 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

LOC100533914 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

USP38 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 38

USP39 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 39

USP30 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 30

USP30, a member of the ubiquitin-specific protease family (see USP1, MIM 603478), is a novel mitochondrial deubiquitinating (DUB) enzyme (Nakamura and Hirose, 2008 [PubMed 18287522]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2008]

USP31 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 31

USP32 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 32

USP33 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 33

This gene encodes a deubiquinating enzyme important in a variety of processes, including Slit-dependent cell migration and beta-2 adrenergic receptor signaling. The protein is negatively regulated through ubiquitination by von Hippel-Lindau tumor protein (VHL). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

USP34 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 34

USP37 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 37

ANKUB1 Gene

ankyrin repeat and ubiquitin domain containing 1

UBD Gene

ubiquitin D

UBB Gene

ubiquitin B

This gene encodes ubiquitin, one of the most conserved proteins known. Ubiquitin has a major role in targeting cellular proteins for degradation by the 26S proteosome. It is also involved in the maintenance of chromatin structure, the regulation of gene expression, and the stress response. Ubiquitin is synthesized as a precursor protein consisting of either polyubiquitin chains or a single ubiquitin moiety fused to an unrelated protein. This gene consists of three direct repeats of the ubiquitin coding sequence with no spacer sequence. Consequently, the protein is expressed as a polyubiquitin precursor with a final amino acid after the last repeat. An aberrant form of this protein has been detected in patients with Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 13, and 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

UBC Gene

ubiquitin C

This gene represents a ubiquitin gene, ubiquitin C. The encoded protein is a polyubiquitin precursor. Conjugation of ubiquitin monomers or polymers can lead to various effects within a cell, depending on the residues to which ubiquitin is conjugated. Ubiquitination has been associated with protein degradation, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, kinase modification, endocytosis, and regulation of other cell signaling pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

USP17L29 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 29

USP17L26 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 26

USP17L27 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 27

USP17L24 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 24

USP17L25 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 25

LOC100289623 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene

LOC100507422 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N pseudogene

LOC100533911 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

LOC100533912 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

LOC100533915 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

LOC100533916 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

UBTD2 Gene

ubiquitin domain containing 2

UBTD1 Gene

ubiquitin domain containing 1

The degradation of many proteins is carried out by the ubiquitin pathway in which proteins are targeted for degradation by covalent conjugation of the polypeptide ubiquitin. This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the ubiquitin family of proteins. The encoded protein is thought to regulate E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes belonging to the UBE2D family. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

USPL1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase like 1

LOC102723952 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene

UCHL5 Gene

ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L5

USP9YP22 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 22

USP9YP23 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 23

LOC100887079 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 22 pseudogene

LOC100128926 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1-like

USP17L16P Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 16, pseudogene

LOC101060075 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene

LOC100506133 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N pseudogene

LOC100124402 Gene

ubiquitin-fold modifier conjugating enzyme 1 pseudogene

UBE2L2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2L 2 (pseudogene)

UBASH3A Gene

ubiquitin associated and SH3 domain containing A

This gene encodes one of two family members belonging to the T-cell ubiquitin ligand (TULA) family. Both family members can negatively regulate T-cell signaling. This family member can facilitate growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis in T cells, which may occur via its interaction with AIF, an apoptosis-inducing factor. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

UBASH3B Gene

ubiquitin associated and SH3 domain containing B

This gene encodes a protein that contains a ubiquitin associated domain at the N-terminus, an SH3 domain, and a C-terminal domain with similarities to the catalytic motif of phosphoglycerate mutase. The encoded protein was found to inhibit endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBE2FP1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2F (putative) pseudogene 1

UBFD1P1 Gene

ubiquitin family domain containing 1 pseudogene 1

UBE2Q1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 1

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1s), ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s), and ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s). This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. The encoded protein is 98% identical to the mouse counterpart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBE2NL Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N-like (gene/pseudogene)

This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. The protein product is 91% identical to ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N, a multi-exon gene product. This locus represents a polymorphic pseudogene, where some individuals contain an allele that can encode a full-length protein, while others have a non-functional allele containing a premature stop codon (reference SNP rs237520) that truncates the coding sequence. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

LOC780780 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 10 pseudogene

LOC102724816 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene

UBE2WP1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2W pseudogene 1

UBE2I Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2I

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBE2O Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2O

UBE2B Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2B

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. This enzyme is required for post-replicative DNA damage repair. Its protein sequence is 100% identical to the mouse, rat, and rabbit homologs, which indicates that this enzyme is highly conserved in eukaryotic evolution. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBE2MP1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2M pseudogene 1

USP13 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 13 (isopeptidase T-3)

