Name

CHEA Transcription Factor Binding Site Profiles Dataset

From ChIP-X Enrichment Analysis

transcription factor binding site profiles from published ChIP-chip, ChIP-seq, and other transcription factor functional studies

CHEA Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From ChIP-X Enrichment Analysis

target genes of transcription factors from published ChIP-chip, ChIP-seq, and other transcription factor binding site profiling studies

ENCODE Transcription Factor Binding Site Profiles Dataset

From Encyclopedia of DNA Elements

transcription factor binding site profiles for cell lines

ENCODE Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From Encyclopedia of DNA Elements

target genes of transcription factors from transcription factor binding site profiles

GEO Signatures of Differentially Expressed Genes for Transcription Factor Perturbations Dataset

From Gene Expression Omnibus

mRNA expression profiles for cell lines or tissues following transcription factor perturbation (inhibition, activation, knockdown, knockout, over-expression, mutation)

JASPAR Predicted Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From Jaspar PWMs

target genes of transcription factors predicted using known transcription factor binding site motifs

MotifMap Predicted Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From MotifMap

target genes of transcription factors predicted using known transcription factor binding site motifs

TRANSFAC Curated Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From TRANSFAC

target genes of transcription factors manually curated from low-throughput or high-throughput transcription factor functional studies

TRANSFAC Predicted Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From TRANSFAC

target genes of transcription factors predicted using known transcription factor binding site motifs

F12 Gene

coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor)

This gene encodes coagulation factor XII which circulates in blood as a zymogen. This single chain zymogen is converted to a two-chain serine protease with an heavy chain (alpha-factor XIIa) and a light chain. The heavy chain contains two fibronectin-type domains, two epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains, a kringle domain and a proline-rich domain, whereas the light chain contains only a catalytic domain. On activation, further cleavages takes place in the heavy chain, resulting in the production of beta-factor XIIa light chain and the alpha-factor XIIa light chain becomes beta-factor XIIa heavy chain. Prekallikrein is cleaved by factor XII to form kallikrein, which then cleaves factor XII first to alpha-factor XIIa and then to beta-factor XIIa. The active factor XIIa participates in the initiation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and the generation of bradykinin and angiotensin. It activates coagulation factors VII and XI. Defects in this gene do not cause any clinical symptoms and the sole effect is that whole-blood clotting time is prolonged. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HIF1AP1 Gene

hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) pseudogene 1

ARFGEF1 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 1 (brefeldin A-inhibited)

ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) play an important role in intracellular vesicular trafficking. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the activation of ARFs by accelerating replacement of bound GDP with GTP. It contains a Sec7 domain, which may be responsible for guanine-nucleotide exchange activity and also brefeldin A inhibition. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ARFGEF2 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 (brefeldin A-inhibited)

ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) play an important role in intracellular vesicular trafficking. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the activation of ARFs by accelerating replacement of bound GDP with GTP and is involved in Golgi transport. It contains a Sec7 domain, which may be responsible for its guanine-nucleotide exchange activity and also brefeldin A inhibition. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF4ENIF1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E nuclear import factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein for the translation initiation factor eIF4E. This shuttle protein interacts with the importin alpha-beta complex to mediate nuclear import of eIF4E. It is predominantly cytoplasmic; its own nuclear import is regulated by a nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signals. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

TAF5L Gene

TAF5-like RNA polymerase II, p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF)-associated factor, 65kDa

The product of this gene belongs to the WD-repeat TAF5 family of proteins. This gene encodes a protein that is a component of the PCAF histone acetylase complex. The PCAF histone acetylase complex, which is composed of more than 20 polypeptides some of which are TAFs, is required for myogenic transcription and differentiation. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. The encoded protein is structurally similar to one of the histone-like TAFs, TAF5. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422267 Gene

coagulation factor III (thromboplastin, tissue factor) pseudogene

NXT2 Gene

nuclear transport factor 2-like export factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene contains a nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF2) domain, which plays an important role in the trafficking of macromolecules, ions, and small molecules between the cytoplasm and nucleus. This protein may also have a role in mRNA nuclear export. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

NXT1 Gene

nuclear transport factor 2-like export factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is located in the nuclear envelope. It has protein similarity to nuclear transport factor 2. This protein functions as a nuclear export factor in both RAN (Ras-related nuclear protein)- and CRM1 (required for chromosome region maintenance)-dependent pathways. It is found to stimulate the export of U1 snRNA in RAN- and CRM1-dependent pathways and the export of tRNA and mRNA in a CRM1-independent pathway. The encoded protein heterodimerizes with Tap protein and may regulate the ability of Tap protein to mediate nuclear mRNA export. The use of alternate polyadenylation sites has been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HIF1A Gene

hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor)

This gene encodes the alpha subunit of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which is a heterodimer composed of an alpha and a beta subunit. HIF-1 functions as a master regulator of cellular and systemic homeostatic response to hypoxia by activating transcription of many genes, including those involved in energy metabolism, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and other genes whose protein products increase oxygen delivery or facilitate metabolic adaptation to hypoxia. HIF-1 thus plays an essential role in embryonic vascularization, tumor angiogenesis and pathophysiology of ischemic disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

HGF Gene

hepatocyte growth factor (hepapoietin A; scatter factor)

Hepatocyte growth factor regulates cell growth, cell motility, and morphogenesis by activating a tyrosine kinase signaling cascade after binding to the proto-oncogenic c-Met receptor. Hepatocyte growth factor is secreted by mesenchymal cells and acts as a multi-functional cytokine on cells of mainly epithelial origin. Its ability to stimulate mitogenesis, cell motility, and matrix invasion gives it a central role in angiogenesis, tumorogenesis, and tissue regeneration. It is secreted as a single inactive polypeptide and is cleaved by serine proteases into a 69-kDa alpha-chain and 34-kDa beta-chain. A disulfide bond between the alpha and beta chains produces the active, heterodimeric molecule. The protein belongs to the plasminogen subfamily of S1 peptidases but has no detectable protease activity. Alternative splicing of this gene produces multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ELF1 Gene

E74-like factor 1 (ets domain transcription factor)

This gene encodes an E26 transformation-specific related transcription factor. The encoded protein is primarily expressed in lymphoid cells and acts as both an enhancer and a repressor to regulate transcription of various genes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

ELF3 Gene

E74-like factor 3 (ets domain transcription factor, epithelial-specific )

ELF2 Gene

E74-like factor 2 (ets domain transcription factor)

ELF5 Gene

E74-like factor 5 (ets domain transcription factor)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of an epithelium-specific subclass of the Ets transcritpion factor family. In addition to its role in regulating the later stages of terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, it appears to regulate a number of epithelium-specific genes found in tissues containing glandular epithelium such as salivary gland and prostate. It has very low affinity to DNA due to its negative regulatory domain at the amino terminus. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

ELF4 Gene

E74-like factor 4 (ets domain transcription factor)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator that binds and activates the promoters of the CSF2, IL3, IL8, and PRF1 genes. The encoded protein is involved in natural killer cell development and function, innate immunity, and induction of cell cycle arrest in naive CD8+ cells. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

SRF Gene

serum response factor (c-fos serum response element-binding transcription factor)

This gene encodes a ubiquitous nuclear protein that stimulates both cell proliferation and differentiation. It is a member of the MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and SRF) box superfamily of transcription factors. This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the activity of many immediate-early genes, for example c-fos, and thereby participates in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell growth, and cell differentiation. This gene is the downstream target of many pathways; for example, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) that acts through the ternary complex factors (TCFs). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

LOC101929989 Gene

lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor-like

FIGF Gene

c-fos induced growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor D)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (PDGF/VEGF) family and is active in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and endothelial cell growth. This secreted protein undergoes a complex proteolytic maturation, generating multiple processed forms which bind and activate VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 receptors. This protein is structurally and functionally similar to vascular endothelial growth factor C. Read-through transcription has been observed between this locus and the upstream PIR (GeneID 8544) locus. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

TAF6L Gene

TAF6-like RNA polymerase II, p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF)-associated factor, 65kDa

Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes a protein that is a component of the PCAF histone acetylase complex and structurally similar to one of the histone-like TAFs, TAF6. The PCAF histone acetylase complex, which is composed of more than 20 polypeptides some of which are TAFs, is required for myogenic transcription and differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MIF Gene

macrophage migration inhibitory factor (glycosylation-inhibiting factor)

This gene encodes a lymphokine involved in cell-mediated immunity, immunoregulation, and inflammation. It plays a role in the regulation of macrophage function in host defense through the suppression of anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. This lymphokine and the JAB1 protein form a complex in the cytosol near the peripheral plasma membrane, which may indicate an additional role in integrin signaling pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAF5LP1 Gene

TAF5-like RNA polymerase II, p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF)-associated factor, 65kDa pseudogene 1

F3 Gene

coagulation factor III (thromboplastin, tissue factor)

This gene encodes coagulation factor III which is a cell surface glycoprotein. This factor enables cells to initiate the blood coagulation cascades, and it functions as the high-affinity receptor for the coagulation factor VII. The resulting complex provides a catalytic event that is responsible for initiation of the coagulation protease cascades by specific limited proteolysis. Unlike the other cofactors of these protease cascades, which circulate as nonfunctional precursors, this factor is a potent initiator that is fully functional when expressed on cell surfaces. There are 3 distinct domains of this factor: extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic. This protein is the only one in the coagulation pathway for which a congenital deficiency has not been described. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

F5 Gene

coagulation factor V (proaccelerin, labile factor)

This gene encodes an essential cofactor of the blood coagulation cascade. This factor circulates in plasma, and is converted to the active form by the release of the activation peptide by thrombin during coagulation. This generates a heavy chain and a light chain which are held together by calcium ions. The activated protein is a cofactor that participates with activated coagulation factor X to activate prothrombin to thrombin. Defects in this gene result in either an autosomal recessive hemorrhagic diathesis or an autosomal dominant form of thrombophilia, which is known as activated protein C resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

NFIC Gene

nuclear factor I/C (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CTF/NF-I family. These are dimeric DNA-binding proteins, and function as cellular transcription factors and as replication factors for adenovirus DNA replication. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

NFIX Gene

nuclear factor I/X (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that binds the palindromic sequence 5'-TTGGCNNNNNGCCAA-3 in viral and cellular promoters. The encoded protein can also stimulate adenovirus replication in vitro. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

SHQ1P1 Gene

SHQ1, H/ACA ribonucleoprotein assembly factor pseudogene 1

IGF2R Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor

This gene encodes a receptor for both insulin-like growth factor 2 and mannose 6-phosphate, although the binding sites for either are located on different segments of the receptor. This receptor functions in the intracellular trafficking of lysosomal enzymes, the activation of transforming growth factor beta, and the degradation of insulin-like growth factor 2. While the related mouse gene shows exclusive expression from the maternal allele, imprinting of the human gene appears to be polymorphic, with only a minority of individuals showing expression from the maternal allele. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2013]

MGC57346 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor pseudogene

CFH Gene

complement factor H

This gene is a member of the Regulator of Complement Activation (RCA) gene cluster and encodes a protein with twenty short consensus repeat (SCR) domains. This protein is secreted into the bloodstream and has an essential role in the regulation of complement activation, restricting this innate defense mechanism to microbial infections. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) and chronic hypocomplementemic nephropathy. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CFI Gene

complement factor I

This gene encodes a serine proteinase that is essential for regulating the complement cascade. The encoded preproprotein is cleaved to produce both heavy and light chains, which are linked by disulfide bonds to form a heterodimeric glycoprotein. This heterodimer can cleave and inactivate the complement components C4b and C3b, and it prevents the assembly of the C3 and C5 convertase enzymes. Defects in this gene cause complement factor I deficiency, an autosomal recessive disease associated with a susceptibility to pyogenic infections. Mutations in this gene have been associated with a predisposition to atypical hemolytic uraemic syndrome, a disease characterized by acute renal failure, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Primary glomerulonephritis with immmune deposits is another condition associated with mutation of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CFD Gene

complement factor D (adipsin)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the trypsin family of peptidases. The encoded protein is a component of the alternative complement pathway best known for its role in humoral suppression of infectious agents. This protein is also a serine protease that is secreted by adipocytes into the bloodstream. Finally, the encoded protein has a high level of expression in fat, suggesting a role for adipose tissue in immune system biology. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CFB Gene

complement factor B

This gene encodes complement factor B, a component of the alternative pathway of complement activation. Factor B circulates in the blood as a single chain polypeptide. Upon activation of the alternative pathway, it is cleaved by complement factor D yielding the noncatalytic chain Ba and the catalytic subunit Bb. The active subunit Bb is a serine protease which associates with C3b to form the alternative pathway C3 convertase. Bb is involved in the proliferation of preactivated B lymphocytes, while Ba inhibits their proliferation. This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. This cluster includes several genes involved in regulation of the immune reaction. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with a reduced risk of age-related macular degeneration. The polyadenylation site of this gene is 421 bp from the 5' end of the gene for complement component 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100420707 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 6 pseudogene

CFP Gene

complement factor properdin

This gene encodes a plasma glycoprotein that positively regulates the alternative complement pathway of the innate immune system. This protein binds to many microbial surfaces and apoptotic cells and stabilizes the C3- and C5-convertase enzyme complexes in a feedback loop that ultimately leads to formation of the membrane attack complex and lysis of the target cell. Mutations in this gene result in two forms of properdin deficiency, which results in high susceptibility to meningococcal infections. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

EIF3EP3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit E pseudogene 3

EIF3EP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit E pseudogene 2

EIF3EP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit E pseudogene 1

SBF1P1 Gene

SET binding factor 1 pseudogene 1

OGFR Gene

opioid growth factor receptor

The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for opioid growth factor (OGF), also known as [Met(5)]-enkephalin. OGF is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and tissue organization in a variety of processes. The encoded unbound receptor for OGF has been localized to the outer nuclear envelope, where it binds OGF and is translocated into the nucleus. The coding sequence of this gene contains a polymorphic region of 60 nt tandem imperfect repeat units. Several transcripts containing between zero and eight repeat units have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF4E1B Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E family member 1B

LOC105378952 Gene

Krueppel-like factor 17

MYDGF Gene

myeloid-derived growth factor

The protein encoded by this gene was previously thought to support proliferation of lymphoid cells and was considered an interleukin. However, this activity has not been reproducible and the function of this protein is currently unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GTF3AP1 Gene

general transcription factor IIIA pseudogene 1

GTF3AP6 Gene

general transcription factor IIIA pseudogene 6

GTF3AP4 Gene

general transcription factor IIIA pseudogene 4

GTF3AP5 Gene

general transcription factor IIIA pseudogene 5

TDGF1 Gene

teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 1

This gene encodes an epidermal growth factor-related protein that contains a cripto, FRL-1, and cryptic domain. The encoded protein is an extracellular, membrane-bound signaling protein that plays an essential role in embryonic development and tumor growth. Mutations in this gene are associated with forebrain defects. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 8, 19 and X. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC390282 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit F pseudogene

LRIF1 Gene

ligand dependent nuclear receptor interacting factor 1

LIF Gene

leukemia inhibitory factor

The protein encoded by this gene is a pleiotropic cytokine with roles in several different systems. It is involved in the induction of hematopoietic differentiation in normal and myeloid leukemia cells, induction of neuronal cell differentiation, regulator of mesenchymal to epithelial conversion during kidney development, and may also have a role in immune tolerance at the maternal-fetal interface. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

HSFX2 Gene

heat shock transcription factor family, X linked 2

LOC102724345 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 17A pseudogene

BCLAF1 Gene

BCL2-associated transcription factor 1

This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that interacts with several members of the BCL2 family of proteins. Overexpression of this protein induces apoptosis, which can be suppressed by co-expression of BCL2 proteins. The protein localizes to dot-like structures throughout the nucleus, and redistributes to a zone near the nuclear envelope in cells undergoing apoptosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PLA2G7 Gene

phospholipase A2, group VII (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase, plasma)

The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of platelet-activating factor to biologically inactive products. Defects in this gene are a cause of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase deficiency. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

GTF2F2P1 Gene

general transcription factor IIF, polypeptide 2 pseudogene 1

GTF2F2P2 Gene

general transcription factor IIF, polypeptide 2 pseudogene 2

VGF Gene

VGF nerve growth factor inducible

This gene is specifically expressed in a subpopulation of neuroendocrine cells, and is upregulated by nerve growth factor. The structural organization of this gene is similar to that of the rat gene, and both the translated and the untranslated regions show a high degree of sequence similarity to the rat gene. The encoded secretory protein also shares similarities with the secretogranin/chromogranin family, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF3EP4 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit E pseudogene 4

ILF3 Gene

interleukin enhancer binding factor 3, 90kDa

This gene encodes a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein that complexes with other proteins, dsRNAs, small noncoding RNAs, and mRNAs to regulate gene expression and stabilize mRNAs. This protein (NF90, ILF3) forms a heterodimer with a 45 kDa transcription factor (NF45, ILF2) required for T-cell expression of interleukin 2. This complex has been shown to affect the redistribution of nuclear mRNA to the cytoplasm. Knockdown of NF45 or NF90 protein retards cell growth, possibly by inhibition of mRNA stabilization. In contrast, an isoform (NF110) of this gene that is predominantly restricted to the nucleus has only minor effects on cell growth when its levels are reduced. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

ILF2 Gene

interleukin enhancer binding factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor required for T-cell expression of the interleukin 2 gene. It also binds RNA and is an essential component for encapsidation and protein priming of hepatitis B viral polymerase. The encoded 45 kDa protein (NF45, ILF2) forms a complex with the 90 kDa interleukin enhancer-binding factor 3 (NF90, ILF3), and this complex has been shown to affect the redistribution of nuclear mRNA to the cytoplasm, to repair DNA breaks by nonhomologous end joining, and to negatively regulate the microRNA processing pathway. Knockdown of NF45 or NF90 protein retards cell growth, possibly by inhibition of mRNA stabilization. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Related pseudogenes have been found on chromosomes 3 and 14. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

LOC100418609 Gene

eukaryotic translation termination factor 1 pseudogene

SAFB Gene

scaffold attachment factor B

This gene encodes a DNA-binding protein which has high specificity for scaffold or matrix attachment region DNA elements (S/MAR DNA). This protein is thought to be involved in attaching the base of chromatin loops to the nuclear matrix but there is conflicting evidence as to whether this protein is a component of chromatin or a nuclear matrix protein. Scaffold attachment factors are a specific subset of nuclear matrix proteins (NMP) that specifically bind to S/MAR. The encoded protein is thought to serve as a molecular base to assemble a 'transcriptosome complex' in the vicinity of actively transcribed genes. It is involved in the regulation of heat shock protein 27 transcription, can act as an estrogen receptor co-repressor and is a candidate for breast tumorigenesis. This gene is arranged head-to-head with a similar gene whose product has the same functions. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

AIFM1P1 Gene

apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 1 pseudogene 1

LMX1A Gene

LIM homeobox transcription factor 1, alpha

This gene encodes a homeodomain and LIM-domain containing protein. The encoded protein is a transcription factor that acts as a positive regulator of insulin gene transcription. This gene also plays a role in the development of dopamine producing neurons during embryogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

LMX1B Gene

LIM homeobox transcription factor 1, beta

This gene encodes a member of LIM-homeodomain family of proteins containing two N-terminal zinc-binding LIM domains, 1 homeodomain, and a C-terminal glutamine-rich domain. It functions as a transcription factor, and is essential for the normal development of dorsal limb structures, the glomerular basement membrane, the anterior segment of the eye, and dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Mutations in this gene are associated with nail-patella syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC100129274 Gene

NIF3 NGG1 interacting factor 3-like 1 (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene

U2AF1L4 Gene

U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 1-like 4

SRSF9P1 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 9 pseudogene 1

LOC100131158 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa pseudogene

LOC105369262 Gene

splicing factor 45-like

LOC642929 Gene

general transcription factor II, i pseudogene

LOC100190922 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 2 pseudogene

EIF4HP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4H pseudogene 1

EIF4EP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E pseudogene 1

OSR1 Gene

odd-skipped related transciption factor 1

HES1 Gene

hes family bHLH transcription factor 1

This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. It is a transcriptional repressor of genes that require a bHLH protein for their transcription. The protein has a particular type of basic domain that contains a helix interrupting protein that binds to the N-box rather than the canonical E-box. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC731755 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 1 pseudogene

E2F6P3 Gene

E2F transcription factor 6 pseudogene 3

E2F6P2 Gene

E2F transcription factor 6 pseudogene 2

E2F6P1 Gene

E2F transcription factor 6 pseudogene 1

E2F6P4 Gene

E2F transcription factor 6 pseudogene 4

FBF1 Gene

Fas (TNFRSF6) binding factor 1

NGFRAP1 Gene

nerve growth factor receptor (TNFRSF16) associated protein 1

TFAP4 Gene

transcription factor AP-4 (activating enhancer binding protein 4)

Transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix-zipper (bHLH-ZIP) family contain a basic domain, which is used for DNA binding, and HLH and ZIP domains, which are used for oligomerization. Transcription factor AP4 activates both viral and cellular genes by binding to the symmetrical DNA sequence CAGCTG (Mermod et al., 1988 [PubMed 2833704]; Hu et al., 1990 [PubMed 2123466]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2009]

