Name

BioGPS Human Cell Type and Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From BioGPS

mRNA expression profiles for human tissues and cell types

BioGPS Mouse Cell Type and Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From BioGPS

mRNA expression profiles for mouse tissues and cell types

HPM Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Proteome Map

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types

ProteomicsDB Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Proteomics Database

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types reprocessed from many proteomics datasets

NIDDM2 Gene

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (common, type 2) 2

NIDDM1 Gene

non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (common, type 2) 1

IDDM18 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 18

IDDM15 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 15

IDDM13 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 13

IDDM11 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 11

IDDM24 Gene

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 24

IDDM23 Gene

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, 23

IDDM17 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 17

IDDM16 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 16

IDDM14 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 14

IDDMX Gene

Diabetes mellitus, insulin-dependent, X-linked, susceptibility to

IDDM7 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 7

IDDM6 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 6

IDDM4 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 4

IDDM3 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 3

IDDM9 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 9

IDDM8 Gene

insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 8

LOC390614 Gene

relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 3 pseudogene

RXFP1 Gene

relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1

This gene encodes a member of the leucine-rich repeat-containing subgroup of the G protein-coupled 7-transmembrane receptor superfamily. The encoded protein plays a critical role in sperm motility, pregnancy and parturition as a receptor for the protein hormone relaxin. Decreased expression of this gene may play a role in endometriosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

RXFP3 Gene

relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 3

RXFP2 Gene

relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2

This gene encodes a member of the GPCR (G protein-coupled, 7-transmembrane receptor) family. Mutations in this gene are associated with cryptorchidism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

RXFP4 Gene

relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 4

GPR100 is a member of the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) (Fredriksson et al., 2003 [PubMed 14623098]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

FIQTL1 Gene

fasting glucose and specific insulin levels

NIDDM4 Gene

Diabetes mellitus, noninsulin-dependent

NIDDM3 Gene

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus 3

RRAD Gene

Ras-related associated with diabetes

TNDM Gene

diabetes mellitus, transient neonatal

Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus is associated with overexpression of a region containing the PLAGL1 and HYMAI genes on chromosome 6q24. These genes are normally imprinted and expressed only from the paternal allele. Imprinting is regulated by differential methylation of a CpG island in this region. [provided by RefSeq, May 2015]

SPPL3 Gene

signal peptide peptidase like 3

PYY Gene

peptide YY

The protein encoded by this gene is proteolytically processed to release a peptide that inhibits pancreatic secretion and mobility in the gut. Rare variations in this gene could increase susceptibility to obesity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

PYY2 Gene

peptide YY, 2 (pseudogene)

PYY3 Gene

peptide YY, 3 (pseudogene)

QPCT Gene

glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase

This gene encodes human pituitary glutaminyl cyclase, which is responsible for the presence of pyroglutamyl residues in many neuroendocrine peptides. The amino acid sequence of this enzyme is 86% identical to that of bovine glutaminyl cyclase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

APEH Gene

acylaminoacyl-peptide hydrolase

This gene encodes the enzyme acylpeptide hydrolase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the terminal acetylated amino acid preferentially from small acetylated peptides. The acetyl amino acid formed by this hydrolase is further processed to acetate and a free amino acid by an aminoacylase. This gene is located within the same region of chromosome 3 (3p21) as the aminoacylase gene, and deletions at this locus are also associated with a decrease in aminoacylase activity. The acylpeptide hydrolase is a homotetrameric protein of 300 kDa with each subunit consisting of 732 amino acid residues. It can play an important role in destroying oxidatively damaged proteins in living cells. Deletions of this gene locus are found in various types of carcinomas, including small cell lung carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

QRFP Gene

pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide

The P518 precursor protein can be processed into several RF (arg-phe)-amide peptides, including P518. RF-amide peptides share a common C-terminal motif and are involved in cell signaling through G protein-coupled receptors (Jiang et al., 2003 [PubMed 12714592]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100288484 Gene

formyl peptide receptor 1 pseudogene

SCUBE2 Gene

signal peptide, CUB domain, EGF-like 2

SCUBE3 Gene

signal peptide, CUB domain, EGF-like 3

This gene encodes a member of the signal peptide, complement subcomponents C1r/C1s, Uegf, bone morphogenetic protein-1 and epidermal growth factor-like domain containing protein family. Overexpression of this gene in human embryonic kidney cells results in secretion of a glycosylated form of the protein that forms oligomers and tethers to the cell surface. This gene is upregulated in lung cancer tumor tissue compared to healthy tissue and is associated with loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and with increased expression of vimentin, a mesenchymal marker. In addition, the protein encoded by this gene is a transforming growth factor beta receptor ligand, and when secreted by cancer cells, it can be cleaved in vitro to release the N-terminal epidermal growth factor-like repeat domain and the C-terminal complement subcomponents C1r/C1s domain. Both the full length protein and C-terminal fragment can bind to the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor to promote the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor angiogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

SCUBE1 Gene

signal peptide, CUB domain, EGF-like 1

This gene encodes a cell surface glycoprotein that is a member of the SCUBE (signal peptide, CUB domain, EGF (epidermal growth factor)-like protein) family. Family members have an amino-terminal signal peptide, nine copies of EGF-like repeats and a CUB domain at the carboxyl terminus. This protein is expressed in platelets and endothelial cells and may play an important role in vascular biology. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

LOC100132647 Gene

signal peptide peptidase like 3 pseudogene

HAMP Gene

hepcidin antimicrobial peptide

The product encoded by this gene is involved in the maintenance of iron homeostasis, and it is necessary for the regulation of iron storage in macrophages, and for intestinal iron absorption. The preproprotein is post-translationally cleaved into mature peptides of 20, 22 and 25 amino acids, and these active peptides are rich in cysteines, which form intramolecular bonds that stabilize their beta-sheet structures. These peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Mutations in this gene cause hemochromatosis type 2B, also known as juvenile hemochromatosis, a disease caused by severe iron overload that results in cardiomyopathy, cirrhosis, and endocrine failure. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

NPPA Gene

natriuretic peptide A

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the natriuretic peptide family. Natriuretic peptides are implicated in the control of extracellular fluid volume and electrolyte homeostasis. This protein is synthesized as a large precursor (containing a signal peptide), which is processed to release a peptide from the N-terminus with similarity to vasoactive peptide, cardiodilatin, and another peptide from the C-terminus with natriuretic-diuretic activity. Mutations in this gene have been associated with atrial fibrillation familial type 6. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

VIPR2 Gene

vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2

This gene encodes a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide, a small neuropeptide. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in smooth muscle relaxation, exocrine and endocrine secretion, and water and ion flux in lung and intestinal epithelia. Its actions are effected through integral membrane receptors associated with a guanine nucleotide binding protein which activates adenylate cyclase. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

VIPR1 Gene

vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 1

This gene encodes a receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide, a small neuropeptide. Vasoactive intestinal peptide is involved in smooth muscle relaxation, exocrine and endocrine secretion, and water and ion flux in lung and intestinal epithelia. Its actions are effected through integral membrane receptors associated with a guanine nucleotide binding protein which activates adenylate cyclase. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GALP Gene

galanin-like peptide

This gene encodes a member of the galanin family of neuropeptides. The encoded protein binds galanin receptors 1, 2 and 3 with the highest affinity for galanin receptor 3 and has been implicated in biological processes involving the central nervous system including hypothalamic regulation of metabolism and reproduction. A peptide encoded by a splice variant of this gene, termed alarin, has vasoactive properties, displays antimicrobial activity against E. coli, and may serve as a marker for neuroblastic tumors.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

NPR2 Gene

natriuretic peptide receptor 2

This gene encodes natriuretic peptide receptor B, one of two integral membrane receptors for natriuretic peptides. Both NPR1 and NPR2 contain five functional domains: an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single membrane-spanning region, and intracellularly a protein kinase homology domain, a helical hinge region involved in oligomerization, and a carboxyl-terminal guanylyl cyclase catalytic domain. The protein is the primary receptor for C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), which upon ligand binding exhibits greatly increased guanylyl cyclase activity. Mutations in this gene are the cause of acromesomelic dysplasia Maroteaux type. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NPR3 Gene

natriuretic peptide receptor 3

This gene encodes one of three natriuretic peptide receptors. Natriutetic peptides are small peptides which regulate blood volume and pressure, pulmonary hypertension, and cardiac function as well as some metabolic and growth processes. The product of this gene encodes a natriuretic peptide receptor responsible for clearing circulating and extracellular natriuretic peptides through endocytosis of the receptor. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

TPRX1 Gene

tetra-peptide repeat homeobox 1

Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This gene is a member of the TPRX homeobox gene family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TPRXL Gene

tetra-peptide repeat homeobox-like

Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This pseudogene is a member of the TPRX homeobox gene family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRPR Gene

gastrin-releasing peptide receptor

Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) regulates numerous functions of the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including release of gastrointestinal hormones, smooth muscle cell contraction, and epithelial cell proliferation and is a potent mitogen for neoplastic tissues. The effects of GRP are mediated through the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor. This receptor is a glycosylated, 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor that activates the phospholipase C signaling pathway. The receptor is aberrantly expressed in numerous cancers such as those of the lung, colon, and prostate. An individual with autism and multiple exostoses was found to have a balanced translocation between chromosome 8 and a chromosome X breakpoint located within the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPPL2A Gene

signal peptide peptidase like 2A

This gene encodes a member of the GXGD family of aspartic proteases, which are transmembrane proteins with two conserved catalytic motifs localized within the membrane-spanning regions, as well as a member of the signal peptide peptidase-like protease (SPPL) family. This protein is expressed in all major adult human tissues and localizes to late endosomal compartments and lysosomal membranes. A pseudogene of this gene also lies on chromosome 15. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

SPPL2C Gene

signal peptide peptidase like 2C

SPPL2B Gene

signal peptide peptidase like 2B

This gene encodes a member of the GXGD family of aspartic proteases. The GXGD proteases are transmembrane proteins with two conserved catalytic motifs localized within the membrane-spanning regions. This enzyme localizes to endosomes, lysosomes, and the plasma membrane. It cleaves the transmembrane domain of tumor necrosis factor alpha to release the intracellular domain, which triggers cytokine expression in the innate and adaptive immunity pathways. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRP Gene

gastrin-releasing peptide

This gene encodes a member of the bombesin-like family of gastrin-releasing peptides. Its preproprotein, following cleavage of a signal peptide, is further processed to produce either the 27 aa gastrin-releasing peptide or the 10 aa neuromedin C. These smaller peptides regulate numerous functions of the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including release of gastrointestinal hormones, smooth muscle cell contraction, and epithelial cell proliferation. These peptides are also likely to play a role in human cancers of the lung, colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, and prostate. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

QRFPR Gene

pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide receptor

QPCTL Gene

glutaminyl-peptide cyclotransferase-like

LOC100420615 Gene

signal peptide peptidase like 2A pseudogene

CAMP Gene

cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide

This gene encodes a member of an antimicrobial peptide family, characterized by a highly conserved N-terminal signal peptide containing a cathelin domain and a structurally variable cationic antimicrobial peptide, which is produced by extracellular proteolysis from the C-terminus. In addition to its antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities, the encoded protein functions in cell chemotaxis, immune mediator induction, and inflammatory response regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

NPPB Gene

natriuretic peptide B

This gene is a member of the natriuretic peptide family and encodes a secreted protein which functions as a cardiac hormone. The protein undergoes two cleavage events, one within the cell and a second after secretion into the blood. The protein's biological actions include natriuresis, diuresis, vasorelaxation, inhibition of renin and aldosterone secretion, and a key role in cardiovascular homeostasis. A high concentration of this protein in the bloodstream is indicative of heart failure. The protein also acts as an antimicrobial peptide with antibacterial and antifungal activity. Mutations in this gene have been associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

NPPC Gene

natriuretic peptide C

The protein encoded by this gene is proteolytically processed to form a secreted hormone of the natriuretic peptide family. The encoded hormone regulates the growth and differentiation of cartilaginous growth plate chondrocytes and may also be vasoactive and natriuretic. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

NPR1 Gene

natriuretic peptide receptor 1

Guanylyl cyclases, catalyzing the production of cGMP from GTP, are classified as soluble and membrane forms (Garbers and Lowe, 1994 [PubMed 7982997]). The membrane guanylyl cyclases, often termed guanylyl cyclases A through F, form a family of cell-surface receptors with a similar topographic structure: an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and an intracellular region that contains a protein kinase-like domain and a cyclase catalytic domain. GC-A and GC-B function as receptors for natriuretic peptides; they are also referred to as atrial natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR1) and type B (NPR2; MIM 108961). Also see NPR3 (MIM 108962), which encodes a protein with only the ligand-binding transmembrane and 37-amino acid cytoplasmic domains. NPR1 is a membrane-bound guanylate cyclase that serves as the receptor for both atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP (MIM 108780) and BNP (MIM 600295), respectively).[supplied by OMIM, May 2009]

MEP1A Gene

meprin A, alpha (PABA peptide hydrolase)

FPR1 Gene

formyl peptide receptor 1

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor of mammalian phagocytic cells that is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. The protein mediates the response of phagocytic cells to invasion of the host by microorganisms and is important in host defense and inflammation.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

FPR2 Gene

formyl peptide receptor 2

FPR3 Gene

formyl peptide receptor 3

TPRX2P Gene

tetra-peptide repeat homeobox 2 pseudogene

Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This pseudogene is a member of the TPRX homeobox gene family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VIP Gene

vasoactive intestinal peptide

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the glucagon family. It stimulates myocardial contractility, causes vasodilation, increases glycogenolysis, lowers arterial blood pressure and relaxes the smooth muscle of trachea, stomach and gall bladder. The protein also acts as an antimicrobial peptide with antibacterial and antifungal activity. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

GLP2R Gene

glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor that is closely related to the glucagon receptor and binds to glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP2). Signalling through GLP2 stimulates intestinal growth and increases villus height in the small intestine, concomitant with increased crypt cell proliferation and decreased enterocyte apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

NPFF Gene

neuropeptide FF-amide peptide precursor

FMFRamide-related protein precursor plays a role in the regulation of heart rate and blood pressure and the modulation of morphine-induced antinociception. FMRFAL encodes a preproprotein which is cleaved to form two active peptides with similar function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TPRX1P1 Gene

tetra-peptide repeat homeobox 1 pseudogene 1

Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This pseudogene is a member of the TPRX homeobox gene family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LEAP2 Gene

liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2

This gene encodes a cysteine-rich cationic antimicrobial peptide that is expressed predominantly in the liver. The mature peptide has activity against gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

PDF Gene

peptide deformylase (mitochondrial)

Protein synthesis proceeds after formylation of methionine by methionyl-tRNA formyl transferase (FMT) and transfer of the charged initiator f-met tRNA to the ribosome. In eubacteria and eukaryotic organelles the product of this gene, peptide deformylase (PDF), removes the formyl group from the initiating methionine of nascent peptides. In eubacteria, deformylation of nascent peptides is required for subsequent cleavage of initiating methionines by methionine aminopeptidase. The discovery that a natural inhibitor of PDF, actinonin, acts as an antimicrobial agent in some bacteria has spurred intensive research into the design of bacterial-specific PDF inhibitors. In human cells, only mitochondrial proteins have N-formylation of initiating methionines. Protein inhibitors of PDF or siRNAs of PDF block the growth of cancer cell lines but have no effect on normal cell growth. In humans, PDF function may therefore be restricted to rapidly growing cells. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

GLP1R Gene

glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor

GDPGP1 Gene

GDP-D-glucose phosphorylase 1

LOC100288073 Gene

heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa) pseudogene

H6PD Gene

hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (glucose 1-dehydrogenase)

There are 2 forms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. G form is X-linked and H form, encoded by this gene, is autosomally linked. This H form shows activity with other hexose-6-phosphates, especially galactose-6-phosphate, whereas the G form is specific for glucose-6-phosphate. Both forms are present in most tissues, but H form is not found in red cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGQTL4 Gene

Fasting plasma glucose level QTL 4

FGQTL6 Gene

Fasting plasma glucose level QTL 6

FGQTL1 Gene

Fasting plasma glucose level QTL 1

FGQTL2 Gene

Fasting plasma glucose level QTL2

FGQTL3 Gene

Fasting plasma glucose level QTL3

SLC37A1 Gene

solute carrier family 37 (glucose-6-phosphate transporter), member 1

SLC37A1, a member of the sugar-phosphate transport family, transports glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) between cellular compartments for its utilization in several compartment-specific biochemical pathways.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2004]

UGDH Gene

UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase

The protein encoded by this gene converts UDP-glucose to UDP-glucuronate and thereby participates in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans such as hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate. These glycosylated compounds are common components of the extracellular matrix and likely play roles in signal transduction, cell migration, and cancer growth and metastasis. The expression of this gene is up-regulated by transforming growth factor beta and down-regulated by hypoxia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LOC100422548 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4 pseudogene

LOC100422549 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4 pseudogene

SLC2AXP1 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), pseudogene 1

SOGA1 Gene

suppressor of glucose, autophagy associated 1

G6PC3 Gene

glucose 6 phosphatase, catalytic, 3

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). G6Pase is located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate to glucose and phosphate in the last step of the gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal recessive severe congenital neutropenia. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene, only one of which is expected to express a protein.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

G6PC2 Gene

glucose-6-phosphatase, catalytic, 2

This gene encodes an enzyme belonging to the glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit family. These enzymes are part of a multicomponent integral membrane system that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glucose-6-phosphate, the terminal step in gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways, allowing the release of glucose into the bloodstream. The family member encoded by this gene is found in pancreatic islets and does not exhibit phosphohydrolase activity, but it is a major target of cell-mediated autoimmunity in diabetes. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UGGT2 Gene

UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 2

UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGT) is a soluble protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that selectively reglucosylates unfolded glycoproteins, thus providing quality control for protein transport out of the ER.[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

UGGT1 Gene

UDP-glucose glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1

UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGT) is a soluble protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that selectively reglucosylates unfolded glycoproteins, thus providing quality control for protein transport out of the ER.[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

SLC2A10 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 10

This gene encodes a member of the class III facilitative glucose transporter family. The encoded protein plays a role in regulation of glucose homeostasis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with arterial tortuosity syndrome.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

UGCG Gene

UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase

This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the first glycosylation step in the biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, which are membrane components containing lipid and sugar moieties. The product of this reaction is glucosylceramide, which is the core structure of many glycosphingolipids. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

SLC37A2 Gene

solute carrier family 37 (glucose-6-phosphate transporter), member 2

SLC37A4 Gene

solute carrier family 37 (glucose-6-phosphate transporter), member 4

This gene regulates glucose-6-phosphate transport from the cytoplasm to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, in order to maintain glucose homeostasis. It also plays a role in ATP-mediated calcium sequestration in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in this gene have been associated with various forms of glycogen storage disease. Alternative splicing in this gene results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

LOC105379282 Gene

glucose-dependent insulinotropic receptor-like

G6PD Gene

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

This gene encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This protein is a cytosolic enzyme encoded by a housekeeping X-linked gene whose main function is to produce NADPH, a key electron donor in the defense against oxidizing agents and in reductive biosynthetic reactions. G6PD is remarkable for its genetic diversity. Many variants of G6PD, mostly produced from missense mutations, have been described with wide ranging levels of enzyme activity and associated clinical symptoms. G6PD deficiency may cause neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis, or severe chronic non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

G6PC Gene

glucose-6-phosphatase, catalytic subunit

Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) is a multi-subunit integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum that is composed of a catalytic subunit and transporters for G6P, inorganic phosphate, and glucose. This gene (G6PC) is one of the three glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic-subunit-encoding genes in human: G6PC, G6PC2 and G6PC3. Glucose-6-phosphatase catalyzes the hydrolysis of D-glucose 6-phosphate to D-glucose and orthophosphate and is a key enzyme in glucose homeostasis, functioning in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis. Mutations in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type I (GSD1). This disease, also known as von Gierke disease, is a metabolic disorder characterized by severe hypoglycemia associated with the accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver and kidneys.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