LOC100418572 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

LOC100418571 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

LOC100418576 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

LOC100418577 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

LOC100418574 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

LOC100418575 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 pseudogene

UBA7 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 7

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme family. The encoded enzyme is a retinoid target that triggers promyelocytic leukemia (PML)/retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) degradation and apoptosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia, where it is involved in the conjugation of the ubiquitin-like interferon-stimulated gene 15 protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP54 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 54

USP53 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 53

USP50 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 50

USP51 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 51

LOC100420429 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 15 pseudogene

HERPUD1 Gene

homocysteine-inducible, endoplasmic reticulum stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1

The accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the ER stress response. This response includes the inhibition of translation to prevent further accumulation of unfolded proteins, the increased expression of proteins involved in polypeptide folding, known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), and the destruction of misfolded proteins by the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) system. This gene may play a role in both UPR and ERAD. Its expression is induced by UPR and it has an ER stress response element in its promoter region while the encoded protein has an N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain which may interact with the ERAD system. This protein has been shown to interact with presenilin proteins and to increase the level of amyloid-beta protein following its overexpression. Alternative splicing of this gene produces multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. The full-length nature of all transcript variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

LOC101618237 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2F (putative) pseudogene

UBE2H Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2H

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. The encoded protein sequence is 100% identical to the mouse homolog and 98% identical to the frog and zebrafish homologs. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene and they encode distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

UBE2K Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2K

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. This protein interacts with RING finger proteins, and it can ubiquitinate huntingtin, the gene product for Huntington's disease. Known functions for this protein include a role in aggregate formation of expanded polyglutamine proteins and the suppression of apoptosis in polyglutamine diseases, a role in the dislocation of newly synthesized MHC class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum, and involvement in foam cell formation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBE2M Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2M

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. The encoded protein is linked with a ubiquitin-like protein, NEDD8, which can be conjugated to cellular proteins, such as Cdc53/culin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBE2N Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. Studies in mouse suggest that this protein plays a role in DNA postreplication repair. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBE2A Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2A

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and ubiquitin-protein ligases. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. This enzyme is required for post-replicative DNA damage repair, and may play a role in transcriptional regulation. Mutations in this gene are associated with mental retardation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

UBE2C Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and ubiquitin-protein ligases. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. The encoded protein is required for the destruction of mitotic cyclins and for cell cycle progression, and may be involved in cancer progression. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Pseudogenes of this gene have been defined on chromosomes 4, 14, 15, 18, and 19. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

UBE2F Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2F (putative)

UBE2Z Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Z

This gene encodes an enzyme which ubiquitinates proteins which participate in signaling pathways and apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

UBE2S Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2S

This gene encodes a member of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. The encoded protein is able to form a thiol ester linkage with ubiquitin in a ubiquitin activating enzyme-dependent manner, a characteristic property of ubiquitin carrier proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBE2U Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2U (putative)

UBE2T Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2T

The covalent conjugation of ubiquitin to proteins regulates diverse cellular pathways and proteins. Ubiquitin is transferred to a target protein through a concerted action of a ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2), such as UBE2T, and a ubiquitin ligase (E3) (Machida et al., 2006 [PubMed 16916645]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

UBE2W Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2W (putative)

This gene encodes a nuclear-localized ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) that, along with ubiquitin-activating (E1) and ligating (E3) enzymes, coordinates the addition of a ubiquitin moiety to existing proteins. The encoded protein promotes the ubiquitination of Fanconi anemia complementation group proteins and may be important in the repair of DNA damage. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

DTX3L Gene

deltex 3 like, E3 ubiquitin ligase

DTX3L functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase (Takeyama et al., 2003 [PubMed 12670957]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2009]

UFC1 Gene

ubiquitin-fold modifier conjugating enzyme 1

UFC1 is an E2-like conjugating enzyme for ubiquitin-fold modifier-1 (UFM1; MIM 610553) (Komatsu et al., 2004 [PubMed 15071506]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

USP17L19 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 19

USP9YP7 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 7

USP9YP6 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 6

USP9YP9 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 9

USP9YP8 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 8

UBE2V2P3 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 2 pseudogene 3

UBE2V1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1

Ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzyme variant proteins constitute a distinct subfamily within the E2 protein family. They have sequence similarity to other ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes but lack the conserved cysteine residue that is critical for the catalytic activity of E2s. The protein encoded by this gene is located in the nucleus and can cause transcriptional activation of the human FOS proto-oncogene. It is thought to be involved in the control of differentiation by altering cell cycle behavior. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been described for this gene, and multiple pseudogenes of this gene have been identified. Co-transcription of this gene and the neighboring upstream gene generates a rare transcript (Kua-UEV), which encodes a fusion protein comprised of sequence sharing identity with each individual gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