LOC442603 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor 6 pseudogene

NRBF2P5 Gene

nuclear receptor binding factor 2 pseudogene 5

SERF2 Gene

small EDRK-rich factor 2

EAF1 Gene

ELL associated factor 1

EAF2 Gene

ELL associated factor 2

WIF1 Gene

WNT inhibitory factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene functions to inhibit WNT proteins, which are extracellular signaling molecules that play a role in embryonic development. This protein contains a WNT inhibitory factor (WIF) domain and five epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains, and is thought to be involved in mesoderm segmentation. This gene functions as a tumor suppressor gene, and has been found to be epigenetically silenced in various cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

MEAF6 Gene

MYST/Esa1-associated factor 6

This gene encodes a nuclear protein involved in transcriptional activation. The encoded protein may form a component of several different histone acetyltransferase complexes. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 2. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

RAPGEF5 Gene

Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 5

Members of the RAS (see HRAS; MIM 190020) subfamily of GTPases function in signal transduction as GTP/GDP-regulated switches that cycle between inactive GDP- and active GTP-bound states. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), such as RAPGEF5, serve as RAS activators by promoting acquisition of GTP to maintain the active GTP-bound state and are the key link between cell surface receptors and RAS activation (Rebhun et al., 2000 [PubMed 10934204]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RAPGEF6 Gene

Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 6

RAPGEF1 Gene

Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 1

This gene encodes a human guanine nucleotide exchange factor. It transduces signals from CRK by binding the SH3 domain of CRK, and activating several members of the Ras family of GTPases. This signaling cascade that may be involved in apoptosis, integrin-mediated signal transduction, and cell transformation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAPGEF2 Gene

Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 2

Members of the RAS (see HRAS; MIM 190020) subfamily of GTPases function in signal transduction as GTP/GDP-regulated switches that cycle between inactive GDP- and active GTP-bound states. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), such as RAPGEF2, serve as RAS activators by promoting acquisition of GTP to maintain the active GTP-bound state and are the key link between cell surface receptors and RAS activation (Rebhun et al., 2000 [PubMed 10934204]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RAPGEF3 Gene

Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 3

TCEB1P24 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 24

TCEB1P22 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 22

LOC100421817 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 pseudogene

EEF1B2P4 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2 pseudogene 4

EEF1B2P7 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2 pseudogene 7

LOC728034 Gene

BMS1 ribosome biogenesis factor pseudogene

LOC100128762 Gene

telomeric repeat binding factor 2, interacting protein pseudogene

AIF1 Gene

allograft inflammatory factor 1

This gene is induced by cytokines and interferon. Its protein product is thought to be involved in negative regulation of growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, which contributes to the anti-inflammatory response to vessel wall trauma. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

LOC100131877 Gene

small EDRK-rich factor 2 pseudogene

NXF2B Gene

nuclear RNA export factor 2B

LOC731605 Gene

bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 pseudogene

RTFDC1 Gene

replication termination factor 2 domain containing 1

LOC101060089 Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 5-like

EEF1A1 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1

This gene encodes an isoform of the alpha subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This isoform (alpha 1) is expressed in brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas, and the other isoform (alpha 2) is expressed in brain, heart and skeletal muscle. This isoform is identified as an autoantigen in 66% of patients with Felty syndrome. This gene has been found to have multiple copies on many chromosomes, some of which, if not all, represent different pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EEF1A2 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2

This gene encodes an isoform of the alpha subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This isoform (alpha 2) is expressed in brain, heart and skeletal muscle, and the other isoform (alpha 1) is expressed in brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas. This gene may be critical in the development of ovarian cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

TCAF1P1 Gene

TRPM8 channel-associated factor 1 pseudogene 1

CHPF Gene

chondroitin polymerizing factor

NUTF2P8 Gene

nuclear transport factor 2 pseudogene 8

NUTF2P2 Gene

nuclear transport factor 2 pseudogene 2

NUTF2P6 Gene

nuclear transport factor 2 pseudogene 6

NUTF2P7 Gene

nuclear transport factor 2 pseudogene 7

NUTF2P4 Gene

nuclear transport factor 2 pseudogene 4

RFC2 Gene

replication factor C (activator 1) 2, 40kDa

This gene encodes a member of the activator 1 small subunits family. The elongation of primed DNA templates by DNA polymerase delta and epsilon requires the action of the accessory proteins, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and replication factor C (RFC). Replication factor C, also called activator 1, is a protein complex consisting of five distinct subunits. This gene encodes the 40 kD subunit, which has been shown to be responsible for binding ATP and may help promote cell survival. Disruption of this gene is associated with Williams syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

CSF1R Gene

colony stimulating factor 1 receptor

The protein encoded by this gene is the receptor for colony stimulating factor 1, a cytokine which controls the production, differentiation, and function of macrophages. This receptor mediates most if not all of the biological effects of this cytokine. Ligand binding activates the receptor kinase through a process of oligomerization and transphosphorylation. The encoded protein is a tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor and member of the CSF1/PDGF receptor family of tyrosine-protein kinases. Mutations in this gene have been associated with a predisposition to myeloid malignancy. The first intron of this gene contains a transcriptionally inactive ribosomal protein L7 processed pseudogene oriented in the opposite direction. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

EIF3FP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit F pseudogene 1

EIF3FP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit F pseudogene 2

EIF3FP3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit F pseudogene 3

NFYC Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, gamma

This gene encodes one subunit of a trimeric complex forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds with high specificity to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of a variety of genes. The encoded protein, subunit C, forms a tight dimer with the B subunit, a prerequisite for subunit A association. The resulting trimer binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. Subunits B and C each contain a histone-like motif. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

NFYB Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a trimeric complex, forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds with high specificity to CCAAT motifs in the promoter regions in a variety of genes. This gene product, subunit B, forms a tight dimer with the C subunit, a prerequisite for subunit A association. The resulting trimer binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. Subunits B and C each contain a histone-like motif. Observation of the histone nature of these subunits is supported by two types of evidence; protein sequence alignments and experiments with mutants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NFYA Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a trimeric complex, forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoter regions in a variety of genes. Subunit A associates with a tight dimer composed of the B and C subunits, resulting in a trimer that binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. The sequence specific interactions of the complex are made by the A subunit, suggesting a role as the regulatory subunit. In addition, there is evidence of post-transcriptional regulation in this gene product, either by protein degradation or control of translation. Further regulation is represented by alternative splicing in the glutamine-rich activation domain, with clear tissue-specific preferences for the two isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAF4B Gene

TAF4b RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 105kDa

TATA binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors (TAFs) participate in the formation of the TFIID protein complex, which is involved in initiation of transcription of genes by RNA polymerase II. This gene encodes a cell type-specific TAF that may be responsible for mediating transcription by a subset of activators in B cells. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

EIF4EBP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1

This gene encodes one member of a family of translation repressor proteins. The protein directly interacts with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which is a limiting component of the multisubunit complex that recruits 40S ribosomal subunits to the 5' end of mRNAs. Interaction of this protein with eIF4E inhibits complex assembly and represses translation. This protein is phosphorylated in response to various signals including UV irradiation and insulin signaling, resulting in its dissociation from eIF4E and activation of mRNA translation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF4EBP3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 3

This gene encodes a member of the EIF4EBP family, which consists of proteins that bind to eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E and regulate its assembly into EIF4F, the multi-subunit translation initiation factor that recognizes the mRNA cap structure. Read-through transcription from the neighboring upstream gene (MASK or ANKHD1) generates a transcript (MASK-BP3) that encodes a protein comprised of the MASK protein sequence for the majority of the protein and a different C-terminus due to an alternate reading frame for the EIF4EBP3 segments. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

LOC100419977 Gene

myeloid leukemia factor 2 pseudogene

CPSF3L Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 3-like

The Integrator complex contains at least 12 subunits and associates with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II large subunit (POLR2A; MIM 180660) and mediates the 3-prime end processing of small nuclear RNAs U1 (RNU1; MIM 180680) and U2 (RNU2; MIM 180690). INTS11, or CPSF3L, is the catalytic subunit of the Integrator complex (Baillat et al., 2005 [PubMed 16239144]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

EEF1A1P19 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 19

EEF1A1P18 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 18

EEF1A1P10 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 10

EEF1A1P15 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 15

E2F3P2 Gene

E2F transcription factor 3 pseudogene 2

E2F3P1 Gene

E2F transcription factor 3 pseudogene 1

LOC100420162 Gene

nuclear RNA export factor 5 pseudogene

GTF2H3 Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 3, 34kDa

This gene encodes a member of the TFB4 family. The encoded protein is a subunit of the core-TFIIH basal transcription factor and localizes to the nucleus. The encoded protein is involved in RNA transcription by RNA polymerase II and nucleotide excision repair and associates with the Cdk-activating kinase complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

GTF2H2 Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 2, 44kDa

This gene is part of a 500 kb inverted duplication on chromosome 5q13. This duplicated region contains at least four genes and repetitive elements which make it prone to rearrangements and deletions. The repetitiveness and complexity of the sequence have also caused difficulty in determining the organization of this genomic region. This gene is within the telomeric copy of the duplication. Deletion of this gene sometimes accompanies deletion of the neighboring SMN1 gene in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) patients but it is unclear if deletion of this gene contributes to the SMA phenotype. This gene encodes the 44 kDa subunit of RNA polymerase II transcription initiation factor IIH which is involved in basal transcription and nucleotide excision repair. Transcript variants for this gene have been described, but their full length nature has not been determined. A second copy of this gene within the centromeric copy of the duplication has been described in the literature. It is reported to be different by either two or four base pairs; however, no sequence data is currently available for the centromeric copy of the gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GTF2H1 Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 1, 62kDa

GTF2H5 Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 5

This gene encodes a subunit of transcription/repair factor TFIIH, which functions in gene transcription and DNA repair. This protein stimulates ERCC3/XPB ATPase activity to trigger DNA opening during DNA repair, and is implicated in regulating cellular levels of TFIIH. Mutations in this gene result in trichothiodystrophy, complementation group A. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

GTF2H4 Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 4, 52kDa

BTF3P8 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 8

BTF3P4 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 4

BTF3P7 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 7

BTF3P1 Gene

basic transcription factor 3, pseudogene 1

BTF3P3 Gene

basic transcription factor 3, pseudogene 3

LOC105377135 Gene

transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 4-like

RIF1 Gene

replication timing regulatory factor 1

This gene encodes a protein that shares homology with the yeast teleomere binding protein, Rap1 interacting factor 1. This protein localizes to aberrant telomeres may be involved in DNA repair. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PES1P2 Gene

pescadillo ribosomal biogenesis factor 1 pseudogene 2

ERF Gene

Ets2 repressor factor

Members of the ETS family of transcription factors, such as ERF, regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. They share a highly conserved DNA-binding domain, the ETS domain, that recognizes the sequence GGAA/T (de Castro et al., 1997 [PubMed 9192842]). For further information on ETS transcription factors, see ETS1 (MIM 164720).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100131747 Gene

small EDRK-rich factor 2 pseudogene

LOC100532749 Gene

ubiquitination factor E4A (UFD2 homolog, yeast) pseudogene

DAW1 Gene

dynein assembly factor with WDR repeat domains 1

F13B Gene

coagulation factor XIII, B polypeptide

This gene encodes coagulation factor XIII B subunit. Coagulation factor XIII is the last zymogen to become activated in the blood coagulation cascade. Plasma factor XIII is a heterotetramer composed of 2 A subunits and 2 B subunits. The A subunits have catalytic function, and the B subunits do not have enzymatic activity and may serve as a plasma carrier molecules. Platelet factor XIII is comprised only of 2 A subunits, which are identical to those of plasma origin. Upon activation by the cleavage of the activation peptide by thrombin and in the presence of calcium ion, the plasma factor XIII dissociates its B subunits and yields the same active enzyme, factor XIIIa, as platelet factor XIII. This enzyme acts as a transglutaminase to catalyze the formation of gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine crosslinking between fibrin molecules, thus stabilizing the fibrin clot. Factor XIII deficiency is classified into two categories: type I deficiency, characterized by the lack of both the A and B subunits; and type II deficiency, characterized by the lack of the A subunit alone. These defects can result in a lifelong bleeding tendency, defective wound healing, and habitual abortion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NARFL Gene

nuclear prelamin A recognition factor-like

EEF1A1P35 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 35

EEF1A1P31 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 31

EEF1A1P33 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 33

EEF1A1P39 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 39

EEF1A1P38 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 38

LOC101060322 Gene

telomeric repeat-binding factor 1 pseudogene

LOC101929895 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit A-like

PEX11G Gene

peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 gamma

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PEX11 family. This family is reported to regulate the number and size of peroxisomes in evolutionarily distant organisms. The protein encoded by this gene may induce clustering of peroxisomes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

NFKBIB Gene

nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the NF-kappa-B inhibitor family, which inhibit NF-kappa-B by complexing with, and trapping it in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of serine residues on these proteins by kinases marks them for destruction via the ubiquitination pathway, thereby allowing activation of the NF-kappa-B, which translocates to the nucleus to function as a transcription factor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

NFKBID Gene

nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, delta

NFKBIE Gene

nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, epsilon

The protein encoded by this gene binds to components of NF-kappa-B, trapping the complex in the cytoplasm and preventing it from activating genes in the nucleus. Phosphorylation of the encoded protein targets it for destruction by the ubiquitin pathway, which activates NF-kappa-B by making it available to translocate to the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

NFKBIZ Gene

nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, zeta

This gene is a member of the ankyrin-repeat family and is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The C-terminal portion of the encoded product which contains the ankyrin repeats, shares high sequence similarity with the I kappa B family of proteins. The latter are known to play a role in inflammatory responses to LPS by their interaction with NF-B proteins through ankyrin-repeat domains. Studies in mouse indicate that this gene product is one of the nuclear I kappa B proteins and an activator of IL-6 production. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PDGFC Gene

platelet derived growth factor C

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor family. The four members of this family are mitogenic factors for cells of mesenchymal origin and are characterized by a core motif of eight cysteines. This gene product appears to form only homodimers. It differs from the platelet-derived growth factor alpha and beta polypeptides in having an unusual N-terminal domain, the CUB domain. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

VAV1 Gene

vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor

This gene is a member of the VAV gene family. The VAV proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho family GTPases that activate pathways leading to actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and transcriptional alterations. The encoded protein is important in hematopoiesis, playing a role in T-cell and B-cell development and activation. The encoded protein has been identified as the specific binding partner of Nef proteins from HIV-1. Coexpression and binding of these partners initiates profound morphological changes, cytoskeletal rearrangements and the JNK/SAPK signaling cascade, leading to increased levels of viral transcription and replication. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

VAV3 Gene

vav 3 guanine nucleotide exchange factor

This gene is a member of the VAV gene family. The VAV proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho family GTPases that activate pathways leading to actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and transcriptional alterations. This gene product acts as a GEF preferentially for RhoG, RhoA, and to a lesser extent, RAC1, and it associates maximally with the nucleotide-free states of these GTPases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VAV2 Gene

vav 2 guanine nucleotide exchange factor

VAV2 is the second member of the VAV guanine nucleotide exchange factor family of oncogenes. Unlike VAV1, which is expressed exclusively in hematopoietic cells, VAV2 transcripts were found in most tissues. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

CRNKL1 Gene

crooked neck pre-mRNA splicing factor 1

The crooked neck (crn) gene of Drosophila is essential for embryogenesis and is thought to be involved in cell cycle progression and pre-mRNA splicing. A protein encoded by this human locus has been found to localize to pre-mRNA splicing complexes in the nucleus and is necessary for pre-mRNA splicing. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

RABGEF1 Gene

RAB guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 1

RABGEF1 forms a complex with rabaptin-5 (RABPT5; MIM 603616) that is required for endocytic membrane fusion, and it serves as a specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RAB5 (RAB5A; MIM 179512) (Horiuchi et al., 1997 [PubMed 9323142]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

LOC102724865 Gene

transcription factor E2F6 pseudogene

VWF Gene

von Willebrand factor

The glycoprotein encoded by this gene functions as both an antihemophilic factor carrier and a platelet-vessel wall mediator in the blood coagulation system. It is crucial to the hemostasis process. Mutations in this gene or deficiencies in this protein result in von Willebrand's disease. An unprocessed pseudogene has been found on chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARL4P2 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4 pseudogene 2

ARF4P5 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor 4 pseudogene 5

ARF4P4 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor 4 pseudogene 4

ARF4P1 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor 4 pseudogene 1

ARF4P3 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor 4 pseudogene 3

ARF4P2 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor 4 pseudogene 2

DMRT1 Gene

doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1

This gene is found in a cluster with two other members of the gene family, having in common a zinc finger-like DNA-binding motif (DM domain). The DM domain is an ancient, conserved component of the vertebrate sex-determining pathway that is also a key regulator of male development in flies and nematodes. This gene exhibits a gonad-specific and sexually dimorphic expression pattern. Defective testicular development and XY feminization occur when this gene is hemizygous. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DMRT2 Gene

doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the DMRT gene family, sharing a DM DNA-binding domain with Drosophila 'doublesex' (dsx) and C. elegans mab3, genes involved in sex determination in these organisms. Also, this gene is located in a region of the human genome (chromosome 9p24.3) associated with gonadal dysgenesis and XY sex reversal. Hence this gene is one of the candidates for sex-determining gene(s) on chr 9. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

DMRT3 Gene

doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3

LOC692246 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase assembly factor 1 homolog (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene

LOC646127 Gene

telomeric repeat-binding factor 1 pseudogene

LOC646120 Gene

Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related) pseudogene

SYF2P2 Gene

SYF2 pre-mRNA-splicing factor pseudogene 2

SYF2P1 Gene

SYF2 pre-mRNA-splicing factor pseudogene 1

TNFRSF12A Gene

tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 12A

EIF5AL1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-like 1

LOC286059 Gene

tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 10d, decoy with truncated death domain pseudogene

FGF1 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 1 (acidic)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This protein functions as a modifier of endothelial cell migration and proliferation, as well as an angiogenic factor. It acts as a mitogen for a variety of mesoderm- and neuroectoderm-derived cells in vitro, thus is thought to be involved in organogenesis. Multiple alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

BTF3P5 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 5

ATF6B Gene

activating transcription factor 6 beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor in the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway during ER stress. Either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with ATF6-alpha, the encoded protein binds to the ER stress response element, interacting with nuclear transcription factor Y to activate UPR target genes. The protein is normally found in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum; however, under ER stress, the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain is cleaved from the rest of the protein and translocates to the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

ARL9 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9

ARL9 is a member of the small GTPase protein family with a high degree of similarity to ARF (MIM 103180) proteins of the RAS superfamily.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2008]

ARL1 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ARL (ADP-ribosylation factor-like) family of proteins, which are structurally related to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs). ARFs, described as activators of cholera toxin (CT) ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, regulate intracellular vesicular membrane trafficking, and stimulate a phospholipase D (PLD) isoform. Although, ARL proteins were initially thought not to activate CT or PLD, later work showed that they are weak stimulators of PLD and CT in a phospholipid dependent manner. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

ARL3 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3 is a member of the ADP-ribosylation factor family of GTP-binding proteins. ARL3 binds guanine nucleotides but lacks ADP-ribosylation factor activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARL2 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2

This gene encodes a small GTP-binding protein of the RAS superfamily which functions as an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF). The encoded protein is one of a functionally distinct group of ARF-like genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARL6 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ARF-like (ADP ribosylation factor-like) sub-family of the ARF family of GTP-binding proteins which are involved in regulation of intracellular traffic. Mutations in this gene are associated with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. A vision-specific transcript encoding a different protein has been described (PMID: 20333246). [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

BTF3P6 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 6

SF3A3P1 Gene

splicing factor 3a, subunit 3 pseudogene 1

SF3A3P2 Gene

splicing factor 3a, subunit 3 pseudogene 2

SRSF11 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 11

This gene encodes 54-kD nuclear protein that contains an arginine/serine-rich region similar to segments found in pre-mRNA splicing factors. Although the function of this protein is not yet known, structure and immunolocalization data suggest that it may play a role in pre-mRNA processing. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different proteins. In addition, a pseudogene of this gene has been found on chromosome 12.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF10 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10

This gene product is a member of the serine-arginine (SR) family of proteins, which are involved in constitutive and regulated RNA splicing. Members of this family are characterized by N-terminal RNP1 and RNP2 motifs, which are required for binding to RNA, and multiple C-terminal SR/RS repeats, which are important in mediating association with other cellular proteins. This protein interacts with the oncoprotein TLS, and abrogates the influence of TLS on adenovirus E1A pre-mRNA splicing. This gene has pseudogenes on chromosomes 4, 9, 14, 18, and 20. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

SRSF12 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 12

LOC100420251 Gene

mitochondrial fission factor pseudogene

ARL13B Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 13B

This gene encodes a member of the ADP-ribosylation factor-like family. The encoded protein is a small GTPase that contains both N-terminal and C-terminal guanine nucleotide-binding motifs. This protein is localized in the cilia and plays a role in cilia formation and in maintenance of cilia. Mutations in this gene are the cause of Joubert syndrome 8. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