G6PR Gene

glucose-6-phosphatase regulator

GPI Gene

glucose-6-phosphate isomerase

This gene encodes a member of the glucose phosphate isomerase protein family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. In the cytoplasm, the gene product functions as a glycolytic enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) that interconverts glucose-6-phophsate and fructose-6-phosphate. Extracellularly, the encoded protein (also referred to as neuroleukin) functions as a neurotrophic factor that promotes survival of skeletal motor neurons and sensory neurons, and as a lymphokine that induces immunoglobulin secretion. The encoded protein is also referred to as autocrine motility factor based on an additional function as a tumor-secreted cytokine and angiogenic factor. Defects in this gene are the cause of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia and a severe enzyme deficiency can be associated with hydrops fetalis, immediate neonatal death and neurological impairment. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

SLC2A14 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 14

Members of the glucose transporter (GLUT) family, including SLC2A14, are highly conserved integral membrane proteins that transport hexoses such as glucose and fructose into all mammalian cells. GLUTs show tissue and cell-type specific expression (Wu and Freeze, 2002 [PubMed 12504846]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SLC2A13 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 13

SLC2A12 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 12

SLC2A12 belongs to a family of transporters that catalyze the uptake of sugars through facilitated diffusion (Rogers et al., 2002). This family of transporters show conservation of 12 transmembrane helices as well as functionally significant amino acid residues (Joost and Thorens, 2001 [PubMed 11780753]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SLC2A11 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 11

This gene belongs to a family of proteins that mediate the transport of sugars across the cell membrane. The encoded protein transports glucose and fructose. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

GFOD2 Gene

glucose-fructose oxidoreductase domain containing 2

GFOD1 Gene

glucose-fructose oxidoreductase domain containing 1

UGP2 Gene

UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2

The enzyme encoded by this gene is an important intermediary in mammalian carbohydrate interconversions. It transfers a glucose moiety from glucose-1-phosphate to MgUTP and forms UDP-glucose and MgPPi. In liver and muscle tissue, UDP-glucose is a direct precursor of glycogen; in lactating mammary gland it is converted to UDP-galactose which is then converted to lactose. The eukaryotic enzyme has no significant sequence similarity to the prokaryotic enzyme. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC5A1 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (sodium/glucose cotransporter), member 1

This gene encodes a member of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT) family. The encoded integral membrane protein is the primary mediator of dietary glucose and galactose uptake from the intestinal lumen. Mutations in this gene have been associated with glucose-galactose malabsorption. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

SLC5A2 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (sodium/glucose cotransporter), member 2

This gene encodes a member of the sodium glucose cotransporter family which are sodium-dependent glucose transport proteins. The encoded protein is the major cotransporter involved in glucose reabsorption in the kidney. Mutations in this gene are associated with renal glucosuria. Two transcript variants, one protein-coding and one not, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

SLC5A4 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4

SLC35D2 Gene

solute carrier family 35 (UDP-GlcNAc/UDP-glucose transporter), member D2

Nucleotide sugars, which are synthesized in the cytosol or the nucleus, are high-energy donor substrates for glycosyltransferases located in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Translocation of nucleotide sugars from the cytosol into the lumen compartment is mediated by specific nucleotide sugar transporters, such as SLC35D2 (Suda et al., 2004 [PubMed 15082721]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100421868 Gene

glucose-fructose oxidoreductase domain containing 2 pseudogene

SLC5A4P1 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4 pseudogene 1

HSPA5 Gene

heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family. It is localized in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and is involved in the folding and assembly of proteins in the ER. As this protein interacts with many ER proteins, it may play a key role in monitoring protein transport through the cell.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SLC2A3P2 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 3 pseudogene 2

SLC2A3P1 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 3 pseudogene 1

SLC2A3P4 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 3 pseudogene 4

LOC400750 Gene

heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa) pseudogene

SLC2A9 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 9

This gene encodes a member of the SLC2A facilitative glucose transporter family. Members of this family play a significant role in maintaining glucose homeostasis. The encoded protein may play a role in the development and survival of chondrocytes in cartilage matrices. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC2A8 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 8

This gene belongs to the solute carrier 2A family, which includes intracellular glucose transporters. Based on sequence comparison, the glucose transporters are grouped into three classes and this gene is a member of class II. The encoded protein, like other members of the family, contains several conserved residues and motifs and 12 transmembrane domains with both amino and carboxyl ends being on the cytosolic side of the membrane. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

SLC2A7 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 7

SLC2A7 belongs to a family of transporters that catalyze the uptake of sugars through facilitated diffusion (Li et al., 2004). This family of transporters shows conservation of 12 transmembrane helices as well as functionally significant amino acid residues (Joost and Thorens, 2001 [PubMed 11780753]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SLC2A6 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 6

Hexose transport into mammalian cells is catalyzed by a family of membrane proteins, including SLC2A6, that contain 12 transmembrane domains and a number of critical conserved residues.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

SLC2A5 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose/fructose transporter), member 5

SLC2A4 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 4

This gene is a member of the solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) family and encodes a protein that functions as an insulin-regulated facilitative glucose transporter. In the absence of insulin, this integral membrane protein is sequestered within the cells of muscle and adipose tissue. Within minutes of insulin stimulation, the protein moves to the cell surface and begins to transport glucose across the cell membrane. Mutations in this gene have been associated with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC2A3 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 3

SLC2A2 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2

This gene encodes an integral plasma membrane glycoprotein of the liver, islet beta cells, intestine, and kidney epithelium. The encoded protein mediates facilitated bidirectional glucose transport. Because of its low affinity for glucose, it has been suggested as a glucose sensor. Mutations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to diseases, including Fanconi-Bickel syndrome and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

SLC2A1 Gene

solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 1

This gene encodes a major glucose transporter in the mammalian blood-brain barrier. The encoded protein is found primarily in the cell membrane and on the cell surface, where it can also function as a receptor for human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) I and II. Mutations in this gene have been found in a family with paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2013]

TGDS Gene

TDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) superfamily, and is thought to contain a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) binding domain. This large SDR family of enzymes is involved in the metabolism of a variety of compounds, including prostaglandins, retinoids, lipids, steroid hormones, and xenobiotics. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Catel-Manzke syndrome, which is characterized by Pierre Robin sequence, and radial deviation of the index finger due to the presence of an accessory bone between the index finger and its proximal phalanx. Pierre Robin sequence is defined by an undersized jaw, backwards displacement of the tongue base that causes an obstruction of the airways, and can also be associated with a cleft palate. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

IGF2R Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor

This gene encodes a receptor for both insulin-like growth factor 2 and mannose 6-phosphate, although the binding sites for either are located on different segments of the receptor. This receptor functions in the intracellular trafficking of lysosomal enzymes, the activation of transforming growth factor beta, and the degradation of insulin-like growth factor 2. While the related mouse gene shows exclusive expression from the maternal allele, imprinting of the human gene appears to be polymorphic, with only a minority of individuals showing expression from the maternal allele. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2013]

INSL5 Gene

insulin-like 5

The protein encoded by this gene contains a classical signature of the insulin superfamily and is highly similar to relaxin 3 (RLN3/INSL7). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INSL4 Gene

insulin-like 4 (placenta)

INSL4 encodes the insulin-like 4 protein, a member of the insulin superfamily. INSL4 encodes a precursor that undergoes post-translational cleavage to produce 3 polypeptide chains, A-C, that form tertiary structures composed of either all three chains, or just the A and B chains. Expression of INSL4 products occurs within the early placental cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INSL6 Gene

insulin-like 6

The protein encoded by this gene contains a classical signature of the insulin superfamily and is significantly similar to relaxin and relaxin-like factor. This gene is preferentially expressed in testis. Its expression in testis is restricted to interstitial cells surrounding seminiferous tubules, which suggests a role in sperm development and fertilization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INSL3 Gene

insulin-like 3 (Leydig cell)

This gene encodes a member of the insulin-like hormone superfamily. The encoded protein is mainly produced in gonadal tissues. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this gene may be involved in the development of urogenital tract and female fertility. This protein may also act as a hormone to regulate growth and differentiation of gubernaculum, and thus mediating intra-abdominal testicular descent. Mutations in this gene may lead to cryptorchidism. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

IGF2 Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2

This gene encodes a member of the insulin family of polypeptide growth factors, which are involved in development and growth. It is an imprinted gene, expressed only from the paternal allele, and epigenetic changes at this locus are associated with Wilms tumour, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Silver-Russell syndrome. A read-through INS-IGF2 gene exists, whose 5' region overlaps the INS gene and the 3' region overlaps this gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

IGF1 Gene

insulin-like growth factor 1 (somatomedin C)

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to insulin in function and structure and is a member of a family of proteins involved in mediating growth and development. The encoded protein is processed from a precursor, bound by a specific receptor, and secreted. Defects in this gene are a cause of insulin-like growth factor I deficiency. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

IGFALS Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein, acid labile subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a serum protein that binds insulin-like growth factors, increasing their half-life and their vascular localization. Production of the encoded protein, which contains twenty leucine-rich repeats, is stimulated by growth hormone. Defects in this gene are a cause of acid-labile subunit deficiency, which maifests itself in a delayed and slow puberty. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

IGFBP2 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, 36kDa

IGFBP3 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3

This gene is a member of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family and encodes a protein with an IGFBP domain and a thyroglobulin type-I domain. The protein forms a ternary complex with insulin-like growth factor acid-labile subunit (IGFALS) and either insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I or II. In this form, it circulates in the plasma, prolonging the half-life of IGFs and altering their interaction with cell surface receptors. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IGFBP1 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1

This gene is a member of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family and encodes a protein with an IGFBP domain and a thyroglobulin type-I domain. The protein binds both insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) I and II and circulates in the plasma. Binding of this protein prolongs the half-life of the IGFs and alters their interaction with cell surface receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IGFBP7 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7

This gene encodes a member of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein (IGFBP) family. IGFBPs bind IGFs with high affinity, and regulate IGF availability in body fluids and tissues and modulate IGF binding to its receptors. This protein binds IGF-I and IGF-II with relatively low affinity, and belongs to a subfamily of low-affinity IGFBPs. It also stimulates prostacyclin production and cell adhesion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene, and one variant has been associated with retinal arterial macroaneurysm (PMID:21835307). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

IGFBP4 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4

This gene is a member of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family and encodes a protein with an IGFBP domain and a thyroglobulin type-I domain. The protein binds both insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) I and II and circulates in the plasma in both glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms. Binding of this protein prolongs the half-life of the IGFs and alters their interaction with cell surface receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IGFBP5 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5

INSR Gene

insulin receptor

After removal of the precursor signal peptide, the insulin receptor precursor is post-translationally cleaved into two chains (alpha and beta) that are covalently linked. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IGF2BP1 Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein family. The protein encoded by this gene contains four K homology domains and two RNA recognition motifs. It functions by binding to the mRNAs of certain genes, including insulin-like growth factor 2, beta-actin and beta-transducin repeat-containing protein, and regulating their translation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

IGF2BP2 Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the IGF-II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) family. The protein encoded by this gene contains four KH domains and two RRM domains. It functions by binding to the 5' UTR of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) mRNA and regulating IGF2 translation. Alternative promoter usage and alternate splicing result in multiple variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

IRS3P Gene

insulin receptor substrate 3, pseudogene

LOC346296 Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 pseudogene

IGFBP6 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6

INSIG1 Gene

insulin induced gene 1

Oxysterols regulate cholesterol homeostasis through the liver X receptor (LXR)- and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-mediated signaling pathways. This gene is an insulin-induced gene. It encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that plays a critical role in regulating cholesterol concentrations in cells. This protein binds to the sterol-sensing domains of SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) and HMG CoA reductase, and is essential for the sterol-mediated trafficking of the two proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

IGF2BP3 Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene is primarily found in the nucleolus, where it can bind to the 5' UTR of the insulin-like growth factor II leader 3 mRNA and may repress translation of insulin-like growth factor II during late development. The encoded protein contains several KH domains, which are important in RNA binding and are known to be involved in RNA synthesis and metabolism. A pseudogene exists on chromosome 7, and there are putative pseudogenes on other chromosomes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INS Gene

insulin

After removal of the precursor signal peptide, proinsulin is post-translationally cleaved into three peptides: the B chain and A chain peptides, which are covalently linked via two disulfide bonds to form insulin, and C-peptide. Binding of insulin to the insulin receptor (INSR) stimulates glucose uptake. A multitude of mutant alleles with phenotypic effects have been identified. There is a read-through gene, INS-IGF2, which overlaps with this gene at the 5' region and with the IGF2 gene at the 3' region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

IRS4 Gene

insulin receptor substrate 4

IRS4 encodes the insulin receptor substrate 4, a cytoplasmic protein that contains many potential tyrosine and serine/threonine phosphorylation sites. Tyrosine-phosphorylated IRS4 protein has been shown to associate with cytoplasmic signalling molecules that contain SH2 domains. The IRS4 protein is phosphorylated by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase upon receptor stimulation.. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IRS1 Gene

insulin receptor substrate 1

This gene encodes a protein which is phosphorylated by insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Mutations in this gene are associated with type II diabetes and susceptibility to insulin resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

IRS2 Gene

insulin receptor substrate 2

This gene encodes the insulin receptor substrate 2, a cytoplasmic signaling molecule that mediates effects of insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, and other cytokines by acting as a molecular adaptor between diverse receptor tyrosine kinases and downstream effectors. The product of this gene is phosphorylated by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase upon receptor stimulation, as well as by an interleukin 4 receptor-associated kinase in response to IL4 treatment. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AIR Gene

Acute insulin response (2)

LOC727884 Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2 pseudogene

LOC645468 Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 pseudogene

IGFBPL1 Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein-like 1

INSRR Gene

insulin receptor-related receptor

IDE Gene

insulin-degrading enzyme

This gene encodes a zinc metallopeptidase that degrades intracellular insulin, and thereby terminates insulins activity, as well as participating in intercellular peptide signalling by degrading diverse peptides such as glucagon, amylin, bradykinin, and kallidin. The preferential affinity of this enzyme for insulin results in insulin-mediated inhibition of the degradation of other peptides such as beta-amyloid. Deficiencies in this protein's function are associated with Alzheimer's disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus but mutations in this gene have not been shown to be causitive for these diseases. This protein localizes primarily to the cytoplasm but in some cell types localizes to the extracellular space, cell membrane, peroxisome, and mitochondrion. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Additional transcript variants have been described but have not been experimentally verified.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

LOC100421893 Gene

insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2 pseudogene

IGF1R Gene

insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor

This receptor binds insulin-like growth factor with a high affinity. It has tyrosine kinase activity. The insulin-like growth factor I receptor plays a critical role in transformation events. Cleavage of the precursor generates alpha and beta subunits. It is highly overexpressed in most malignant tissues where it functions as an anti-apoptotic agent by enhancing cell survival. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

INSIG2 Gene

insulin induced gene 2

The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to the protein product encoded by gene INSIG1. Both INSIG1 protein and this protein are endoplasmic reticulum proteins that block the processing of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) by binding to SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), and thus prevent SCAP from escorting SREBPs to the Golgi. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FAR2P1 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene 1

FAAHP1 Gene

fatty acid amide hydrolase pseudogene 1

FABP7P2 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 7, brain pseudogene 2

FABP7P1 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 7, brain pseudogene 1

FASN Gene

fatty acid synthase

The enzyme encoded by this gene is a multifunctional protein. Its main function is to catalyze the synthesis of palmitate from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, in the presence of NADPH, into long-chain saturated fatty acids. In some cancer cell lines, this protein has been found to be fused with estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha), in which the N-terminus of FAS is fused in-frame with the C-terminus of ER-alpha. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FAAH2 Gene

fatty acid amide hydrolase 2

This gene encodes a fatty acid amide hydrolase that shares a conserved protein motif with the amidase signature family of enzymes. The encoded enzyme is able to catalyze the hydrolysis of a broad range of bioactive lipids, including those from the three main classes of fatty acid amides; N-acylethanolamines, fatty acid primary amides and N-acyl amino acids. This enzyme has a preference for monounsaturated acyl chains as a substrate.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

SLC27A5 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 5

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (VLCS). It is capable of activating very long-chain fatty-acids containing 24- and 26-carbons. It is expressed in liver and associated with endoplasmic reticulum but not with peroxisomes. Its primary role is in fatty acid elongation or complex lipid synthesis rather than in degradation. This gene has a mouse ortholog. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC27A4 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 4

This gene encodes a member of a family of fatty acid transport proteins, which are involved in translocation of long-chain fatty acids cross the plasma membrane. This protein is expressed at high levels on the apical side of mature enterocytes in the small intestine, and appears to be the principal fatty acid transporter in enterocytes. Clinical studies suggest this gene as a candidate gene for the insulin resistance syndrome. Mutations in this gene have been associated with ichthyosis prematurity syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

SLC27A6 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 6

This gene encodes a member of the fatty acid transport protein family (FATP). FATPs are involved in the uptake of long-chain fatty acids and have unique expression patterns. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC27A3 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 3

SLC27A2 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. This isozyme activates long-chain, branched-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids containing 22 or more carbons to their CoA derivatives. It is expressed primarily in liver and kidney, and is present in both endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes, but not in mitochondria. Its decreased peroxisomal enzyme activity is in part responsible for the biochemical pathology in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

FADS1 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family. Desaturase enzymes regulate unsaturation of fatty acids through the introduction of double bonds between defined carbons of the fatty acyl chain. FADS family members are considered fusion products composed of an N-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain and a C-terminal multiple membrane-spanning desaturase portion, both of which are characterized by conserved histidine motifs. This gene is clustered with family members FADS1 and FADS2 at 11q12-q13.1; this cluster is thought to have arisen evolutionarily from gene duplication based on its similar exon/intron organization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FADS3 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family. Desaturase enzymes regulate unsaturation of fatty acids through the introduction of double bonds between defined carbons of the fatty acyl chain. FADS family members are considered fusion products composed of an N-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain and a C-terminal multiple membrane-spanning desaturase portion, both of which are characterized by conserved histidine motifs. This gene is clustered with family members FADS1 and FADS2 at 11q12-q13.1; this cluster is thought to have arisen evolutionarily from gene duplication based on its similar exon/intron organization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FADS2 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family. Desaturase enzymes regulate unsaturation of fatty acids through the introduction of double bonds between defined carbons of the fatty acyl chain. FADS family members are considered fusion products composed of an N-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain and a C-terminal multiple membrane-spanning desaturase portion, both of which are characterized by conserved histidine motifs. This gene is clustered with family members at 11q12-q13.1; this cluster is thought to have arisen evolutionarily from gene duplication based on its similar exon/intron organization. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

FADS6 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 6

FABP5P1 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 1

FABP5P3 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 3

FABP5P2 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 2

FABP5P5 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 5

FABP5P4 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 4

FABP5P7 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 7

FABP5P6 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 6

FABP5P9 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 9

FABP5P8 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 8

FAR2P4 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene 4

FAR2P3 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene 3

FAR2P2 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene 2

FABP5P15 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 15

FABP5P14 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 14

FABP5P10 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 10

FABP5P12 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 12

SLC27A1 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 1

NAFLD2 Gene

Fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic, susceptibility to, 2

NAFLD1 Gene

Fatty liver disease 1, susceptiblity to

PURAQTL1 Gene

Polyunsaturated fatty acids plasma level QTL1

FABP12 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 12

FAR1P1 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 1 pseudogene 1

LOC100420006 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene

FABP6 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 6, ileal

This gene encodes the ileal fatty acid binding protein. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. FABP6 and FABP1 (the liver fatty acid binding protein) are also able to bind bile acids. It is thought that FABPs roles include fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. Transcript variants generated by alternate transcription promoters and/or alternate splicing have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP7 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 7, brain

The protein encoded by this gene is a brain fatty acid binding protein. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. FABPs are thought to play roles in fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP4 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 4, adipocyte

FABP4 encodes the fatty acid binding protein found in adipocytes. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. It is thought that FABPs roles include fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP5 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 (psoriasis-associated)

This gene encodes the fatty acid binding protein found in epidermal cells, and was first identified as being upregulated in psoriasis tissue. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. FABPs may play roles in fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with type 2 diabetes. The human genome contains many pseudogenes similar to this locus.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

FABP2 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 2, intestinal

The intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) belong to a multigene family with nearly twenty identified members. FABPs are divided into at least three distinct types, namely the hepatic-, intestinal- and cardiac-type. They form 14-15 kDa proteins and are thought to participate in the uptake, intracellular metabolism and/or transport of long-chain fatty acids. They may also be responsible in the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene contains four exons and is an abundant cytosolic protein in small intestine epithelial cells. This gene has a polymorphism at codon 54 that identified an alanine-encoding allele and a threonine-encoding allele. Thr-54 protein is associated with increased fat oxidation and insulin resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP3 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 3, muscle and heart

The intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) belongs to a multigene family. FABPs are divided into at least three distinct types, namely the hepatic-, intestinal- and cardiac-type. They form 14-15 kDa proteins and are thought to participate in the uptake, intracellular metabolism and/or transport of long-chain fatty acids. They may also be responsible in the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. Fatty acid-binding protein 3 gene contains four exons and its function is to arrest growth of mammary epithelial cells. This gene is a candidate tumor suppressor gene for human breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FFAR4 Gene

free fatty acid receptor 4

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) which belongs to the rhodopsin family of GPRs. The encoded protein functions as a receptor for free fatty acids, including omega-3, and participates in suppressing anti-inflammatory responses and insulin sensitizing. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

FABP1 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 1, liver

This gene encodes the fatty acid binding protein found in liver. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. This protein and FABP6 (the ileal fatty acid binding protein) are also able to bind bile acids. It is thought that FABPs roles include fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

LOC100420171 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene

LOC100420172 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene

LOC100420175 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene

FA2H Gene

fatty acid 2-hydroxylase

This gene encodes a protein that catalyzes the synthesis of 2-hydroxysphingolipids, a subset of sphingolipids that contain 2-hydroxy fatty acids. Sphingolipids play roles in many cellular processes and their structural diversity arises from modification of the hydrophobic ceramide moiety, such as by 2-hydroxylation of the N-acyl chain, and the existence of many different head groups. Mutations in this gene have been associated with leukodystrophy dysmyelinating with spastic paraparesis with or without dystonia.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

FADS2P1 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 2 pseudogene 1

FABP9 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 9, testis

FFAR2 Gene

free fatty acid receptor 2

This gene encodes a member of the GP40 family of G protein-coupled receptors that are clustered together on chromosome 19. The encoded protein is a receptor for short chain free fatty acids and may be involved in the inflammatory response and in regulating lipid plasma levels. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

FFAR3 Gene

free fatty acid receptor 3

FAR1 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is required for the reduction of fatty acids to fatty alcohols, a process that is required for the synthesis of monoesters and ether lipids. NADPH is required as a cofactor in this reaction, and 16-18 carbon saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are the preferred substrate. This is a peroxisomal membrane protein, and studies suggest that the N-terminus contains a large catalytic domain located on the outside of the peroxisome, while the C-terminus is exposed to the matrix of the peroxisome. Studies indicate that the regulation of this protein is dependent on plasmalogen levels. Mutations in this gene have been associated with individuals affected by severe intellectual disability, early-onset epilepsy, microcephaly, congenital cataracts, growth retardation, and spasticity (PMID: 25439727). A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

FAR2 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2

This gene belongs to the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. It encodes a reductase enzyme involved in the first step of wax biosynthesis wherein fatty acids are converted to fatty alcohols. The encoded peroxisomal protein utilizes saturated fatty acids of 16 or 18 carbons as preferred substrates. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 2, 14 and 22. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

FABP3P2 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 3, pseudogene 2

ELOVL6 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 6

Fatty acid elongases (EC 6.2.1.3), such as ELOVL6, use malonyl-CoA as a 2-carbon donor in the first and rate-limiting step of fatty acid elongation (Moon et al., 2001 [PubMed 11567032]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ELOVL7 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 7

ELOVL4 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 4

This gene encodes a membrane-bound protein which is a member of the ELO family, proteins which participate in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. Consistent with the expression of the encoded protein in photoreceptor cells of the retina, mutations and small deletions in this gene are associated with Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) and autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (ADMD), also referred to as autosomal dominant atrophic macular degeneration. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ELOVL5 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 5

This gene belongs to the ELO family. It is highly expressed in the adrenal gland and testis, and encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. This protein is involved in the elongation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Mutations in this gene have been associated with spinocerebellar ataxia-38 (SCA38). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

ELOVL2 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 2

ELOVL3 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 3

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the GNS1/SUR4 family. Members of this family play a role in elongation of long chain fatty acids to provide precursors for synthesis of sphingolipids and ceramides. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

ELOVL1 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 1

FFAR1 Gene

free fatty acid receptor 1

This gene encodes a member of the GP40 family of G protein-coupled receptors that are clustered together on chromosome 19. The encoded protein is a receptor for medium and long chain free fatty acids and may be involved in the metabolic regulation of insulin secretion. Polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

FABP5P11 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 11

FAXDC2 Gene

fatty acid hydroxylase domain containing 2

FAAH Gene

fatty acid amide hydrolase

This gene encodes a protein that is responsible for the hydrolysis of a number of primary and secondary fatty acid amides, including the neuromodulatory compounds anandamide and oleamide. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RBCK1 Gene

RanBP-type and C3HC4-type zinc finger containing 1

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to mouse UIP28/UbcM4 interacting protein. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus, resulting in distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SEMA5B Gene

sema domain, seven thrombospondin repeats (type 1 and type 1-like), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 5B

This gene encodes a member of the semaphorin protein family which regulates axon growth during development of the nervous system. The encoded protein has a characteristic Sema domain near the N-terminus, through which semaphorins bind to plexin, and five thrombospondin type 1 repeats in the C-terminal region of the protein. The protein product may be cleaved and exist as a secreted molecule (PMID: 19463192). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

SEMA5A Gene

sema domain, seven thrombospondin repeats (type 1 and type 1-like), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 5A

This gene belongs to the semaphorin gene family that encodes membrane proteins containing a semaphorin domain and several thrombospondin type-1 repeats. Members of this family are involved in axonal guidance during neural development. This gene has been implicated as an autism susceptibility gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

LOC100422730 Gene

sema domain, seven thrombospondin repeats (type 1 and type 1-like), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 5A pseudogene

NUDT19P5 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 19 pseudogene 5

NUDT19P1 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 19 pseudogene 1

NUDT19P3 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 19 pseudogene 3

PRKAR2A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAR2B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) in activated T cells. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this subunit may play an important role in regulating energy balance and adiposity. The studies also suggest that this subunit may mediate the gene induction and cataleptic behavior induced by haloperidol. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPN18 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 18 (brain-derived)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, the mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a PEST motif, which often serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may be related to protein intracellular half-live. This protein can differentially dephosphorylate autophosphorylated tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in tumor tissues, and it appears to regulate HER2, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

PTPN13 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 13 (APO-1/CD95 (Fas)-associated phosphatase)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP is a large intracellular protein. It has a catalytic PTP domain at its C-terminus and two major structural domains: a region with five PDZ domains and a FERM domain that binds to plasma membrane and cytoskeletal elements. This PTP was found to interact with, and dephosphorylate, Fas receptor and IkappaBalpha through the PDZ domains. This suggests it has a role in Fas mediated programmed cell death. This PTP was also shown to interact with GTPase-activating protein, and thus may function as a regulator of Rho signaling pathways. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

PTPN12 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 12

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a C-terminal PEST motif, which serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may regulate protein intracellular half-life. This PTP was found to bind and dephosphorylate the product of the oncogene c-ABL and thus may play a role in oncogenesis. This PTP was also shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate, various products related to cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion, such as p130 (Cas), CAKbeta/PTK2B, PSTPIP1, and paxillin. This suggests it has a regulatory role in controlling cell shape and mobility. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

PTPN11 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains two tandem Src homology-2 domains, which function as phospho-tyrosine binding domains and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. This PTP is widely expressed in most tissues and plays a regulatory role in various cell signaling events that are important for a diversity of cell functions, such as mitogenic activation, metabolic control, transcription regulation, and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Noonan syndrome as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

PTPN14 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 14

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal noncatalytic domain similar to that of band 4.1 superfamily cytoskeleton-associated proteins, which suggested the membrane or cytoskeleton localization of this protein. It appears to regulate lymphatic development in mammals, and a loss of function mutation has been found in a kindred with a lymphedema-choanal atresia. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

GCNT3 Gene

glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 3, mucin type

This gene encodes a member of the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase family. The encoded protein is a beta-6-N-acetylglucosamine-transferase that catalyzes the formation of core 2 and core 4 O-glycans on mucin-type glycoproteins.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

EBM Gene

epidermolysis bullosa, macular type

RIIAD1 Gene

regulatory subunit of type II PKA R-subunit (RIIa) domain containing 1

NPC2 Gene

Niemann-Pick disease, type C2

This gene encodes a protein containing a lipid recognition domain. The encoded protein may function in regulating the transport of cholesterol through the late endosomal/lysosomal system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Niemann-Pick disease, type C2 and frontal lobe atrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NPC1 Gene

Niemann-Pick disease, type C1

This gene encodes a large protein that resides in the limiting membrane of endosomes and lysosomes and mediates intracellular cholesterol trafficking via binding of cholesterol to its N-terminal domain. It is predicted to have a cytoplasmic C-terminus, 13 transmembrane domains, and 3 large loops in the lumen of the endosome - the last loop being at the N-terminus. This protein transports low-density lipoproteins to late endosomal/lysosomal compartments where they are hydrolized and released as free cholesterol. Defects in this gene cause Niemann-Pick type C disease, a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by over accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in late endosomal/lysosomal compartments.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

PSMB9 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 9

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is located in the class II region of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex). Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 1 (proteasome beta 6 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. Proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PSMB8 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 8

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is located in the class II region of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex). Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 3 (proteasome beta 5 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. Proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. Two alternative transcripts encoding two isoforms have been identified; both isoforms are processed to yield the same mature subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMB7 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 7

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. The encoded protein is a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, and is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. Expression of this catalytic subunit is downregulated by gamma interferon, and proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMB6 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 6

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. The encoded protein is a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, and is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMB5 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 5

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. This catalytic subunit is not present in the immunoproteasome and is replaced by catalytic subunit 3i (proteasome beta 8 subunit). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

PSMB4 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 4

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMB3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 3

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. The 26 S proteasome may be involved in trinucleotide repeat expansion, a phenomenon which is associated with many hereditary neurological diseases. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 2 and 12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PSMB2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 2

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PSMB1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 1

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is tightly linked to the TBP (TATA-binding protein) gene in human and in mouse, and is transcribed in the opposite orientation in both species. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL14A1 Gene

collagen, type XIV, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XIV collagen, a member of the FACIT (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) collagen family. Type XIV collagen interacts with the fibril surface and is involved in the regulation of fibrillogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

SBSPON Gene

somatomedin B and thrombospondin, type 1 domain containing

ITC1 Gene

hypertrichosis universalis congenita, Ambras type

ZSWIM5P3 Gene

zinc finger, SWIM-type containing 5 pseudogene 3

ZSWIM5P2 Gene

zinc finger, SWIM-type containing 5 pseudogene 2

ZSWIM5P1 Gene

zinc finger, SWIM-type containing 5 pseudogene 1

CLEC18A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 18, member A

This is one of three closely related paralogous genes on chromosome 16 encoding secreted proteins containing C-type lectin domains. These domains bind to carbohydrates in the presence of calcium, and may be involved in cell adhesion, immune response and apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

CLEC18B Gene

C-type lectin domain family 18, member B

ALOX12B Gene

arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type

This gene encodes an enzyme involved in the converstion of arachidonic acid to 12R-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Mutations in this gene are associated with nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT3 Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It encodes a protein which shows 98% amino acid identity to mouse Wnt3 protein, and 84% to human WNT3A protein, another WNT gene product. The mouse studies show the requirement of Wnt3 in primary axis formation in the mouse. Studies of the gene expression suggest that this gene may play a key role in some cases of human breast, rectal, lung, and gastric cancer through activation of the WNT-beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway. This gene is clustered with WNT15, another family member, in the chromosome 17q21 region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT2 Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 2

This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT1 Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It is very conserved in evolution, and the protein encoded by this gene is known to be 98% identical to the mouse Wnt1 protein at the amino acid level. The studies in mouse indicate that the Wnt1 protein functions in the induction of the mesencephalon and cerebellum. This gene was originally considered as a candidate gene for Joubert syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder with cerebellar hypoplasia as a leading feature. However, further studies suggested that the gene mutations might not have a significant role in Joubert syndrome. This gene is clustered with another family member, WNT10B, in the chromosome 12q13 region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT6 Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 6

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It is overexpressed in cervical cancer cell line and strongly coexpressed with another family member, WNT10A, in colorectal cancer cell line. The gene overexpression may play key roles in carcinogenesis. This gene and the WNT10A gene are clustered in the chromosome 2q35 region. The protein encoded by this gene is 97% identical to the mouse Wnt6 protein at the amino acid level. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT4 Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 4

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family, and is the first signaling molecule shown to influence the sex-determination cascade. It encodes a protein which shows 98% amino acid identity to the Wnt4 protein of mouse and rat. This gene and a nuclear receptor known to antagonize the testis-determining factor play a concerted role in both the control of female development and the prevention of testes formation. This gene and another two family members, WNT2 and WNT7B, may be associated with abnormal proliferation in breast tissue. Mutations in this gene can result in Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome and in SERKAL syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INPP4A Gene

inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type I, 107kDa

This gene encodes an Mg++ independent enzyme that hydrolyzes the 4-position phosphate from the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, and inositol 3,4-bisphosphate. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

NUDT19P4 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 19 pseudogene 4

CMT2H Gene

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2H

PCSK9 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The encoded protein undergoes an autocatalytic processing event with its prosegment in the ER and is constitutively secreted as an inactive protease into the extracellular matrix and trans-Golgi network. It is expressed in liver, intestine and kidney tissues and escorts specific receptors for lysosomal degradation. It plays a role in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal dominant familial hypercholesterolemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PCSK2 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 2

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event and interacts with a neuroendocrine secretory protein in the ER, exits the ER and sorts to secretory granules, where it is cleaved and catalytically activated during intracellular transport. The encoded protease is packaged into and activated in dense core secretory granules and expressed in the neuroendocrine system and brain. This gene encodes one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. It functions in the proteolytic activation of polypeptide hormones and neuropeptides precursors. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene may increase susceptibility to myocardial infarction and type 2 diabetes. This gene may also play a role in tumor development and progression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

PCSK1 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER to generate a heterodimer which exits the ER and sorts to subcellular compartments where a second autocatalytic even takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. The protease is packaged into and activated in dense core secretory granules and expressed in the neuroendocrine system and brain. This gene encodes one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. It functions in the proteolytic activation of polypeptide hormones and neuropeptides precursors. Mutations in this gene have been associated with susceptibility to obesity and proprotein convertase 1/3 deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

PCSK6 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 6

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER to generate a heterodimer which exits the ER and sorts to the trans-Golgi network where a second autocatalytic event takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. The encoded protease is constitutively secreted into the extracellular matrix and expressed in many tissues, including neuroendocrine, liver, gut, and brain. This gene encodes one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. Some of its substrates include transforming growth factor beta related proteins, proalbumin, and von Willebrand factor. This gene is thought to play a role in tumor progression and left-right patterning. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PCSK7 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 7

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. It encodes a type 1 membrane bound protease that is expressed in many tissues, including neuroendocrine, liver, gut, and brain. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER and then sorts to the trans-Golgi network through endosomes where a second autocatalytic event takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. This gene encodes one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. It can process proalbumin and is thought to be responsible for the activation of HIV envelope glycoproteins gp160 and gp140. This gene has been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of housekeeping genes and plays a role in the regulation of iron metabolism. A t(11;14)(q23;q32) chromosome translocation associated with B-cell lymphoma occurs between this gene and its inverted counterpart. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PCSK4 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 4

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER to generate a heterodimer which exits the ER and sorts to subcellular compartments where a second autocatalytic even takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. This gene encodes one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. The protease is expressed only in the testis, placenta, and ovary. It plays a critical role in fertilization, fetoplacental growth, and embryonic development and processes multiple prohormones including pro-pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating protein and pro-insulin-like growth factor II. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

PCSK5 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER to generate a heterodimer which exits the ER. It then sorts to the trans-Golgi network where a second autocatalytic event takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. This encoded protein is widely expressed and one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. It mediates posttranslational endoproteolytic processing for several integrin alpha subunits and is thought to process prorenin, pro-membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase and HIV-1 glycoprotein gp160. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, some of which encode distinct isoforms, including a protease packaged into dense core granules (PC5A) and a type 1 membrane bound protease (PC5B). [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

CMT2G Gene

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2G

LOC105369264 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 20

WNT10A Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10A

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It is strongly expressed in the cell lines of promyelocytic leukemia and Burkitt's lymphoma. In addition, it and another family member, the WNT6 gene, are strongly coexpressed in colorectal cancer cell lines. The gene overexpression may play key roles in carcinogenesis through activation of the WNT-beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway. This gene and the WNT6 gene are clustered in the chromosome 2q35 region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT10B Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 10B

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It may be involved in breast cancer, and its protein signaling is likely a molecular switch that governs adipogenesis. This protein is 96% identical to the mouse Wnt10b protein at the amino acid level. This gene is clustered with another family member, WNT1, in the chromosome 12q13 region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TNNT1 Gene

troponin T type 1 (skeletal, slow)

This gene encodes a protein that is a subunit of troponin, which is a regulatory complex located on the thin filament of the sarcomere. This complex regulates striated muscle contraction in response to fluctuations in intracellular calcium concentration. This complex is composed of three subunits: troponin C, which binds calcium, troponin T, which binds tropomyosin, and troponin I, which is an inhibitory subunit. This protein is the slow skeletal troponin T subunit. Mutations in this gene cause nemaline myopathy type 5, also known as Amish nemaline myopathy, a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and rod-shaped, or nemaline, inclusions in skeletal muscle fibers which affects infants, resulting in death due to respiratory insufficiency, usually in the second year. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT39 Gene

keratin 39, type I

This gene encodes a member of the type I (acidic) keratin family, which belongs to the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. Keratins are heteropolymeric structural proteins which form the intermediate filament. These filaments, along with actin microfilaments and microtubules, compose the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. The type I keratin genes are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

KRT31 Gene

keratin 31, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type I hair keratin, it is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT32 Gene

keratin 32, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type I hair keratin, it is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT35 Gene

keratin 35, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. This type I hair keratin is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT34 Gene

keratin 34, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type I hair keratin, it is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT37 Gene

keratin 37, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type I hair keratin, it is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT36 Gene

keratin 36, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. This type I hair keratin is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZDHHC3 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 3

FRA4A Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(4)(p16.1)

FRA4B Gene

fragile site, BrdU type, common, fra(4)(q12)

FRA4C Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(4)(q31.1)

FRA4D Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(4)(p15)

PPFIA4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 4

PPFIA4, or liprin-alpha-4, belongs to the liprin-alpha gene family. See liprin-alpha-1 (LIP1, or PPFIA1; MIM 611054) for background on liprins.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MMAA Gene

methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblA type

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the translocation of cobalamin into the mitochondrion, where it is used in the final steps of adenosylcobalamin synthesis. Adenosylcobalamin is a coenzyme required for the activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Defects in this gene are a cause of methylmalonic aciduria. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MMAB Gene

methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblB type

This gene encodes a protein that catalyzes the final step in the conversion of vitamin B(12) into adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), a vitamin B12-containing coenzyme for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Mutations in the gene are the cause of vitamin B12-dependent methylmalonic aciduria linked to the cblB complementation group. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

WS2B Gene

Waardenburg syndrome, type 2B

WS2C Gene

Waardenburg syndrome, type IIC

KRT33B Gene

keratin 33B, type I

This gene encodes a member of the keratin gene family. This gene is one of multiple type I hair keratin genes that are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. As a type I hair keratin, the encoded protein is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. There are two isoforms of this protein, encoded by two separate genes, keratin 33A and keratin 33B. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

KRT33A Gene

keratin 33A, type I

This gene encodes a member of the keratin gene family. This gene is one of multiple type I hair keratin genes that are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. As a type I hair keratin, the encoded protein is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. There are two isoforms of this protein, encoded by two separate genes, keratin 33A and keratin 33B. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

LOC105379539 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 23-like

GNRHR2P1 Gene

gonadotropin-releasing hormone (type 2) receptor 2 pseudogene 1

FRA22B Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(22)(q12.2)

ZMYND19P1 Gene

zinc finger, MYND-type containing 19 pseudogene 1

CLEC1A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 1, member A

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signaling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. The encoded protein may play a role in regulating dendritic cell function. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