UBE2V2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 2

Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant proteins constitute a distinct subfamily within the E2 protein family. They have sequence similarity to other ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes but lack the conserved cysteine residue that is critical for the catalytic activity of E2s. The protein encoded by this gene also shares homology with ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 and yeast MMS2 gene product. It may be involved in the differentiation of monocytes and enterocytes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100126822 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 5 pseudogene

UBE2Q2L Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 2-like

LOC100421465 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 2 pseudogene

LOC100421468 Gene

ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 2 pseudogene

USP27X Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 27, X-linked

UBE2DNL Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D N-terminal like (pseudogene)

URM1 Gene

ubiquitin related modifier 1

LOC728688 Gene

ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains, 1 pseudogene

UBL5P2 Gene

ubiquitin-like 5 pseudogene 2

UBL5P3 Gene

ubiquitin-like 5 pseudogene 3

UBL5P1 Gene

ubiquitin-like 5 pseudogene 1

LOC100420439 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 12 pseudogene

LOC100420432 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 26 pseudogene

LOC101929087 Gene

small ubiquitin-related modifier 2-like

LOC392196 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 2 pseudogene

USP17L14P Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 14, pseudogene

USP32P3 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 32 pseudogene 3

USP29 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 29

USP28 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 28

The ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation pathway is essential for proteolysis of intracellular proteins and peptides. Enzymes that remove ubiquitin from ubiquitin-conjugated peptides, like USP28, affect the fate and degradation of intracellular proteins and are essential for maintenance of cell-free ubiquitin pools (Valero et al., 2001).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

USP26 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 26

This gene encodes a member of the ubiquitin-specific processing (UBP) family of proteases and is a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) with His and Cys domains. It is specifically expressed in testis tissue. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Sertoli cell-only syndrome and male infertility. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP25 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 25

Ubiquitin (MIM 191339) is a highly conserved 76-amino acid protein involved in regulation of intracellular protein breakdown, cell cycle regulation, and stress response. Ubiquitin is released from degraded proteins by disassembly of the polyubiquitin chains, which is mediated by ubiquitin-specific proteases (USPs), such as USP25 (Valero et al., 1999 [PubMed 10644437]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

USP24 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 24

Modification of cellular proteins by ubiquitin is an essential regulatory mechanism controlled by the coordinated action of multiple ubiquitin-conjugating and deubiquitinating enzymes. USP24 belongs to a large family of cysteine proteases that function as deubiquitinating enzymes (Quesada et al., 2004 [PubMed 14715245]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

USP21 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 21

This gene encodes a member of the C19 peptidase family, also known as family 2 of ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolases. The encoded protein cleaves ubiquitin from ubiquitinated proteins for recycling in intracellular protein degradation. The encoded protein is also able to release NEDD8, a ubiquitin-like protein, from NEDD8-conjugated proteins. This gene has been referred to as USP16 and USP23 but is now known as USP21. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP20 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 20

This gene encodes a ubiquitin specific processing protease that was first identified as a substrate of the VHL (von Hippel-Lindau disease) protein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. In addition to being ubiquitinated by the VHL-E3 ligase complex, this enzyme deubiquitinates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 alpha and thereby causes increased expression of HIF-1alpha targeted genes which play a role in angiogenesis, glucose metabolism, cell proliferation and metastasis. The enzyme encoded by this gene also regulates G-protein coupled receptor signaling by mediating the deubiquitination of beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2). This enzyme is a ubiquitously expressed thiolester hydrolase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

USP17L17 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 17

USP17L15 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 15

USP17L13 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 13

USP17L12 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 12

USP17L11 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 11

USP17L10 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 10

USP17L18 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 18

LOC339966 Gene

ubiquitin family domain containing 1 pseudogene

LOC100996722 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 D4 pseudogene

UBE2V2P1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 2 pseudogene 1

USP17L9P Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 9, pseudogene

UBE2HP1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2H pseudogene 1

ISG15 Gene

ISG15 ubiquitin-like modifier

The protein encoded by this gene is a ubiquitin-like protein that is conjugated to intracellular target proteins upon activation by interferon-alpha and interferon-beta. Several functions have been ascribed to the encoded protein, including chemotactic activity towards neutrophils, direction of ligated target proteins to intermediate filaments, cell-to-cell signaling, and antiviral activity during viral infections. While conjugates of this protein have been found to be noncovalently attached to intermediate filaments, this protein is sometimes secreted. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