ARL13A Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 13A

GFM1 Gene

G elongation factor, mitochondrial 1

Eukaryotes contain two protein translational systems, one in the cytoplasm and one in the mitochondria. Mitochondrial translation is crucial for maintaining mitochondrial function and mutations in this system lead to a breakdown in the respiratory chain-oxidative phosphorylation system and to impaired maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. This gene encodes one of the mitochondrial translation elongation factors. Its role in the regulation of normal mitochondrial function and in different disease states attributed to mitochondrial dysfunction is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GFM2 Gene

G elongation factor, mitochondrial 2

Eukaryotes contain two protein translational systems, one in the cytoplasm and one in the mitochondria. Mitochondrial translation is crucial for maintaining mitochondrial function and mutations in this system lead to a breakdown in the respiratory chain-oxidative phosphorylation system and to impaired maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. This gene encodes one of the mitochondrial translation elongation factors, which is a GTPase that plays a role at the termination of mitochondrial translation by mediating the disassembly of ribosomes from messenger RNA . Its role in the regulation of normal mitochondrial function and in disease states attributed to mitochondrial dysfunction is not known. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KCMF1 Gene

potassium channel modulatory factor 1

BTF3P2 Gene

basic transcription factor 3, pseudogene 2

TEFM Gene

transcription elongation factor, mitochondrial

MESP1 Gene

mesoderm posterior basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1

MESP2 Gene

mesoderm posterior basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 2

This gene encodes a member of the bHLH family of transcription factors and plays a key role in defining the rostrocaudal patterning of somites via interactions with multiple Notch signaling pathways. This gene is expressed in the anterior presomitic mesoderm and is downregulated immediately after the formation of segmented somites. This gene also plays a role in the formation of epithelial somitic mesoderm and cardiac mesoderm. Mutations in the MESP2 gene cause autosomal recessive spondylocostal dystosis 2 (SCD02). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

ELF2P2 Gene

E74-like factor 2 pseudogene 2

EEF1A1P9 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 9

EEF1A1P8 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 8

EEF1A1P7 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 7

EEF1A1P6 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 6

EEF1A1P5 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 5

EEF1A1P4 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 4

EEF1A1P3 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 3

EEF1A1P2 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 2

EEF1A1P1 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 1

LOC100422622 Gene

TAF10 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 30kDa pseudogene

LOC100422627 Gene

TAF4b RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 105kDa pseudogene

ARHGEF37 Gene

Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 37

PEX5L Gene

peroxisomal biogenesis factor 5-like

AGGF1P10 Gene

angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1 pseudogene 10

TEAD1 Gene

TEA domain family member 1 (SV40 transcriptional enhancer factor)

This gene encodes a ubiquitous transcriptional enhancer factor that is a member of the TEA/ATTS domain family. This protein directs the transactivation of a wide variety of genes and, in placental cells, also acts as a transcriptional repressor. Mutations in this gene cause Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy. Additional transcript variants have been described but their full-length natures have not been experimentally verified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PAFAH1B1P1 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, regulatory subunit 1 pseudogene 1

LOC105376502 Gene

microtubule cross-linking factor 1-like

LOC100113421 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 7 pseudogene

LOC641381 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 5A pseudogene

GS1-124K5.11 Gene

RAB guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 1 pseudogene

GMFBP1 Gene

glia maturation factor, beta pseudogene 1

ARFRP1 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor related protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane-associated GTP-ase which localizes to the plasma membrane and is related to the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and ARF-like (ARL) proteins. This gene plays a role in membrane trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

HSFX1 Gene

heat shock transcription factor family, X linked 1

RRN3P3 Gene

RNA polymerase I transcription factor homolog (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene 3

RRN3P2 Gene

RNA polymerase I transcription factor homolog (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene 2

RRN3P1 Gene

RNA polymerase I transcription factor homolog (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene 1

UBTF Gene

upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I

This gene encodes a member of the HMG-box DNA-binding protein family. The encoded protein plays a critical role in ribosomal RNA transcription as a key component of the pre-initiation complex, mediating the recruitment of RNA polymerase I to rDNA promoter regions. The encoded protein may also play important roles in chromatin remodeling and pre-rRNA processing, and its activity is regulated by both phosphorylation and acetylation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on the short arm of chromosomes 3, 11 and X and the long arm of chromosome 11. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

RSF1 Gene

remodeling and spacing factor 1

This gene encodes a nuclear protein that interacts with hepatitis B virus X protein (HBX) and facilitates transcription of hepatitis B virus genes by the HBX transcription activator, suggesting a role for this interaction in the virus life cycle. This protein also interacts with SNF2H protein to form the RSF chromatin-remodeling complex, where the SNF2H subunit functions as the nucleosome-dependent ATPase, and this protein as the histone chaperone. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

RELT Gene

RELT tumor necrosis factor receptor

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor is especially abundant in hematologic tissues. It has been shown to activate the NF-kappaB pathway and selectively bind TNF receptor-associated factor 1 (TRAF1). This receptor is capable of stimulating T-cell proliferation in the presence of CD3 signaling, which suggests its regulatory role in immune response. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding the same protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HDGF Gene

hepatoma-derived growth factor

This gene encodes a member of the hepatoma-derived growth factor family. The encoded protein has mitogenic and DNA-binding activity and may play a role in cellular proliferation and differentiation. This gene was thought initially to be located on chromosome X, however, that location has been determined to correspond to a related pseudogene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IGF2 Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2

This gene encodes a member of the insulin family of polypeptide growth factors, which are involved in development and growth. It is an imprinted gene, expressed only from the paternal allele, and epigenetic changes at this locus are associated with Wilms tumour, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Silver-Russell syndrome. A read-through INS-IGF2 gene exists, whose 5' region overlaps the INS gene and the 3' region overlaps this gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

IGF1 Gene

insulin-like growth factor 1 (somatomedin C)

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to insulin in function and structure and is a member of a family of proteins involved in mediating growth and development. The encoded protein is processed from a precursor, bound by a specific receptor, and secreted. Defects in this gene are a cause of insulin-like growth factor I deficiency. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

MVWF Gene

Modifier of von Willebrand factor

GTF2A1L Gene

general transcription factor IIA, 1-like

The assembly and stability of the RNA polymerase II transcription pre-initiation complex on a eukaryotic core promoter involve the effects of transcription factor IIA (TFIIA) on the interaction between TATA-binding protein (TBP) and DNA. This gene encodes a germ cell-specific counterpart of the large (alpha/beta) subunit of general transcription factor TFIIA that is able to stabilize the binding of TBP to DNA and may be uniquely important to testis biology. Alternative splicing for this locus has been observed and two variants, encoding distinct isoforms, have been identified. Co-transcription of this gene and the neighboring upstream gene generates a rare transcript (SALF), which encodes a fusion protein comprised of sequence sharing identity with each individual gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

LOC646709 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) complex I, assembly factor 1 pseudogene

EIF1B Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1B

LOC100420944 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, beta pseudogene

MORF4 Gene

mortality factor 4 (pseudogene)

Cellular senescence, the terminal nondividing state that normal cells enter following completion of their proliferative potential, is the dominant phenotype in hybrids of normal and immortal cells. Fusions of immortal human cell lines with each other have led to their assignment to 1 of several complementation groups. MORF4 is a gene on chromosome 4 that induces a senescent-like phenotype in cell lines assigned to complementation group B.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

TGFB1I1 Gene

transforming growth factor beta 1 induced transcript 1

This gene encodes a coactivator of the androgen receptor, a transcription factor which is activated by androgen and has a key role in male sexual differentiation. The encoded protein is thought to regulate androgen receptor activity and may have a role to play in the treatment of prostate cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

RFC3P1 Gene

replication factor C (activator 1) 3, 38kDa pseudogene 1

TCEB1P19 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 19

TCEB1P10 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 10

TCEB1P16 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 16

LOC100131625 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 8B pseudogene

TCEB1P15 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 15

EIF4A2P1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A2 pseudogene 1

EIF4A2P3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A2 pseudogene 3

EIF4A2P2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A2 pseudogene 2

EIF4A2P4 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A2 pseudogene 4

NFKB1 Gene

nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1

This gene encodes a 105 kD protein which can undergo cotranslational processing by the 26S proteasome to produce a 50 kD protein. The 105 kD protein is a Rel protein-specific transcription inhibitor and the 50 kD protein is a DNA binding subunit of the NF-kappa-B (NFKB) protein complex. NFKB is a transcription regulator that is activated by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral products. Activated NFKB translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the expression of genes involved in a wide variety of biological functions. Inappropriate activation of NFKB has been associated with a number of inflammatory diseases while persistent inhibition of NFKB leads to inappropriate immune cell development or delayed cell growth. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

NFKB2 Gene

nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 2 (p49/p100)

This gene encodes a subunit of the transcription factor complex nuclear factor-kappa-B (NFkB). The NFkB complex is expressed in numerous cell types and functions as a central activator of genes involved in inflammation and immune function. The protein encoded by this gene can function as both a transcriptional activator or repressor depending on its dimerization partner. The p100 full-length protein is co-translationally processed into a p52 active form. Chromosomal rearrangements and translocations of this locus have been observed in B cell lymphomas, some of which may result in the formation of fusion proteins. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 18. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

BMS1 Gene

BMS1 ribosome biogenesis factor

This gene likely encodes a ribosome assembly protein. A similar protein in yeast functions in 35S-rRNA processing, which includes a series of cleavage steps critical for formation of 40S ribosomes. Related pseudogenes exist on chromosomes 2, 9, 10, 15, 16, and 22.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

BLZF2P Gene

basic leucine zipper nuclear factor 2 pseudogene

NFATC1 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1

The product of this gene is a component of the nuclear factor of activated T cells DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and an inducible nuclear component. Proteins belonging to this family of transcription factors play a central role in inducible gene transcription during immune response. The product of this gene is an inducible nuclear component. It functions as a major molecular target for the immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin A. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. Different isoforms of this protein may regulate inducible expression of different cytokine genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

NFATC2 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2

This gene is a member of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family. The product of this gene is a DNA-binding protein with a REL-homology region (RHR) and an NFAT-homology region (NHR). This protein is present in the cytosol and only translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, where it becomes a member of the nuclear factors of activated T cells transcription complex. This complex plays a central role in inducing gene transcription during the immune response. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

NFATC4 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 4

This gene encodes a member of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) protein family. The encoded protein is part of a DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor stimulation and an inducible nuclear component. NFAT proteins are activated by the calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin. The encoded protein plays a role in the inducible expression of cytokine genes in T cells, especially in the induction of interleukin-2 and interleukin-4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

TNFAIP8L2 Gene

tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 8-like 2

TNFAIP8L1 Gene

tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 8-like 1

GFER Gene

growth factor, augmenter of liver regeneration

The hepatotrophic factor designated augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is thought to be one of the factors responsible for the extraordinary regenerative capacity of mammalian liver. It has also been called hepatic regenerative stimulation substance (HSS). The gene resides on chromosome 16 in the interval containing the locus for polycystic kidney disease (PKD1). The putative gene product is 42% similar to the scERV1 protein of yeast. The yeast scERV1 gene had been found to be essential for oxidative phosphorylation, the maintenance of mitochondrial genomes, and the cell division cycle. The human gene is both the structural and functional homolog of the yeast scERV1 gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARL2BPP5 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 binding protein pseudogene 5

KLF7P1 Gene

kruppel-like factor 7 pseudogene 1

ARL2BPP2 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 binding protein pseudogene 2

HELT Gene

helt bHLH transcription factor

SAFB2 Gene

scaffold attachment factor B2

VWA8 Gene

von Willebrand factor A domain containing 8

VWA7 Gene

von Willebrand factor A domain containing 7

VWA2 Gene

von Willebrand factor A domain containing 2

This gene encodes a member of the von Willebrand factor A-like domain protein superfamily. The encoded protein is localized to the extracellular matrix and may serve as a structural component in basement membranes or in anchoring structures on scaffolds of collagen VII or fibrillin. This gene has been linked to type 1A diabetes and is a candidate serological marker for colon cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

VWA1 Gene

von Willebrand factor A domain containing 1

VWA1 belongs to the von Willebrand factor (VWF; MIM 613160) A (VWFA) domain superfamily of extracellular matrix proteins and appears to play a role in cartilage structure and function (Fitzgerald et al., 2002 [PubMed 12062410]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

HSBP1P2 Gene

heat shock factor binding protein 1 pseudogene 2

HCFC1R1 Gene

host cell factor C1 regulator 1 (XPO1 dependent)

LOC100287965 Gene

telomeric repeat binding factor (NIMA-interacting) 1 pseudogene

TCEANC2 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII) N-terminal and central domain containing 2

VWA3B Gene

von Willebrand factor A domain containing 3B

VWA3A Gene

von Willebrand factor A domain containing 3A

CTCF Gene

CCCTC-binding factor (zinc finger protein)

This gene is a member of the BORIS + CTCF gene family and encodes a transcriptional regulator protein with 11 highly conserved zinc finger (ZF) domains. This nuclear protein is able to use different combinations of the ZF domains to bind different DNA target sequences and proteins. Depending upon the context of the site, the protein can bind a histone acetyltransferase (HAT)-containing complex and function as a transcriptional activator or bind a histone deacetylase (HDAC)-containing complex and function as a transcriptional repressor. If the protein is bound to a transcriptional insulator element, it can block communication between enhancers and upstream promoters, thereby regulating imprinted expression. Mutations in this gene have been associated with invasive breast cancers, prostate cancers, and Wilms' tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

SALL4P3 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4 pseudogene 3

SALL4P1 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4 pseudogene 1

SALL4P7 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4 pseudogene 7

SALL4P5 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4 pseudogene 5

LOC100420513 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 4 pseudogene

LOC100294341 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like protein 17

LOC102723312 Gene

angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1 pseudogene

FAF2P1 Gene

Fas associated factor family member 2 pseudogene 1

RIC8B Gene

RIC8 guanine nucleotide exchange factor B

RIC8A Gene

RIC8 guanine nucleotide exchange factor A

EIF2AP4 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A pseudogene 4

EIF2AP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A pseudogene 1

EIF2AP3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2A pseudogene 3

GDF5OS Gene

growth differentiation factor 5 opposite strand

BMS1P7 Gene

BMS1 ribosome biogenesis factor pseudogene 7

NIF3L1 Gene

NIF3 NGG1 interacting factor 3-like 1 (S. cerevisiae)

TNFRSF10A Gene

tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 10a

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor is activated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TNFSF10/TRAIL), and thus transduces cell death signal and induces cell apoptosis. Studies with FADD-deficient mice suggested that FADD, a death domain containing adaptor protein, is required for the apoptosis mediated by this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FIBIN Gene

fin bud initiation factor homolog (zebrafish)

LOC105372267 Gene

nuclear factor interleukin-3-regulated protein-like

POU2AF1 Gene

POU class 2 associating factor 1

TAF13P2 Gene

TAF13 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 18kDa pseudogene 2

LOC100420494 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 16 pseudogene

TAF13P1 Gene

TAF13 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor pseudogene 1

NDNF Gene

neuron-derived neurotrophic factor

TNFRSF21 Gene

tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 21

This gene encodes a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The encoded protein activates nuclear factor kappa-B and mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (also called c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1), and induces cell apoptosis. Through its death domain, the encoded receptor interacts with tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated death domain (TRADD) protein, which is known to mediate signal transduction of tumor necrosis factor receptors. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this gene plays a role in T-helper cell activation, and may be involved in inflammation and immune regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

TNFRSF25 Gene

tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 25

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor is expressed preferentially in the tissues enriched in lymphocytes, and it may play a role in regulating lymphocyte homeostasis. This receptor has been shown to stimulate NF-kappa B activity and regulate cell apoptosis. The signal transduction of this receptor is mediated by various death domain containing adaptor proteins. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of this gene in the removal of self-reactive T cells in the thymus. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported, most of which are potentially secreted molecules. The alternative splicing of this gene in B and T cells encounters a programmed change upon T-cell activation, which predominantly produces full-length, membrane bound isoforms, and is thought to be involved in controlling lymphocyte proliferation induced by T-cell activation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATF1P1 Gene

activating transcription factor 1 pseudogene 1

RFC5 Gene

replication factor C (activator 1) 5, 36.5kDa

The elongation of primed DNA templates by DNA polymerase delta and DNA polymerase epsilon requires the accessory proteins proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and replication factor C (RFC). RFC, also named activator 1, is a protein complex consisting of five distinct subunits of 140, 40, 38, 37, and 36 kD. This gene encodes the 36 kD subunit. This subunit can interact with the C-terminal region of PCNA. It forms a core complex with the 38 and 40 kDa subunits. The core complex possesses DNA-dependent ATPase activity, which was found to be stimulated by PCNA in an in vitro system. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

RFC4 Gene

replication factor C (activator 1) 4, 37kDa

The elongation of primed DNA templates by DNA polymerase delta and DNA polymerase epsilon requires the accessory proteins proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and replication factor C (RFC). RFC, also named activator 1, is a protein complex consisting of five distinct subunits of 140, 40, 38, 37, and 36 kD. This gene encodes the 37 kD subunit. This subunit forms a core complex with the 36 and 40 kDa subunits. The core complex possesses DNA-dependent ATPase activity, which was found to be stimulated by PCNA in an in vitro system. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RFC1 Gene

replication factor C (activator 1) 1, 145kDa

This gene encodes the large subunit of replication factor C, a five subunit DNA polymerase accessory protein, which is a DNA-dependent ATPase required for eukaryotic DNA replication and repair. The large subunit acts as an activator of DNA polymerases, binds to the 3' end of primers, and promotes coordinated synthesis of both strands. It may also have a role in telomere stability. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

KDF1 Gene

keratinocyte differentiation factor 1

EEF1E1P1 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 epsilon 1 pseudogene 1

TAF7L Gene

TAF7-like RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 50kDa

This gene is similar to a mouse gene that encodes a TATA box binding protein-associated factor, and shows testis-specific expression. The encoded protein could be a spermatogenesis-specific component of the DNA-binding general transcription factor complex TFIID. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

HNRNPU Gene

heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (scaffold attachment factor A)

This gene belongs to the subfamily of ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). The hnRNPs are RNA binding proteins and they form complexes with heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). These proteins are associated with pre-mRNAs in the nucleus and appear to influence pre-mRNA processing and other aspects of mRNA metabolism and transport. While all of the hnRNPs are present in the nucleus, some seem to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The hnRNP proteins have distinct nucleic acid binding properties. The protein encoded by this gene contains a RNA binding domain and scaffold-associated region (SAR)-specific bipartite DNA-binding domain. This protein is also thought to be involved in the packaging of hnRNA into large ribonucleoprotein complexes. During apoptosis, this protein is cleaved in a caspase-dependent way. Cleavage occurs at the SALD site, resulting in a loss of DNA-binding activity and a concomitant detachment of this protein from nuclear structural sites. But this cleavage does not affect the function of the encoded protein in RNA metabolism. At least two alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CD55 Gene

CD55 molecule, decay accelerating factor for complement (Cromer blood group)

This gene encodes a glycoprotein involved in the regulation of the complement cascade. Binding of the encoded protein to complement proteins accelerates their decay, thereby disrupting the cascade and preventing damage to host cells. Antigens present on this protein constitute the Cromer blood group system (CROM). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. The predominant transcript variant encodes a membrane-bound protein, but alternatively spliced transcripts may produce soluble proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

AAR2 Gene

AAR2 splicing factor homolog (S. cerevisiae)

This gene encodes the homolog of the yeast A1-alpha2 repressin protein that is involved in mRNA splicing. Alternately spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

GTF3C1 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 1, alpha 220kDa

GTF3C6 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 6, alpha 35kDa

RNA polymerases are unable to initiate RNA synthesis in the absence of additional proteins called general transcription factors (GTFs). GTFs assemble in a complex on the DNA promoter and recruit the RNA polymerase. GTF3C family proteins (e.g., GTF3C1, MIM 603246) are essential for RNA polymerase III to make a number of small nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs, including 5S RNA (MIM 180420), tRNA, and adenovirus-associated (VA) RNA of both cellular and viral origin.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GTF3C5 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 5, 63kDa

GTF3C4 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 4, 90kDa

EPS15L1 Gene

epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 15-like 1

MTIF3 Gene

mitochondrial translational initiation factor 3

This gene encodes a translation initiation factor that is involved in mitochondrial protein synthesis. Polymorphism in this gene is associated with the onset of Parkinson's disease. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

MTIF2 Gene

mitochondrial translational initiation factor 2

During the initiation of protein biosynthesis, initiation factor-2 (IF-2) promotes the binding of the initiator tRNA to the small subunit of the ribosome in a GTP-dependent manner. Prokaryotic IF-2 is a single polypeptide, while eukaryotic cytoplasmic IF-2 (eIF-2) is a trimeric protein. Bovine liver mitochondria contain IF-2(mt), an 85-kD monomeric protein that is equivalent to prokaryotic IF-2. The predicted 727-amino acid human protein contains a 29-amino acid presequence. Human IF-2(mt) shares 32 to 38% amino acid sequence identity with yeast IF-2(mt) and several prokaryotic IF-2s, with the greatest degree of conservation in the G domains of the proteins. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COX19 Gene

COX19 cytochrome c oxidase assembly factor

COX19 encodes a cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-assembly protein. The S. cerevisiae Cox19 protein may play a role in metal transport to the mitochondrial intermembrane space and assembly of complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (Sacconi et al., 2005 [PubMed 16212937]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