CLEC1B Gene

C-type lectin domain family 1, member B

Natural killer (NK) cells express multiple calcium-dependent (C-type) lectin-like receptors, such as CD94 (KLRD1; MIM 602894) and NKG2D (KLRC4; MIM 602893), that interact with major histocompatibility complex class I molecules and either inhibit or activate cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion. CLEC2 is a C-type lectin-like receptor expressed in myeloid cells and NK cells (Colonna et al., 2000 [PubMed 10671229]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

CDH20 Gene

cadherin 20, type 2

This gene is a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily and one of three cadherin 7-like genes located in a cluster on chromosome 18. The encoded membrane protein is a calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. Since disturbance of intracellular adhesion is a prerequisite for invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, cadherins are considered prime candidates for tumor suppressor genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH22 Gene

cadherin 22, type 2

This gene is a member of the cadherin superfamily. The gene product is composed of five cadherin repeat domains and a cytoplasmic tail similar to the highly conserved cytoplasmic region of classical cadherins. Expressed predominantly in the brain, this putative calcium-dependent cell adhesion protein may play an important role in morphogenesis and tissue formation in neural and non-neural cells during development and maintenance of the brain and neuroendocrine organs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH24 Gene

cadherin 24, type 2

HMN7A Gene

Motor neuronopathy, distal hereditary, type VIIA

FSD1L Gene

fibronectin type III and SPRY domain containing 1-like

COL27A1 Gene

collagen, type XXVII, alpha 1

This gene encodes a member of the fibrillar collagen family, and plays a role during the calcification of cartilage and the transition of cartilage to bone. The encoded protein product is a preproprotein. It includes an N-terminal signal peptide, which is followed by an N-terminal propetide, mature peptide and a C-terminal propeptide. The N-terminal propeptide contains thrombospondin N-terminal-like and laminin G-like domains. The mature peptide is a major triple-helical region. The C-terminal propeptide, also known as COLFI domain, plays crucial roles in tissue growth and repair. Mutations in this gene cause Steel syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

PSMB3P Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 3 pseudogene

CLEC4A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member A

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. The encoded type 2 transmembrane protein may play a role in inflammatory and immune response. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MCDR1 Gene

macular dystrophy, retinal, 1 (North Carolina type)

MCDR4 Gene

macular dystrophy, retinal, 4 (North Carolina type with progressive sensorineural hearing loss)

HPFH2 Gene

hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin, heterocellular, Indian type

HHT4 Gene

Telangiectasia, hereditary hemorrhagic, type 4

SCN1B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type I beta subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are heteromeric proteins that function in the generation and propagation of action potentials in muscle and neuronal cells. They are composed of one alpha and two beta subunits, where the alpha subunit provides channel activity and the beta-1 subunit modulates the kinetics of channel inactivation. This gene encodes a sodium channel beta-1 subunit. Mutations in this gene result in generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, Brugada syndrome 5, and defects in cardiac conduction. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SCN1A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type I alpha subunit

The vertebrate sodium channel is a voltage-gated ion channel essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials, mainly in nerve and muscle. Voltage-sensitive sodium channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of a large central pore-forming glycosylated alpha subunit, and two smaller auxiliary beta subunits. This gene encodes the large alpha subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with several epilepsy, convulsion and migraine disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. The RefSeq Project has decided to create four representative RefSeq records. Three of the transcript variants are supported by experimental evidence and the fourth contains alternate 5' untranslated exons, the exact combination of which have not been experimentally confirmed for the full-length transcript.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

OGS2 Gene

Opitz G syndrome, type II

This disorder, variously named the G, Opitz-G, or BBB syndrome, includes hypertelorism or telecanthus; laryngotracheoesophageal cleft; clefts of lip, palate, and uvula; swallowing difficulty and hoarse cry; genitourinary defects, especially hypospadias in males and splayed labia majora in females; mental retardation; and congenital heart defects.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

ATP10A Gene

ATPase, class V, type 10A

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of aminophospholipid-transporting ATPases. The aminophospholipid translocases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from one side of a bilayer to another. This gene is maternally expressed. It maps within the most common interval of deletion responsible for Angelman syndrome, also known as 'happy puppet syndrome'. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP10B Gene

ATPase, class V, type 10B

ATP10D Gene

ATPase, class V, type 10D

TAS2R63P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 63, pseudogene

LOC101928444 Gene

histone H2B type 1-F/J/L-like

FRA17A Gene

fragile site, distamycin A type, rare, fra(17)(p12)

FRA17B Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(17)(q23.1)

DYNLT1 Gene

dynein, light chain, Tctex-type 1

This gene encodes a component of the motor complex, cytoplasmic dynein, which transports cellular cargo along microtubules in the cell. The encoded protein regulates the length of primary cilia which are sensory organelles found on the surface of cells. The protein encoded by this gene interacts with viral proteins, like the minor capsid protein L2 of human papillomavirus, and is required for dynein-mediated delivery of the viral nucleic acid to the host nucleus. This protein interacts with oncogenic nucleoporins to disrupt gene regulation and cause leukemic transformation. Pseudogenes of this gene are present on chromosomes 4 and 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

DYNLT3 Gene

dynein, light chain, Tctex-type 3

This gene encodes a member of a subclass of dynein light chains. The encoded protein homodimerizes and forms the light chain component of the cytoplasmic dynein motor protein complex. This protein may be important for binding dynein to specific cargos including the spindle checkpoint protein BUB3. This protein may also function independently of dynein as a transcriptional modulator. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 2 and 20.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CNBP Gene

CCHC-type zinc finger, nucleic acid binding protein

This gene encodes a nucleic-acid binding protein with seven zinc-finger domains. The protein has a preference for binding single stranded DNA and RNA. The protein functions in cap-independent translation of ornithine decarboxylase mRNA, and may also function in sterol-mediated transcriptional regulation. A CCTG expansion in the first intron of this gene results in myotonic dystrophy type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLEC9A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 9, member A

CLEC9A is a group V C-type lectin-like receptor (CTLR) that functions as an activation receptor and is expressed on myeloid lineage cells (Huysamen et al., 2008 [PubMed 18408006]).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008]

COL9A2 Gene

collagen, type IX, alpha 2

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. Type IX collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. This chain is unusual in that, unlike the other two type IX alpha chains, it contains a covalently attached glycosaminoglycan side chain. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL9A3 Gene

collagen, type IX, alpha 3

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. Type IX collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia type 3. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

COL9A1 Gene

collagen, type IX, alpha 1

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, which is a minor (5-20%) collagen component of hyaline cartilage. Type IX collagen is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. Studies in knockout mice have shown that synthesis of the alpha 1 chain is essential for assembly of type IX collagen molecules, a heterotrimeric molecule, and that lack of type IX collagen is associated with early onset osteoarthritis. Mutations in this gene are associated with osteoarthritis in humans, with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, 6, a form of chondrodysplasia, and with Stickler syndrome, a disease characterized by ophthalmic, orofacial, articular, and auditory defects. Two transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZC3H12A Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 12A

ZC3H12A is an MCP1 (CCL2; MIM 158105)-induced protein that acts as a transcriptional activator and causes cell death of cardiomyocytes, possibly via induction of genes associated with apoptosis.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ZC3H12B Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 12B

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of CCCH-type zinc finger proteins that are involved in the proinflammatory activation of macrophages. The exact function of this family member is unknown, but it is thought to function as a ribonuclease. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

ZC3H12C Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 12C

ZC3H12D Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 12D

HBHR Gene

alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome, type 1

LOC100420255 Gene

collagen, type XXII, alpha 1 pseudogene

SCN9A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type IX alpha subunit

This gene encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel which plays a significant role in nociception signaling. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary erythermalgia, channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain, and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

DNLZ Gene

DNL-type zinc finger

PTPN22 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (lymphoid)

This gene encodes of member of the non-receptor class 4 subfamily of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. The encoded protein is a lymphoid-specific intracellular phosphatase that associates with the molecular adapter protein CBL and may be involved in regulating CBL function in the T-cell receptor signaling pathway. Mutations in this gene may be associated with a range of autoimmune disorders including Type 1 Diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and Graves' disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

PTPN23 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 23

PTPN20 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 20

The product of this gene belongs to the family of classical tyrosine-specific protein tyrosine phosphatases. Many protein tyrosine phosphatases have been shown to regulate fundamental cellular processes. The encoded protein appears to be targeted to sites of actin polymerization. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on chromosome 10. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

PTPN21 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 21

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal domain, similar to cytoskeletal- associated proteins including band 4.1, ezrin, merlin, and radixin. This PTP was shown to specially interact with BMX/ETK, a member of Tec tyrosine kinase family characterized by a multimodular structures including PH, SH3, and SH2 domains. The interaction of this PTP with BMX kinase was found to increase the activation of STAT3, but not STAT2 kinase. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested the possible roles of this PTP in liver regeneration and spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FANK1 Gene

fibronectin type III and ankyrin repeat domains 1

DROSHA Gene

drosha, ribonuclease type III

Members of the ribonuclease III superfamily of double-stranded (ds) RNA-specific endoribonucleases participate in diverse RNA maturation and decay pathways in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells (Fortin et al., 2002 [PubMed 12191433]). The RNase III Drosha is the core nuclease that executes the initiation step of microRNA (miRNA) processing in the nucleus (Lee et al., 2003 [PubMed 14508493]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PHA2A Gene

Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (gene A)

Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, also known as Gordon hyperkalemia-hypertension syndrome, is characterized by hyperkalemia despite normal renal glomerular filtration, hypertension, and correction of physiologic abnormalities by thiazide diuretics. Mild hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis, and suppressed plasma renin activity are variable associated findings.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

PSMA2P3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 3

PSMA2P1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 1

DYNLL1 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1

Cytoplasmic dyneins are large enzyme complexes with a molecular mass of about 1,200 kD. They contain two force-producing heads formed primarily from dynein heavy chains, and stalks linking the heads to a basal domain, which contains a varying number of accessory intermediate chains. The complex is involved in intracellular transport and motility. The protein described in this record is a light chain and exists as part of this complex but also physically interacts with and inhibits the activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Binding of this protein destabilizes the neuronal nitric oxide synthase dimer, a conformation necessary for activity, and it may regulate numerous biologic processes through its effects on nitric oxide synthase activity. Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DYNLL2 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 2

EDS8 Gene

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, type VIII

COL1AR Gene

collagen, type I, alpha, receptor

COL1A2 Gene

collagen, type I, alpha 2

This gene encodes the pro-alpha2 chain of type I collagen whose triple helix comprises two alpha1 chains and one alpha2 chain. Type I is a fibril-forming collagen found in most connective tissues and is abundant in bone, cornea, dermis and tendon. Mutations in this gene are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta types I-IV, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIB, recessive Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Classical type, idiopathic osteoporosis, and atypical Marfan syndrome. Symptoms associated with mutations in this gene, however, tend to be less severe than mutations in the gene for the alpha1 chain of type I collagen (COL1A1) reflecting the different role of alpha2 chains in matrix integrity. Three transcripts, resulting from the use of alternate polyadenylation signals, have been identified for this gene. [provided by R. Dalgleish, Feb 2008]

COL6A1 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 1

The collagens are a superfamily of proteins that play a role in maintaining the integrity of various tissues. Collagens are extracellular matrix proteins and have a triple-helical domain as their common structural element. Collagen VI is a major structural component of microfibrils. The basic structural unit of collagen VI is a heterotrimer of the alpha1(VI), alpha2(VI), and alpha3(VI) chains. The alpha2(VI) and alpha3(VI) chains are encoded by the COL6A2 and COL6A3 genes, respectively. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha 1 subunit of type VI collagen (alpha1(VI) chain). Mutations in the genes that code for the collagen VI subunits result in the autosomal dominant disorder, Bethlem myopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL6A2 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 2

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type VI collagen, a beaded filament collagen found in most connective tissues. The product of this gene contains several domains similar to von Willebrand Factor type A domains. These domains have been shown to bind extracellular matrix proteins, an interaction that explains the importance of this collagen in organizing matrix components. Mutations in this gene are associated with Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich scleroatonic muscular dystrophy. Three transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL6A5 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 5

This gene encodes a member of the collagen superfamily of proteins. The encoded protein contains multiple von Willebrand factor A-like domains and may interact with the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains of collagen VI to form the complete collagen VI trimer. Polymorphisms in this gene may be linked to dermal phenotypes, such as eczema. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

TAS2R20 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 20

TAS2R22 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 22

COL17A1 Gene

collagen, type XVII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVII collagen. Unlike most collagens, collagen XVII is a transmembrane protein. Collagen XVII is a structural component of hemidesmosomes, multiprotein complexes at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone that mediate adhesion of keratinocytes to the underlying membrane. Mutations in this gene are associated with both generalized atrophic benign and junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Two homotrimeric forms of type XVII collagen exist. The full length form is the transmembrane protein. A soluble form, referred to as either ectodomain or LAD-1, is generated by proteolytic processing of the full length form. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT6B Gene

keratin 6B, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. As many as six of this type II cytokeratin (KRT6) have been identified; the multiplicity of the genes is attributed to successive gene duplication events. The genes are expressed with family members KRT16 and/or KRT17 in the filiform papillae of the tongue, the stratified epithelial lining of oral mucosa and esophagus, the outer root sheath of hair follicles, and the glandular epithelia. Mutations in these genes have been associated with pachyonychia congenita. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT6C Gene

keratin 6C, type II

Keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into epithelial keratins and hair keratins. The type II keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

KRT6A Gene

keratin 6A, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. As many as six of this type II cytokeratin (KRT6) have been identified; the multiplicity of the genes is attributed to successive gene duplication events. The genes are expressed with family members KRT16 and/or KRT17 in the filiform papillae of the tongue, the stratified epithelial lining of oral mucosa and esophagus, the outer root sheath of hair follicles, and the glandular epithelia. This KRT6 gene in particular encodes the most abundant isoform. Mutations in these genes have been associated with pachyonychia congenita. In addition, peptides from the C-terminal region of the protein have antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

COMA Gene

Cogan-type congential oculomotor apraxia

ZDHHC20 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 20

ZDHHC21 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 21

ZDHHC22 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 22

ZDHHC23 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 23

ZDHHC24 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 24

CLEC18C Gene

C-type lectin domain family 18, member C

ZC3HC1 Gene

zinc finger, C3HC-type containing 1

This gene encodes an F-box-containing protein that is a component of an SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that regulates the onset of cell division. The G2/M transition in the cell cycle requires the interaction of the proteins cyclin B1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 1. The activated ubiquitin ligase complex targets the protein cyclin B1 for degradation, preventing this transition to mitosis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

FRA7I Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(q36)

FRA7H Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(q32.3)

FRA7J Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(q11)

FRA7A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(7)(p11.2)

FRA7C Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(p14.2)

FRA7B Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(p22)

FRA7E Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(q21.2)

FRA7D Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(p13)

FRA7G Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(q31.2)

FRA7F Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(7)(q22)

WNT7A Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 7A

This gene is a member of the WNT gene family, which consists of structurally related genes that encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is involved in the development of the anterior-posterior axis in the female reproductive tract, and also plays a critical role in uterine smooth muscle pattering and maintenance of adult uterine function. Mutations in this gene are associated with Fuhrmann and Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild/Schinzel phocomelia syndromes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT7B Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 7B

This gene is a member of the WNT gene family, which consists of structurally related genes that encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. Among members of the human WNT family, this gene product is most similar to WNT7A protein. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

ANKFN1 Gene

ankyrin-repeat and fibronectin type III domain containing 1

DYNLL1P2 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1 pseudogene 2

DYNLL1P3 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1 pseudogene 3

DYNLL1P1 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1 pseudogene 1

DYNLL1P6 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1 pseudogene 6

DYNLL1P7 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1 pseudogene 7

DYNLL1P4 Gene

dynein, light chain, LC8-type 1 pseudogene 4

INPP4B Gene

inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase, type II, 105kDa

INPP4B encodes the inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II, one of the enzymes involved in phosphatidylinositol signaling pathways. This enzyme removes the phosphate group at position 4 of the inositol ring from inositol 3,4-bisphosphate. There is limited data to suggest that the human type II enzyme is subject to alternative splicing, as has been established for the type I enzyme. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMA2P2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 2

ZC3H6 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 6

CCNDBP1 Gene

cyclin D-type binding-protein 1

This gene was identified by the interaction of its gene product with Grap2, a leukocyte-specific adaptor protein important for immune cell signaling. The protein encoded by this gene was shown to interact with cyclin D. Transfection of this gene in cells was reported to reduce the phosphorylation of Rb gene product by cyclin D-dependent protein kinase, and inhibit E2F1-mediated transcription activity. This protein was also found to interact with helix-loop-helix protein E12 and is thought to be a negative regulator of liver-specific gene expression. Several alternatively spliced variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

LOC100419859 Gene

zinc finger, MYM-type 1 pseudogene

LOC100419678 Gene

zinc finger, MYM-type 1 pseudogene

CLEC4M Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member M

This gene encodes a transmembrane receptor and is often referred to as L-SIGN because of its expression in the endothelial cells of the lymph nodes and liver. The encoded protein is involved in the innate immune system and recognizes numerous evolutionarily divergent pathogens ranging from parasites to viruses, with a large impact on public health. The protein is organized into three distinct domains: an N-terminal transmembrane domain, a tandem-repeat neck domain and C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain. The extracellular region consisting of the C-type lectin and neck domains has a dual function as a pathogen recognition receptor and a cell adhesion receptor by binding carbohydrate ligands on the surface of microbes and endogenous cells. The neck region is important for homo-oligomerization which allows the receptor to bind multivalent ligands with high avidity. Variations in the number of 23 amino acid repeats in the neck domain of this protein are common and have a significant impact on ligand binding ability. This gene is closely related in terms of both sequence and function to a neighboring gene (GeneID 30835; often referred to as DC-SIGN or CD209). DC-SIGN and L-SIGN differ in their ligand-binding properties and distribution. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

CLEC4G Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member G

This gene encodes a glycan-binding receptor and member of the C-type lectin family which plays a role in the T-cell immune response. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CLEC4F Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member F

CLEC4E Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member E

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. The encoded type II transmembrane protein is a downstream target of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta (CEBPB) and may play a role in inflammation. Alternative splice variants have been described but their full-length sequence has not been determined. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLEC4D Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member D

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLEC4C Gene

C-type lectin domain family 4, member C

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. The encoded type 2 transmembrane protein may play a role in dendritic cell function. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CFTDX Gene

Myopathy, congenital, with fiber-type disproportion, X-linked

CDH11 Gene

cadherin 11, type 2, OB-cadherin (osteoblast)

This gene encodes a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily, integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a small, highly conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. Expression of this particular cadherin in osteoblastic cell lines, and its upregulation during differentiation, suggests a specific function in bone development and maintenance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH10 Gene

cadherin 10, type 2 (T2-cadherin)

This gene encodes a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily, integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a small, highly conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The extracellular domain consists of 5 subdomains, each containing a cadherin motif, and appears to determine the specificity of the protein's homophilic cell adhesion activity. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. This particular cadherin is predominantly expressed in brain and is putatively involved in synaptic adhesions, axon outgrowth and guidance. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

CDH12 Gene

cadherin 12, type 2 (N-cadherin 2)

This gene encodes a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily of integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a small, highly conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. This particular cadherin appears to be expressed specifically in the brain and its temporal pattern of expression would be consistent with a role during a critical period of neuronal development, perhaps specifically during synaptogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH15 Gene

cadherin 15, type 1, M-cadherin (myotubule)

This gene is a member of the cadherin superfamily of genes, encoding calcium-dependent intercellular adhesion glycoproteins. Cadherins consist of an extracellular domain containing 5 cadherin domains, a transmembrane region, and a conserved cytoplasmic domain. Transcripts from this particular cadherin are expressed in myoblasts and upregulated in myotubule-forming cells. The protein is thought to be essential for the control of morphogenetic processes, specifically myogenesis, and may provide a trigger for terminal muscle cell differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH19 Gene

cadherin 19, type 2

This gene is one of three related type II cadherin genes situated in a cluster on chromosome 18. The encoded protein is a calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein containing five extracellular cadherin repeats. Loss of cadherins may be associated with cancer formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

CDH18 Gene

cadherin 18, type 2

This gene encodes a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily of integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a small, highly conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. This particular cadherin is expressed specifically in the central nervous system and is putatively involved in synaptic adhesion, axon outgrowth and guidance. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

ZDHHC20P3 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 20 pseudogene 3

NPHS1 Gene

nephrosis 1, congenital, Finnish type (nephrin)

This gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin family of cell adhesion molecules that functions in the glomerular filtration barrier in the kidney. The gene is primarily expressed in renal tissues, and the protein is a type-1 transmembrane protein found at the slit diaphragm of glomerular podocytes. The slit diaphragm is thought to function as an ultrafilter to exclude albumin and other plasma macromolecules in the formation of urine. Mutations in this gene result in Finnish-type congenital nephrosis 1, characterized by severe proteinuria and loss of the slit diaphragm and foot processes.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

LOC100422713 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

LOC100422710 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

SCN11A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type XI alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are membrane protein complexes that play a fundamental role in the rising phase of the action potential in most excitable cells. Alpha subunits, such as SCN11A, mediate voltage-dependent gating and conductance, while auxiliary beta subunits regulate the kinetic properties of the channel and facilitate membrane localization of the complex. Aberrant expression patterns or mutations of alpha subunits underlie a number of disorders. Each alpha subunit consists of 4 domains connected by 3 intracellular loops; each domain consists of 6 transmembrane segments and intra- and extracellular linkers.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

SPINK9 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 9

SPINK8 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 8 (putative)

CTRCT37 Gene

Cataract, congenital cerulean type, 5

LOC442113 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

ACVR1 Gene

activin A receptor, type I

Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I ( I and IB) and two type II (II and IIB) receptors. These receptors are all transmembrane proteins, composed of a ligand-binding extracellular domain with cysteine-rich region, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. Type I receptors are essential for signaling; and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a stable complex after ligand binding, resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which signals a particular transcriptional response in concert with activin type II receptors. Mutations in this gene are associated with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SWSAP1 Gene

SWIM-type zinc finger 7 associated protein 1

KAZALD1 Gene

Kazal-type serine peptidase inhibitor domain 1

This gene encodes a secreted member of the insulin growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) superfamily. It contains an N-terminal insulin growth factor-binding domain, a central Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor and follistatin-like domain, and a C-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain. Studies of the mouse ortholog suggest that this gene product may have a function in bone development and bone regeneration. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

PRKAR1AP Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha pseudogene

TAS2R50 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 50

TAS2R50 belongs to the large TAS2R receptor family. TAS2Rs are expressed on the surface of taste receptor cells and mediate the perception of bitterness through a G protein-coupled second messenger pathway (Conte et al., 2002 [PubMed 12584440]). See also TAS2R10 (MIM 604791).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PTPRCAP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C-associated protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a transmembrane phosphoprotein specifically associated with tyrosine phosphatase PTPRC/CD45, a key regulator of T- and B-lymphocyte activation. The interaction with PTPRC may be required for the stable expression of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZFAND6P1 Gene

zinc finger, AN1-type domain 6 pseudogene 1

ZMIZ2 Gene

zinc finger, MIZ-type containing 2

ZMIZ2 and ZMIZ1 (MIM 607159) are members of a PIAS (see MIM 603566)-like family of proteins that interact with nuclear hormone receptors. ZMIZ2 interacts with androgen receptor (AR; MIM 313700) and enhances AR-mediated transcription (Huang et al., 2005 [PubMed 16051670]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2010]

ZMIZ1 Gene

zinc finger, MIZ-type containing 1

This gene encodes a member of the PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family of proteins. The encoded protein regulates the activity of various transcription factors, including the androgen receptor, Smad3/4, and p53. The encoded protein may also play a role in sumoylation. A translocation between this locus on chromosome 10 and the protein tyrosine kinase ABL1 locus on chromosome 9 has been associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

OI16 Gene

Osteogenesis imperfecta, type XVI

NUDT4P2 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 4 pseudogene 2

NUDT4P1 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 4 pseudogene 1

ZBED4 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 4

NUDT15P1 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 15 pseudogene 1

KRT222 Gene

keratin 222, type II

PFHB2 Gene

Progressive familial heart block, type II

NUDT16 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 16

COL21A1 Gene

collagen, type XXI, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XXI collagen, a member of the FACIT collagen family (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted helices). Type XXI collagen is localized to tissues containing type I collagen so, like other members of this collagen family, it may serve to maintain the integrity of the extracellular matrix. An alternatively spliced transcript variant has been described, but its full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPOP Gene

speckle-type POZ protein

This gene encodes a protein that may modulate the transcriptional repression activities of death-associated protein 6 (DAXX), which interacts with histone deacetylase, core histones, and other histone-associated proteins. In mouse, the encoded protein binds to the putative leucine zipper domain of macroH2A1.2, a variant H2A histone that is enriched on inactivated X chromosomes. The BTB/POZ domain of this protein has been shown in other proteins to mediate transcriptional repression and to interact with components of histone deacetylase co-repressor complexes. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZDHHC11B Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 11B

TAS2R64P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 64, pseudogene

KRT38 Gene

keratin 38, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. As a type I hair keratin, it is an acidic protein which heterodimerizes with type II keratins to form hair and nails. The type I hair keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21 and have the same direction of transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPIRE1 Gene

spire-type actin nucleation factor 1

Spire proteins, such as SPIRE1, are highly conserved between species. They belong to the family of Wiskott-Aldrich homology region-2 (WH2) proteins, which are involved in actin organization (Kerkhoff et al., 2001 [PubMed 11747823]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SPIRE2 Gene

spire-type actin nucleation factor 2

LOC100129391 Gene

zinc finger (CCCH type), RNA-binding motif and serine/arginine rich 2 pseudogene

ATP2C2 Gene

ATPase, Ca++ transporting, type 2C, member 2

ATP2C1 Gene

ATPase, Ca++ transporting, type 2C, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases. This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium ions. Defects in this gene cause Hailey-Hailey disease, an autosomal dominant disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

FRA10D Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(10)(q22.1)

FRA10E Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(10)(q25.2)

FRA10F Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(10)(q26.1)

FRA10G Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(10)(q11.2)

FRA10A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(10)(q23.3) or fra(10)(q24.2)

FRA10C Gene

fragile site, BrdU type, common, fra(10)(q21)

ZFAND2B Gene

zinc finger, AN1-type domain 2B

This gene encodes a protein containing AN1-type zinc-fingers and ubiquitin-interacting motifs. The encoded protein likely associates with the proteosome to stimulate the degradation of toxic or misfolded proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

ZFAND2A Gene

zinc finger, AN1-type domain 2A

COL18A1 Gene

collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVIII collagen. This collagen is one of the multiplexins, extracellular matrix proteins that contain multiple triple-helix domains (collagenous domains) interrupted by non-collagenous domains. A long isoform of the protein has an N-terminal domain that is homologous to the extracellular part of frizzled receptors. Proteolytic processing at several endogenous cleavage sites in the C-terminal domain results in production of endostatin, a potent antiangiogenic protein that is able to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth. Mutations in this gene are associated with Knobloch syndrome. The main features of this syndrome involve retinal abnormalities, so type XVIII collagen may play an important role in retinal structure and in neural tube closure. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

ECTD5 Gene

Ectodermal dysplasia 5, hair/nail type

ECTD7 Gene

Ectodermal dysplasia 7, hair/nail type

ECTD6 Gene

Ectodermal dysplasia 6, hair/nail type

ZC3H10 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 10

ZC3H13 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 13

ZC3H14 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 14

ZC3H14 belongs to a family of poly(A)-binding proteins that influence gene expression by regulating mRNA stability, nuclear export, and translation (Kelly et al., 2007 [PubMed 17630287]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

ZC3H18 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 18

NUDT9P1 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 9 pseudogene 1

PGGT1BP1 Gene

protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I, beta subunit pseudogene 1

FNDC8 Gene

fibronectin type III domain containing 8

FNDC9 Gene

fibronectin type III domain containing 9

FNDC4 Gene

fibronectin type III domain containing 4

FNDC5 Gene

fibronectin type III domain containing 5

This gene encodes a secreted protein that is released from muscle cells during exercise. The encoded protein may participate in the development of brown fat. Translation of the precursor protein initiates at a non-AUG start codon at a position that is conserved as an AUG start codon in other organisms. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

FNDC1 Gene

fibronectin type III domain containing 1

FRA2F Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(q21.3)

FRA2G Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(q31)

FRA2D Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(p16.2)

FRA2E Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(p13)

FRA2B Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(2)(q13)

FRA2C Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(p24.2)

FRA2A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(2)(q11.2)

FRA2J Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(q37.3)

FRA2K Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(2)(q22.3)

FRA2H Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(q32.1)

FRA2I Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(2)(q33)

BDH2 Gene

3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, type 2

BDH1 Gene

3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, type 1

This gene encodes a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase gene family. The encoded protein forms a homotetrameric lipid-requiring enzyme of the mitochondrial membrane and has a specific requirement for phosphatidylcholine for optimal enzymatic activity. The encoded protein catalyzes the interconversion of acetoacetate and (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate, the two major ketone bodies produced during fatty acid catabolism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT3 Gene

keratin 3, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is specifically expressed in the corneal epithelium with family member KRT12 and mutations in these genes have been associated with Meesmann's Corneal Dystrophy. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT2 Gene

keratin 2, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is expressed largely in the upper spinous layer of epidermal keratinocytes and mutations in this gene have been associated with bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT1 Gene

keratin 1, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is specifically expressed in the spinous and granular layers of the epidermis with family member KRT10 and mutations in these genes have been associated with bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT7 Gene

keratin 7, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is specifically expressed in the simple epithelia lining the cavities of the internal organs and in the gland ducts and blood vessels. The genes encoding the type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. Alternative splicing may result in several transcript variants; however, not all variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT5 Gene

keratin 5, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is specifically expressed in the basal layer of the epidermis with family member KRT14. Mutations in these genes have been associated with a complex of diseases termed epidermolysis bullosa simplex. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT4 Gene

keratin 4, type II

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The type II cytokeratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This type II cytokeratin is specifically expressed in differentiated layers of the mucosal and esophageal epithelia with family member KRT13. Mutations in these genes have been associated with White Sponge Nevus, characterized by oral, esophageal, and anal leukoplakia. The type II cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT9 Gene

keratin 9, type I

This gene encodes the type I keratin 9, an intermediate filament chain expressed only in the terminally differentiated epidermis of palms and soles. Mutations in this gene cause epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT8 Gene

keratin 8, type II

This gene is a member of the type II keratin family clustered on the long arm of chromosome 12. Type I and type II keratins heteropolymerize to form intermediate-sized filaments in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. The product of this gene typically dimerizes with keratin 18 to form an intermediate filament in simple single-layered epithelial cells. This protein plays a role in maintaining cellular structural integrity and also functions in signal transduction and cellular differentiation. Mutations in this gene cause cryptogenic cirrhosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

FRA18A Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(18)(q12.2)

FRA18B Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(18)(q21.3)

ZGPAT Gene

zinc finger, CCCH-type with G patch domain

EDNRA Gene

endothelin receptor type A

This gene encodes the receptor for endothelin-1, a peptide that plays a role in potent and long-lasting vasoconstriction. This receptor associates with guanine-nucleotide-binding (G) proteins, and this coupling activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Polymorphisms in this gene have been linked to migraine headache resistance. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

EDNRB Gene

endothelin receptor type B

The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor which activates a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Its ligand, endothelin, consists of a family of three potent vasoactive peptides: ET1, ET2, and ET3. Studies suggest that the multigenic disorder, Hirschsprung disease type 2, is due to mutations in the endothelin receptor type B gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

MORC2 Gene

MORC family CW-type zinc finger 2

MORC3 Gene

MORC family CW-type zinc finger 3

This gene encodes a protein that localizes to the nuclear matrix. The protein also has RNA binding activity, and has a predicted coiled-coil domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MORC1 Gene

MORC family CW-type zinc finger 1

This gene encodes the human homolog of mouse morc and like the mouse protein it is testis-specific. Mouse studies support a testis-specific function since only male knockout mice are infertile; infertility is the only apparent defect. These studies further support a role for this protein early in spermatogenesis, possibly by affecting entry into apoptosis because testis from knockout mice show greatly increased numbers of apoptotic cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

MORC4 Gene

MORC family CW-type zinc finger 4

In human, the four current members of the microrchidia (morc) gene family share an N-terminal ATPase-like ATP-binding region and a CW four-cysteine zinc-finger motif. The protein encoded by this gene also has a nuclear matrix binding domain and a two-stranded coiled-coil motif near its C-terminus. This gene is widely expressed at low levels in normal tissues and has elevated expression in placenta and testis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

PTPRZ2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 2

PTPRZ1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 1

This gene encodes a member of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase family. Expression of this gene is restricted to the central nervous system (CNS), and it may be involved in the regulation of specific developmental processes in the CNS. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

COL28A1 Gene

collagen, type XXVIII, alpha 1

COL28A1 belongs to a class of collagens containing von Willebrand factor (VWF; MIM 613160) type A (VWFA) domains (Veit et al., 2006 [PubMed 16330543]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

ZNFX1 Gene

zinc finger, NFX1-type containing 1

CLEC7A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 7, member A

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. The encoded glycoprotein is a small type II membrane receptor with an extracellular C-type lectin-like domain fold and a cytoplasmic domain with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif. It functions as a pattern-recognition receptor that recognizes a variety of beta-1,3-linked and beta-1,6-linked glucans from fungi and plants, and in this way plays a role in innate immune response. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZNHIT3 Gene

zinc finger, HIT-type containing 3

ZNHIT2 Gene

zinc finger, HIT-type containing 2

ZNHIT1 Gene

zinc finger, HIT-type containing 1

ZNHIT6 Gene

zinc finger, HIT-type containing 6

KRT17 Gene

keratin 17, type I

This gene encodes the type I intermediate filament chain keratin 17, expressed in nail bed, hair follicle, sebaceous glands, and other epidermal appendages. Mutations in this gene lead to Jackson-Lawler type pachyonychia congenita and steatocystoma multiplex. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

KRT16 Gene

keratin 16, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. Most of the type I cytokeratins consist of acidic proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains and are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21. This keratin has been coexpressed with keratin 14 in a number of epithelial tissues, including esophagus, tongue, and hair follicles. Mutations in this gene are associated with type 1 pachyonychia congenita, non-epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma and unilateral palmoplantar verrucous nevus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT15 Gene

keratin 15, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. Most of the type I cytokeratins consist of acidic proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains and are clustered in a region on chromosome 17q21.2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT14 Gene

keratin 14, type I

This gene encodes a member of the keratin family, the most diverse group of intermediate filaments. This gene product, a type I keratin, is usually found as a heterotetramer with two keratin 5 molecules, a type II keratin. Together they form the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. Mutations in the genes for these keratins are associated with epidermolysis bullosa simplex. At least one pseudogene has been identified at 17p12-p11. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT13 Gene

keratin 13, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin gene family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. Most of the type I cytokeratins consist of acidic proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains. This type I cytokeratin is paired with keratin 4 and expressed in the suprabasal layers of non-cornified stratified epithelia. Mutations in this gene and keratin 4 have been associated with the autosomal dominant disorder White Sponge Nevus. The type I cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q21.2. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants; however, not all variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT12 Gene

keratin 12, type I

KRT12 encodes the type I intermediate filament chain keratin 12, expressed in corneal epithelia. Mutations in this gene lead to Meesmann corneal dystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT10 Gene

keratin 10, type I

This gene encodes a member of the type I (acidic) cytokeratin family, which belongs to the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. Keratins are heteropolymeric structural proteins which form the intermediate filament. These filaments, along with actin microfilaments and microtubules, compose the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. Mutations in this gene are associated with epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. This gene is located within a cluster of keratin family members on chromosome 17q21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT19 Gene

keratin 19, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the keratin family. The keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into cytokeratins and hair keratins. The type I cytokeratins consist of acidic proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains. Unlike its related family members, this smallest known acidic cytokeratin is not paired with a basic cytokeratin in epithelial cells. It is specifically expressed in the periderm, the transiently superficial layer that envelopes the developing epidermis. The type I cytokeratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRT18 Gene

keratin 18, type I

KRT18 encodes the type I intermediate filament chain keratin 18. Keratin 18, together with its filament partner keratin 8, are perhaps the most commonly found members of the intermediate filament gene family. They are expressed in single layer epithelial tissues of the body. Mutations in this gene have been linked to cryptogenic cirrhosis. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

THSD1P1 Gene

thrombospondin, type I, domain containing 1 pseudogene 1

COL11A1 Gene

collagen, type XI, alpha 1

This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. Mutations in this gene are associated with type II Stickler syndrome and with Marshall syndrome. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in this gene is also associated with susceptibility to lumbar disc herniation. Multiple transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

COL11A2 Gene

collagen, type XI, alpha 2

This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 very close to but separate from the gene for retinoid X receptor beta. Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. Proteolytic processing of this type XI chain produces PARP, a proline/arginine-rich protein that is an amino terminal domain. Mutations in this gene are associated with type III Stickler syndrome, otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED syndrome), Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome, autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural type 13 deafness (DFNA13), and autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural type 53 deafness (DFNB53). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene is located nearby on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

ACVR2A Gene

activin A receptor, type IIA

This gene encodes a receptor that mediates the functions of activins, which are members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily involved in diverse biological processes. The encoded protein is a transmembrane serine-threonine kinase receptor which mediates signaling by forming heterodimeric complexes with various combinations of type I and type II receptors and ligands in a cell-specific manner. The encoded type II receptor is primarily involved in ligand-binding and includes an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic serine-threonine kinase domain. This gene may be associated with susceptibility to preeclampsia, a pregnancy-related disease which can result in maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

ACVR2B Gene

activin A receptor, type IIB

Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I (I and IB) and two type II (II and IIB) receptors. These receptors are all transmembrane proteins, composed of a ligand-binding extracellular domain with cysteine-rich region, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. Type I receptors are essential for signaling; and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a stable complex after ligand binding, resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. Type II receptors are considered to be constitutively active kinases. This gene encodes activin A type IIB receptor, which displays a 3- to 4-fold higher affinity for the ligand than activin A type II receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VMAC Gene

vimentin-type intermediate filament associated coiled-coil protein

PTPN3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This protein contains a C-terminal PTP domain and an N-terminal domain homologous to the band 4.1 superfamily of cytoskeletal-associated proteins. P97, a cell cycle regulator involved in a variety of membrane related functions, has been shown to be a substrate of this PTP. This PTP was also found to interact with, and be regulated by adaptor protein 14-3-3 beta. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

ZMYND15 Gene

zinc finger, MYND-type containing 15

This gene encodes a MYND-containing zinc-binding protein with a nuclear localization sequence. A similar gene in mice has been shown to act as a testis-specific transcriptional repressor by recruiting histone deacetylase enzymes to regulate spatiotemporal expression of many haploid genes. This protein may play an important role in spermatogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

ZMYND12 Gene

zinc finger, MYND-type containing 12

ZMYND10 Gene

zinc finger, MYND-type containing 10

ZMYND11 Gene

zinc finger, MYND-type containing 11

The protein encoded by this gene was first identified by its ability to bind the adenovirus E1A protein. The protein localizes to the nucleus. It functions as a transcriptional repressor, and expression of E1A inhibits this repression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZMYND19 Gene

zinc finger, MYND-type containing 19

ZMYND19 is a MYND zinc finger domain-containing protein that binds to the C terminus of melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1 (MCHR1; MIM 601751) (Bachner et al., 2002 [PubMed 12208518]), and to the N termini of alpha-tubulin (TUBA1; MIM 191110), and beta-tubulin (TUBB; MIM 191130) (Francke et al., 2005 [PubMed 16039987]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

WNT2B Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 2B

This gene encodes a member of the wingless-type MMTV integration site (WNT) family of highly conserved, secreted signaling factors. WNT family members function in a variety of developmental processes including regulation of cell growth and differentiation and are characterized by a WNT-core domain. This gene may play a role in human development as well as carcinogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

CYB5AP5 Gene

cytochrome b5 type A (microsomal) pseudogene 5

PSMA3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 3

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDO1 Gene

cysteine dioxygenase type 1

PIP4K2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, alpha

Phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate, the precursor to second messengers of the phosphoinositide signal transduction pathways, is thought to be involved in the regulation of secretion, cell proliferation, differentiation, and motility. The protein encoded by this gene is one of a family of enzymes capable of catalyzing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate on the fourth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring to form phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate. The amino acid sequence of this enzyme does not show homology to other kinases, but the recombinant protein does exhibit kinase activity. This gene is a member of the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIP4K2C Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, gamma