USP12P1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 12 pseudogene 1

UBE2Q2P7 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 2 pseudogene 7

UBE2Q2P6 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 2 pseudogene 6

UBE2Q2P1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 2 pseudogene 1

UBE2Q2P2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 2 pseudogene 2

UBE2Q2P8 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family member 2 pseudogene 8

SUMO1 Gene

small ubiquitin-like modifier 1

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) protein family. It functions in a manner similar to ubiquitin in that it is bound to target proteins as part of a post-translational modification system. However, unlike ubiquitin which targets proteins for degradation, this protein is involved in a variety of cellular processes, such as nuclear transport, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, and protein stability. It is not active until the last four amino acids of the carboxy-terminus have been cleaved off. Several pseudogenes have been reported for this gene. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SUMO2 Gene

small ubiquitin-like modifier 2

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) protein family. It functions in a manner similar to ubiquitin in that it is bound to target proteins as part of a post-translational modification system. However, unlike ubiquitin which targets proteins for degradation, this protein is involved in a variety of cellular processes, such as nuclear transport, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, and protein stability. It is not active until the last two amino acids of the carboxy-terminus have been cleaved off. Numerous pseudogenes have been reported for this gene. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SUMO4 Gene

small ubiquitin-like modifier 4

This gene is a member of the SUMO gene family. This family of genes encode small ubiquitin-related modifiers that are attached to proteins and control the target proteins' subcellular localization, stability, or activity. The protein described in this record is located in the cytoplasm and specifically modifies IKBA, leading to negative regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent transcription of the IL12B gene. A specific polymorphism in this SUMO gene, which leads to the M55V substitution, has been associated with type I diabetes. The RefSeq contains this polymorphism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBLCP1 Gene

ubiquitin-like domain containing CTD phosphatase 1

DTX4 Gene

deltex 4, E3 ubiquitin ligase

DTX1 Gene

deltex 1, E3 ubiquitin ligase

Studies in Drosophila have identified this gene as encoding a positive regulator of the Notch-signaling pathway. The human gene encodes a protein of unknown function; however, it may play a role in basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DTX2 Gene

deltex 2, E3 ubiquitin ligase

DTX2 functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase (Takeyama et al., 2003 [PubMed 12670957]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2009]

DTX3 Gene

deltex 3, E3 ubiquitin ligase

DTX3 functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase (Takeyama et al., 2003 [PubMed 12670957]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2009]

UBL4B Gene

ubiquitin-like 4B

UIMC1 Gene

ubiquitin interaction motif containing 1

USP17L6P Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 17-like family member 6, pseudogene

LOC102443352 Gene

ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 pseudogene

LOC100505982 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1 pseudogene

NUB1 Gene

negative regulator of ubiquitin-like proteins 1

This gene encodes a protein that functions as a negative regulator of NEDD8, a ubiquitin-like protein that conjugates with cullin family members in order to regulate vital biological events. The protein encoded by this gene regulates the NEDD8 conjugation system post-transcriptionally by recruiting NEDD8 and its conjugates to the proteasome for degradation. This protein interacts with the product of the AIPL1 gene, which is associated with Leber congenital amaurosis, an inherited retinopathy, and mutations in that gene can abolish interaction with this protein, which may contribute to the pathogenesis. This protein is also known to accumulate in Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, and in glial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy, with this abnormal accumulation being specific to alpha-synucleinopathy lesions. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

USP24P1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 24 pseudogene 1

LOC101929053 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 1-like

LOC100130682 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 12 pseudogene

UBBP1 Gene

ubiquitin B pseudogene 1

UBBP2 Gene

ubiquitin B pseudogene 2

UBBP3 Gene

ubiquitin B pseudogene 3

UBBP4 Gene

ubiquitin B pseudogene 4

UBBP5 Gene

ubiquitin B pseudogene 5

UBE2E1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2E 1

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

UBE2E3 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2E 3

The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. The encoded protein shares 100% sequence identity with the mouse and rat counterparts, which indicates that this enzyme is highly conserved in eukaryotes. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

UBE2E2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2E 2

LOC100128739 Gene

ubiquitin domain containing 2 pseudogene

USP9YP19 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked pseudogene 19

UHRF2P1 Gene

ubiquitin-like with PHD and ring finger domains 2 pseudogene 1

UBE2QL1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2Q family-like 1

LOC729835 Gene

ubiquitin-fold modifier 1 pseudogene

LOC728825 Gene

small ubiquitin-like modifier 2

UBE2SP1 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2S pseudogene 1

UBE2SP2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2S pseudogene 2

USP49 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 49

USP48 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 48

This gene encodes a protein containing domains that associate it with the peptidase family C19, also known as family 2 of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolases. Family members function as deubiquitinating enzymes, recognizing and hydrolyzing the peptide bond at the C-terminal glycine of ubiquitin. Enzymes in peptidase family C19 are involved in the processing of poly-ubiquitin precursors as well as that of ubiquitinated proteins. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP45 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 45