AGGF1 Gene

angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1

This gene encodes an angiogenic factor that promotes proliferation of endothelial cells. Mutations in this gene are associated with a susceptibility to Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 3, 4, 10 and 16.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

AHCTF1 Gene

AT hook containing transcription factor 1

ARL2BP Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 binding protein

ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-like proteins (ARLs) comprise a functionally distinct group of the ARF family of RAS-related GTPases. The protein encoded by this gene binds to ARL2.GTP with high affinity but does not interact with ARL2.GDP, activated ARF, or RHO proteins. The lack of detectable membrane association of this protein or ARL2 upon activation of ARL2 is suggestive of actions distinct from those of the ARFs. This protein is considered to be the first ARL2-specific effector identified, due to its interaction with ARL2.GTP but lack of ARL2 GTPase-activating protein activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SDF2L1 Gene

stromal cell-derived factor 2-like 1

LOC100418561 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor 3 pseudogene

ISY1 Gene

ISY1 splicing factor homolog (S. cerevisiae)

F2RL3 Gene

coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3

Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 3 (F2RL3) is a member of the large family of 7-transmembrane-region receptors that couple to guanosine-nucleotide-binding proteins. F2RL3 is also a member of the protease-activated receptor family. F2RL3 is activated by proteolytic cleavage of its extracellular amino terminus. The new amino terminus functions as a tethered ligand and activates the receptor. F2RL3 is activated by thrombin and trypsin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

F2RL2 Gene

coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 2

This gene encodes a member of the protease-activated receptor (PAR) family which is a subfamily of the seven transmembrane G protein-coupled cell surface receptor family. The encoded protein acts as a cofactor in the thrombin-mediated cleavage and activation of the protease-activated receptor family member PAR4. The encoded protein plays an essential role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

F2RL1 Gene

coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1

Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1 (F2RL1) is a member of the large family of 7-transmembrane-region receptors that couple to guanosine-nucleotide-binding proteins. F2RL1 is also a member of the protease-activated receptor family. It is activated by trypsin, but not by thrombin. It is activated by proteolytic cleavage of its extracellular amino terminus. The new amino terminus functions as a tethered ligand and activates the receptor. The F2RL1 gene contains two exons and is widely expressed in human tissues. The predicted protein sequence is 83% identical to the mouse receptor sequence. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DCAF7 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 7

This gene encodes a protein with multiple WD40 repeats which facilitate protein-protein interactions and thereby enable the assembly of multiprotein complexes. This protein has been shown to function as a scaffold protein for protein complexes involved in kinase signaling. This highly conserved gene is present in eukaryotic plants, fungi, and animals. The ortholog of this gene was first identified in plants as a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis and flower pigmentation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

DCAF6 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 6

DCAF5 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 5

DCAF4 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 4

This gene encodes a WD repeat-containing protein that interacts with the Cul4-Ddb1 E3 ligase macromolecular complex. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

DCAF8 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 8

This gene encodes a WD repeat-containing protein that interacts with the Cul4-Ddb1 E3 ligase macromolecular complex. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

ARHGEF34P Gene

Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 34, pseudogene

LOC101929862 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

EEF1G Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma

This gene encodes a subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This subunit contains an N-terminal glutathione transferase domain, which may be involved in regulating the assembly of multisubunit complexes containing this elongation factor and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EEF1D Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta (guanine nucleotide exchange protein)

This gene encodes a subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This subunit, delta, functions as guanine nucleotide exchange factor. It is reported that following HIV-1 infection, this subunit interacts with HIV-1 Tat. This interaction results in repression of translation of host cell proteins and enhanced translation of viral proteins. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been found for this gene. Related pseudogenes have been defined on chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 19.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

TERF1P1 Gene

telomeric repeat binding factor (NIMA-interacting) 1 pseudogene 1

TERF1P3 Gene

telomeric repeat binding factor (NIMA-interacting) 1 pseudogene 3

TERF1P2 Gene

telomeric repeat binding factor (NIMA-interacting) 1 pseudogene 2

TERF1P5 Gene

telomeric repeat binding factor (NIMA-interacting) 1 pseudogene 5

TERF1P4 Gene

telomeric repeat binding factor (NIMA-interacting) 1 pseudogene 4

SCX Gene

scleraxis basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor

APAF1 Gene

apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1

This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein that initiates apoptosis. This protein contains several copies of the WD-40 domain, a caspase recruitment domain (CARD), and an ATPase domain (NB-ARC). Upon binding cytochrome c and dATP, this protein forms an oligomeric apoptosome. The apoptosome binds and cleaves caspase 9 preproprotein, releasing its mature, activated form. Activated caspase 9 stimulates the subsequent caspase cascade that commits the cell to apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IGFALS Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein, acid labile subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a serum protein that binds insulin-like growth factors, increasing their half-life and their vascular localization. Production of the encoded protein, which contains twenty leucine-rich repeats, is stimulated by growth hormone. Defects in this gene are a cause of acid-labile subunit deficiency, which maifests itself in a delayed and slow puberty. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

LOC285697 Gene

TAF11 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 28kDa pseudogene

MIEF1 Gene

mitochondrial elongation factor 1

MIEF2 Gene

mitochondrial elongation factor 2

This gene encodes an outer mitochondrial membrane protein that functions in the regulation of mitochondrial morphology. It can directly recruit the fission mediator dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) to the mitochondrial surface. The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

PTF1A Gene

pancreas specific transcription factor, 1a

This gene encodes a protein that is a component of the pancreas transcription factor 1 complex (PTF1) and is known to have a role in mammalian pancreatic development. The protein plays a role in determining whether cells allocated to the pancreatic buds continue towards pancreatic organogenesis or revert back to duodenal fates. The protein is thought to be involved in the maintenance of exocrine pancreas-specific gene expression including elastase 1 and amylase. Mutations in this gene cause cerebellar agenesis and loss of expression is seen in ductal type pancreas cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KLF7 Gene

Kruppel-like factor 7 (ubiquitous)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Kruppel-like transcriptional regulator family. Members in this family regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and survival and contain three C2H2 zinc fingers at the C-terminus that mediate binding to GC-rich sites. This protein may contribute to the progression of type 2 diabetes by inhibiting insulin expression and secretion in pancreatic beta-cells and by deregulating adipocytokine secretion in adipocytes. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 3. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

KLF6 Gene

Kruppel-like factor 6

This gene encodes a member of the Kruppel-like family of transcription factors. The zinc finger protein is a transcriptional activator, and functions as a tumor suppressor. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, some of which are implicated in carcinogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

KLF5 Gene

Kruppel-like factor 5 (intestinal)

This gene encodes a member of the Kruppel-like factor subfamily of zinc finger proteins. The encoded protein is a transcriptional activator that binds directly to a specific recognition motif in the promoters of target genes. This protein acts downstream of multiple different signaling pathways and is regulated by post-translational modification. It may participate in both promoting and suppressing cell proliferation. Expression of this gene may be changed in a variety of different cancers and in cardiovascular disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

KLF4 Gene

Kruppel-like factor 4 (gut)

KLF3 Gene

Kruppel-like factor 3 (basic)

KLF2 Gene

Kruppel-like factor 2

Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) are a family of broadly expressed zinc finger transcription factors. KLF2 regulates T-cell trafficking by promoting expression of the lipid-binding receptor S1P1 (S1PR1; MIM 601974) and the selectin CD62L (SELL; MIM 153240) (summary by Weinreich et al., 2009 [PubMed 19592277]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2011]

KLF1 Gene

Kruppel-like factor 1 (erythroid)

This gene encodes a hematopoietic-specific transcription factor that induces high-level expression of adult beta-globin and other erythroid genes. The zinc-finger protein binds to the DNA sequence CCACACCCT found in the beta hemoglobin promoter. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in this gene result in the dominant In(Lu) blood phenotype. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

KLF9 Gene

Kruppel-like factor 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that binds to GC box elements located in the promoter. Binding of the encoded protein to a single GC box inhibits mRNA expression while binding to tandemly repeated GC box elements activates transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KLF8 Gene

Kruppel-like factor 8

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the Sp/KLF family of transcription factors. Members of this family contain a C-terminal DNA-binding domain with three Kruppel-like zinc fingers. The encoded protein is thought to play an important role in the regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, a process which occurs normally during development but also during metastasis. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 16. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

REST Gene

RE1-silencing transcription factor

This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that represses neuronal genes in non-neuronal tissues. It is a member of the Kruppel-type zinc finger transcription factor family. It represses transcription by binding a DNA sequence element called the neuron-restrictive silencer element. The protein is also found in undifferentiated neuronal progenitor cells and it is thought that this repressor may act as a master negative regular of neurogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

SFSWAP Gene

splicing factor, suppressor of white-apricot family

This gene encodes a human homolog of Drosophila splicing regulatory protein. This gene autoregulates its expression by control of splicing of its first two introns. In addition, it also regulates the splicing of fibronectin and CD45 genes. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

RABIF Gene

RAB interacting factor

This gene encodes a member of the SCE4/YPT1/RAB family of small GTP-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of intracellular vesicular transport. This protein stimulates GTP-GDP exchange in SEC4, and to a lesser extent in YPT1 and RAB3A, and may play a general role in vesicular transport. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

SYF2 Gene

SYF2 pre-mRNA-splicing factor

This gene encodes a nuclear protein that interacts with cyclin D-type binding-protein 1, which is thought to be a cell cycle regulator at the G1/S transition. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

F11 Gene

coagulation factor XI

This gene encodes coagulation factor XI of the blood coagulation cascade. This protein is present in plasma as a zymogen, which is a unique plasma coagulation enzyme because it exists as a homodimer consisting of two identical polypeptide chains linked by disulfide bonds. During activation of the plasma factor XI, an internal peptide bond is cleaved by factor XIIa (or XII) in each of the two chains, resulting in activated factor XIa, a serine protease composed of two heavy and two light chains held together by disulfide bonds. This activated plasma factor XI triggers the middle phase of the intrisic pathway of blood coagulation by activating factor IX. Defects in this factor lead to Rosenthal syndrome, a blood coagulation abnormality. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HDGFL1 Gene

hepatoma derived growth factor-like 1

NODAL Gene

nodal growth differentiation factor

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggested that this gene may be essential for mesoderm formation and subsequent organization of axial structures in early embryonic development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EDF1 Gene

endothelial differentiation-related factor 1

This gene encodes a protein that may regulate endothelial cell differentiation, lipid metabolism, and hormone-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The encoded protein has also been found to act as a transcriptional coactivator by interconnecting the general transcription factor TATA element-binding protein (TBP) and gene-specific activators. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

LOC649166 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit J pseudogene

EIF1P3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1 pseudogene 3

EIF1P2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1 pseudogene 2

EIF1P1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1 pseudogene 1

EIF1P4 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1 pseudogene 4

SALL4 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 4

The protein encoded by this gene may be a zinc finger transcription factor. Defects in this gene are a cause of Duane-radial ray syndrome (DRRS). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SALL1 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger transcriptional repressor and may be part of the NuRD histone deacetylase complex (HDAC). Defects in this gene are a cause of Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) as well as bronchio-oto-renal syndrome (BOR). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SALL3 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 3

This gene encodes a sal-like C2H2-type zinc-finger protein, and belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved genes found in species as diverse as Drosophila, C. elegans, and vertebrates. Mutations in some of these genes are associated with congenital disorders in human, suggesting their importance in embryonic development. This protein binds to DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A), and reduces DNMT3A-mediated CpG island methylation. It is suggested that silencing of this gene, resulting in acceleration of DNA methylation, may have a role in oncogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

SALL2 Gene

spalt-like transcription factor 2

HBP1 Gene

HMG-box transcription factor 1

ELOF1 Gene

elongation factor 1 homolog (S. cerevisiae)

LOC391742 Gene

TAF11 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 28kDa pseudogene

LOC391746 Gene

TAF11 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 28kDa pseudogene

LOC260339 Gene

transcription factor A, mitochondrial pseudogene

MTRF1 Gene

mitochondrial translational release factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene was determined by in silico methods to be a mitochondrial protein with similarity to the peptide chain release factors (RFs) discovered in bacteria and yeast. The peptide chain release factors direct the termination of translation in response to the peptide chain termination codons. Initially thought to have a role in the termination of mitochondria protein synthesis, a recent publication found no mitochondrial translation release functionality. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been suggested by mRNA and EST data; however, their full-length natures are not clear. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PF4 Gene

platelet factor 4

This gene encodes a member of the CXC chemokine family. This chemokine is released from the alpha granules of activated platelets in the form of a homotetramer which has high affinity for heparin and is involved in platelet aggregation. This protein is chemotactic for numerous other cell type and also functions as an inhibitor of hematopoiesis, angiogenesis and T-cell function. The protein also exhibits antimicrobial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

KLF2P4 Gene

Kruppel-like factor 2 pseudogene 4

MYPOP Gene

Myb-related transcription factor, partner of profilin

CPSF4L Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4-like

FGFR3P5 Gene

fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 pseudogene 5

LOC222344 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 6

LOC100131223 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 8B pseudogene

BCLAF1P1 Gene

BCL2-associated transcription factor 1 pseudogene 1

ARL4A Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4A

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4A is a member of the ADP-ribosylation factor family of GTP-binding proteins. ARL4A is similar to ARL4C and ARL4D and each has a nuclear localization signal and an unusually high guaninine nucleotide exchange rate. ARL4A is located in both the nuclear and extranuclear cell compartments. Multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABPAP Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, alpha subunit pseudogene

LOC100419862 Gene

dynein, axonemal, assembly factor 5 pseudodgene

TNF Gene

tumor necrosis factor

This gene encodes a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily. This cytokine is mainly secreted by macrophages. It can bind to, and thus functions through its receptors TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and TNFRSF1B/TNFBR. This cytokine is involved in the regulation of a wide spectrum of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and coagulation. This cytokine has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune diseases, insulin resistance, and cancer. Knockout studies in mice also suggested the neuroprotective function of this cytokine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EHF Gene

ets homologous factor

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to an ETS transcription factor subfamily characterized by epithelial-specific expression (ESEs). The encoded protein acts as a transcriptional repressor and may be involved in epithelial differentiation and carcinogenesis. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

GRB10 Gene

growth factor receptor-bound protein 10

The product of this gene belongs to a small family of adapter proteins that are known to interact with a number of receptor tyrosine kinases and signaling molecules. This gene encodes a growth factor receptor-binding protein that interacts with insulin receptors and insulin-like growth-factor receptors. Overexpression of some isoforms of the encoded protein inhibits tyrosine kinase activity and results in growth suppression. This gene is imprinted in a highly isoform- and tissue-specific manner, with expression observed from the paternal allele in the brain, and from the maternal allele in the placental trophoblasts. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

GRB14 Gene

growth factor receptor-bound protein 14

The product of this gene belongs to a small family of adapter proteins that are known to interact with a number of receptor tyrosine kinases and signaling molecules. This gene encodes a growth factor receptor-binding protein that interacts with insulin receptors and insulin-like growth-factor receptors. This protein likely has an inhibitory effect on receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and, in particular, on insulin receptor signaling. This gene may play a role in signaling pathways that regulate growth and metabolism. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

LOC392439 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 pseudogene

LOC642791 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 pseudogene

LOC101928296 Gene

ATP synthase-coupling factor 6, mitochondrial-like

NAF1 Gene

nuclear assembly factor 1 ribonucleoprotein

SPIRE1 Gene

spire-type actin nucleation factor 1

Spire proteins, such as SPIRE1, are highly conserved between species. They belong to the family of Wiskott-Aldrich homology region-2 (WH2) proteins, which are involved in actin organization (Kerkhoff et al., 2001 [PubMed 11747823]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SPIRE2 Gene

spire-type actin nucleation factor 2

EIF4HP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4H pseudogene 2

EIF4EP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E pseudogene 2

EIF4EP4 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E pseudogene 4

EIF4EP5 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E pseudogene 5

TCEANC Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII) N-terminal and central domain containing

CDT1 Gene

chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the formation of the pre-replication complex that is necessary for DNA replication. The encoded protein can bind geminin, which prevents replication and may function to prevent this protein from initiating replication at inappropriate origins. Phosphorylation of this protein by cyclin A-dependent kinases results in degradation of the protein. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

TFB2M Gene

transcription factor B2, mitochondrial

HNF4GP1 Gene

hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, gamma pseudogene 1

TGFA Gene

transforming growth factor, alpha

This gene encodes a growth factor that is a ligand for the epidermal growth factor receptor, which activates a signaling pathway for cell proliferation, differentiation and development. This protein may act as either a transmembrane-bound ligand or a soluble ligand. This gene has been associated with many types of cancers, and it may also be involved in some cases of cleft lip/palate. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PREX2 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 2

PREX1 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Rac exchange factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the RHO family of small GTP-binding proteins (RACs). It has been shown to bind to and activate RAC1 by exchanging bound GDP for free GTP. The encoded protein, which is found mainly in the cytoplasm, is activated by phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate and the beta-gamma subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HIF3A Gene

hypoxia inducible factor 3, alpha subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha-3 subunit of one of several alpha/beta-subunit heterodimeric transcription factors that regulate many adaptive responses to low oxygen tension (hypoxia). The alpha-3 subunit lacks the transactivation domain found in factors containing either the alpha-1 or alpha-2 subunits. It is thought that factors containing the alpha-3 subunit are negative regulators of hypoxia-inducible gene expression. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

GTF2IP1 Gene

general transcription factor IIi pseudogene 1

GTF2IP3 Gene

general transcription factor IIi pseudogene 3

GTF2IP2 Gene

general transcription factor IIi pseudogene 2

GTF2IP5 Gene

general transcription factor IIi pseudogene 5

GTF2IP4 Gene

general transcription factor IIi, pseudogene 4

GTF2IP6 Gene

general transcription factor IIi pseudogene 6

TRERF1 Gene

transcriptional regulating factor 1

This gene encodes a zinc-finger transcriptional regulating protein which interacts with CBP/p300 to regulate the human gene CYP11A1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

F10 Gene

coagulation factor X

This gene encodes the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor X of the blood coagulation cascade. This factor undergoes multiple processing steps before its preproprotein is converted to a mature two-chain form by the excision of the tripeptide RKR. Two chains of the factor are held together by 1 or more disulfide bonds; the light chain contains 2 EGF-like domains, while the heavy chain contains the catalytic domain which is structurally homologous to those of the other hemostatic serine proteases. The mature factor is activated by the cleavage of the activation peptide by factor IXa (in the intrisic pathway), or by factor VIIa (in the extrinsic pathway). The activated factor then converts prothrombin to thrombin in the presence of factor Va, Ca+2, and phospholipid during blood clotting. Mutations of this gene result in factor X deficiency, a hemorrhagic condition of variable severity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCEA2 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII), 2

The protein encoded by this gene is found in the nucleus, where it functions as an SII class transcription elongation factor. Elongation factors in this class are responsible for releasing RNA polymerase II ternary complexes from transcriptional arrest at template-encoded arresting sites. The encoded protein has been shown to interact with general transcription factor IIB, a basal transcription factor. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCEA3 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII), 3

TCEA1 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII), 1

CNTF Gene

ciliary neurotrophic factor

The protein encoded by this gene is a polypeptide hormone whose actions appear to be restricted to the nervous system where it promotes neurotransmitter synthesis and neurite outgrowth in certain neuronal populations. The protein is a potent survival factor for neurons and oligodendrocytes and may be relevant in reducing tissue destruction during inflammatory attacks. A mutation in this gene, which results in aberrant splicing, leads to ciliary neurotrophic factor deficiency, but this phenotype is not causally related to neurologic disease. A read-through transcript variant composed of the upstream ZFP91 gene and CNTF sequence has been identified, but it is thought to be non-coding. Read-through transcription of ZFP91 and CNTF has also been observed in mouse. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

RFX4 Gene

regulatory factor X, 4 (influences HLA class II expression)

This gene is a member of the regulatory factor X gene family, which encodes transcription factors that contain a highly-conserved winged helix DNA binding domain. The protein encoded by this gene is structurally related to regulatory factors X1, X2, X3, and X5. It has been shown to interact with itself as well as with regulatory factors X2 and X3, but it does not interact with regulatory factor X1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

RFX5 Gene

regulatory factor X, 5 (influences HLA class II expression)

A lack of MHC-II expression results in a severe immunodeficiency syndrome called MHC-II deficiency, or the bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS; MIM 209920). At least 4 complementation groups have been identified in B-cell lines established from patients with BLS. The molecular defects in complementation groups B, C, and D all lead to a deficiency in RFX, a nuclear protein complex that binds to the X box of MHC-II promoters. The lack of RFX binding activity in complementation group C results from mutations in the RFX5 gene encoding the 75-kD subunit of RFX (Steimle et al., 1995). RFX5 is the fifth member of the growing family of DNA-binding proteins sharing a novel and highly characteristic DNA-binding domain called the RFX motif. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found but the full-length natures of only two have been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RFX7 Gene

regulatory factor X, 7

RFX7 is a member of the regulatory factor X (RFX) family of transcription factors (see RFX1, MIM 600006) (Aftab et al., 2008 [PubMed 18673564]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2009]

RFX1 Gene

regulatory factor X, 1 (influences HLA class II expression)