PIP4K2B Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, beta

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate on the fourth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring to form phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate. This gene is a member of the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase family. The encoded protein sequence does not show similarity to other kinases, but the protein does exhibit kinase activity. Additionally, the encoded protein interacts with p55 TNF receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKG1 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I

Mammals have three different isoforms of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (Ialpha, Ibeta, and II). These PRKG isoforms act as key mediators of the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway and are important components of many signal transduction processes in diverse cell types. This PRKG1 gene on human chromosome 10 encodes the soluble Ialpha and Ibeta isoforms of PRKG by alternative transcript splicing. A separate gene on human chromosome 4, PRKG2, encodes the membrane-bound PRKG isoform II. The PRKG1 proteins play a central role in regulating cardiovascular and neuronal functions in addition to relaxing smooth muscle tone, preventing platelet aggregation, and modulating cell growth. This gene is most strongly expressed in all types of smooth muscle, platelets, cerebellar Purkinje cells, hippocampal neurons, and the lateral amygdala. Isoforms Ialpha and Ibeta have identical cGMP-binding and catalytic domains but differ in their leucine/isoleucine zipper and autoinhibitory sequences and therefore differ in their dimerization substrates and kinase enzyme activity. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PRKG2 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type II

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family of proteins. The encoded protein plays a role in the regulation of fluid balance in the intestine. A similar protein in mouse is thought to regulate differentiation and proliferation of cells in the colon. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

LOC103156999 Gene

dynein, light chain, Tctex-type 1 pseudogene

LOC100422495 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (megakaryocyte) pseudogene

LOC105379861 Gene

neuropeptide Y receptor type 4

PIEZO1P1 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1 pseudogene 1

PIEZO1P2 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1 pseudogene 2

ALOX15B Gene

arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, type B

This gene encodes a member of the lipoxygenase family of structurally related nonheme iron dioxygenases involved in the production of fatty acid hydroperoxides. The encoded protein converts arachidonic acid exclusively to 15S-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, while metabolizing linoleic acid less effectively. This gene is located in a cluster of related genes and a pseudogene that spans approximately 100 kilobases on the short arm of chromosome 17. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HBN1 Gene

Progressive familial heart block, type I, locus 1

DYNLT3P1 Gene

dynein, light chain, Tctex-type 3 pseudogene 1

DYNLT3P2 Gene

dynein, light chain, Tctex-type 3 pseudogene 2

PSMB11 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 11

Proteasomes generate peptides that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I molecules to other cells of the immune system. Proteolysis is conducted by 20S proteasomes, complexes of 28 subunits arranged as a cylinder in 4 heteroheptameric rings: alpha-1 to -7, beta-1 to -7, beta-1 to -7, and alpha-1 to -7. The catalytic subunits are beta-1 (PSMB6; MIM 600307), beta-2 (PSMB7; MIM 604030), and beta-5 (PSMB5; MIM 600306). Three additional subunits, beta-1i (PSMB9; MIM 177045), beta-2i (PSMB10; MIM 176847), and beta-5i (PSMB8; MIM 177046), are induced by gamma-interferon (IFNG; MIM 147570) and are preferentially incorporated into proteasomes to make immunoproteasomes. PSMB11, or beta-5t, is a catalytic subunit expressed exclusively in cortical thymic epithelial cells (Murata et al., 2007 [PubMed 17540904]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PSMB10 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 10

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. Proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon, and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 2 (proteasome beta 7 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADAMTS8 Gene

ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 8

This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The enzyme encoded by this gene contains two C-terminal TS motifs, and disrupts angiogenesis in vivo. A number of disorders have been mapped in the vicinity of this gene, most notably lung neoplasms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH8 Gene

cadherin 8, type 2

This gene encodes a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily, integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a small, highly conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The extracellular domain consists of 5 subdomains, each containing a cadherin motif, and appears to determine the specificity of the protein's homophilic cell adhesion activity. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. This particular cadherin is expressed in brain and is putatively involved in synaptic adhesion, axon outgrowth and guidance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDH2 Gene

cadherin 2, type 1, N-cadherin (neuronal)

This gene is a classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily. The encoded protein is a calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. The protein functions during gastrulation and is required for establishment of left-right asymmetry. At certain central nervous system synapses, presynaptic to postsynaptic adhesion is mediated at least in part by this gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN3A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type III alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit with 24 transmembrane domains and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family, and is found in a cluster of five alpha subunit genes on chromosome 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN3B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type III beta subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel beta subunit gene family, and influences the inactivation kinetics of the sodium channel. Two alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2B Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is sensitive to low nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmanin. The C2 domain of this protein was shown to bind phospholipids but not Ca2+, which suggests that this enzyme may function in a calcium-independent manner. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 alpha

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is not sensitive to nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmanin. This protein was shown to be able to be activated by insulin and may be involved in integrin-dependent signaling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2G Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 gamma

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. This gene may play a role in several diseases, including type II diabetes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

AFD1 Gene

acrofacial dysostosis 1, Nager type

PIP5K1P1 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, pseudogene 1

PIP5K1P2 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, pseudogene 2

LOC100132830 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 14 pseudogene

PTPN2P2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 pseudogene 2

LOC100421641 Gene

zinc finger CCHC-type and RNA binding motif 1 pseudogene

BDET Gene

Bleeding disorder, east Texas type

LOC391813 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 3 pseudogene

NMSR Gene

Neuropathy, hereditary motor and sensory, Russe type

FRA15A Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(15)(q22)

LOC100133225 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 7 pseudogene

ZC3H8 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 8

ZC3H3 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 3

COL22A1 Gene

collagen, type XXII, alpha 1

COL22A1, a member of the FACIT (fibrillar-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) subgroup of the collagen protein family, specifically localizes to tissue junctions (Koch et al., 2004 [PubMed 15016833]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ZC3H4 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 4

This gene encodes a member of a family of CCCH (C-x8-C-x5-C-x3-H type) zinc finger domain-containing proteins. These zinc finger domains, which coordinate zinc finger binding and are characterized by three cysteine residues and one histidine residue, are nucleic acid-binding. Other family members are known to function in post-transcriptional regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC100422416 Gene

ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 7 pseudogene

ZDHHC20P4 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 20 pseudogene 4

ZDHHC20P2 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 20 pseudogene 2

ZDHHC20P1 Gene

zinc finger, DHHC-type containing 20 pseudogene 1

COL5A2 Gene

collagen, type V, alpha 2

This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. Mutations in this gene are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, types I and II. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL5A3 Gene

collagen, type V, alpha 3

This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. Mutations in this gene are thought to be responsible for the symptoms of a subset of patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III. Messages of several sizes can be detected in northern blots but sequence information cannot confirm the identity of the shorter messages. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL5A1 Gene

collagen, type V, alpha 1

This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. The encoded procollagen protein occurs commonly as the heterotrimer pro-alpha1(V)-pro-alpha1(V)-pro-alpha2(V). Mutations in this gene are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, types I and II. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

ZBED1 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 1

This gene is located in the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of X and Y chromosomes. It was earlier identified as a gene with similarity to Ac transposable elements, however, was found not to have transposase activity. Later studies show that this gene product is localized in the nucleus and functions as a transcription factor. It binds to DNA elements found in the promoter regions of several genes related to cell proliferation, such as histone H1, hence may have a role in regulating genes related to cell proliferation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants with different 5' untranslated region have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

ZBED2 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 2

ZBED3 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 3

ZBED5 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 5

This gene is unusual in that its coding sequence is mostly derived from Charlie-like DNA transposon; however, it does not appear to be an active DNA transposon as it is not flanked by terminal inverted repeats. The encoded protein is conserved among the mammalian Laurasiatheria branch. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

ZBED6 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 6

ZBED8 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 8

ZBED9 Gene

zinc finger, BED-type containing 9

FHII Gene

Hyperaldosteronism, familial, type II

LOC105369259 Gene

putative L-type amino acid transporter 1-like protein MLAS

PRKAR1A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. This gene encodes one of the regulatory subunits. This protein was found to be a tissue-specific extinguisher that down-regulates the expression of seven liver genes in hepatoma x fibroblast hybrids. Mutations in this gene cause Carney complex (CNC). This gene can fuse to the RET protooncogene by gene rearrangement and form the thyroid tumor-specific chimeric oncogene known as PTC2. A nonconventional nuclear localization sequence (NLS) has been found for this protein which suggests a role in DNA replication via the protein serving as a nuclear transport protein for the second subunit of the Replication Factor C (RFC40). Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

PRKAR1B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, beta

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is an essential enzyme in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Through phosphorylation of target proteins, PKA controls many biochemical events in the cell including regulation of metabolism, ion transport, and gene transcription. The PKA holoenzyme is composed of 2 regulatory and 2 catalytic subunits and dissociates from the regulatory subunits upon binding of cAMP.[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

CYB5AP2 Gene

cytochrome b5 type A (microsomal) pseudogene 2

HMU Gene

Hypotrichosis, Marie Unna type

LOC442263 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

CELSR3 Gene

cadherin, EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 3

This gene belongs to the flamingo subfamily, which is included in the cadherin superfamily. The flamingo cadherins consist of nonclassic-type cadherins that do not interact with catenins. They are plasma membrane proteins containing seven epidermal growth factor-like repeats, nine cadherin domains and two laminin A G-type repeats in their ectodomain. They also have seven transmembrane domains, a characteristic feature of their subfamily. The encoded protein may be involved in the regulation of contact-dependent neurite growth and may play a role in tumor formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

CELSR2 Gene

cadherin, EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the flamingo subfamily, part of the cadherin superfamily. The flamingo subfamily consists of nonclassic-type cadherins; a subpopulation that does not interact with catenins. The flamingo cadherins are located at the plasma membrane and have nine cadherin domains, seven epidermal growth factor-like repeats and two laminin A G-type repeats in their ectodomain. They also have seven transmembrane domains, a characteristic unique to this subfamily. It is postulated that these proteins are receptors involved in contact-mediated communication, with cadherin domains acting as homophilic binding regions and the EGF-like domains involved in cell adhesion and receptor-ligand interactions. The specific function of this particular member has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CELSR1 Gene

cadherin, EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the flamingo subfamily, part of the cadherin superfamily. The flamingo subfamily consists of nonclassic-type cadherins; a subpopulation that does not interact with catenins. The flamingo cadherins are located at the plasma membrane and have nine cadherin domains, seven epidermal growth factor-like repeats and two laminin A G-type repeats in their ectodomain. They also have seven transmembrane domains, a characteristic unique to this subfamily. It is postulated that these proteins are receptors involved in contact-mediated communication, with cadherin domains acting as homophilic binding regions and the EGF-like domains involved in cell adhesion and receptor-ligand interactions. This particular member is a developmentally regulated, neural-specific gene which plays an unspecified role in early embryogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPN9 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal domain that shares a significant similarity with yeast SEC14, which is a protein that has phosphatidylinositol transfer activity and is required for protein secretion through the Golgi complex in yeast. This PTP was found to be activated by polyphosphoinositide, and is thought to be involved in signaling events regulating phagocytosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPN2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. Members of the PTP family share a highly conserved catalytic motif, which is essential for the catalytic activity. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. Epidermal growth factor receptor and the adaptor protein Shc were reported to be substrates of this PTP, which suggested the roles in growth factor mediated cell signaling. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. Two highly related but distinctly processed pseudogenes that localize to chromosomes 1 and 13, respectively, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PTPN1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1

The protein encoded by this gene is the founding member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, which was isolated and identified based on its enzymatic activity and amino acid sequence. PTPs catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphate monoesters specifically on tyrosine residues. Members of the PTP family share a highly conserved catalytic motif, which is essential for the catalytic activity. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP has been shown to act as a negative regulator of insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the phosphotryosine residues of insulin receptor kinase. This PTP was also reported to dephosphorylate epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, as well as JAK2 and TYK2 kinases, which implicated the role of this PTP in cell growth control, and cell response to interferon stimulation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PTPN7 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This gene is preferentially expressed in a variety of hematopoietic cells, and is an early response gene in lymphokine stimulated cells. The non-catalytic N-terminus of this PTP can interact with MAP kinases and suppress the MAP kinase activities. This PTP was shown to be involved in the regulation of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling, which was thought to function through dephosphorylating the molecules related to MAP kinase pathway. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PTPN6 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. N-terminal part of this PTP contains two tandem Src homolog (SH2) domains, which act as protein phospho-tyrosine binding domains, and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. This PTP is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells, and functions as an important regulator of multiple signaling pathways in hematopoietic cells. This PTP has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate a wide spectrum of phospho-proteins involved in hematopoietic cell signaling. Multiple alternatively spliced variants of this gene, which encode distinct isoforms, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPN5 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 5 (striatum-enriched)

PTPN4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (megakaryocyte)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This protein contains a C-terminal PTP domain and an N-terminal domain homologous to the band 4.1 superfamily of cytoskeletal-associated proteins. This PTP has been shown to interact with glutamate receptor delta 2 and epsilon subunits, and is thought to play a role in signalling downstream of the glutamate receptors through tyrosine dephosphorylation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMA2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMA1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 1

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

PSMA7 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 7

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family that functions as a 20S core alpha subunit. The encoded protein interacts with the hepatitis B virus X protein and plays a role in regulating hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity, an activity essential for viral replication. The encoded protein also plays a role in the cellular stress response by regulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMA4 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 4

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMA5 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 5

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PSMA8 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 8

SLC34A1 Gene

solute carrier family 34 (type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter), member 1

This gene encodes a member of the type II sodium-phosphate cotransporter family. Mutations in this gene are associated with hypophosphatemia nephrolithiasis/osteoporosis 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

SLC34A3 Gene

solute carrier family 34 (type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter), member 3

This gene encodes a member of SLC34A transporter family of proteins, and is expressed primarily in the kidney. It is involved in transporting phosphate into cells via sodium cotransport in the renal brush border membrane, and contributes to the maintenance of inorganic phosphate concentration in the kidney. Mutations in this gene are associated with hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants varying in the 5' UTR have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

SLC34A2 Gene

solute carrier family 34 (type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter), member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a pH-sensitive sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. Phosphate uptake is increased at lower pH. Defects in this gene are a cause of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PADI1 Gene

peptidyl arginine deiminase, type I

This gene encodes a member of the peptidyl arginine deiminase family of enzymes, which catalyze the post-translational deimination of proteins by converting arginine residues into citrullines in the presence of calcium ions. The family members have distinct substrate specificities and tissue-specific expression patterns. The type I enzyme is involved in the late stages of epidermal differentiation, where it deiminates filaggrin and keratin K1, which maintains hydration of the stratum corneum, and hence the cutaneous barrier function. This enzyme may also play a role in hair follicle formation. This gene exists in a cluster with four other paralogous genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PADI3 Gene

peptidyl arginine deiminase, type III

This gene encodes a member of the peptidyl arginine deiminase family of enzymes, which catalyze the post-translational deimination of proteins by converting arginine residues into citrullines in the presence of calcium ions. The family members have distinct substrate specificities and tissue-specific expression patterns. The type III enzyme modulates hair structural proteins, such as filaggrin in the hair follicle and trichohyalin in the inner root sheath, during hair follicle formation. Together with the type I enzyme, this enzyme may also play a role in terminal differentiation of the epidermis. This gene exists in a cluster with four other paralogous genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PADI2 Gene

peptidyl arginine deiminase, type II

This gene encodes a member of the peptidyl arginine deiminase family of enzymes, which catalyze the post-translational deimination of proteins by converting arginine residues into citrullines in the presence of calcium ions. The family members have distinct substrate specificities and tissue-specific expression patterns. The type II enzyme is the most widely expressed family member. Known substrates for this enzyme include myelin basic protein in the central nervous system and vimentin in skeletal muscle and macrophages. This enzyme is thought to play a role in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative human disorders, including Alzheimer disease and multiple sclerosis, and it has also been implicated in glaucoma pathogenesis. This gene exists in a cluster with four other paralogous genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PADI4 Gene

peptidyl arginine deiminase, type IV

This gene is a member of a gene family which encodes enzymes responsible for the conversion of arginine residues to citrulline residues. This gene may play a role in granulocyte and macrophage development leading to inflammation and immune response. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PADI6 Gene

peptidyl arginine deiminase, type VI

This gene encodes a member of the peptidyl arginine deiminase family of enzymes, which catalyze the post-translational deimination of proteins by converting arginine residues into citrullines in the presence of calcium ions. The family members have distinct substrate specificities and tissue-specific expression patterns. This protein may play a role in cytoskeletal reorganization in the egg and in early embryo development. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

COL12A1 Gene

collagen, type XII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XII collagen, a member of the FACIT (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) collagen family. Type XII collagen is a homotrimer found in association with type I collagen, an association that is thought to modify the interactions between collagen I fibrils and the surrounding matrix. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RNF6P1 Gene

ring finger protein (C3H2C3 type) 6 pseudogene 1

COL6A4P1 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 4 pseudogene 1

This transcribed pseudogene represents the 5' end of a presumed ortholog to a mouse gene which encodes a collagen VI alpha 4 chain protein (GeneID 68553). No complete ORF of comparable size to the mouse protein is found in this gene. The predicted protein lacks a signal peptide; however, this truncated collagen polypeptide may have achieved a different function as suggested by PubMed ID: 18622395. Evidence of in vivo translation is incomplete. A large chromosome break separates this pseudogene from the 3' end of the presumed ortholog (COL6A4P2, GeneID 646300) which is located downstream at chromosome 3q21.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

TAS2R43 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 43

TAS2R43 belongs to the large TAS2R receptor family. TAS2Rs are expressed on the surface of taste receptor cells and mediate the perception of bitterness through a G protein-coupled second messenger pathway (Conte et al., 2002 [PubMed 12584440]). For further information on TAS2Rs, see MIM 604791.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2009]

TAS2R42 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 42

TAS2R41 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 41

TAS2R40 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 40

TAS2R46 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 46

TAS2R46 belongs to the large TAS2R receptor family. TAS2Rs are expressed on the surface of taste receptor cells and mediate the perception of bitterness through a G protein-coupled second messenger pathway (Conte et al., 2002 [PubMed 12584440]). For further information on TAS2Rs, see MIM 604791.[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2009]

TAS2R45 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 45

LOC374443 Gene

C-type lectin domain family 2, member D pseudogene

ZC3HAV1L Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type, antiviral 1-like

CDAN3 Gene

congenital dyserythropoietic anemia, type III

ZC2HC1A Gene

zinc finger, C2HC-type containing 1A

MMACHC Gene

methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblC type, with homocystinuria

The exact function of the protein encoded by this gene is not known, however, its C-terminal region shows similarity to TonB, a bacterial protein involved in energy transduction for cobalamin (vitamin B12) uptake. Hence, it is postulated that this protein may have a role in the binding and intracellular trafficking of cobalamin. Mutations in this gene are associated with methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type cblC. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

KRT40 Gene

keratin 40, type I

This gene encodes a member of the type I (acidic) keratin family, which belongs to the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. Keratins are heteropolymeric structural proteins which form the intermediate filament. These filaments, along with actin microfilaments and microtubules, compose the cytoskeleton of epithelial cells. The type I keratin genes are clustered in a region of chromosome 17q12-q21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

WNT9A Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 9A

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes that encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It is expressed in gastric cancer cell lines. The protein encoded by this gene shows 75% amino acid identity to chicken Wnt14, which has been shown to play a central role in initiating synovial joint formation in the chick limb. This gene is clustered with another family member, WNT3A, in the chromosome 1q42 region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100419890 Gene

zinc finger, MYM-type 4 pseudogene

FRA5G Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(5)(q35)

FRA5F Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(5)(q21)

FRA5E Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(5)(p14)

FRA5D Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(5)(q15)

FRA5C Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(5)(q31.1)

FRA5B Gene

fragile site, BrdU type, common, fra(5)(q15)

FRA5A Gene

fragile site, BrdU type, common, fra(5)(p13)

LOC344593 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

LOC101927162 Gene

histone H3.3 type 1-like

WNT5B Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5B

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It encodes a protein which shows 94% and 80% amino acid identity to the mouse Wnt5b protein and the human WNT5A protein, respectively. Alternative splicing of this gene generates 2 transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNT5A Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene encodes a member of the WNT family that signals through both the canonical and non-canonical WNT pathways. This protein is a ligand for the seven transmembrane receptor frizzled-5 and the tyrosine kinase orphan receptor 2. This protein plays an essential role in regulating developmental pathways during embryogenesis. This protein may also play a role in oncogenesis. Mutations in this gene are the cause of autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