USP44 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 44

Modification of cellular proteins by ubiquitin is an essential regulatory mechanism controlled by the coordinated action of multiple ubiquitin-conjugating and deubiquitinating enzymes. USP44 belongs to a large family of cysteine proteases that function as deubiquitinating enzymes (Quesada et al., 2004 [PubMed 14715245]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

USP47 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 47

USP46 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 46

Modification of cellular proteins by ubiquitin is an essential regulatory mechanism controlled by the coordinated action of multiple ubiquitin-conjugating and deubiquitinating enzymes. USP46 belongs to a large family of cysteine proteases that function as deubiquitinating enzymes (Quesada et al., 2004 [PubMed 14715245]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

USP41 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 41

USP40 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 40

Modification of cellular proteins by ubiquitin is an essential regulatory mechanism controlled by the coordinated action of multiple ubiquitin-conjugating and deubiquitinating enzymes. USP40 belongs to a large family of cysteine proteases that function as deubiquitinating enzymes (Quesada et al., 2004 [PubMed 14715245]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

USP43 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 43

USP42 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 42

UBE2V2P2 Gene

ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 variant 2 pseudogene 2

LOC100420438 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 12 pseudogene

LOC100420437 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 12 pseudogene

USP12PX Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 12 pseudogene, X-linked

USP12PY Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 12 pseudogene, Y-linked

IQUB Gene

IQ motif and ubiquitin domain containing

SUMO3 Gene

small ubiquitin-like modifier 3

This gene encodes a member of the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) family of eukaryotic proteins. The encoded protein is covalently conjugated to other proteins via a post-translation modification known as sumoylation. Sumoylation may play a role in a wide variety of cellular processes, including nuclear transport, DNA replication and repair, mitosis, transcriptional regulation, and signal transduction. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct proteins have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

USP8 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 8

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the ubiquitin-specific processing protease family of proteins. The encoded protein is thought to regulate the morphology of the endosome by ubiquitination of proteins on this organelle and is involved in cargo sorting and membrane trafficking at the early endosome stage. This protein is required for the cell to enter the S phase of the cell cycle and also functions as a positive regulator in the Hedgehog signaling pathway in development. Pseudogenes of this gene are present on chromosomes 2 and 6. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

USP1 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 1

This gene encodes a member of the ubiquitin-specific processing (UBP) family of proteases that is a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) with His and Cys domains. This protein is located in the cytoplasm and cleaves the ubiquitin moiety from ubiquitin-fused precursors and ubiquitinylated proteins. The protein specifically deubiquitinates a protein in the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway. Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

USP2 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 2

This gene encodes a member of the family of de-ubiquitinating enzymes, which belongs to the peptidase C19 superfamily. The encoded protein is a ubiquitin-specific protease which is required for TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor alpha) -induced NF-kB (nuclear factor kB) signaling. This protein deubiquitinates polyubiquitinated target proteins such as fatty acid synthase, murine double minute 2 (MDM2), MDM4/MDMX and cyclin D1. MDM2 and MDM4 are negative regulators of the p53 tumor suppressor and cyclin D1 is required for cell cycle G1/S transition. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

USP3 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 3

USP4 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 4 (proto-oncogene)

The protein encoded by this gene is a protease that deubiquitinates target proteins such as ADORA2A and TRIM21. The encoded protein shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and is involved in maintaining operational fidelity in the endoplasmic reticulum. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

USP5 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 5 (isopeptidase T)

Ubiquitin (see MIM 191339)-dependent proteolysis is a complex pathway of protein metabolism implicated in such diverse cellular functions as maintenance of chromatin structure, receptor function, and degradation of abnormal proteins. A late step of the process involves disassembly of the polyubiquitin chains on degraded proteins into ubiquitin monomers. USP5 disassembles branched polyubiquitin chains by a sequential exo mechanism, starting at the proximal end of the chain (Wilkinson et al., 1995 [PubMed 7578059]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

USP6 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 6

USP7 Gene

ubiquitin specific peptidase 7 (herpes virus-associated)

TP53I3 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to oxidoreductases, which are enzymes involved in cellular responses to oxidative stresses and irradiation. This gene is induced by the tumor suppressor p53 and is thought to be involved in p53-mediated cell death. It contains a p53 consensus binding site in its promoter region and a downstream pentanucleotide microsatellite sequence. P53 has been shown to transcriptionally activate this gene by interacting with the downstream pentanucleotide microsatellite sequence. The microsatellite is polymorphic, with a varying number of pentanucleotide repeats directly correlated with the extent of transcriptional activation by p53. It has been suggested that the microsatellite polymorphism may be associated with differential susceptibility to cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