This gene is a member of the regulatory factor X gene family, which encodes transcription factors that contain a highly-conserved winged helix DNA binding domain. The protein encoded by this gene is structurally related to regulatory factors X2, X3, X4, and X5. It is a transcriptional activator that can bind DNA as a monomer or as a heterodimer with RFX family members X2, X3, and X5, but not with X4. This protein binds to the X-boxes of MHC class II genes and is essential for their expression. Also, it can bind to an inverted repeat that is required for expression of hepatitis B virus genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RFX2 Gene

regulatory factor X, 2 (influences HLA class II expression)

This gene is a member of the regulatory factor X gene family, which encodes transcription factors that contain a highly-conserved winged helix DNA binding domain. The protein encoded by this gene is structurally related to regulatory factors X1, X3, X4, and X5. It is a transcriptional activator that can bind DNA as a monomer or as a heterodimer with other RFX family members. This protein can bind to cis elements in the promoter of the IL-5 receptor alpha gene. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene, and both variants utilize alternative polyadenylation sites. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RFX3 Gene

regulatory factor X, 3 (influences HLA class II expression)

This gene is a member of the regulatory factor X gene family, which encodes transcription factors that contain a highly-conserved winged helix DNA binding domain. The protein encoded by this gene is structurally related to regulatory factors X1, X2, X4, and X5. It is a transcriptional activator that can bind DNA as a monomer or as a heterodimer with other RFX family members. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

IGFBP2 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, 36kDa

IGFBP3 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3

This gene is a member of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family and encodes a protein with an IGFBP domain and a thyroglobulin type-I domain. The protein forms a ternary complex with insulin-like growth factor acid-labile subunit (IGFALS) and either insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I or II. In this form, it circulates in the plasma, prolonging the half-life of IGFs and altering their interaction with cell surface receptors. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IGFBP1 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1

This gene is a member of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family and encodes a protein with an IGFBP domain and a thyroglobulin type-I domain. The protein binds both insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) I and II and circulates in the plasma. Binding of this protein prolongs the half-life of the IGFs and alters their interaction with cell surface receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IGFBP7 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7

This gene encodes a member of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein (IGFBP) family. IGFBPs bind IGFs with high affinity, and regulate IGF availability in body fluids and tissues and modulate IGF binding to its receptors. This protein binds IGF-I and IGF-II with relatively low affinity, and belongs to a subfamily of low-affinity IGFBPs. It also stimulates prostacyclin production and cell adhesion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene, and one variant has been associated with retinal arterial macroaneurysm (PMID:21835307). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

IGFBP4 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4

This gene is a member of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family and encodes a protein with an IGFBP domain and a thyroglobulin type-I domain. The protein binds both insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) I and II and circulates in the plasma in both glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms. Binding of this protein prolongs the half-life of the IGFs and alters their interaction with cell surface receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IGFBP5 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5

CKLF Gene

chemokine-like factor

The product of this gene is a cytokine. Cytokines are small proteins that have an essential role in the immune and inflammatory responses. This gene is one of several chemokine-like factor genes located in a cluster on chromosome 16. The protein encoded by this gene is a potent chemoattractant for neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. It also can stimulate the proliferation of skeletal muscle cells. This protein may play important roles in inflammation and in the regeneration of skeletal muscle. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. Naturally occurring read-through transcription occurs between this locus and the neighboring locus CMTM1 (CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing 1).[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

TGIF2P1 Gene

TGFB-induced factor homeobox 2 pseudogene 1

LOC105369257 Gene

SAGA-associated factor 29 homolog

LOC105369252 Gene

hepatocyte growth factor-like protein

CTCFL Gene

CCCTC-binding factor (zinc finger protein)-like

CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), an 11-zinc-finger factor involved in gene regulation, utilizes different zinc fingers to bind varying DNA target sites. CTCF forms methylation-sensitive insulators that regulate X-chromosome inactivation. This gene is a paralog of CTCF and appears to be expressed primarily in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes, unlike CTCF which is expressed primarily in the nucleus of somatic cells. CTCF and the protein encoded by this gene are normally expressed in a mutually exclusive pattern that correlates with resetting of methylation marks during male germ cell differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

LOC102724594 Gene

splicing factor U2AF 35 kDa subunit

CSF2RB Gene

colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, beta, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage)

The protein encoded by this gene is the common beta chain of the high affinity receptor for IL-3, IL-5 and CSF. Defects in this gene have been reported to be associated with protein alveolar proteinosis (PAP). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CSF2RA Gene

colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, alpha, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage)

The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha subunit of the heterodimeric receptor for colony stimulating factor 2, a cytokine which controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes and macrophages. The encoded protein is a member of the cytokine family of receptors. This gene is found in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the X and Y chromosomes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, with some of the isoforms being membrane-bound and others being soluble. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EFTUD1P1 Gene

elongation factor Tu GTP binding domain containing 1 pseudogene 1

EFTUD1P2 Gene

elongation factor Tu GTP binding domain containing 1 pseudogene 2

NRBF2P4 Gene

nuclear receptor binding factor 2 pseudogene 4

ELL2P1 Gene

elongation factor, RNA polymerase II, 2 pseudogene 1

ELL2P4 Gene

elongation factor, RNA polymerase II, 2 pseudogene 4

OGFRL1 Gene

opioid growth factor receptor-like 1

RBFA Gene

ribosome binding factor A (putative)

TSNAXIP1 Gene

translin-associated factor X interacting protein 1

LOC100418692 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene

LOC100418690 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene

SCAF11 Gene

SR-related CTD-associated factor 11

VWDE Gene

von Willebrand factor D and EGF domains

MFGE8 Gene

milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein

EIF4A3P1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A3 pseudogene 1

GTF2F1 Gene

general transcription factor IIF, polypeptide 1, 74kDa

GTF2F2 Gene

general transcription factor IIF, polypeptide 2, 30kDa

NAIF1 Gene

nuclear apoptosis inducing factor 1

MAU2 Gene

MAU2 sister chromatid cohesion factor

LOC100129001 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 6, alpha 35kDa pseudogene

LOC100422717 Gene

pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (TCF1) 2 pseudogene

LOC643711 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, catalytic subunit 2 (30kDa) pseudogene

MYF5 Gene

myogenic factor 5

MYF6 Gene

myogenic factor 6 (herculin)

The protein encoded by this gene is a probable basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) DNA binding protein involved in muscle differentiation. The encoded protein likely acts as a heterodimer with another bHLH protein. Defects in this gene are a cause of autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (ADCNM). [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GFI1B Gene

growth factor independent 1B transcription repressor

This gene encodes a zinc-finger containing transcriptional regulator that is primarily expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineage. The encoded protein complexes with numerous other transcriptional regulatory proteins including GATA-1, runt-related transcription factor 1 and histone deacetylases to control expression of genes involved in the development and maturation of erythrocytes and megakaryocytes. Mutations in this gene are the cause of the autosomal dominant platelet disorder, platelet-type bleeding disorder-17. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

EBF4 Gene

early B-cell factor 4

EBF4 belongs to the conserved Olf/EBF family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors, members of which play important roles in neural development and B-cell maturation (Wang et al., 2002 [PubMed 12139918]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

EBF3 Gene

early B-cell factor 3

This gene encodes a member of the early B-cell factor (EBF) family of DNA binding transcription factors. EBF proteins are involved in B-cell differentiation, bone development and neurogenesis, and may also function as tumor suppressors. The encoded protein inhibits cell survival through the regulation of genes involved in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and aberrant methylation or deletion of this gene may play a role in multiple malignancies including glioblastoma multiforme and gastric carcinoma. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

EBF2 Gene

early B-cell factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the COE (Collier/Olf/EBF) family of non-basic, helix-loop-helix transcription factors that have a well conserved DNA binding domain. The COE family proteins play an important role in variety of developmental processes. Studies in mouse suggest that this gene may be involved in the differentiation of osteoblasts. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

EBF1 Gene

early B-cell factor 1

LOC100288001 Gene

pre-mRNA processing factor 3 pseudogene

BMS1P17 Gene

BMS1 ribosome biogenesis factor pseudogene 17

EIF2S2P1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 1

EIF2S2P3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 3

EIF2S2P2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 2

EIF2S2P5 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 5

EIF2S2P4 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 4

EIF2S2P7 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 7

EIF2S2P6 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 6

HLTF Gene

helicase-like transcription factor

This gene encodes a member of the SWI/SNF family. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein contains a RING finger DNA binding motif. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. However, use of an alternative translation start site produces an isoform that is truncated at the N-terminus compared to the full-length protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RUNX1T1 Gene

runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1 (cyclin D-related)

This gene encodes a member of the myeloid translocation gene family which interact with DNA-bound transcription factors and recruit a range of corepressors to facilitate transcriptional repression. The t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is one of the most frequent karyotypic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia. The translocation produces a chimeric gene made up of the 5'-region of the runt-related transcription factor 1 gene fused to the 3'-region of this gene. The chimeric protein is thought to associate with the nuclear corepressor/histone deacetylase complex to block hematopoietic differentiation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

TFAP2A Gene

transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that binds the consensus sequence 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3'. The encoded protein functions as either a homodimer or as a heterodimer with similar family members. This protein activates the transcription of some genes while inhibiting the transcription of others. Defects in this gene are a cause of branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS). Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

TFAP2C Gene

transcription factor AP-2 gamma (activating enhancer binding protein 2 gamma)

The protein encoded by this gene is a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor involved in the activation of several developmental genes. The encoded protein can act as either a homodimer or heterodimer with other family members and is induced during retinoic acid-mediated differentiation. It plays a role in the development of the eyes, face, body wall, limbs, and neural tube. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TFAP2B Gene

transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)

This gene encodes a member of the AP-2 family of transcription factors. AP-2 proteins form homo- or hetero-dimers with other AP-2 family members and bind specific DNA sequences. They are thought to stimulate cell proliferation and suppress terminal differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic development. Specific AP-2 family members differ in their expression patterns and binding affinity for different promoters. This protein functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant Char syndrome, suggesting that this gene functions in the differentiation of neural crest cell derivatives. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TFAP2E Gene

transcription factor AP-2 epsilon (activating enhancer binding protein 2 epsilon)

TFAP2D Gene

transcription factor AP-2 delta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 delta)

LOC100421023 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, gamma pseudogene

TCEB1P31 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 31

LOC100533923 Gene

eukaryotic translation termination factor 1 pseudogene

LOC100533924 Gene

eukaryotic translation termination factor 1 pseudogene

LOC100533927 Gene

eukaryotic translation termination factor 1 pseudogene

LOC100533926 Gene

eukaryotic translation termination factor 1 pseudogene

LOC100533929 Gene

eukaryotic translation termination factor 1 pseudogene

LOC100533928 Gene

eukaryotic translation termination factor 1 pseudogene

ARL6IP1P1 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 1 pseudogene 1

ARL6IP1P2 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 1 pseudogene 2

ARL6IP1P3 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 1 pseudogene 3

YAF2 Gene

YY1 associated factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with YY1, a zinc finger protein involved in negative regulation of muscle-restricted genes. This gene product itself contains a single N-terminal C2-X10-C2 zinc finger, and in contrast to YY1, is up-regulated during myogenic differentiation. It also facilitates proteolytic cleavage of YY1 by the calcium- activated protease, m-calpain, suggesting a mechanism by which this protein antagonizes the negative effect of YY1. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

EIF5A2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2

SFPQP1 Gene

splicing factor proline/glutamine-rich (polypyrimidine tract binding protein associated) pseudogene 1

LOC100420339 Gene

opioid growth factor receptor pseudogene

DFFA Gene

DNA fragmentation factor, 45kDa, alpha polypeptide

Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for caspase-3 and triggers DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. DFF becomes activated when DFFA is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFFA dissociate from DFFB, the active component of DFF. DFFB has been found to trigger both DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DFFB Gene

DNA fragmentation factor, 40kDa, beta polypeptide (caspase-activated DNase)

Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for caspase-3 and triggers DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. DFF becomes activated when DFFA is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFFA dissociate from DFFB, the active component of DFF. DFFB has been found to trigger both DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene but the biological validity of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

NGF Gene

nerve growth factor (beta polypeptide)

This gene is a member of the NGF-beta family and encodes a secreted protein which homodimerizes and is incorporated into a larger complex. This protein has nerve growth stimulating activity and the complex is involved in the regulation of growth and the differentiation of sympathetic and certain sensory neurons. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, type 5 (HSAN5), and dysregulation of this gene's expression is associated with allergic rhinitis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105370554 Gene

transcription factor NF-E4-like

LOC728433 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 7 pseudogene

DCAF12L2 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 12-like 2

This gene encodes a member of the WD repeat protein family. WD repeats are minimally conserved regions of approximately 40 amino acids typically bracketed by Gly-His and Trp-Asp (GH-WD), which may facilitate formation of heterotrimeric or multi-protein complexes. Members of this family are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, apoptosis, and gene regulation. This gene appears to represent an intronless retrocopy of a related multi-exon gene located on chromosome 9. However, the CDS of this intronless gene remains intact, it is conserved in other mammalian species, it is known to be transcribed, and it is therefore thought to encode a functional protein. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

DCAF12L1 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 12-like 1

This gene encodes a member of the WD repeat protein family. WD repeats are minimally conserved regions of approximately 40 amino acids typically bracketed by gly-his and trp-asp (GH-WD), which may facilitate formation of heterotrimeric or multiprotein complexes. Members of this family are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, apoptosis, and gene regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KGFLP1 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 7 pseudogene

NFATC2IP Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2 interacting protein

LOC391747 Gene

TAF11 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 28kDa pseudogene

ATP5S Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit s (factor B)

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. This gene encodes the subunit s, also known as factor B, of the proton channel. This subunit is necessary for the energy transduction activity of the ATP synthase complexes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLP1 Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation factor I subunit 1

This gene encodes a member of the Clp1 family. The encoded protein is a multifunctional kinase which is a component of the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex and a component of the pre-mRNA cleavage complex II. This protein is implicated in tRNA, mRNA, and siRNA maturation. Mutations in this gene are associated with pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 10 (PCH10). Alternatively splice transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

EEF1A1P24 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 24

LOC401677 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 pseudogene

EEF1A1P21 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 21

EEF1A1P29 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 29

NGFG Gene

Nerve growth factor, gamma subunit

NGFR Gene

nerve growth factor receptor

Nerve growth factor receptor contains an extracellular domain containing four 40-amino acid repeats with 6 cysteine residues at conserved positions followed by a serine/threonine-rich region, a single transmembrane domain, and a 155-amino acid cytoplasmic domain. The cysteine-rich region contains the nerve growth factor binding domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100418611 Gene

eukaryotic translation termination factor 1 pseudogene

GTF2IP20 Gene

general transcription factor IIi pseudogene 20

LOC100130180 Gene

nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 3 pseudogene

HSF1 Gene

heat shock transcription factor 1

The product of this gene is a heat-shock transcription factor. Transcription of heat-shock genes is rapidly induced after temperature stress. Hsp90, by itself and/or associated with multichaperone complexes, is a major repressor of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HSF2 Gene

heat shock transcription factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the HSF family of transcription factors that bind specifically to the heat-shock promoter element and activate transcription. Heat shock transcription factors activate heat-shock response genes under conditions of heat or other stresses. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

HSF5 Gene

heat shock transcription factor family member 5

HSF4 Gene

heat shock transcription factor 4

Heat-shock transcription factors (HSFs) activate heat-shock response genes under conditions of heat or other stresses. HSF4 lacks the carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic repeat which is shared among all vertebrate HSFs and has been suggested to be involved in the negative regulation of DNA binding activity. Two alternatively spliced transcripts encoding distinct isoforms and possessing different transcriptional activity have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRPF4B Gene

pre-mRNA processing factor 4B

Pre-mRNA splicing occurs in two sequential transesterification steps, and the protein encoded by this gene is thought to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing and in signal transduction. This protein belongs to a kinase family that includes serine/arginine-rich protein-specific kinases and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). This protein is regarded as a CDK-like kinase (Clk) with homology to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MST1P2 Gene

macrophage stimulating 1 (hepatocyte growth factor-like) pseudogene 2

EIF4EBP2P1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 2 pseudogene 1

EIF4EBP2P3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 2 pseudogene 3

EIF4EBP2P2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 2 pseudogene 2

FRS3 Gene

fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 3

This gene encodes a substrate for the fibroblast growth factor receptor. The encoded protein is found in the peripheral plasma membrane and links fibroblast growth factor receptor stimulation to activators of Ras. The encoded protein down-regulates extracellular regulated kinase 2 through direct binding. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

FRS2 Gene

fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2

LMF2 Gene

lipase maturation factor 2

LOC643118 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 pseudogene

BMS1P19 Gene

BMS1 ribosome biogenesis factor pseudogene 19

BMS1P18 Gene

BMS1 ribosome biogenesis factor pseudogene 18

BMS1P15 Gene

BMS1 ribosome biogenesis factor pseudogene 15

BMS1P16 Gene

BMS1 ribosome biogenesis factor pseudogene 16

BMS1P11 Gene

BMS1 ribosome biogenesis factor pseudogene 11

BMS1P10 Gene

BMS1 ribosome biogenesis factor pseudogene 10

BMS1P13 Gene

BMS1 ribosome biogenesis factor pseudogene 13

BMS1P12 Gene

BMS1 ribosome biogenesis factor pseudogene 12

NSFP1 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor pseudogene 1

TAF7 Gene

TAF7 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 55kDa

The intronless gene for this transcription coactivator is located between the protocadherin beta and gamma gene clusters on chromosome 5. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the TFIID protein complex, a complex which binds to the TATA box in class II promoters and recruits RNA polymerase II and other factors. This particular subunit interacts with the largest TFIID subunit, as well as multiple transcription activators. The protein is required for transcription by promoters targeted by RNA polymerase II. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAF6 Gene

TAF6 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 80kDa

Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes one of the smaller subunits of TFIID that binds weakly to TBP but strongly to TAF1, the largest subunit of TFIID. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

TAF5 Gene

TAF5 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 100kDa

Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes an integral subunit of TFIID associated with all transcriptionally competent forms of that complex. This subunit interacts strongly with two TFIID subunits that show similarity to histones H3 and H4, and it may participate in forming a nucleosome-like core in the TFIID complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAF4 Gene

TAF4 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 135kDa

Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes one of the larger subunits of TFIID that has been shown to potentiate transcriptional activation by retinoic acid, thyroid hormone and vitamin D3 receptors. In addition, this subunit interacts with the transcription factor CREB, which has a glutamine-rich activation domain, and binds to other proteins containing glutamine-rich regions. Aberrant binding to this subunit by proteins with expanded polyglutamine regions has been suggested as one of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying a group of neurodegenerative disorders referred to as polyglutamine diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAF3 Gene

TAF3 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 140kDa

The highly conserved RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIID (see TAF1; MIM 313650) comprises the TATA box-binding protein (TBP; MIM 600075) and a set of TBP-associated factors (TAFs), including TAF3. TAFs contribute to promoter recognition and selectivity and act as antiapoptotic factors (Gangloff et al., 2001 [PubMed 11438666]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2009]

TAF2 Gene

TAF2 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 150kDa

Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes one of the larger subunits of TFIID that is stably associated with the TFIID complex. It contributes to interactions at and downstream of the transcription initiation site, interactions that help determine transcription complex response to activators. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAF1 Gene

TAF1 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 250kDa

Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is the basal transcription factor TFIID, which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes the largest subunit of TFIID. This subunit binds to core promoter sequences encompassing the transcription start site. It also binds to activators and other transcriptional regulators, and these interactions affect the rate of transcription initiation. This subunit contains two independent protein kinase domains at the N- and C-terminals, but also possesses acetyltransferase activity and can act as a ubiquitin-activating/conjugating enzyme. Mutations in this gene result in Dystonia 3, torsion, X-linked, a dystonia-parkinsonism disorder. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. This gene is part of a complex transcription unit (TAF1/DYT3), wherein some transcript variants share exons with TAF1 as well as additional downstream DYT3 exons. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]

SF3B4P1 Gene

splicing factor 3b, subunit 4 pseudogene 1

TAF9 Gene

TAF9 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 32kDa

Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes one of the smaller subunits of TFIID that binds to the basal transcription factor GTF2B as well as to several transcriptional activators such as p53 and VP16. In human, TAF9 and AK6 (GeneID: 102157402) are two distinct genes that share 5' exons. A similar but distinct gene (TAF9L) has been found on the X chromosome and a pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 19. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

EEF1GP8 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 8

EEF1GP3 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 3

EEF1GP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 2

EEF1GP7 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 7

EEF1GP6 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 6

EEF1GP5 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 5

TCF21 Gene

transcription factor 21

TCF21 encodes a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix family. The TCF21 product is mesoderm specific, and expressed in embryonic epicardium, mesenchyme-derived tissues of lung, gut, gonad, and both mesenchymal and glomerular epithelial cells in the kidney. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100130612 Gene

TAF9 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 32kDa pseudogene

ATPIF1 Gene

ATPase inhibitory factor 1

This gene encodes a mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and three transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARL11 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 11

This gene encodes a tumor suppressor related to the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with some familial cancers. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

ARL10 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 10

ARL15 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15

ARL14 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 14

ARL16 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 16

EIF4E3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E family member 3

EIF4E3 belongs to the EIF4E family of translational initiation factors that interact with the 5-prime cap structure of mRNA and recruit mRNA to the ribosome (Joshi et al., 2004 [PubMed 15153109]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

