Name

SLC9C1 Gene

solute carrier family 9, subfamily C (Na+-transporting carboxylic acid decarboxylase), member 1

SLC9A10 is a member of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) family (see SLC9A1, MIM 107310) and is required for male fertility and sperm motility (Wang et al., 2003 [PubMed 14634667]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2009]

BAATP1 Gene

bile acid CoA: amino acid N-acyltransferase pseudogene 1

BAAT Gene

bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase

The protein encoded by this gene is a liver enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of C24 bile acids from the acyl-CoA thioester to either glycine or taurine, the second step in the formation of bile acid-amino acid conjugates. The bile acid conjugates then act as a detergent in the gastrointestinal tract, which enhances lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. Defects in this gene are a cause of familial hypercholanemia (FHCA). Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC36A4 Gene

solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member 4

SLC36A4 belongs to the SLC36 family of amino acid transporters based on sequence similarity with other family members (e.g., SLC36A1; MIM 606561). SLC36 proteins contain about 500 amino acids and have 9 to 11 transmembrane domains. Unlike other SLC36 family members, which are proton-coupled amino acid transporters, SLC36A4 is a high-affinity/low-capacity non-proton-coupled amino acid transporter (Pillai and Meredith, 2011 [PubMed 21097500]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2011]

SLC36A1 Gene

solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member 1

This gene encodes a member of the eukaryote-specific amino acid/auxin permease (AAAP) 1 transporter family. The encoded protein functions as a proton-dependent, small amino acid transporter. This gene is clustered with related family members on chromosome 5q33.1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

REREP3 Gene

arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE) repeats pseudogene 3

LPAR1 Gene

lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

The integral membrane protein encoded by this gene is a lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor from a group known as EDG receptors. These receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Utilized by LPA for cell signaling, EDG receptors mediate diverse biologic functions, including proliferation, platelet aggregation, smooth muscle contraction, inhibition of neuroblastoma cell differentiation, chemotaxis, and tumor cell invasion. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC36A2 Gene

solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member 2

This gene encodes a pH-dependent proton-coupled amino acid transporter that belongs to the amino acid auxin permease 1 protein family. The encoded protein primarily transports small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Mutations in this gene are associated with iminoglycinuria and hyperglycinuria. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SMPD1 Gene

sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1, acid lysosomal

The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase that converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. The encoded protein also has phospholipase C activity. Defects in this gene are a cause of Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPA) and Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPB). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

SIGLEC27P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 27, pseudogene

GABBR1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. GABA exerts its effects through ionotropic [GABA(A/C)] receptors, to produce fast synaptic inhibition, and metabotropic [GABA(B)] receptors, to produce slow, prolonged inhibitory signals. The GABA(B) receptor consists of a heterodimer of two related 7-transmembrane receptors, GABA(B) receptor 1 and GABA(B) receptor 2. The GABA(B) receptor 1 gene is mapped to chromosome 6p21.3 within the HLA class I region close to the HLA-F gene. Susceptibility loci for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and schizophrenia have also been mapped in this region. Alternative splicing of this gene generates multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

SLC7A6 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, y+L system), member 6

SLC7A1 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 1

LOC100271656 Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase pseudogene

CRABP1 Gene

cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1

This gene encodes a specific binding protein for a vitamin A family member and is thought to play an important role in retinoic acid-mediated differentiation and proliferation processes. It is structurally similar to the cellular retinol-binding proteins, but binds only retinoic acid at specific sites within the nucleus, which may contribute to vitamin A-directed differentiation in epithelial tissue. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DAOA Gene

D-amino acid oxidase activator

This gene encodes a protein that may function as an activator of D-amino acid oxidase, which degrades the gliotransmitter D-serine, a potent activator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors. Studies also suggest that one encoded isoform may play a role in mitochondrial function and dendritic arborization. Polymorphisms in this gene have been implicated in susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

LIAS Gene

lipoic acid synthetase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the biotin and lipoic acid synthetases family. It localizes in mitochondrion and plays an important role in alpha-(+)-lipoic acid synthesis. It may also function in the sulfur insertion chemistry in lipoate biosynthesis. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SIGLEC30P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 30, pseudogene

STRA6 Gene

stimulated by retinoic acid 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane protein involved in the metabolism of retinol. The encoded protein acts as a receptor for retinol/retinol binding protein complexes. This protein removes the retinol from the complex and transports it across the cell membrane. Defects in this gene are a cause of syndromic microphthalmia type 9 (MCOPS9). Several transcript variants encoding a few different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