LOC100533940 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC101927309 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3-like

LOC100288073 Gene

heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa) pseudogene

G3BP1 Gene

GTPase activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 1

This gene encodes one of the DNA-unwinding enzymes which prefers partially unwound 3'-tailed substrates and can also unwind partial RNA/DNA and RNA/RNA duplexes in an ATP-dependent fashion. This enzyme is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins and is also an element of the Ras signal transduction pathway. It binds specifically to the Ras-GTPase-activating protein by associating with its SH3 domain. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RASA1 Gene

RAS p21 protein activator (GTPase activating protein) 1

The protein encoded by this gene is located in the cytoplasm and is part of the GAP1 family of GTPase-activating proteins. The gene product stimulates the GTPase activity of normal RAS p21 but not its oncogenic counterpart. Acting as a suppressor of RAS function, the protein enhances the weak intrinsic GTPase activity of RAS proteins resulting in the inactive GDP-bound form of RAS, thereby allowing control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Mutations leading to changes in the binding sites of either protein are associated with basal cell carcinomas. Mutations also have been associated with hereditary capillary malformations (CM) with or without arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and Parkes Weber syndrome. Alternative splicing results in two isoforms where the shorter isoform, lacking the N-terminal hydrophobic region but retaining the same activity, appears to be abundantly expressed in placental but not adult tissues. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

PPFIA4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 4

PPFIA4, or liprin-alpha-4, belongs to the liprin-alpha gene family. See liprin-alpha-1 (LIP1, or PPFIA1; MIM 611054) for background on liprins.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC101928777 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

LOC644172 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

MAPKAPK5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a tumor suppressor and member of the serine/threonine kinase family. In response to cellular stress and proinflammatory cytokines, this kinase is activated through its phosphorylation by MAP kinases including MAPK1/ERK, MAPK14/p38-alpha, and MAPK11/p38-beta. The encoded protein is found in the nucleus but translocates to the cytoplasm upon phosphorylation and activation. This kinase phosphorylates heat shock protein HSP27 at its physiologically relevant sites. Two alternately spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

MAPKAPK3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase functions as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase)- activated protein kinase. MAP kinases are also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This kinase was shown to be activated by growth inducers and stress stimulation of cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that ERK, p38 MAP kinase and Jun N-terminal kinase were all able to phosphorylate and activate this kinase, which suggested the role of this kinase as an integrative element of signaling in both mitogen and stress responses. This kinase was reported to interact with, phosphorylate and repress the activity of E47, which is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor known to be involved in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression and cell differentiation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

MAPKAPK2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase is regulated through direct phosphorylation by p38 MAP kinase. In conjunction with p38 MAP kinase, this kinase is known to be involved in many cellular processes including stress and inflammatory responses, nuclear export, gene expression regulation and cell proliferation. Heat shock protein HSP27 was shown to be one of the substrates of this kinase in vivo. Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNG5P4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 4

TP53I11 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible protein 11

MAPK1IP1L Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1-like

GNG10P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 pseudogene 1

APBB1IP Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 1 interacting protein

GNG5P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 1

GNG5P3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 3

GNG5P2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 2

GNG5P5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 5

LOC100422713 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

LOC100422710 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

TP53I13 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible protein 13

PTPRCAP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C-associated protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a transmembrane phosphoprotein specifically associated with tyrosine phosphatase PTPRC/CD45, a key regulator of T- and B-lymphocyte activation. The interaction with PTPRC may be required for the stable expression of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPKBP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase binding protein 1

LOC102724042 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

GNB2L1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like 1

TP53BP1 Gene

tumor protein p53 binding protein 1

TP53BP2 Gene

tumor protein p53 binding protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) family of p53 interacting proteins. The protein contains four ankyrin repeats and an SH3 domain involved in protein-protein interactions. It is localized to the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm, and regulates apoptosis and cell growth through interactions with other regulatory molecules including members of the p53 family. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC102723528 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

MAPK8IPP Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein, pseudogene

LOC346329 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class) pseudogene

LRPAP1 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein associated protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein and facilitates its proper folding and localization by preventing the binding of ligands. Mutations in this gene have been identified in individuals with myopia 23. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

LOC100287794 Gene

double homeobox protein 4-like protein 4

GNA14 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 14

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding, or G protein family. G proteins are heterotrimers consisting of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. The encoded protein is a member of the alpha family of G proteins, more specifically the alpha q subfamily of G proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in pertussis-toxin resistant activation of phospholipase C-beta and its downstream effectors.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