EIF4E2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E family member 2

GIF Gene

gastric intrinsic factor (vitamin B synthesis)

This gene is a member of the cobalamin transport protein family. It encodes a glycoprotein secreted by parietal cells of the gastric mucosa and is required for adequate absorption of vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 is necessary for erythrocyte maturation and mutations in this gene may lead to congenital pernicious anemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRPF8 Gene

pre-mRNA processing factor 8

Pre-mRNA splicing occurs in 2 sequential transesterification steps. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of both U2- and U12-dependent spliceosomes, and found to be essential for the catalytic step II in pre-mRNA splicing process. It contains several WD repeats, which function in protein-protein interactions. This protein has a sequence similarity to yeast Prp8 protein. This gene is a candidate gene for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRPF3 Gene

pre-mRNA processing factor 3

The removal of introns from nuclear pre-mRNAs occurs on complexes called spliceosomes, which are made up of 4 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) particles and an undefined number of transiently associated splicing factors. This gene product is one of several proteins that associate with U4 and U6 snRNPs. Mutations in this gene are associated with retinitis pigmentosa-18. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRPF4 Gene

pre-mRNA processing factor 4

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a heteromeric complex that binds U4, U5, and U6 small nuclear RNAs and is involved in pre-mRNA splicing. The encoded protein also is a mitotic checkpoint protein and a regulator of chemoresistance in human ovarian cancer. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

PRPF6 Gene

pre-mRNA processing factor 6

The protein encoded by this gene appears to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing, possibly acting as a bridging factor between U5 and U4/U6 snRNPs in formation of the spliceosome. The encoded protein also can bind androgen receptor, providing a link between transcriptional activation and splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCF11 Gene

PCF11 cleavage and polyadenylation factor subunit

BTF3P11 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 11

BTF3P10 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 10

BTF3P13 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 13

This locus defines a putative member of the BTF3 family of transcription factors and is thought to represent a pseudogene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARL14EP Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 14 effector protein

The protein encoded by this gene is an effector protein. It interacts with ADP-ribosylation factor-like 14 [ARL14, also known as ADP-ribosylation factor 7 (ARF7)], beta-actin (ACTB) and actin-based motor protein myosin 1E (MYO1E). ARL14 is a small GTPase; it controls the export of major histocompatibility class II molecules by connecting to the actin network via this effector protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

AHCTF1P1 Gene

AT hook containing transcription factor 1 pseudogene 1

PDGFRB Gene

platelet-derived growth factor receptor, beta polypeptide

This gene encodes a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor for members of the platelet-derived growth factor family. These growth factors are mitogens for cells of mesenchymal origin. The identity of the growth factor bound to a receptor monomer determines whether the functional receptor is a homodimer or a heterodimer, composed of both platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta polypeptides. This gene is flanked on chromosome 5 by the genes for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor receptor; all three genes may be implicated in the 5-q syndrome. A translocation between chromosomes 5 and 12, that fuses this gene to that of the translocation, ETV6, leukemia gene, results in chronic myeloproliferative disorder with eosinophilia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PDGFRA Gene

platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide

This gene encodes a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor for members of the platelet-derived growth factor family. These growth factors are mitogens for cells of mesenchymal origin. The identity of the growth factor bound to a receptor monomer determines whether the functional receptor is a homodimer or a heterodimer, composed of both platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta polypeptides. Studies suggest that this gene plays a role in organ development, wound healing, and tumor progression. Mutations in this gene have been associated with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, somatic and familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and a variety of other cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

PDGFRL Gene

platelet-derived growth factor receptor-like

This gene encodes a protein with significant sequence similarity to the ligand binding domain of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta. Mutations in this gene, or deletion of a chromosomal segment containing this gene, are associated with sporadic hepatocellular carcinomas, colorectal cancers, and non-small cell lung cancers. This suggests this gene product may function as a tumor suppressor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCIF1 Gene

PDX1 C-terminal inhibiting factor 1

F2R Gene

coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor

Coagulation factor II receptor is a 7-transmembrane receptor involved in the regulation of thrombotic response. Proteolytic cleavage leads to the activation of the receptor. F2R is a G-protein coupled receptor family member. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPDPF Gene

pancreatic progenitor cell differentiation and proliferation factor

GTF3A Gene

general transcription factor IIIA

The product of this gene is a zinc finger protein with nine Cis[2]-His[2] zinc finger domains. It functions as an RNA polymerase III transcription factor to induce transcription of the 5S rRNA genes. The protein binds to a 50 bp internal promoter in the 5S genes called the internal control region (ICR), and nucleates formation of a stable preinitiation complex. This complex recruits the TFIIIC and TFIIIB transcription factors and RNA polymerase III to form the complete transcription complex. The protein is thought to be translated using a non-AUG translation initiation site in mammals based on sequence analysis, protein homology, and the size of the purified protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BATF2 Gene

basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like 2

CLQTL1 Gene

cholesterol-lowering factor

AMFR Gene

autocrine motility factor receptor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This locus encodes a glycosylated transmembrane receptor. Its ligand, autocrine motility factor, is a tumor motility-stimulating protein secreted by tumor cells. The encoded receptor is also a member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase family of proteins. It catalyzes ubiquitination and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of specific proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

USO1 Gene

USO1 vesicle transport factor

The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein which recycles between the cytosol and the Golgi apparatus during interphase. It is regulated by phosphorylation: dephosphorylated protein associates with the Golgi membrane and dissociates from the membrane upon phosphorylation. Ras-associated protein 1 recruits this protein to coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicles during budding from the endoplasmic reticulum, where it interacts with a set of COPII vesicle-associated SNAREs to form a cis-SNARE complex that promotes targeting to the Golgi apparatus. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

LOC727919 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) complex I, assembly factor 2 pseudogene

COX20P2 Gene

COX20 cytochrome c oxidase assembly factor pseudogene 2

COX20P1 Gene

COX20 cytochrome c oxidase assembly factor pseudogene 1

CSF3R Gene

colony stimulating factor 3 receptor (granulocyte)

The protein encoded by this gene is the receptor for colony stimulating factor 3, a cytokine that controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes. The encoded protein, which is a member of the family of cytokine receptors, may also function in some cell surface adhesion or recognition processes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Kostmann syndrome, also known as severe congenital neutropenia. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

RAPGEF4 Gene

Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 4

UBE4A Gene

ubiquitination factor E4A

This gene encodes a member of the U-box ubiquitin ligase family. The encoded protein is involved in multiubiquitin chain assembly and plays a critical role in chromosome condensation and separation through the polyubiquitination of securin. Autoantibodies against the encoded protein may be markers for scleroderma and Crohn's disease. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 3. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

TFAMP2 Gene

transcription factor A, mitochondrial pseudogene 2

TFAMP1 Gene

transcription factor A, mitochondrial pseudogene 1

EIF5A2P1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 pseudogene 1

EIF3KP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit K pseudogene 1

ARHGEF9 Gene

Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a Rho-like GTPase that switches between the active (GTP-bound) state and inactive (GDP-bound) state to regulate CDC42 and other genes. Defects in this gene are a cause of startle disease with epilepsy (STHEE), also known as hyperekplexia with epilepsy. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

ARHGEF6 Gene

Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 6

Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein belongs to a family of cytoplasmic proteins that activate the Ras-like family of Rho proteins by exchanging bound GDP for GTP. It may form a complex with G proteins and stimulate Rho-dependent signals. This protein is activated by PI3-kinase. Mutations in this gene can cause X-chromosomal non-specific mental retardation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARHGEF2 Gene

Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 2

Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein may form complex with G proteins and stimulate rho-dependent signals. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

ADIRF Gene

adipogenesis regulatory factor

APM2 gene is exclusively expressed in adipose tissue. Its function is currently unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DCAF8L1 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 8-like 1

This gene encodes a member of the WD repeat protein family. WD repeats are minimally conserved regions of approximately 40 amino acids typically bracketed by Gly-His and Trp-Asp (GH-WD), which may facilitate the formation of heterotrimeric or multi-protein complexes. Members of this family are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, apoptosis, and gene regulation. This gene appears to represent an intronless retrocopy of a related multi-exon gene located on chromosome 1. However, the CDS of this intronless gene remains intact, it is conserved in other primate species, it is known to be transcribed, and it is therefore thought to encode a functional protein. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

DCAF8L2 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 8-like 2

GABPB2 Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit 2

GABPB1 Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit 1

This gene encodes the GA-binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit. This protein forms a tetrameric complex with the alpha subunit, and stimulates transcription of target genes. The encoded protein may be involved in activation of cytochrome oxidase expression and nuclear control of mitochondrial function. The crystal structure of a similar protein in mouse has been resolved as a ternary protein complex. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SIL1 Gene

SIL1 nucleotide exchange factor

This gene encodes a resident endoplasmic reticulum (ER), N-linked glycoprotein with an N-terminal ER targeting sequence, 2 putative N-glycosylation sites, and a C-terminal ER retention signal. This protein functions as a nucleotide exchange factor for another unfolded protein response protein. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome. Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100533814 Gene

TRPM8 channel-associated factor 2 pseudogene

LOC441722 Gene

U2 small nuclear RNA auxiliary factor 1-like 4 pseudogene

SMG5 Gene

SMG5 nonsense mediated mRNA decay factor

SMG5 is involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (Ohnishi et al., 2003 [PubMed 14636577]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

EEF1A1P13 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 13

EEF1A1P12 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 12

EEF1A1P11 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 11

EEF1A1P17 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 17

EEF1A1P16 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 16

SMG9 Gene

SMG9 nonsense mediated mRNA decay factor

SF1 Gene

splicing factor 1

This gene encodes a nuclear pre-mRNA splicing factor. The encoded protein specifically recognizes the intron branch point sequence and is required for the early stages of spliceosome assembly. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PEX11A Gene

peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 alpha

This gene is a member of the PEX11 family, which is composed of membrane elongation factors involved in regulation of peroxisome maintenance and proliferation. This gene product interacts with peroxisomal membrane protein 19 and may respond to outside stimuli to increase peroxisome abundance. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

PEX11B Gene

peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 beta

The protein encoded by this gene facilitates peroxisomal proliferation and interacts with PEX19. The encoded protein is found in the peroxisomal membrane. Several transcript variants, some protein-coding and some not protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

PAFAH1B1 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, regulatory subunit 1 (45kDa)

This locus was identified as encoding a gene that when mutated or lost caused the lissencephaly associated with Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome. This gene encodes the non-catalytic alpha subunit of the intracellular Ib isoform of platelet-activating factor acteylhydrolase, a heterotrimeric enzyme that specifically catalyzes the removal of the acetyl group at the SN-2 position of platelet-activating factor (identified as 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine). Two other isoforms of intracellular platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase exist: one composed of multiple subunits, the other, a single subunit. In addition, a single-subunit isoform of this enzyme is found in serum. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

PAFAH1B3 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, catalytic subunit 3 (29kDa)

This gene encodes an acetylhydrolase that catalyzes the removal of an acetyl group from the glycerol backbone of platelet-activating factor. The encoded enzyme is a subunit of the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 1B complex, which consists of the catalytic beta and gamma subunits and the regulatory alpha subunit. This complex functions in brain development. A translocation between this gene on chromosome 19 and the CDC-like kinase 2 gene on chromosome 1 has been observed, and was associated with mental retardation, ataxia, and atrophy of the brain. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

PAFAH1B2 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, catalytic subunit 2 (30kDa)

Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAFAH) inactivates platelet-activating factor (PAF) into acetate and LYSO-PAF. This gene encodes the beta subunit of PAFAH, the other subunits are alpha and gamma. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

LOC100421646 Gene

von Willebrand factor A domain containing 5B2 pseudogene

F13A1 Gene

coagulation factor XIII, A1 polypeptide

This gene encodes the coagulation factor XIII A subunit. Coagulation factor XIII is the last zymogen to become activated in the blood coagulation cascade. Plasma factor XIII is a heterotetramer composed of 2 A subunits and 2 B subunits. The A subunits have catalytic function, and the B subunits do not have enzymatic activity and may serve as plasma carrier molecules. Platelet factor XIII is comprised only of 2 A subunits, which are identical to those of plasma origin. Upon cleavage of the activation peptide by thrombin and in the presence of calcium ion, the plasma factor XIII dissociates its B subunits and yields the same active enzyme, factor XIIIa, as platelet factor XIII. This enzyme acts as a transglutaminase to catalyze the formation of gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine crosslinking between fibrin molecules, thus stabilizing the fibrin clot. It also crosslinks alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor, or fibronectin, to the alpha chains of fibrin. Factor XIII deficiency is classified into two categories: type I deficiency, characterized by the lack of both the A and B subunits; and type II deficiency, characterized by the lack of the A subunit alone. These defects can result in a lifelong bleeding tendency, defective wound healing, and habitual abortion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100533917 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor pseudogene

CBFA2T3 Gene

core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3

This gene encodes a member of the myeloid translocation gene family which interact with DNA-bound transcription factors and recruit a range of corepressors to facilitate transcriptional repression. The t(16;21)(q24;q22) translocation is one of the less common karyotypic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia. The translocation produces a chimeric gene made up of the 5'-region of the runt-related transcription factor 1 gene fused to the 3'-region of this gene. This gene is also a putative breast tumor suppressor. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

CBFA2T2 Gene

core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 2

In acute myeloid leukemia, especially in the M2 subtype, the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is one of the most frequent karyotypic abnormalities. The translocation produces a chimeric gene made up of the 5'-region of the RUNX1 (AML1) gene fused to the 3'-region of the CBFA2T1 (MTG8) gene. The chimeric protein is thought to associate with the nuclear corepressor/histone deacetylase complex to block hematopoietic differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene binds to the AML1-MTG8 complex and may be important in promoting leukemogenesis. Several transcript variants are thought to exist for this gene, but the full-length natures of only three have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IRF2BP2 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2

This gene encodes an interferon regulatory factor-2 (IRF2) binding protein that interacts with the C-terminal transcriptional repression domain of IRF2. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IRF2BP1 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 1

IRF2BPL Gene

interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein-like

This gene encodes a transcription factor that may play a role in regulating female reproductive function. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

NFAT5 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5, tonicity-responsive

The product of this gene is a member of the nuclear factors of activated T cells family of transcription factors. Proteins belonging to this family play a central role in inducible gene transcription during the immune response. This protein regulates gene expression induced by osmotic stress in mammalian cells. Unlike monomeric members of this protein family, this protein exists as a homodimer and forms stable dimers with DNA elements. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARL2BPP9 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 binding protein pseudogene 9

ARL2BPP8 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 binding protein pseudogene 8

ARL2BPP4 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 binding protein pseudogene 4

ARL2BPP7 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 binding protein pseudogene 7

ARL2BPP6 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 binding protein pseudogene 6

ARL2BPP1 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 binding protein pseudogene 1

ARL2BPP3 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 binding protein pseudogene 3

FGF19 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 19

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This growth factor is a high affinity, heparin dependent ligand for FGFR4. Expression of this gene was detected only in fetal but not adult brain tissue. Synergistic interaction of the chick homolog and Wnt-8c has been shown to be required for initiation of inner ear development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGF18 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 18

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth, and invasion. It has been shown in vitro that this protein is able to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Studies of the similar proteins in mouse and chick suggested that this protein is a pleiotropic growth factor that stimulates proliferation in a number of tissues, most notably the liver and small intestine. Knockout studies of the similar gene in mice implied the role of this protein in regulating proliferation and differentiation of midline cerebellar structures. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGF13 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 13

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth, and invasion. This gene is located in a region on chromosome X, which is associated with Borjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome (BFLS), making it a possible candidate gene for familial cases of the BFLS, and for other syndromal and nonspecific forms of X-linked mental retardation mapping to this region. Alternative splicing of this gene at the 5' end results in several transcript variants encoding different isoforms with different N-termini. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

FGF12 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 12

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth, and invasion. This growth factor lacks the N-terminal signal sequence present in most of the FGF family members, but it contains clusters of basic residues that have been demonstrated to act as a nuclear localization signal. When transfected into mammalian cells, this protein accumulated in the nucleus, but was not secreted. The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGF11 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 11

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. The function of this gene has not yet been determined. The expression pattern of the mouse homolog implies a role in nervous system development. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

FGF10 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 10

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This protein exhibits mitogenic activity for keratinizing epidermal cells, but essentially no activity for fibroblasts, which is similar to the biological activity of FGF7. Studies of the mouse homolog of suggested that this gene is required for embryonic epidermal morphogenesis including brain development, lung morphogenesis, and initiation of lim bud formation. This gene is also implicated to be a primary factor in the process of wound healing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGF17 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 17

This gene encodes a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. Member of the FGF family possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This protein is expressed during embryogenesis and in the adult cerebellum and cortex and may be essential for vascular growth and normal brain development. Mutations in this gene are the cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 20 with or without anosmia. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

FGF16 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 16

This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins that are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene is expressed in cardiac cells and is required for proper heart development. Mutation in this gene was also observed in individuals with metacarpal 4-5 fusion. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

FGF14 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 14

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. A mutation in this gene is associated with autosomal dominant cerebral ataxia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100216346 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 6 pseudogene

TFAM Gene

transcription factor A, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a key mitochondrial transcription factor containing two high mobility group motifs. The encoded protein also functions in mitochondrial DNA replication and repair. Sequence polymorphisms in this gene are associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 6, 7, and 11. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

GTF2H2B Gene

general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 2B (pseudogene)

TNFRSF10C Gene

tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 10c, decoy without an intracellular domain

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor contains an extracellular TRAIL-binding domain and a transmembrane domain, but no cytoplasmic death domain. This receptor is not capable of inducing apoptosis, and is thought to function as an antagonistic receptor that protects cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis. This gene was found to be a p53-regulated DNA damage-inducible gene. The expression of this gene was detected in many normal tissues but not in most cancer cell lines, which may explain the specific sensitivity of cancer cells to the apoptosis-inducing activity of TRAIL. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TNFRSF10B Gene

tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 10b

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily, and contains an intracellular death domain. This receptor can be activated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TNFSF10/TRAIL/APO-2L), and transduces an apoptosis signal. Studies with FADD-deficient mice suggested that FADD, a death domain containing adaptor protein, is required for the apoptosis mediated by this protein. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms and one non-coding transcript have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

TNFRSF10D Gene

tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 10d, decoy with truncated death domain

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor contains an extracellular TRAIL-binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and a truncated cytoplamic death domain. This receptor does not induce apoptosis, and has been shown to play an inhibitory role in TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VWC2 Gene

von Willebrand factor C domain containing 2

This gene encodes a secreted bone morphogenic protein antagonist. The encoded protein is possibly involved in neural function and development and may have a role in cell adhesion.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

DIEXF Gene

digestive organ expansion factor homolog (zebrafish)

TFDP3 Gene

transcription factor Dp family, member 3

This gene encodes a member of the DP family of transcription factors. These factors heterodimerize with E2F proteins to enhance their DNA-binding activity and promote transcription from E2F target genes. This protein functions as a negative regulator and inhibits the DNA binding and transcriptional activities of E2F factors.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

TFDP2 Gene

transcription factor Dp-2 (E2F dimerization partner 2)

The gene is a member of the transcription factor DP family. The encoded protein forms heterodimers with the E2F transcription factors resulting in transcriptional activation of cell cycle regulated genes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

TFDP1 Gene

transcription factor Dp-1

This gene encodes a member of a family of transcription factors that heterodimerize with E2F proteins to enhance their DNA-binding activity and promote transcription from E2F target genes. The encoded protein functions as part of this complex to control the transcriptional activity of numerous genes involved in cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1, 15, and X.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

EIF3C Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit C

EIF3D Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit D

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor-3 (eIF3), the largest of the eIFs, is a multiprotein complex composed of at least ten nonidentical subunits. The complex binds to the 40S ribosome and helps maintain the 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits in a dissociated state. It is also thought to play a role in the formation of the 40S initiation complex by interacting with the ternary complex of eIF2/GTP/methionyl-tRNA, and by promoting mRNA binding. The protein encoded by this gene is the major RNA binding subunit of the eIF3 complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF3G Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit G

LOC101929748 Gene

transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 4-like

RFC3 Gene

replication factor C (activator 1) 3, 38kDa

The elongation of primed DNA templates by DNA polymerase delta and DNA polymerase epsilon requires the accessory proteins proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and replication factor C (RFC). RFC, also named activator 1, is a protein complex consisting of five distinct subunits of 140, 40, 38, 37, and 36 kDa. This gene encodes the 38 kDa subunit. This subunit is essential for the interaction between the 140 kDa subunit and the core complex that consists of the 36, 37, and 40 kDa subunits. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARL6IP6 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 6

ARL6IP5 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 5

Expression of this gene is affected by vitamin A. The encoded protein of this gene may be associated with the cytoskeleton. A similar protein in rats may play a role in the regulation of cell differentiation. The rat protein binds and inhibits the cell membrane glutamate transporter EAAC1. The expression of the rat gene is upregulated by retinoic acid, which results in a specific reduction in EAAC1-mediated glutamate transport. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARL6IP4 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 4