COL6A4P2 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 4 pseudogene 2

This transcribed pseudogene represents the 3' end of a presumed ortholog to a mouse gene which encodes a collagen VI alpha 4 chain protein (GeneID 68553). The predicted ORF contains multiple premature stop codons. A large chromosome break separates this pseudogene from the 5' end of the presumed ortholog (DVWA, GeneID 344875) which is located upstream at chromosome 3p24.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

CYB5AP4 Gene

cytochrome b5 type A (microsomal) pseudogene 4

CYB5AP3 Gene

cytochrome b5 type A (microsomal) pseudogene 3

NUDT22 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 22

NUDT21 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 21

The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a cleavage factor required for 3' RNA cleavage and polyadenylation processing. The interaction of the protein with the RNA is one of the earliest steps in the assembly of the 3' end processing complex and facilitates the recruitment of other processing factors. This gene encodes the 25kD subunit of the protein complex, which is composed of four polypeptides. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLECL1 Gene

C-type lectin-like 1

This gene encodes a type II transmembrane, C-type lectin-like protein that is highly expressed on dendritic and B cells. This protein may act as a T-cell costimulatory molecule that enhances interleukin-4 production, and maybe involved in the regulation of the immune response. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

CDB2 Gene

corneal dystrophy of Bowman layer type II (Thiel-Behnke)

MKS1 Gene

Meckel syndrome, type 1

The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the basal body and is required for formation of the primary cilium in ciliated epithelial cells. Mutations in this gene result in Meckel syndrome type 1 and in Bardet-Biedl syndrome type 13. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

SPINT2 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type, 2

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein with two extracellular Kunitz domains that inhibits a variety of serine proteases. The protein inhibits HGF activator which prevents the formation of active hepatocyte growth factor. This gene is a putative tumor suppressor, and mutations in this gene result in congenital sodium diarrhea. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SPINT1 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors. The protein is a potent inhibitor specific for HGF activator and is thought to be involved in the regulation of the proteolytic activation of HGF in injured tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPINT4 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 4

MMADHC Gene

methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblD type, with homocystinuria

This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein that is involved in an early step of vitamin B12 metabolism. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is essential for normal development and survival in humans. Mutations in this gene cause methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type cblD (MMADHC), a disorder of cobalamin metabolism that is characterized by decreased levels of the coenzymes adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 11 and X.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

ZC3H11B Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 11B pseudogene

ZFC3H1 Gene

zinc finger, C3H1-type containing

LOC100422398 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

CLEC2L Gene

C-type lectin domain family 2, member L

CLEC2A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 2, member A

CLEC2A belongs to the CLEC2 family of activation-induced, natural killer gene complex-encoded C-type lectin-like receptors (Spreu et al., 2007 [PubMed 18046548]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2008]

CLEC2B Gene

C-type lectin domain family 2, member B

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. The encoded type 2 transmembrane protein may function as a cell activation antigen. An alternative splice variant has been described but its full-length sequence has not been determined. This gene is closely linked to other CTL/CTLD superfamily members on chromosome 12p13 in the natural killer gene complex region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLEC2D Gene

C-type lectin domain family 2, member D

This gene encodes a member of the natural killer cell receptor C-type lectin family. The encoded protein inhibits osteoclast formation and contains a transmembrane domain near the N-terminus as well as the C-type lectin-like extracellular domain. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

LOC642381 Gene

speckle-type POZ protein-like pseudogene

LOC105375807 Gene

ephrin type-B receptor 6-like

ZC2HC1B Gene

zinc finger, C2HC-type containing 1B

ZC2HC1C Gene

zinc finger, C2HC-type containing 1C

ADAMTS10 Gene

ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 10

This gene belongs to the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin type-1 motifs) family of zinc-dependent proteases. ADAMTS proteases are complex secreted enzymes containing a prometalloprotease domain of the reprolysin type attached to an ancillary domain with a highly conserved structure that includes at least one thrombospondin type 1 repeat. They have been demonstrated to have important roles in connective tissue organization, coagulation, inflammation, arthritis, angiogenesis and cell migration. The product of this gene plays a major role in growth and in skin, lens, and heart development. It is also a candidate gene for autosomal recessive Weill-Marchesani syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADAMTS13 Gene

ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13

This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins containing several distinct regions, including a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. The enzyme encoded by this gene specifically cleaves von Willebrand Factor (vWF). Defects in this gene are associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

ADAMTS12 Gene

ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 12

This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS-1) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS-1 motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The enzyme encoded by this gene contains eight TS-1 motifs. It may play roles in pulmonary cells during fetal development or in tumor processes through its proteolytic activity or as a molecule potentially involved in regulation of cell adhesion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADAMTS14 Gene

ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 14

This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. This gene is highly similar to two family members, ADAMTS2 and ADAMTS3, in its sequence and gene structure, and the encoded protein shares the aminoprocollagen peptidase activity with the protein products encoded by ADAMTS2 and ADAMTS3. Various transcript variants of this gene have been identified. They result from the use of two different promoters and transcription initiation sites as well as alternative splicing sites. The full length nature of some transcripts has not been defined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADAMTS17 Gene

ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 17

This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. ADAMTS family members share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The protein encoded by this gene has a high sequence similarity to the protein encoded by ADAMTS19, another family member. The function of this protein has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADAMTS16 Gene

ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 16

This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. ADAMTS family members share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The protein encoded by this gene has high sequence similarity to the protein encoded by ADAMTS18, another family member. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADAMTS19 Gene

ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 19

This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The protein encoded by this gene has high sequence similarity to the protein encoded by ADAMTS16, another family member. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADAMTS18 Gene

ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 18

This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. ADAMTS family members share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The protein encoded by this gene has a high sequence similarity to the protein encoded by gene ADAMTS16, another family member. It is thought to function as a tumor suppressor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIEZO2 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2

The protein encoded by this gene contains more than thirty transmembrane domains and likely functions as part of mechanically-activated (MA) cation channels. These channels serve to connect mechanical forces to biological signals. The encoded protein quickly adapts MA currents in somatosensory neurons. Defects in this gene are a cause of type 5 distal arthrogryposis. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PIEZO1 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1

Piezos are large transmembrane proteins conserved among various species, all having between 24 and 36 predicted transmembrane domains. 'Piezo' comes from the Greek 'piesi,' meaning 'pressure.' The FAM38A gene encodes PIEZO1, a protein that induces mechanically activated (MA) currents in various cell types (Coste et al., 2010 [PubMed 20813920]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

LOC100129526 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, D pseudogene

IGFN1 Gene

immunoglobulin-like and fibronectin type III domain containing 1

BDH2P1 Gene

3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, type 2 pseudogene 1

TAS2R62P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 62, pseudogene

COL25A1 Gene

collagen, type XXV, alpha 1

This gene encodes a brain-specific membrane associated collagen. A product of proteolytic processing of the encoded protein, CLAC (collagenous Alzheimer amyloid plaque component), binds to amyloid beta-peptides found in Alzheimer amyloid plaques but CLAC inhibits rather than facilitates amyloid fibril elongation (PMID: 16300410). A study of over-expression of this collagen in mice, however, found changes in pathology and behavior suggesting that the encoded protein may promote amyloid plaque formation (PMID: 19548013). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

FRA10B Gene

fragile site, BrdU type, rare, fra(10)(q25.2)

ZNHIT1P1 Gene

zinc finger, HIT-type containing 1 pseudogene 1

FRA16D Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(16)(q23.2)

FRA16E Gene

fragile site, distamycin A type, rare, fra(16)(p12.1)

FRA16B Gene

fragile site, distamycin A type, rare, fra(16)(q22.1)

FRA16C Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(16)(q22.1)

FRA16A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(16)(p13.11)

There are several phenotypes associated with variation in pericentric region of chromosome 16: see the 16p12.2-p11.2 deletion syndrome (MIM 613604); see MIM 611913 for a deletion or duplication at 16p11.2 associated with autism (AUTS14); and see MIM 613444 for a 220-kb deletion at 16p11.2 associated with isolated severe early-onset obesity and obesity with developmental delay.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

COL2A1 Gene

collagen, type II, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha-1 chain of type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen found in cartilage and the vitreous humor of the eye. Mutations in this gene are associated with achondrogenesis, chondrodysplasia, early onset familial osteoarthritis, SED congenita, Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis, Kniest dysplasia, Stickler syndrome type I, and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia Strudwick type. In addition, defects in processing chondrocalcin, a calcium binding protein that is the C-propeptide of this collagen molecule, are also associated with chondrodysplasia. There are two transcripts identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CNC2 Gene

Carney complex type 2, multiple neoplasia and lentiginosis

TSPEAR Gene

thrombospondin-type laminin G domain and EAR repeats

This gene encodes a protein that contains a N-terminal thrombospondin-type laminin G domain and several tandem arranged epilepsy-associated repeats (EARs). A mutation in this gene is the cause of autosomal recessive deafness-98. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

PGGT1B Gene

protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I, beta subunit

Protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I) transfers a geranylgeranyl group to the cysteine residue of candidate proteins containing a C-terminal CAAX motif in which 'A' is an aliphatic amino acid and 'X' is leucine (summarized by Zhang et al., 1994 [PubMed 8106351]). The enzyme is composed of a 48-kD alpha subunit (FNTA; MIM 134635) and a 43-kD beta subunit, encoded by the PGGT1B gene. The FNTA gene encodes the alpha subunit for both GGTase-I and the related enzyme farnesyltransferase.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

ECTD8 Gene

Ectodermal dysplasia 8, hair/tooth/nail type

LOC102723424 Gene

keratin, type I cytoskeletal 18 pseudogene

SCN8A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type VIII alpha subunit

This gene encodes a member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family. The encoded protein forms the ion pore region of the voltage-gated sodium channel. This protein is essential for the rapid membrane depolarization that occurs during the formation of the action potential in excitable neurons. Mutations in this gene are associated with mental retardation, pancerebellar atrophy and ataxia. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LOC100653049 Gene

keratin, type I cuticular Ha4

FNDC3A Gene

fibronectin type III domain containing 3A

FNDC3B Gene

fibronectin type III domain containing 3B

LOC100420580 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 7 pseudogene

LOC100420583 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 7 pseudogene

CLEC16A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 16, member A

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin domain containing family. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in introns of this gene have been associated with diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

TAS2R12P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 12, pseudogene

ZRSR1 Gene

zinc finger (CCCH type), RNA-binding motif and serine/arginine rich 1

LOC653303 Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 7 pseudogene

LOC100422275 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 5 pseudogene

THSD4 Gene

thrombospondin, type I, domain containing 4

THSD1 Gene

thrombospondin, type I, domain containing 1

The protein encoded by this gene contains a type 1 thrombospondin domain, which is found in a number of proteins involved in the complement pathway, as well as in extracellular matrix proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

ZC3H15 Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 15

LOC100422287 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 3 pseudogene

LOC100422286 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 1 pseudogene

CLEC14A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 14, member A

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. This family member plays a role in cell-cell adhesion and angiogenesis. It functions in filopodia formation, cell migration and tube formation. Due to its presence at higher levels in tumor endothelium than in normal tissue endothelium, it is considered to be a candidate for tumor vascular targeting. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

MRC1 Gene

mannose receptor, C type 1

The recognition of complex carbohydrate structures on glycoproteins is an important part of several biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, serum glycoprotein turnover, and neutralization of pathogens. The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane receptor that mediates the endocytosis of glycoproteins by macrophages. The protein has been shown to bind high-mannose structures on the surface of potentially pathogenic viruses, bacteria, and fungi so that they can be neutralized by phagocytic engulfment.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

PSMA3P Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 3 pseudogene

TAX1BP1 Gene

Tax1 (human T-cell leukemia virus type I) binding protein 1

This gene encodes a HTLV-1 tax1 binding protein. The encoded protein interacts with TNFAIP3, and inhibits TNF-induced apoptosis by mediating the TNFAIP3 anti-apoptotic activity. Degradation of this protein by caspase-3-like family proteins is associated with apoptosis induced by TNF. This protein may also have a role in the inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

TAX1BP3 Gene

Tax1 (human T-cell leukemia virus type I) binding protein 3

ZFAND6 Gene

zinc finger, AN1-type domain 6

ZFAND5 Gene

zinc finger, AN1-type domain 5

ZFAND4 Gene

zinc finger, AN1-type domain 4

ZFAND3 Gene

zinc finger, AN1-type domain 3

ZFAND1 Gene

zinc finger, AN1-type domain 1

PTP4A1P2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 2

PTP4A1P3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 3

PTP4A1P1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 1

PTP4A1P6 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 6

PTP4A1P7 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 7

PTP4A1P4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 4

PTP4A1P5 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 5

TAS2R19 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 19

TAS2R14 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 14

This gene product belongs to the family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These proteins are specifically expressed in the taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. They are organized in the genome in clusters and are genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans. In functional expression studies, they respond to bitter tastants. This gene maps to the taste receptor gene cluster on chromosome 12p13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R16 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 16

This gene encodes a member of a family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These family members are specifically expressed by taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. Each of these apparently intronless genes encodes a 7-transmembrane receptor protein, functioning as a bitter taste receptor. This gene is clustered with another 3 candidate taste receptor genes in chromosome 7 and is genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R10 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 10

This gene product belongs to the family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These proteins are specifically expressed in the taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. They are organized in the genome in clusters and are genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans. In functional expression studies, they respond to bitter tastants. This gene maps to the taste receptor gene cluster on chromosome 12p13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R13 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 13

This gene product belongs to the family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These proteins are specifically expressed in the taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. They are organized in the genome in clusters and are genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans. In functional expression studies, they respond to bitter tastants. This gene maps to the taste receptor gene cluster on chromosome 12p13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DIO1 Gene

deiodinase, iodothyronine, type I

The protein encoded by this gene is a thiol-requiring propylthiouracil-sensitive oxidoreductase. It activates thyroid hormone by converting the prohormone thyroxine (T4) by outer ring deiodination (ORD) to bioactive 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). It also degrades both hormones by inner ring deiodination (IRD). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Some, but not all, isoforms contain a selenocysteine (Sec) residue encoded by the UGA codon, which normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of Sec-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), which is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. Additional transcript variants have been described but are not supported by experimental evidence. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DIO2 Gene

deiodinase, iodothyronine, type II

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the iodothyronine deiodinase family. It activates thyroid hormone by converting the prohormone thyroxine (T4) by outer ring deiodination (ORD) to bioactive 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). It is highly expressed in the thyroid, and may contribute significantly to the relative increase in thyroidal T3 production in patients with Graves disease and thyroid adenomas. This protein contains selenocysteine (Sec) residues encoded by the UGA codon, which normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of Sec-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), which is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DIO3 Gene

deiodinase, iodothyronine, type III

The protein encoded by this intronless gene belongs to the iodothyronine deiodinase family. It catalyzes the inactivation of thyroid hormone by inner ring deiodination of the prohormone thyroxine (T4) and the bioactive hormone 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) to inactive metabolites, 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (RT3) and 3,3'-diiodothyronine (T2), respectively. This enzyme is highly expressed in the pregnant uterus, placenta, fetal and neonatal tissues, suggesting that it plays an essential role in the regulation of thyroid hormone inactivation during embryological development. This protein contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue, which is essential for efficient enzyme activity. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA codon, which normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of Sec-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), which is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GEFSP8 Gene

Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 8

GEFSP6 Gene

Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 6

GEFSP4 Gene

Epilepsy, generalized, with febrile seizures plus, type 4

KRT75 Gene

keratin 75, type II

This gene is a member of the type II keratin family clustered on the long arm of chromosome 12. Type I and type II keratins heteropolymerize to form intermediate-sized filaments in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells. This gene is expressed in the companion layer, upper germinative matrix region of the hair follicle, and medulla of the hair shaft. The encoded protein plays an essential role in hair and nail formation. Variations in this gene have been associated with the hair disorders pseudofolliculitis barbae (PFB) and loose anagen hair syndrome (LAHS). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

KRT74 Gene

keratin 74, type II

Keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into epithelial keratins and hair keratins. This protein belongs to a family of keratins that are specifically expressed in the inner root sheath of hair follicles.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

KRT77 Gene

keratin 77, type II

Keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into epithelial keratins and hair keratins. This gene encodes an epithelial keratin that is expressed in the skin and eccrine sweat glands. The type II keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q13.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

KRT76 Gene

keratin 76, type II

Keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into epithelial keratins and hair keratins. The type II keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

KRT71 Gene

keratin 71, type II

Keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into epithelial keratins and hair keratins. This gene encodes a protein that is expressed in the inner root sheath of hair follicles. The type II keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q13.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

KRT73 Gene

keratin 73, type II

Keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into epithelial keratins and hair keratins. This gene encodes a protein that is expressed in the inner root sheath of hair follicles. The type II keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q13.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

KRT72 Gene

keratin 72, type II

Keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells. The type II keratins consist of basic or neutral proteins which are arranged in pairs of heterotypic keratin chains coexpressed during differentiation of simple and stratified epithelial tissues. This gene encodes a type II keratin that is specifically expressed in the inner root sheath of hair follicles. The type II keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q12-q13. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

KRT79 Gene

keratin 79, type II

Keratins are intermediate filament proteins responsible for the structural integrity of epithelial cells and are subdivided into epithelial keratins and hair keratins. This gene encodes an epithelial keratin that is expressed in skeletal muscle, skin and scalp. The type II keratins are clustered in a region of chromosome 12q13.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

KRT78 Gene

keratin 78, type II

This gene is a member of the type II keratin gene family and encodes a protein with an intermediate filament domain. Keratins are the major structural proteins in epithelial cells, forming a cytoplasmic network of 10 to 12 nm wide intermediate filaments and creating a scaffold that gives cells the ability to withstand mechanical and non-mechanical stresses. The genes of the type II keratin family are located as a gene cluster at 12p13.13. Four pseudogenes of this gene family have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HFE2 Gene

hemochromatosis type 2 (juvenile)

The product of this gene is involved in iron metabolism. It may be a component of the signaling pathway which activates hepcidin or it may act as a modulator of hepcidin expression. It could also represent the cellular receptor for hepcidin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. Defects in this gene are the cause of hemochromatosis type 2A, also called juvenile hemochromatosis (JH). JH is an early-onset autosomal recessive disorder due to severe iron overload resulting in hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis and cardiomyopathy, occurring typically before age of 30. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100130731 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 1 pseudogene

PSMNSW Gene

Parasomnia, sleepwalking type

GNAL Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide, olfactory type

This gene encodes a stimulatory G protein alpha subunit which mediates odorant signaling in the olfactory epithelium. This protein couples dopamine type 1 receptors and adenosine A2A receptors and is widely expressed in the central nervous system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia 25 and this gene is located in a susceptibility region for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

RNF6 Gene

ring finger protein (C3H2C3 type) 6

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING-H2 finger motif. Deletions and mutations in this gene were detected in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), suggesting that this protein may be a potential tumor suppressor. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggested a role of this protein in the transcription regulation that controls germinal differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein are observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EPM2A Gene

epilepsy, progressive myoclonus type 2A, Lafora disease (laforin)

This gene encodes a dual-specificity phosphatase that associates with polyribosomes. The encoded protein may be involved in the regulation of glycogen metabolism. Mutations in this gene have been associated with myoclonic epilepsy of Lafora. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HSN1B Gene

Hereditary sensory neuropathy, type IB

SPINK14 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 14 (putative)

SPINK13 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 13 (putative)

WNT8A Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 8A

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family, and may be implicated in development of early embryos as well as germ cell tumors. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

WNT8B Gene

wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 8B

The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It encodes a protein which shows 95%, 86% and 71% amino acid identity to the mouse, zebrafish and Xenopus Wnt8B proteins, respectively. The expression patterns of the human and mouse genes appear identical and are restricted to the developing brain. The chromosomal location of this gene to 10q24 suggests it as a candidate gene for partial epilepsy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL15A1 Gene

collagen, type XV, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XV collagen, a member of the FACIT collagen family (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted helices). Type XV collagen has a wide tissue distribution but the strongest expression is localized to basement membrane zones so it may function to adhere basement membranes to underlying connective tissue stroma. The proteolytically produced C-terminal fragment of type XV collagen is restin, a potentially antiangiogenic protein that is closely related to endostatin. Mouse studies have shown that collagen XV deficiency is associated with muscle and microvessel deterioration. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