GNA15 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 15 (Gq class)

GNA12 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) alpha 12

GNA13 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 13

GNA11 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which function as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. G proteins are composed of 3 units: alpha, beta and gamma. This gene encodes one of the alpha subunits (subunit alpha-11). Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type II (HHC2) and hypocalcemia dominant 2 (HYPOC2). Patients with HHC2 and HYPOC2 exhibit decreased or increased sensitivity, respectively, to changes in extracellular calcium concentrations. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

PRKCDBP Gene

protein kinase C, delta binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a binding protein of the protein kinase C, delta (PRKCD). The expression of this gene in cultured cell lines is strongly induced by serum starvation. The expression of this protein was found to be down-regulated in various cancer cell lines, suggesting the possible tumor suppressor function of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TP53AIP1 Gene

tumor protein p53 regulated apoptosis inducing protein 1

This gene is specifically expressed in the thymus, and encodes a protein that is localized to the mitochondrion. The expression of this gene is inducible by p53, and it is thought to play an important role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

NUFIP2 Gene

nuclear fragile X mental retardation protein interacting protein 2

NUFIP1 Gene

nuclear fragile X mental retardation protein interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a nuclear RNA binding protein that contains a C2H2 zinc finger motif and a nuclear localization signal. This protein is associated with the nuclear matrix in perichromatin fibrils and, in neurons, localizes to the cytoplasm in association with endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes. This protein interacts with the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), the tumor suppressor protein BRCA1, upregulates RNA polymerase II transcription, and is involved in box C/D snoRNP biogenesis. A pseudogene of this gene resides on chromosome 6q12. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

GNG7 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 7

GNG4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 4

GNG5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5

G proteins are trimeric (alpha-beta-gamma) membrane-associated proteins that regulate flow of information from cell surface receptors to a variety of internal metabolic effectors. Interaction of a G protein with its activated receptor promotes exchange of GTP for GDP that is bound to the alpha subunit. The alpha-GTP complex dissociates from the beta-gamma heterodimer so that the subunits, in turn, may interact with and regulate effector molecules (Gilman, 1987 [PubMed 3113327]; summary by Ahmad et al., 1995) [PubMed 7606925].[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

GNG2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2

This gene encodes one of the gamma subunits of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Such proteins are involved in signaling mechanisms across membranes. Various subunits forms heterodimers which then interact with the different signal molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GNG3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 3

Guanine nucleotide binding proteins are heterotrimeric signal-transducing molecules consisting of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The gamma subunit determines the specificity of which signaling pathways will be affected by this particular complex. The protein encoded by this gene represents the gamma subunit of both inhibitory and stimulatory complexes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

GNG8 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 8

LOC101930078 Gene

double homeobox protein 4-like protein 4

VAPB Gene

VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-associated protein B and C

The protein encoded by this gene is a type IV membrane protein found in plasma and intracellular vesicle membranes. The encoded protein is found as a homodimer and as a heterodimer with VAPA. This protein also can interact with VAMP1 and VAMP2 and may be involved in vesicle trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VAPA Gene

VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-associated protein A, 33kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is a type IV membrane protein. It is present in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles. It may also be associated with the cytoskeleton. This protein may function in vesicle trafficking, membrane fusion, protein complex assembly and cell motility. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC101060346 Gene

T-complex protein 11 X-linked protein 2-like

LOC101928467 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

PPFIBP1 Gene

PTPRF interacting protein, binding protein 1 (liprin beta 1)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. It has been proposed that liprins are multivalent proteins that form complex structures and act as scaffolds for the recruitment and anchoring of LAR family of tyrosine phosphatases. This protein was found to interact with S100A4, a calcium-binding protein related to tumor invasiveness and metastasis. In vitro experiment demonstrated that the interaction inhibited the phosphorylation of this protein by protein kinase C and protein kinase CK2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPFIBP2 Gene

PTPRF interacting protein, binding protein 2 (liprin beta 2)

This gene encodes a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. The encoded protein is a beta liprin and plays a role in axon guidance and neuronal synapse development by recruiting LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatases to the plasma membrane. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

LOC728098 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1-like pseudogene

LCP2 Gene

lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 (SH2 domain containing leukocyte protein of 76kDa)