ARL6IP1 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 1

PDGFA Gene

platelet-derived growth factor alpha polypeptide

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor family. The four members of this family are mitogenic factors for cells of mesenchymal origin and are characterized by a motif of eight cysteines. This gene product can exist either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with the platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide, where the dimers are connected by disulfide bonds. Studies using knockout mice have shown cellular defects in oligodendrocytes, alveolar smooth muscle cells, and Leydig cells in the testis; knockout mice die either as embryos or shortly after birth. Two splice variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PDGFB Gene

platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor family. The four members of this family are mitogenic factors for cells of mesenchymal origin and are characterized by a motif of eight cysteines. This gene product can exist either as a homodimer (PDGF-BB) or as a heterodimer with the platelet-derived growth factor alpha polypeptide (PDGF-AB), where the dimers are connected by disulfide bonds. Mutations in this gene are associated with meningioma. Reciprocal translocations between chromosomes 22 and 17, at sites where this gene and that for collagen type 1, alpha 1 are located, are associated with a particular type of skin tumor called dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans resulting from unregulated expression of growth factor. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

PDGFD Gene

platelet derived growth factor D

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor family. The four members of this family are mitogenic factors for cells of mesenchymal origin and are characterized by a core motif of eight cysteines, seven of which are found in this factor. This gene product only forms homodimers and, therefore, does not dimerize with the other three family members. It differs from alpha and beta members of this family in having an unusual N-terminal domain, the CUB domain. Two splice variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DUOXA1 Gene

dual oxidase maturation factor 1

Dual oxidases DUOX1 and DUOX2 are NADPH oxidases which are involved in hydrogen peroxide production necessary for thyroid hormonogenesis. They form a heterodimer with specific maturation factors DUOXA1 and DUOXA2, respectively, which is essential for the maturation and function of the DUOX enzyme complexes. This gene encodes the DUOX1 activator or maturation factor DUOXA1. Rat studies identified a bidirectional promoter which controls the transcription of the DUOX1 and DUOXA1 genes. This protein is cotransported to the cell surface when coexpressed with DUOX1 and is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum when expressed without DUOX1 protein. The expression of this gene or the DUOX1 gene is not suppressed by thyroglobulin (Tg), a macromolecular precursor in thyroid hormone synthesis, while the expression of the DUOX2 and DUOXA2 are significantly suppressed by the Tg. This protein is also a p53-regulated neurogenic factor involved in p53 dependent neuronal differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

DUOXA2 Gene

dual oxidase maturation factor 2

This gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum protein that is necessary for proper cellular localization and maturation of functional dual oxidase 2. Mutations in this gene have been associated with thyroid dyshormonogenesis 5.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

TCEB1P18 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 18

NDUFAF5 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) complex I, assembly factor 5

The NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex (complex I) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone, and consists of at least 43 subunits. The complex is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein that is associated with the matrix face of the mitochondrial inner membrane and is required for complex I assembly. A mutation in this gene results in mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

NDUFAF4 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) complex I, assembly factor 4

NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) in the first step of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in the translocation of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This gene encodes a complex I assembly factor. Mutations in this gene are a cause of mitochondrial complex I deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

NDUFAF7 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) complex I, assembly factor 7

NDUFAF6 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) complex I, assembly factor 6

This gene encodes a protein that localizes to mitochondria and contains a predicted phytoene synthase domain. The encoded protein plays an important role in the assembly of complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain through regulation of subunit ND1 biogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with complex I enzymatic deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

NDUFAF1 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) complex I, assembly factor 1

This gene encodes a complex I assembly factor protein. Complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) in the first step of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in the translocation of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The encoded protein is required for assembly of complex I, and mutations in this gene are a cause of mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 19. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

NDUFAF3 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) complex I, assembly factor 3

This gene encodes a mitochondrial complex I assembly protein that interacts with complex I subunits. Mutations in this gene cause mitochondrial complex I deficiency, a fatal neonatal disorder of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

NDUFAF2 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) complex I, assembly factor 2

NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) in the first step of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, resulting in the translocation of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This gene encodes a complex I assembly factor. Mutations in this gene cause progressive encephalopathy resulting from mitochondrial complex I deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHAF1A Gene

chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit A (p150)

Chromatin assembly factor I (CAF1) is a nuclear complex consisting of p50, p60 (CHAF1B; MIM 601245), and p150 (CHAF1A) subunits that assembles histone octamers onto replicating DNA in vitro (Kaufman et al., 1995 [PubMed 7600578]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CHAF1B Gene

chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit B (p60)

Chromatin assembly factor I (CAF-I) is required for the assembly of histone octamers onto newly-replicated DNA. CAF-I is composed of three protein subunits, p50, p60, and p150. The protein encoded by this gene corresponds to the p60 subunit and is required for chromatin assembly after replication. The encoded protein is differentially phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. In addition, it is normally found in the nucleus except during mitosis, when it is released into the cytoplasm. This protein is a member of the WD-repeat HIR1 family and may also be involved in DNA repair. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCEB1P14 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 14

BTF3 Gene

basic transcription factor 3

This gene encodes the basic transcription factor 3. This protein forms a stable complex with RNA polymerase IIB and is required for transcriptional initiation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. This gene has multiple pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC440973 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, beta pseudogene

OSTF1 Gene

osteoclast stimulating factor 1

Osteoclast-stimulating factor-1 is an intracellular protein produced by osteoclasts that indirectly induces osteoclast formation and bone resorption (Reddy et al., 1998 [PubMed 10092216]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

EIF3CL Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit C-like

A1CF Gene

APOBEC1 complementation factor

Mammalian apolipoprotein B mRNA undergoes site-specific C to U deamination, which is mediated by a multi-component enzyme complex containing a minimal core composed of APOBEC-1 and a complementation factor encoded by this gene. The gene product has three non-identical RNA recognition motifs and belongs to the hnRNP R family of RNA-binding proteins. It has been proposed that this complementation factor functions as an RNA-binding subunit and docks APOBEC-1 to deaminate the upstream cytidine. Studies suggest that the protein may also be involved in other RNA editing or RNA processing events. Several transcript variants encoding a few different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

EIF3KP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit K pseudogene 2

TCEB3CL Gene

transcription elongation factor B polypeptide 3C-like

SMG7 Gene

SMG7 nonsense mediated mRNA decay factor

This gene encodes a protein that is essential for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD); a process whereby transcripts with premature termination codons are targeted for rapid degradation by a mRNA decay complex. The mRNA decay complex consists, in part, of this protein along with proteins SMG5 and UPF1. The N-terminal domain of this protein is thought to mediate its association with SMG5 or UPF1 while the C-terminal domain interacts with the mRNA decay complex. This protein may therefore couple changes in UPF1 phosphorylation state to the degradation of NMD-candidate transcripts. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

SMG6 Gene

SMG6 nonsense mediated mRNA decay factor

This gene encodes a component of the telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex responsible for the replication and maintenance of chromosome ends. The encoded protein also plays a role in the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway, providing the endonuclease activity near the premature translation termination codon that is needed to initiate NMD. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

SMG8 Gene

SMG8 nonsense mediated mRNA decay factor

HSFY1 Gene

heat shock transcription factor, Y-linked 1

This gene encodes a member of the heat shock factor (HSF) family of transcriptional activators for heat shock proteins. This gene is a candidate gene for azoospermia, since it localizes to a region of chromosome Y that is sometimes deleted in infertile males. The genome has two identical copies of this gene within a palindromic region; this record represents the more centromeric copy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HSFY2 Gene

heat shock transcription factor, Y linked 2

This gene encodes a member of the heat shock factor (HSF) family of transcriptional activators for heat shock proteins. This gene is a candidate gene for azoospermia, since it localizes to a region of chromosome Y that is sometimes deleted in infertile males. The genome has two identical copies of this gene within a palindromic region; this record represents the more telomeric copy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF3H Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit H

EIF3I Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit I

EIF3J Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit J

This gene encodes a core subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 complex, which participates in the initiation of translation by aiding in the recruitment of protein and mRNA components to the 40S ribosome. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 3, and 9. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

EIF3K Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit K

The 700-kD eukaryotic translation initiation factor-3 (eIF3) is the largest eIF and contains at least 12 subunits, including EIF2S12. eIF3 plays an essential role in translation by binding directly to the 40S ribosomal subunit and promoting formation of the 40S preinitiation complex (Mayeur et al., 2003 [PubMed 14519125]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

EIF3L Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit L

EIF3M Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit M

This gene encodes a protein that is part of the eurkaryotic translation initiation factor 3 complete (eIF-3) required for protein synthesis. Elevated levels of the encoded protein are present in cancer cell lines. Inactivation of the encoded protein has been shown to interfere with translation of herpes virus mRNAs by preventing the association of mRNAs with the ribosomes. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

EIF3A Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit A

EIF3B Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit B

EIF3E Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit E

EIF3F Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit F

LOC100420343 Gene

translin-associated factor X pseudogene

GRSF1 Gene

G-rich RNA sequence binding factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a cellular protein that binds RNAs containing the G-rich element. The protein is localized in the cytoplasm, and has been shown to stimulate translation of viral mRNAs in vitro. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NENF Gene

neudesin neurotrophic factor

This gene encodes a neurotrophic factor that may play a role in neuron differentiation and development. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 12. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

NFXL1 Gene

nuclear transcription factor, X-box binding-like 1

PF4V1 Gene

platelet factor 4 variant 1

LOC101930161 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

LOC101930165 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

TTF2 Gene

transcription termination factor, RNA polymerase II

This gene encodes a member of the SWI2/SNF2 family of proteins, which play a critical role in altering protein-DNA interactions. The encoded protein has been shown to have dsDNA-dependent ATPase activity and RNA polymerase II termination activity. This protein interacts with cell division cycle 5-like, associates with human splicing complexes, and plays a role in pre-mRNA splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TTF1 Gene

transcription termination factor, RNA polymerase I

This gene encodes a transcription termination factor that is localized to the nucleolus and plays a critical role in ribosomal gene transcription. The encoded protein mediates the termination of RNA polymerase I transcription by binding to Sal box terminator elements downstream of pre-rRNA coding regions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. This gene shares the symbol/alias 'TFF1' with another gene, NK2 homeobox 1, also known as thyroid transcription factor 1, which plays a role in the regulation of thyroid-specific gene expression. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

POU5F2 Gene

POU domain class 5, transcription factor 2

NXF4 Gene

nuclear RNA export factor 4 pseudogene

NXF5 Gene

nuclear RNA export factor 5

This gene is one member of a family of nuclear RNA export factor genes. The encoded protein can bind RNA, and is implicated in mRNA nuclear export. However, this protein has lost several C-terminal protein domains found in other family members that are required for export activity, and may be an evolving pseudogene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but most are candidates for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) and may not express proteins in vivo. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

NXF1 Gene

nuclear RNA export factor 1

This gene is one member of a family of nuclear RNA export factor genes. Common domain features of this family are a noncanonical RNP-type RNA-binding domain (RBD), 4 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF2)-like domain that allows heterodimerization with NTF2-related export protein-1 (NXT1), and a ubiquitin-associated domain that mediates interactions with nucleoporins. The LRRs and NTF2-like domains are required for export activity. Alternative splicing seems to be a common mechanism in this gene family. The encoded protein of this gene shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and binds in vivo to poly(A)+ RNA. It is the vertebrate homologue of the yeast protein Mex67p. The encoded protein overcomes the mRNA export block caused by the presence of saturating amounts of CTE (constitutive transport element) RNA of type D retroviruses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NXF2 Gene

nuclear RNA export factor 2

This gene encodes a member of a family of nuclear RNA export proteins. The encoded protein is associated with the nuclear envelope and aids in the export of mRNAs. There is a closely related paralog of this gene located adjacent on chromosome X and on the opposite strand. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

NXF3 Gene

nuclear RNA export factor 3

This gene is one member of a family of nuclear RNA export factor genes. Common domain features of this family are a noncanonical RNP-type RNA-binding domain (RBD), 4 leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), a nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF2)-like domain that allows heterodimerization with NTF2-related export protein-1 (NXT1), and a ubiquitin-associated domain that mediates interactions with nucleoporins. The LRRs and NTF2-like domains are required for export activity. Alternative splicing seems to be a common mechanism in this gene family. The encoded protein of this gene has shortened LRR and ubiquitin-associated domains and its RDB is unable to bind RNA. It is located in the nucleoplasm but is not associated with either the nuclear envelope or the nucleolus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FAF1 Gene

Fas (TNFRSF6) associated factor 1

Interaction of Fas ligand (TNFSF6) with the FAS antigen (TNFRSF6) mediates programmed cell death, also called apoptosis, in a number of organ systems. The protein encoded by this gene binds to FAS antigen and can initiate apoptosis or enhance apoptosis initiated through FAS antigen. Initiation of apoptosis by the protein encoded by this gene requires a ubiquitin-like domain but not the FAS-binding domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FAF2 Gene

Fas associated factor family member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is highly expressed in peripheral blood of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), compared to normal individuals. It may play a role in regulating the resistance to apoptosis that is observed in T cells and eosinophils of AD patients. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC648442 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit I pseudogene

LOC402229 Gene

splicing factor 4 pseudogene

TRAF3IP1 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 3 interacting protein 1

LOC101929578 Gene

transcription factor CP2-like

BANF1 Gene

barrier to autointegration factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene was first identified by its ability to protect retroviruses from intramolecular integration and therefore promote intermolecular integration into the host cell genome. The protein forms a homodimer which localizes to both the nucleus and cytoplasm and is specifically associated with chromosomes during mitosis. This protein binds to double stranded DNA in a non-specific manner and also binds to LEM-domain containing proteins of the nuclear envelope. This protein is thought to facilitate nuclear reassembly by binding with both DNA and inner nuclear membrane proteins and thereby recruit chromatin to the nuclear periphery. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

BANF2 Gene

barrier to autointegration factor 2

EIF3KP3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit K pseudogene 3

COX14 Gene

COX14 cytochrome c oxidase assembly factor

This gene encodes a small single-pass transmembrane protein that localizes to mitochondria. This protein may play a role in coordinating the early steps of cytochrome c oxidase (COX; also known as complex IV) subunit assembly and, in particular, the synthesis and assembly of the COX I subunit of the holoenzyme. Mutations in this gene have been associated with mitochondrial complex IV deficiency. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GTSF1L Gene

gametocyte specific factor 1-like

LOC100421483 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor 1 pseudogene

EGLN3 Gene

egl-9 family hypoxia-inducible factor 3

EGLN2 Gene

egl-9 family hypoxia-inducible factor 2

The hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is a transcriptional complex that is involved in oxygen homeostasis. At normal oxygen levels, the alpha subunit of HIF is targeted for degration by prolyl hydroxylation. This gene encodes an enzyme responsible for this post-translational modification. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the upstream RAB4B (RAB4B, member RAS oncogene family) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

EGLN1 Gene

egl-9 family hypoxia-inducible factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins. HIF is a transcriptional complex that plays a central role in mammalian oxygen homeostasis. This protein functions as a cellular oxygen sensor, and under normal oxygen concentration, modification by prolyl hydroxylation is a key regulatory event that targets HIF subunits for proteasomal destruction via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitylation complex. Mutations in this gene are associated with erythrocytosis familial type 3 (ECYT3). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

ETF1 Gene

eukaryotic translation termination factor 1

This gene encodes a class-1 polypeptide chain release factor. The encoded protein plays an essential role in directing termination of mRNA translation from the termination codons UAA, UAG and UGA. This protein is a component of the SURF complex which promotes degradation of prematurely terminated mRNAs via the mechanism of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 6, 7, and X. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

GTF2A1 Gene

general transcription factor IIA, 1, 19/37kDa

Accurate transcription initiation on TATA-containing class II genes involves the ordered assembly of RNA polymerase II (POLR2A; MIM 180660) and several general initiation factors (summarized by DeJong and Roeder, 1993 [PubMed 8224848]). One of these factors is TFIIA, which when purified from HeLa extracts consists of 35-, 19-, and 12-kD subunits.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]

GTF2A2 Gene

general transcription factor IIA, 2, 12kDa

Accurate transcription initiation on TATA-containing class II genes involves the ordered assembly of RNA polymerase II (POLR2A; MIM 180660) and the general initiation factors TFIIA, TFIIB (MIM 189963), TFIID (MIM 313650), TFIIE (MIM 189962), TFIIF (MIM 189968), TFIIG/TFIIJ, and TFIIH (MIM 189972). The first step involves recognition of the TATA element by the TATA-binding subunit (TBP; MIM 600075) and may be regulated by TFIIA, a factor that interacts with both TBP and a TBP-associated factor (TAF; MIM 600475) in TFIID. TFIIA has 2 subunits (43 and 12 kD) in yeast and 3 subunits in higher eukaryotes. In HeLa extracts, it consists of a 35-kD alpha subunit and a 19-kD beta subunit encoded by the N- and C-terminal regions of GTF2A1 (MIM 600520), respectively, and a 12-kD gamma subunit encoded by GTF2A2 (DeJong et al., 1995 [PubMed 7724559]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CSTF1 Gene

cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 1, 50kDa

This gene encodes one of three subunits which combine to form cleavage stimulation factor (CSTF). CSTF is involved in the polyadenylation and 3'end cleavage of pre-mRNAs. Similar to mammalian G protein beta subunits, this protein contains transducin-like repeats. Several transcript variants with different 5' UTR, but encoding the same protein, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CSTF3 Gene

cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 3, 77kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is one of three (including CSTF1 and CSTF2) cleavage stimulation factors that combine to form the cleavage stimulation factor complex (CSTF). This complex is involved in the polyadenylation and 3' end cleavage of pre-mRNAs. The encoded protein functions as a homodimer and interacts directly with both CSTF1 and CSTF2 in the CSTF complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CSTF2 Gene

cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 2, 64kDa

This gene encodes a nuclear protein with an RRM (RNA recognition motif) domain. The protein is a member of the cleavage stimulation factor (CSTF) complex that is involved in the 3' end cleavage and polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs. Specifically, this protein binds GU-rich elements within the 3'-untranslated region of mRNAs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BPTF Gene

bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor

This gene was identified by the reactivity of its encoded protein to a monoclonal antibody prepared against brain homogenates from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Analysis of the original protein (fetal Alz-50 reactive clone 1, or FAC1), identified as an 810 aa protein containing a DNA-binding domain and a zinc finger motif, suggested it might play a role in the regulation of transcription. High levels of FAC1 were detected in fetal brain and in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The protein encoded by this gene is actually much larger than originally thought, and it also contains a C-terminal bromodomain characteristic of proteins that regulate transcription during proliferation. The encoded protein is highly similar to the largest subunit of the Drosophila NURF (nucleosome remodeling factor) complex. In Drosophila, the NURF complex, which catalyzes nucleosome sliding on DNA and interacts with sequence-specific transcription factors, is necessary for the chromatin remodeling required for transcription. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described completely. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCEB1P13 Gene

transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 1 pseudogene 13

ILF2P1 Gene

interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 pseudogene 1

ILF2P2 Gene

interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 pseudogene 2

YY1P1 Gene

YY1 transcription factor pseudogene 1

DCAF13 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 13

DCAF12 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 12

This gene encodes a WD repeat-containing protein that interacts with the COP9 signalosome, a macromolecular complex that interacts with cullin-RING E3 ligases and regulates their activity by hydrolyzing cullin-Nedd8 conjugates. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

DCAF11 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 11

This gene encodes a WD repeat-containing protein that interacts with the COP9 signalosome, a macromolecular complex that interacts with cullin-RING E3 ligases and regulates their activity by hydrolyzing cullin-Nedd8 conjugates. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

DCAF10 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 10

DCAF17 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 17

This gene encodes a nuclear transmembrane protein that associates with cullin 4A/damaged DNA binding protein 1 ubiquitin ligase complex. Mutations in this gene are associated with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

DCAF16 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 16

DCAF15 Gene

DDB1 and CUL4 associated factor 15

EIF4BP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B pseudogene 2

TCF15 Gene

transcription factor 15 (basic helix-loop-helix)

The protein encoded by this gene is found in the nucleus and may be involved in the early transcriptional regulation of patterning of the mesoderm. The encoded basic helix-loop-helix protein requires dimerization with another basic helix-loop-helix protein for efficient DNA binding. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCF12 Gene

transcription factor 12

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) E-protein family that recognizes the consensus binding site (E-box) CANNTG. This encoded protein is expressed in many tissues, among them skeletal muscle, thymus, B- and T-cells, and may participate in regulating lineage-specific gene expression through the formation of heterodimers with other bHLH E-proteins. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCF19 Gene

transcription factor 19

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the Plant Homeo Domain finger family of transcription factors. The encoded protein is thought to function during the G1/S transition in the cell cycle. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

AGGF1P3 Gene

angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1 pseudogene 3

AGGF1P2 Gene

angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1 pseudogene 2

AGGF1P1 Gene

angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1 pseudogene 1

AGGF1P7 Gene

angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1 pseudogene 7

AGGF1P5 Gene

angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1 pseudogene 5

AGGF1P4 Gene

angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1 pseudogene 4

AGGF1P9 Gene

angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1 pseudogene 9

AGGF1P8 Gene

angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1 pseudogene 8

LOC100533727 Gene

replication factor C (activator 1) 2, 40kDa pseudogene

EPS15 Gene

epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 15

This gene encodes a protein that is part of the EGFR pathway. The protein is present at clatherin-coated pits and is involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis of EGF. Notably, this gene is rearranged with the HRX/ALL/MLL gene in acute myelogeneous leukemias. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