ZC3H7A Gene

zinc finger CCCH-type containing 7A

NUDT12 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 12

Nucleotides are involved in numerous biochemical reactions and pathways within the cell as substrates, cofactors, and effectors. Nudix hydrolases, such as NUDT12, regulate the concentrations of individual nucleotides and of nucleotide ratios in response to changing circumstances (Abdelraheim et al., 2003 [PubMed 12790796]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

NUDT13 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 13

NUDT10 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 10

This gene is a member of the nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif containing family. The encoded protein is a phosphohydrolase and may regulate the turnover of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. The turnover of these high-energy diphosphoinositol polyphosphates represents a molecular switching activity with important regulatory consequences. Molecular switching by diphosphoinositol polyphosphates may contribute to the regulation of intracellular trafficking. In some populations putative prostate cancer susceptibility alleles have been identified for this gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants, which differ only in the 5' UTR, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

NUDT11 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 11

NUDT11 belongs to a subgroup of phosphohydrolases that preferentially attack diphosphoinositol polyphosphates (Hidaka et al., 2002 [PubMed 12105228]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

NUDT17 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 17

NUDT14 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 14

UDP-glucose (UDPG) acts as the sugar donor in numerous glycosylation reactions, including those involved in the production of glycogen. NUDT14 is a UDPG pyrophosphatase (EC 3.6.1.45) that hydrolyzes UDPG to produce glucose 1-phosphate and UMP (Yagi et al., 2003 [PubMed 12429023]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

NUDT15 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 15

NUDT18 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 18

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Nudix hydrolase family. Nudix hydrolases eliminate potentially toxic nucleotide metabolites from the cell and regulate the concentrations and availability of many different nucleotide substrates, cofactors, and signaling molecules. This protein contains a Nudix hydrolase domain and hydrolyzes oxidized forms of guanosine and deoxyguanosine diphosphates. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

NUDT19 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 19

PGGT1BP2 Gene

protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I, beta subunit pseudogene 2

ATP8B3 Gene

ATPase, aminophospholipid transporter, class I, type 8B, member 3

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of aminophospholipid-transporting ATPases. The aminophospholipid translocases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from one side of a bilayer to the other. This gene encodes member 3 of phospholipid-transporting ATPase 8B; other members of this protein family are located on chromosomes 1, 15 and 18. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

ATP8B2 Gene

ATPase, aminophospholipid transporter, class I, type 8B, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of aminophospholipid-transporting ATPases. The aminophospholipid translocases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from one side of a bilayer to another. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP8B1 Gene

ATPase, aminophospholipid transporter, class I, type 8B, member 1

This gene encodes a member of the P-type cation transport ATPase family, which belongs to the subfamily of aminophospholipid-transporting ATPases. The aminophospholipid translocases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from one side of a bilayer to another. Mutations in this gene may result in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 and in benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP8B4 Gene

ATPase, class I, type 8B, member 4

This gene encodes a member of the cation transport ATPase (P-type) family and type IV subfamily. The encoded protein is involved in phospholipid transport in the cell membrane. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

ACVRL1 Gene

activin A receptor type II-like 1

This gene encodes a type I cell-surface receptor for the TGF-beta superfamily of ligands. It shares with other type I receptors a high degree of similarity in serine-threonine kinase subdomains, a glycine- and serine-rich region (called the GS domain) preceding the kinase domain, and a short C-terminal tail. The encoded protein, sometimes termed ALK1, shares similar domain structures with other closely related ALK or activin receptor-like kinase proteins that form a subfamily of receptor serine/threonine kinases. Mutations in this gene are associated with hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2, also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NUDT16L1 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 16-like 1

CLEC5A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 5, member A

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CTL/CTLD) superfamily. Members of this family share a common protein fold and have diverse functions, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell signalling, glycoprotein turnover, and roles in inflammation and immune response. The encoded type II transmembrane protein interacts with dnax-activation protein 12 and may play a role in cell activation. Alternative splice variants have been described but their full-length sequence has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZGRF1 Gene

zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1

ATP8A2P2 Gene

ATPase, aminophospholipid transporter, class I, type 8A, member 2 pseudogene 2

ADAMTS20 Gene

ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 20

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ADAMTS family of zinc-dependent proteases. The encoded protein has a signal peptide that is cleaved to release the mature peptide, which is secreted and found in the extracellular matrix. This protein may be involved in tissue remodeling. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

FLYWCH1P1 Gene

FLYWCH-type zinc finger 1 pseudogene 1

SPPM Gene

scapuloperoneal syndrome, myopathic type

FRA8D Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(8)(q24.3)

FRA8E Gene

fragile site, distamycin A type, rare, fra(8)(q24.1)

FRA8A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(8)(q22.3)

FRA8B Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(8)(q22.1)

FRA8C Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(8)(q24.1)

LOC100419795 Gene

zinc finger, MYM-type 1 pseudogene

LOC100422399 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

LPPR3 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 3

The proteins in the lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) family, including PRG2, are integral membrane proteins that modulate bioactive lipid phosphates including phosphatidate, lysophosphatidate, and sphingosine-1-phosphate in the context of cell migration, neurite retraction, and mitogenesis (Brauer et al., 2003 [PubMed 12730698]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PPAP2C Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2C

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in de novo synthesis of glycerolipids as well as in receptor-activated signal transduction mediated by phospholipase D. This protein is similar to phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2A (PPAP2A) and type 2B (PPAP2B). All three proteins contain 6 transmembrane regions, and a consensus N-glycosylation site. This protein has been shown to possess membrane associated PAP activity. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPAP2B Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in de novo synthesis of glycerolipids as well as in receptor-activated signal transduction mediated by phospholipase D. This protein is a membrane glycoprotein localized at the cell plasma membrane. It has been shown to actively hydrolyze extracellular lysophosphatidic acid and short-chain phosphatidic acid. The expression of this gene is found to be enhanced by epidermal growth factor in Hela cells. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PPAP2A Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2A

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in synthesis of glycerolipids and in phospholipase D-mediated signal transduction. This enzyme is an integral membrane glycoprotein that plays a role in the hydrolysis and uptake of lipids from extracellular space. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

LOC102725179 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 20-like

LOC391771 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

NUDT15P2 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 15 pseudogene 2

COL26A1 Gene

collagen, type XXVI, alpha 1

This gene encodes a protein containing an emilin domain and two collagen stretches. This gene may be associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

NUDT21P1 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 21 pseudogene 1

SCN5A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type V alpha subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel subunit. This protein is found primarily in cardiac muscle and is responsible for the initial upstroke of the action potential in an electrocardiogram. Defects in this gene are a cause of long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3), an autosomal dominant cardiac disease. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100129734 Gene

zinc finger, AN1-type domain 1 pseudogene

FRA10AC1 Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(10)(q23.3) or fra(10)(q24.2) candidate 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear phosphoprotein of unknown function. The 5' UTR of this gene is part of a CpG island and contains a tandem CGG repeat region that normally consists of 8-14 repeats but can expand to over 200 repeats. The expanded allele becomes hypermethylated and is not transcribed; however, an expanded repeat region has not been associated with any disease phenotype. This gene is found within the rare FRA10A folate-sensitive fragile site. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

SPINT3 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type, 3

LOC100419872 Gene

zinc finger, MYM-type 4 pseudogene

FSD1 Gene

fibronectin type III and SPRY domain containing 1

This gene encodes a centrosome associated protein that is characterized by an N-terminal coiled-coil region downstream of B-box (BBC) domain, a central fibronectin type III domain, and a C-terminal repeats in splA and RyR (SPRY) domain. The encoded protein associates with a subset of microtubules and may be involved in the stability and organization of microtubules during cytokinesis. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

FSD2 Gene

fibronectin type III and SPRY domain containing 2

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the FN3/SPRY family of proteins. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

TAS2R8 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 8

This gene product belongs to the family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These proteins are specifically expressed in the taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. They are organized in the genome in clusters and are genetically linked to loci that influence bitter perception in mice and humans. In functional expression studies, they respond to bitter tastants. This gene maps to the taste receptor gene cluster on chromosome 12p13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAS2R1 Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 1

This gene encodes a member of a family of candidate taste receptors that are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and that are specifically expressed by taste receptor cells of the tongue and palate epithelia. This intronless taste receptor gene encodes a 7-transmembrane receptor protein, functioning as a bitter taste receptor. This gene is mapped to chromosome 5p15, the location of a genetic locus (PROP) that controls the detection of the bitter compound 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KHSRP Gene

KH-type splicing regulatory protein

The KHSRP gene encodes a multifunctional RNA-binding protein implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including transcription, alternative pre-mRNA splicing, and mRNA localization (Min et al., 1997 [PubMed 9136930]; Gherzi et al., 2004 [PubMed 15175153]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

FRA13A Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(13)(q13.2)

FRA13C Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(13)(q21.2)

FRA13B Gene

fragile site, BrdU type, common, fra(13)(q21)

FRA13D Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(13)(q32)

PSMA6P3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 6 pseudogene 3

FNDC7 Gene

fibronectin type III domain containing 7

CLEC11A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 11, member A

This gene encodes a member of the C-type lectin superfamily. The encoded protein is a secreted sulfated glycoprotein and functions as a growth factor for primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells. An alternative splice variant has been described but its biological nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DICER1 Gene

dicer 1, ribonuclease type III

This gene encodes a protein possessing an RNA helicase motif containing a DEXH box in its amino terminus and an RNA motif in the carboxy terminus. The encoded protein functions as a ribonuclease and is required by the RNA interference and small temporal RNA (stRNA) pathways to produce the active small RNA component that represses gene expression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

COL8A2 Gene

collagen, type VIII, alpha 2

This gene encodes the alpha 2 chain of type VIII collagen. This protein is a major component of the basement membrane of the corneal endothelium and forms homo- or heterotrimers with alpha 1 (VIII) type collagens. Defects in this gene are associated with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy and posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy type 2. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

COL8A1 Gene

collagen, type VIII, alpha 1

This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type VIII collagen. The gene product is a short chain collagen and a major component of the basement membrane of the corneal endothelium. The type VIII collagen fibril can be either a homo- or a heterotrimer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

AMCX5 Gene

arthrogryposis, X-linked, type 5

PTPN2P1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 pseudogene 1

TAS2R67P Gene

taste receptor, type 2, member 67 pseudogene

NUDT8 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 8

NUDT9 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 9

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Nudix hydrolase family. Nudix boxes are found in a family of diverse enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleoside diphosphate derivatives. This enzyme is an ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADP-ribose to AMP and ribose-5-P. It requires divalent metal ions and an intact Nudix motif for enzymatic activity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

NUDT1 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 1

Misincorporation of oxidized nucleoside triphosphates into DNA/RNA during replication and transcription can cause mutations that may result in carcinogenesis or neurodegeneration. The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme that hydrolyzes oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphates, such as 8-oxo-dGTP, 8-oxo-dATP, 2-hydroxy-dATP, and 2-hydroxy rATP, to monophosphates, thereby preventing misincorporation. The encoded protein is localized mainly in the cytoplasm, with some in the mitochondria, suggesting that it is involved in the sanitization of nucleotide pools both for nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants, some of which encode distinct isoforms, have been identified. Additional variants have been observed, but their full-length natures have not been determined. A single-nucleotide polymorphism that results in the production of an additional, longer isoform (p26) has been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NUDT2 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 2

This gene encodes a member of the MutT family of nucleotide pyrophosphatases, a subset of the larger NUDIX hydrolase family. The gene product possesses a modification of the MutT sequence motif found in certain nucleotide pyrophosphatases. The enzyme asymmetrically hydrolyzes Ap4A to yield AMP and ATP and is responsible for maintaining the intracellular level of the dinucleotide Ap4A, the function of which has yet to be established. This gene may be a candidate tumor suppressor gene. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and four transcript variants, all encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

NUDT3 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 3

NUDT3 belongs to the MutT, or Nudix, protein family. Nudix proteins act as homeostatic checkpoints at important stages in nucleoside phosphate metabolic pathways, guarding against elevated levels of potentially dangerous intermediates, like 8-oxo-dGTP, which promotes AT-to-CG transversions (Safrany et al., 1998 [PubMed 9822604]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2011]

NUDT4 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 4

The protein encoded by this gene regulates the turnover of diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. The turnover of these high-energy diphosphoinositol polyphosphates represents a molecular switching activity with important regulatory consequences. Molecular switching by diphosphoinositol polyphosphates may contribute to regulating intracellular trafficking. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined. Isoforms DIPP2alpha and DIPP2beta are distinguishable from each other solely by DIPP2beta possessing one additional amino acid due to intron boundary skidding in alternate splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NUDT5 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 5

This gene belongs to the Nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X) hydrolase superfamily. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of modified nucleoside diphosphates, including ADP-ribose (ADPR) and 8-oxoGua-containing 8-oxo-dADP and 8-oxo-dGDP. Protein-bound ADP ribose can be hazardous to the cell because it can modify some amino acid residues, resulting in the inhibition of ATP-activated potassium channels. 8-oxoGua is an oxidized form of guanine that can potentially alter genetic information by pairing with adenine and cytosine in RNA. Presence of 8-oxoGua in RNA results in formation of abnormal proteins due to translational errors. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

NUDT6 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 6

This gene overlaps and lies on the opposite strand from FGF2 gene, and is thought to be the FGF2 antisense gene. The two genes are independently transcribed, and their expression shows an inverse relationship, suggesting that this antisense transcript may regulate FGF2 expression. This gene has also been shown to have hormone-regulatory and antiproliferative actions in the pituitary that are independent of FGF2 expression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

NUDT7 Gene

nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Nudix hydrolase family. Nudix hydrolases eliminate potentially toxic nucleotide metabolites from the cell and regulate the concentrations and availability of many different nucleotide substrates, cofactors, and signaling molecules. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

COL16A1 Gene

collagen, type XVI, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVI collagen, a member of the FACIT collagen family (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted helices). Members of this collagen family are found in association with fibril-forming collagens such as type I and II, and serve to maintain the integrity of the extracellular matrix. High levels of type XVI collagen have been found in fibroblasts and keratinocytes, and in smooth muscle and amnion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TCPT Gene

thrombocytopenia, Paris-Trousseau type

CACNA1H Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1H subunit

This gene encodes a T-type member of the alpha-1 subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. The alpha-1 subunit has 24 transmembrane segments and forms the pore through which ions pass into the cell. There are multiple isoforms of each of the proteins in the complex, either encoded by different genes or the result of alternative splicing of transcripts. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized for the gene described here. Studies suggest certain mutations in this gene lead to childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA1I Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1I subunit

This gene encodes the pore-forming alpha subunit of a voltage gated calcium channel. The encoded protein is a member of a subfamily of calcium channels referred to as is a low voltage-activated, T-type, calcium channel. The channel encoded by this protein is characterized by a slower activation and inactivation compared to other T-type calcium channels. This protein may be involved in calcium signaling in neurons. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CACNA1A Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. Calcium channels are multisubunit complexes composed of alpha-1, beta, alpha-2/delta, and gamma subunits. The channel activity is directed by the pore-forming alpha-1 subunit, whereas, the others act as auxiliary subunits regulating this activity. The distinctive properties of the calcium channel types are related primarily to the expression of a variety of alpha-1 isoforms, alpha-1A, B, C, D, E, and S. This gene encodes the alpha-1A subunit, which is predominantly expressed in neuronal tissue. Mutations in this gene are associated with 2 neurologic disorders, familial hemiplegic migraine and episodic ataxia 2. This gene also exhibits polymorphic variation due to (CAG)n-repeats. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. In one set of transcript variants, the (CAG)n-repeats occur in the 3' UTR, and are not associated with any disease. But in another set of variants, an insertion extends the coding region to include the (CAG)n-repeats which encode a polyglutamine tract. Expansion of the (CAG)n-repeats from the normal 4-16 to 21-28 in the coding region is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CACNA1B Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, N type, alpha 1B subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is the pore-forming subunit of an N-type voltage-dependent calcium channel, which controls neurotransmitter release from neurons. The encoded protein forms a complex with alpha-2, beta, and delta subunits to form the high-voltage activated channel. This channel is sensitive to omega-conotoxin-GVIA and omega-agatoxin-IIIA but insensitive to dihydropyridines. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

CACNA1C Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit

This gene encodes an alpha-1 subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. The alpha-1 subunit consists of 24 transmembrane segments and forms the pore through which ions pass into the cell. The calcium channel consists of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. There are multiple isoforms of each of these proteins, either encoded by different genes or the result of alternative splicing of transcripts. The protein encoded by this gene binds to and is inhibited by dihydropyridine. Alternative splicing results in many transcript variants encoding different proteins. Some of the predicted proteins may not produce functional ion channel subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

CACNA1D Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, and gene expression. Calcium channels are multisubunit complexes composed of alpha-1, beta, alpha-2/delta, and gamma subunits. The channel activity is directed by the pore-forming alpha-1 subunit, whereas the others act as auxiliary subunits regulating this activity. The distinctive properties of the calcium channel types are related primarily to the expression of a variety of alpha-1 isoforms, namely alpha-1A, B, C, D, E, and S. This gene encodes the alpha-1D subunit. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

CACNA1E Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are multisubunit complexes consisting of alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, and delta subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. These channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells, and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, hormone or neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death. This gene encodes the alpha-1E subunit of the R-type calcium channels, which belong to the 'high-voltage activated' group that maybe involved in the modulation of firing patterns of neurons important for information processing. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

CACNA1F Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit

This gene encodes a multipass transmembrane protein that functions as an alpha-1 subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel, which mediates the influx of calcium ions into the cell. The encoded protein forms a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Mutations in this gene can cause X-linked eye disorders, including congenital stationary night blindness type 2A, cone-rod dystropy, and Aland Island eye disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

TRAFD1 Gene

TRAF-type zinc finger domain containing 1

The innate immune system confers host defense against viral and microbial infection, and TRAFD1 is a negative feedback regulator that controls excessive immune responses (Sanada et al., 2008 [PubMed 18849341]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2009]

LOC101927180 Gene

V-type proton ATPase subunit F pseudogene

EA7 Gene

Episodic ataxia, type 7

PTP4A2P1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 2 pseudogene 1

PTP4A2P2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 2 pseudogene 2

FRA3D Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(3)(q25)

FRA3C Gene

fragile site, aphidicolin type, common, fra(3)(q27)

PAPA4 Gene

Polydactyly, postaxial, type A4

PAPA3 Gene

Polydactyly, postaxial, type A3

PAPA2 Gene

postaxial polydactyly, type A2

LOC100423044 Gene

solute carrier family 34 (type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter), member 2 pseudogene

PPKP1B Gene

Keratoderma, palmoplantar, punctate type IB

LOC102724334 Gene

histone H2B type F-S-like

SERPINE4P Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 4 pseudogene

ATP8A2 Gene

ATPase, aminophospholipid transporter, class I, type 8A, member 2

ATP8A1 Gene

ATPase, aminophospholipid transporter (APLT), class I, type 8A, member 1

The P-type adenosinetriphosphatases (P-type ATPases) are a family of proteins which use the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to drive uphill transport of ions across membranes. Several subfamilies of P-type ATPases have been identified. One subfamily catalyzes transport of heavy metal ions. Another subfamily transports non-heavy metal ions (NMHI). The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the third subfamily of P-type ATPases and acts to transport amphipaths, such as phosphatidylserine. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLEC19A Gene

C-type lectin domain family 19, member A

MYBPC2 Gene

myosin binding protein C, fast type

This gene encodes a member of the myosin-binding protein C family. This family includes the fast-, slow- and cardiac-type isoforms, each of which is a myosin-associated protein found in the cross-bridge-bearing zone (C region) of A bands in striated muscle. The protein encoded by this locus is referred to as the fast-type isoform. Mutations in the related but distinct genes encoding the slow-type and cardiac-type isoforms have been associated with distal arthrogryposis, type 1 and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, respectively. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

MYBPC1 Gene

myosin binding protein C, slow type

This gene encodes a member of the myosin-binding protein C family. Myosin-binding protein C family members are myosin-associated proteins found in the cross-bridge-bearing zone (C region) of A bands in striated muscle. The encoded protein is the slow skeletal muscle isoform of myosin-binding protein C and plays an important role in muscle contraction by recruiting muscle-type creatine kinase to myosin filaments. Mutations in this gene are associated with distal arthrogryposis type I. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

ATP9B Gene

ATPase, class II, type 9B

LOC100174950 Gene

speckle-type POZ protein-like pseudogene

KRT28 Gene

keratin 28, type I