SLP-76 was originally identified as a substrate of the ZAP-70 protein tyrosine kinase following T cell receptor (TCR) ligation in the leukemic T cell line Jurkat. The SLP-76 locus has been localized to human chromosome 5q33 and the gene structure has been partially characterized in mice. The human and murine cDNAs both encode 533 amino acid proteins that are 72% identical and comprised of three modular domains. The NH2-terminus contains an acidic region that includes a PEST domain and several tyrosine residues which are phosphorylated following TCR ligation. SLP-76 also contains a central proline-rich domain and a COOH-terminal SH2 domain. A number of additional proteins have been identified that associate with SLP-76 both constitutively and inducibly following receptor ligation, supporting the notion that SLP-76 functions as an adaptor or scaffold protein. Studies using SLP-76 deficient T cell lines or mice have provided strong evidence that SLP-76 plays a positive role in promoting T cell development and activation as well as mast cell and platelet function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNAQP1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), q polypeptide pseudogene 1

MAPK8IP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a regulator of the pancreatic beta-cell function. It is highly similar to JIP-1, a mouse protein known to be a regulator of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (Mapk8). This protein has been shown to prevent MAPK8 mediated activation of transcription factors, and to decrease IL-1 beta and MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) induced apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells. This protein also functions as a DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2. RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is reported to repress the expression of this gene in insulin-secreting beta cells. This gene is found to be mutated in a type 2 diabetes family, and thus is thought to be a susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

MAPK8IP2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is closely related to MAPK8IP1/IB1/JIP-1, a scaffold protein that is involved in the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase signaling pathway. This protein is expressed in brain and pancreatic cells. It has been shown to interact with, and regulate the activity of MAPK8/JNK1, and MAP2K7/MKK7 kinases. This protein thus is thought to function as a regulator of signal transduction by protein kinase cascade in brain and pancreatic beta-cells. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

MAPK8IP3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the product of Drosophila syd gene, required for the functional interaction of kinesin I with axonal cargo. Studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that this protein may interact with, and regulate the activity of numerous protein kinases of the JNK signaling pathway, and thus function as a scaffold protein in neuronal cells. The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport possibly by integrating JNK signaling and kinesin-1 transport. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAIP1P1 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene 1

LOC105373377 Gene

putative paraneoplastic antigen-like protein 6B-like protein LOC649238

GNB5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta 5

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNB4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNB1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

GNB3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 3

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit which belongs to the WD repeat G protein beta family. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (C825T) in this gene is associated with essential hypertension and obesity. This polymorphism is also associated with the occurrence of the splice variant GNB3-s, which appears to have increased activity. GNB3-s is an example of alternative splicing caused by a nucleotide change outside of the splice donor and acceptor sites. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

GNB2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. This gene contains a trinucleotide (CCG) repeat length polymorphism in its 5' UTR. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAIP2 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 2

PAIP1 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with poly(A)-binding protein and with the cap-binding complex eIF4A. It is involved in translational initiation and protein biosynthesis. Overexpression of this gene in COS7 cells stimulates translation. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and three transcript variants encoding three distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NUFIP1P Gene

nuclear fragile X mental retardation protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

GPRASP2 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family that regulates the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The encoded protein has been shown to be capable of interacting with several GPCRs, including the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and the calcitonin receptor. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GPRASP1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the GPRASP (G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein) family. The protein may modulate lysosomal sorting and functional down-regulation of a variety of G-protein coupled receptors. It targets receptors for degradation in lysosomes. The receptors interacting with this sorting protein include D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), delta opioid receptor (OPRD1), beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) and cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R). Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GNAI2P2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 pseudogene 2

GNAI2P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 pseudogene 1

TP53BP2P1 Gene

tumor protein p53 binding protein 2 pseudogene 1

LOC648044 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12-like

APPBP2 Gene

amyloid beta precursor protein (cytoplasmic tail) binding protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with microtubules and is functionally associated with beta-amyloid precursor protein transport and/or processing. The beta-amyloid precursor protein is a cell surface protein with signal-transducing properties, and it is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The encoded protein may be involved in regulating cell death. This gene has been found to be highly expressed in breast cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

RAMP1 Gene

receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of the RAMP family are expressed. In the presence of this (RAMP1) protein, CRLR functions as a CGRP receptor. The RAMP1 protein is involved in the terminal glycosylation, maturation, and presentation of the CGRP receptor to the cell surface. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

RAMP3 Gene

receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of the RAMP family are expressed. In the presence of this (RAMP3) protein, CRLR functions as an adrenomedullin receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAMP2 Gene

receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of the RAMP family are expressed. In the presence of this (RAMP2) protein, CRLR functions as an adrenomedullin receptor. The RAMP2 protein is involved in core glycosylation and transportation of adrenomedullin receptor to the cell surface. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TP53INP1 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 1

TP53INP2 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 2

TP53COR1 Gene

tumor protein p53 pathway corepressor 1 (non-protein coding)

LOC100533943 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533942 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533941 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533949 Gene