ARL4P Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4 pseudogene

ARL4D Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4D

ADP-ribosylation factor 4D is a member of the ADP-ribosylation factor family of GTP-binding proteins. ARL4D is closely similar to ARL4A and ARL4C and each has a nuclear localization signal and an unusually high guanine nucleotide exchange rate. This protein may play a role in membrane-associated intracellular trafficking. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VWC2L Gene

von Willebrand factor C domain containing protein 2-like

ARL4C Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4C

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4C is a member of the ADP-ribosylation factor family of GTP-binding proteins. ARL4C is closely similar to ARL4A and ARL4D and each has a nuclear localization signal and an unusually high guanine nucleotide exchange rate. This protein may play a role in cholesterol transport. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASCL2 Gene

achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 2

This gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors. It activates transcription by binding to the E box (5'-CANNTG-3'). Dimerization with other BHLH proteins is required for efficient DNA binding. Involved in the determination of the neuronal precursors in the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASCL3 Gene

achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 3

Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, such as ASCL3, are essential for the determination of cell fate and the development and differentiation of numerous tissues (Jonsson et al., 2004 [PubMed 15475265]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ASCL1 Gene

achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 1

This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors. The protein activates transcription by binding to the E box (5'-CANNTG-3'). Dimerization with other BHLH proteins is required for efficient DNA binding. This protein plays a role in the neuronal commitment and differentiation and in the generation of olfactory and autonomic neurons. Mutations in this gene may contribute to the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) phenotype in rare cases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASCL4 Gene

achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 4

Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, such as ASCL4, are essential for the determination of cell fate and the development and differentiation of numerous tissues (Jonsson et al., 2004 [PubMed 15475265]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ASCL5 Gene

achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 5

IGF2BP1 Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein family. The protein encoded by this gene contains four K homology domains and two RNA recognition motifs. It functions by binding to the mRNAs of certain genes, including insulin-like growth factor 2, beta-actin and beta-transducin repeat-containing protein, and regulating their translation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

IGF2BP2 Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the IGF-II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) family. The protein encoded by this gene contains four KH domains and two RRM domains. It functions by binding to the 5' UTR of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) mRNA and regulating IGF2 translation. Alternative promoter usage and alternate splicing result in multiple variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

LOC100420471 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4A pseudogene

TCEA1P2 Gene

transcription elongation factor A (SII), 1 pseudogene 2

EIF4EBP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein family. The gene products of this family bind eIF4E and inhibit translation initiation. However, insulin and other growth factors can release this inhibition via a phosphorylation-dependent disruption of their binding to eIF4E. Regulation of protein production through these gene products have been implicated in cell proliferation, cell differentiation and viral infection. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

TFCP2L1 Gene

transcription factor CP2-like 1

TFCP2 Gene

transcription factor CP2

This gene encodes a transcription factor that binds the alpha-globin promoter and activates transcription of the alpha-globin gene. The encoded protein regulates erythroid gene expression, plays a role in the transcriptional switch of globin gene promoters, and it activates many other cellular and viral gene promoters. The gene product interacts with certain inflammatory response factors, and polymorphisms of this gene may be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

EEF1B2 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2

This gene encodes a translation elongation factor. The protein is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor involved in the transfer of aminoacylated tRNAs to the ribosome. Alternative splicing results in three transcript variants which differ only in the 5' UTR. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NELFB Gene

negative elongation factor complex member B

NELFB is a subunit of negative elongation factor (NELF), which also includes NELFA (WHSC2; MIM 606026), either NELFC or NELFD (TH1L; MIM 605297), and NELFE (RDBP; MIM 154040). NELF acts with DRB sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF), a heterodimer of SPT4 (SUPT4H1; MIM 603555) and SPT5 (SUPT5H; MIM 602102), to cause transcriptional pausing of RNA polymerase II (see MIM 180660) (Narita et al., 2003 [PubMed 12612062]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

NELFA Gene

negative elongation factor complex member A

This gene is expressed ubiquitously with higher levels in fetal than in adult tissues. It encodes a protein sharing 93% sequence identity with the mouse protein. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a malformation syndrome associated with a hemizygous deletion of the distal short arm of chromosome 4. This gene is mapped to the 165 kb WHS critical region, and may play a role in the phenotype of the WHS or Pitt-Rogers-Danks syndrome. The encoded protein is found to be capable of reacting with HLA-A2-restricted and tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, suggesting a target for use in specific immunotherapy for a large number of cancer patients. This protein has also been shown to be a member of the NELF (negative elongation factor) protein complex that participates in the regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription elongation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NELFE Gene

negative elongation factor complex member E

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex termed negative elongation factor (NELF) which represses RNA polymerase II transcript elongation. This protein bears similarity to nuclear RNA-binding proteins; however, it has not been demonstrated that this protein binds RNA. The protein contains a tract of alternating basic and acidic residues, largely arginine (R) and aspartic acid (D). The gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HSFY3P Gene

heat shock transcription factor, Y-linked 3, pseudogene

EGLN3P1 Gene

egl-9 family hypoxia-inducible factor 3 pseudogene 1

NFRKB Gene

nuclear factor related to kappaB binding protein

NFX1 Gene

nuclear transcription factor, X-box binding 1

MHC class II gene expression is controlled primarily at the transcriptional level by transcription factors that bind to the X and Y boxes, two highly conserved elements in the proximal promoter of MHC class II genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional repressor capable of binding to the conserved X box motif of HLA-DRA and other MHC class II genes in vitro. The protein may play a role in regulating the duration of an inflammatory response by limiting the period in which class II MHC molecules are induced by IFN-gamma. Three alternative splice variants, each of which encodes a different isoform, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCF4 Gene

transcription factor 4

This gene encodes transcription factor 4, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. The encoded protein recognizes an Ephrussi-box ('E-box') binding site ('CANNTG') - a motif first identified in immunoglobulin enhancers. This gene is broadly expressed, and may play an important role in nervous system development. Defects in this gene are a cause of Pitt-Hopkins syndrome. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different proteins have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

TCF7 Gene

transcription factor 7 (T-cell specific, HMG-box)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator that plays an important role in lymphocyte differentiation. This gene is expressed predominantly in T-cells. The encoded protein can bind an enhancer element and activate the CD3E gene, and it also may repress the CTNNB1 and TCF7L2 genes through a feedback mechanism. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

TCF3 Gene

transcription factor 3

This gene encodes a member of the E protein (class I) family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors. E proteins activate transcription by binding to regulatory E-box sequences on target genes as heterodimers or homodimers, and are inhibited by heterodimerization with inhibitor of DNA-binding (class IV) helix-loop-helix proteins. E proteins play a critical role in lymphopoiesis, and the encoded protein is required for B and T lymphocyte development. Deletion of this gene or diminished activity of the encoded protein may play a role in lymphoid malignancies. This gene is also involved in several chromosomal translocations that are associated with lymphoid malignancies including pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (t(1;19), with PBX1), childhood leukemia (t(19;19), with TFPT) and acute leukemia (t(12;19), with ZNF384). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PCBD2 Gene

pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (TCF1) 2

SUCO Gene

SUN domain containing ossification factor

NFE4 Gene

nuclear factor, erythroid 4

The erythroid-specific protein encoded by this gene, and the ubiquitous transcription factor CP2, form the stage selector protein (SSP) complex, which is involved in preferential expression of the gamma-globin genes in fetal erythroid cells. Alternate use of an in-frame upstream non-AUG (CUG) translation initiation codon, and a downstream AUG codon, results in two isoforms. While the long isoform (22 kDa) acts as an activator, the short isoform (14 kDa) has been shown to repress gamma-globin gene expression. This gene is located in an intron of the FBXL13 gene on the opposite strand. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NFE2 Gene

nuclear factor, erythroid 2

CHTF8 Gene

CTF8, chromosome transmission fidelity factor 8 homolog (S. cerevisiae)

This gene encodes a short protein that forms part of the Ctf18 replication factor C (RFC) complex that occurs in both yeast and mammals. The heteroheptameric RFC complex plays a role in sister chromatid cohesion and may load the replication clamp PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) onto DNA during DNA replication and repair. This gene is ubiquitously expressed and has been shown to have reduced expression in renal and prostate tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

CTIF Gene

CBP80/20-dependent translation initiation factor

CTIF is a component of the CBP80 (NCBP1; MIM 600469)/CBP20 (NCBP2; MIM 605133) translation initiation complex that binds cotranscriptionally to the cap end of nascent mRNA. The CBP80/CBP20 complex is involved in a simultaneous editing and translation step that recognizes premature termination codons (PTCs) in mRNAs and directs PTC-containing mRNAs toward nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). On mRNAs without PTCs, the CBP80/CBP20 complex is replaced with cytoplasmic mRNA cap-binding proteins, including EIF4G (MIM 600495), and steady-state translation of the mRNAs resumes in the cytoplasm (Kim et al., 2009 [PubMed 19648179]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2009]

LOC390617 Gene

transcription factor Dp-1 pseudogene

RASGRF1 Gene

Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) similar to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC25 gene product. Functional analysis has demonstrated that this protein stimulates the dissociation of GDP from RAS protein. The studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that the Ras-GEF activity of this protein in brain can be activated by Ca2+ influx, muscarinic receptors, and G protein beta-gamma subunit. Mouse studies also indicated that the Ras-GEF signaling pathway mediated by this protein may be important for long-term memory. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

RASGRF2 Gene

Ras protein-specific guanine nucleotide-releasing factor 2

RAS GTPases cycle between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state. This gene encodes a calcium-regulated nucleotide exchange factor activating both RAS and RAS-related protein, RAC1, through the exchange of bound GDP for GTP, thereby, coordinating the signaling of distinct mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

LOC100421364 Gene

fibroblast growth factor binding protein 1 pseudogene

PRPF19 Gene

pre-mRNA processing factor 19

PSO4 is the human homolog of yeast Pso4, a gene essential for cell survival and DNA repair (Beck et al., 2008 [PubMed 18263876]).[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2008]

PRPF18 Gene

pre-mRNA processing factor 18

Pre-mRNA splicing occurs in 2 sequential transesterification steps. The protein encoded by this gene is found to be essential for the catalytic step II in pre-mRNA splicing process. It is found in the spliceosome, and contains seven WD repeats, which function in protein-protein interactions. This protein has a sequence similarity to the yeast splicing factor Prp18. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRAF1 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF receptor (TNFR) associated factor (TRAF) protein family. TRAF proteins associate with, and mediate the signal transduction from various receptors of the TNFR superfamily. This protein and TRAF2 form a heterodimeric complex, which is required for TNF-alpha-mediated activation of MAPK8/JNK and NF-kappaB. The protein complex formed by this protein and TRAF2 also interacts with inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs), and thus mediates the anti-apoptotic signals from TNF receptors. The expression of this protein can be induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is found to interact with this and other TRAF proteins; this interaction is thought to link LMP1-mediated B lymphocyte transformation to the signal transduction from TNFR family receptors. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

TRAF2 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) protein family. TRAF proteins associate with, and mediate the signal transduction from members of the TNF receptor superfamily. This protein directly interacts with TNF receptors, and forms a heterodimeric complex with TRAF1. This protein is required for TNF-alpha-mediated activation of MAPK8/JNK and NF-kappaB. The protein complex formed by this protein and TRAF1 interacts with the inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs), and functions as a mediator of the anti-apoptotic signals from TNF receptors. The interaction of this protein with TRADD, a TNF receptor associated apoptotic signal transducer, ensures the recruitment of IAPs for the direct inhibition of caspase activation. BIRC2/c-IAP1, an apoptosis inhibitor possessing ubiquitin ligase activity, can unbiquitinate and induce the degradation of this protein, and thus potentiate TNF-induced apoptosis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of only one transcript has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRAF3 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) protein family. TRAF proteins associate with, and mediate the signal transduction from, members of the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily. This protein participates in the signal transduction of CD40, a TNFR family member important for the activation of the immune response. This protein is found to be a critical component of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) signaling complex, which induces NF-kappaB activation and cell death initiated by LTbeta ligation. Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent infection membrane protein-1 (LMP1) can interact with this and several other members of the TRAF family, which may be essential for the oncogenic effects of LMP1. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding three distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

TRAF4 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 4

This gene encodes a member of the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) family. TRAF proteins are associated with, and mediate signal transduction from members of the TNF receptor superfamily. The encoded protein has been shown to interact with neurotrophin receptor, p75 (NTR/NTSR1), and negatively regulate NTR induced cell death and NF-kappa B activation. This protein has been found to bind to p47phox, a cytosolic regulatory factor included in a multi-protein complex known as NAD(P)H oxidase. This protein thus, is thought to be involved in the oxidative activation of MAPK8/JNK. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed but the full-length nature of only one has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRAF5 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 5

The scaffold protein encoded by this gene is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) protein family and contains a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain, a RING-type zinc finger, and two TRAF-type zinc fingers. TRAF proteins are associated with, and mediate signal transduction from members of the TNF receptor superfamily. This protein is one of the components of a multiple protein complex which binds to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor cytoplasmic domains and mediates TNF-induced activation. Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRAF6 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 6, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) protein family. TRAF proteins are associated with, and mediate signal transduction from, members of the TNF receptor superfamily. This protein mediates signaling from members of the TNF receptor superfamily as well as the Toll/IL-1 family. Signals from receptors such as CD40, TNFSF11/RANCE and IL-1 have been shown to be mediated by this protein. This protein also interacts with various protein kinases including IRAK1/IRAK, SRC and PKCzeta, which provides a link between distinct signaling pathways. This protein functions as a signal transducer in the NF-kappaB pathway that activates IkappaB kinase (IKK) in response to proinflammatory cytokines. The interaction of this protein with UBE2N/UBC13, and UBE2V1/UEV1A, which are ubiquitin conjugating enzymes catalyzing the formation of polyubiquitin chains, has been found to be required for IKK activation by this protein. This protein also interacts with the transforming growth factor (TGF) beta receptor complex and is required for Smad-independent activation of the JNK and p38 kinases. This protein has an amino terminal RING domain which is followed by four zinc-finger motifs, a central coiled-coil region and a highly conserved carboxyl terminal domain, known as the TRAF-C domain. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding an identical protein, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

TRAF7 Gene

TNF receptor-associated factor 7, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF; see MIM 191160) receptor-associated factors, such as TRAF7, are signal transducers for members of the TNF receptor superfamily (see MIM 191190). TRAFs are composed of an N-terminal cysteine/histidine-rich region containing zinc RING and/or zinc finger motifs; a coiled-coil (leucine zipper) motif; and a homologous region that defines the TRAF family, the TRAF domain, which is involved in self-association and receptor binding.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

SPDEF Gene

SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ETS family of transcription factors. It is highly expressed in the prostate epithelial cells, and functions as an androgen-independent transactivator of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter. Higher expression of this protein has also been reported in brain, breast, lung and ovarian tumors, compared to the corresponding normal tissues, and it shows better tumor-association than other cancer-associated molecules, making it a more suitable target for developing specific cancer therapies. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

ELL3 Gene

elongation factor RNA polymerase II-like 3

ELL2 Gene

elongation factor, RNA polymerase II, 2

EIF2S1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 1 alpha, 35kDa

The translation initiation factor EIF2 catalyzes the first regulated step of protein synthesis initiation, promoting the binding of the initiator tRNA to 40S ribosomal subunits. Binding occurs as a ternary complex of methionyl-tRNA, EIF2, and GTP. EIF2 is composed of 3 nonidentical subunits, the 36-kD EIF2-alpha subunit (EIF2S1), the 38-kD EIF2-beta subunit (EIF2S2; MIM 603908), and the 52-kD EIF2-gamma subunit (EIF2S3; MIM 300161). The rate of formation of the ternary complex is modulated by the phosphorylation state of EIF2-alpha (Ernst et al., 1987 [PubMed 2948954]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

EIF2S3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is the largest subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein involved in the recruitment of methionyl-tRNA(i) to the 40 S ribosomal subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

EIF2S2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta, 38kDa

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (EIF-2) functions in the early steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA and binding to a 40S ribosomal subunit. EIF-2 is composed of three subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma, with the protein encoded by this gene representing the beta subunit. The beta subunit catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP, which recycles the EIF-2 complex for another round of initiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TWIST1 Gene

twist family bHLH transcription factor 1

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors have been implicated in cell lineage determination and differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene is a bHLH transcription factor and shares similarity with another bHLH transcription factor, Dermo1. The strongest expression of this mRNA is in placental tissue; in adults, mesodermally derived tissues express this mRNA preferentially. Mutations in this gene have been found in patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TWIST2 Gene

twist family bHLH transcription factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor and shares similarity with Twist. This protein may inhibit osteoblast maturation and maintain cells in a preosteoblast phenotype during osteoblast development. This gene may be upregulated in certain cancers. Mutations in this gene cause focal facial dermal dysplasia 3, Setleis type. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

EEF1A1P42 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 42

EEF1A1P43 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 43

LOC392452 Gene

mitochondrial fission factor pseudogene

HLFP1 Gene

hepatic leukemia factor pseudogene 1

DEAF1 Gene

DEAF1 transcription factor

This gene encodes a zinc finger domain-containing protein that functions as a regulator of transcription. The encoded proteins binds to its own promoter as well as to that of several target genes. Activity of this protein is important in the regulation of embryonic development. Mutations in this gene have been found in individuals with autosomal dominant mental retardation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

FGF9 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This protein was isolated as a secreted factor that exhibits a growth-stimulating effect on cultured glial cells. In nervous system, this protein is produced mainly by neurons and may be important for glial cell development. Expression of the mouse homolog of this gene was found to be dependent on Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Mice lacking the homolog gene displayed a male-to-female sex reversal phenotype, which suggested a role in testicular embryogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGF8 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 8 (androgen-induced)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This protein is known to be a factor that supports androgen and anchorage independent growth of mammary tumor cells. Overexpression of this gene has been shown to increase tumor growth and angiogensis. The adult expression of this gene is restricted to testes and ovaries. Temporal and spatial pattern of this gene expression suggests its function as an embryonic epithelial factor. Studies of the mouse and chick homologs revealed roles in midbrain and limb development, organogenesis, embryo gastrulation and left-right axis determination. The alternative splicing of this gene results in four transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGF7 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This protein is a potent epithelial cell-specific growth factor, whose mitogenic activity is predominantly exhibited in keratinocytes but not in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Studies of mouse and rat homologs of this gene implicated roles in morphogenesis of epithelium, reepithelialization of wounds, hair development and early lung organogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGF6 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene displayed oncogenic transforming activity when transfected into mammalian cells. The mouse homolog of this gene exhibits a restricted expression profile predominantly in the myogenic lineage, which suggested a role in muscle regeneration or differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGF5 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene was identified as an oncogene, which confers transforming potential when transfected into mammalian cells. Targeted disruption of the homolog of this gene in mouse resulted in the phenotype of abnormally long hair, which suggested a function as an inhibitor of hair elongation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGF4 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene was identified by its oncogenic transforming activity. This gene and FGF3, another oncogenic growth factor, are located closely on chromosome 11. Co-amplification of both genes was found in various kinds of human tumors. Studies on the mouse homolog suggested a function in bone morphogenesis and limb development through the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGF3 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene was identified by its similarity with mouse fgf3/int-2, a proto-oncogene activated in virally induced mammary tumors in the mouse. Frequent amplification of this gene has been found in human tumors, which may be important for neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. Studies of the similar genes in mouse and chicken suggested the role in inner ear formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGF2 Gene

fibroblast growth factor 2 (basic)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members bind heparin and possess broad mitogenic and angiogenic activities. This protein has been implicated in diverse biological processes, such as limb and nervous system development, wound healing, and tumor growth. The mRNA for this gene contains multiple polyadenylation sites, and is alternatively translated from non-AUG (CUG) and AUG initiation codons, resulting in five different isoforms with distinct properties. The CUG-initiated isoforms are localized in the nucleus and are responsible for the intracrine effect, whereas, the AUG-initiated form is mostly cytosolic and is responsible for the paracrine and autocrine effects of this FGF. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BTF3P9 Gene

basic transcription factor 3 pseudogene 9

F7R Gene

coagulation factor VII regulator

LOC645852 Gene

splicing factor 3a, subunit 2, 66kDa pseudogene

LOC100124401 Gene

cytokine receptor-like factor 3 pseudogene

VEGFA Gene

vascular endothelial growth factor A

This gene is a member of the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family and encodes a protein that is often found as a disulfide linked homodimer. This protein is a glycosylated mitogen that specifically acts on endothelial cells and has various effects, including mediating increased vascular permeability, inducing angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth, promoting cell migration, and inhibiting apoptosis. Elevated levels of this protein is linked to POEMS syndrome, also known as Crow-Fukase syndrome. Mutations in this gene have been associated with proliferative and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding either freely secreted or cell-associated isoforms, have been characterized. There is also evidence for the use of non-AUG (CUG) translation initiation sites upstream of, and in-frame with the first AUG, leading to additional isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VEGFC Gene

vascular endothelial growth factor C

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor/v