SIGLEC16 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 16 (gene/pseudogene)

SIGLEC14 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 14

SIGLEC15 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 15

SIGLEC12 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 12 (gene/pseudogene)

Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (SIGLECs) are a family of cell surface proteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. They mediate protein-carbohydrate interactions by selectively binding to different sialic acid moieties present on glycolipids and glycoproteins. This gene encodes a member of the SIGLEC3-like subfamily of SIGLECs. Members of this subfamily are characterized by an extracellular V-set immunoglobulin-like domain followed by two C2-set immunoglobulin-like domains, and the cytoplasmic tyrosine-based motifs ITIM and SLAM-like. The encoded protein, upon tyrosine phosphorylation, has been shown to recruit the Src homology 2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHP1 and SHP2. It has been suggested that the protein is involved in the negative regulation of macrophage signaling by functioning as an inhibitory receptor. This gene is located in a cluster with other SIGLEC3-like genes on 19q13.4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

SIGLEC10 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 10

SIGLECs are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily that are expressed on the cell surface. Most SIGLECs have 1 or more cytoplasmic immune receptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, or ITIMs. SIGLECs are typically expressed on cells of the innate immune system, with the exception of the B-cell expressed SIGLEC6 (MIM 604405).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

SIGLEC11 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 11

This gene encodes a member of the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin family. These cell surface lectins are characterized by structural motifs in the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains and sialic acid recognition sites in the first Ig V set domain. This family member mediates anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive signaling. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CNBP Gene

CCHC-type zinc finger, nucleic acid binding protein

This gene encodes a nucleic-acid binding protein with seven zinc-finger domains. The protein has a preference for binding single stranded DNA and RNA. The protein functions in cap-independent translation of ornithine decarboxylase mRNA, and may also function in sterol-mediated transcriptional regulation. A CCTG expansion in the first intron of this gene results in myotonic dystrophy type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC23A2 Gene

solute carrier family 23 (ascorbic acid transporter), member 2

The absorption of vitamin C into the body and its distribution to organs requires two sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters. This gene encodes one of the two required transporters and the encoded protein accounts for tissue-specific uptake of vitamin C. Previously, this gene had an official symbol of SLC23A1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GBAP1 Gene

glucosidase, beta, acid pseudogene 1

LOC100128407 Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase pseudogene

FAAHP1 Gene

fatty acid amide hydrolase pseudogene 1

SIGLEC22P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 22, pseudogene

LOC100130747 Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase pseudogene

FABP7P2 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 7, brain pseudogene 2

FABP7P1 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 7, brain pseudogene 1

FRA7A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(7)(p11.2)

TRNAE-UUC Gene

transfer RNA glutamic acid (anticodon UUC)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

GABRR1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, rho 1

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. GABRR1 is a member of the rho subunit family. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

GABRR2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, rho 2

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the rho subunit family and is a component of the GABA receptor complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRR3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, rho 3 (gene/pseudogene)

The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions in the central nervous system to regulate synaptic transmission of neurons. This gene encodes one of three related subunits, which combine as homo- or hetero-pentamers to form GABA(C) receptors. In humans, some individuals contain a single-base polymorphism (dbSNP rs832032) that is predicted to inactivate the gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

FASN Gene

fatty acid synthase

The enzyme encoded by this gene is a multifunctional protein. Its main function is to catalyze the synthesis of palmitate from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, in the presence of NADPH, into long-chain saturated fatty acids. In some cancer cell lines, this protein has been found to be fused with estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha), in which the N-terminus of FAS is fused in-frame with the C-terminus of ER-alpha. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC6A17 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 17

The SLC6 family of proteins, which includes SLC6A17, acts as specific transporters for neurotransmitters, amino acids, and osmolytes like betaine, taurine, and creatine. SLC6 proteins are sodium cotransporters that derive the energy for solute transport from the electrochemical gradient for sodium ions (Hoglund et al., 2005 [PubMed 16125675]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SLC6A15 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 15

This gene encodes a member of the solute carrier family 6 protein family which transports neutral amino acids. The encoded protein is thought to play a role in neuronal amino acid transport (PMID: 16185194) and may be associated with major depression (PMID: 21521612). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

SLC6A14 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14

This gene encodes a member of the solute carrier family 6. Members of this family are sodium and chloride dependent neurotransmitter transporters. The encoded protein transports both neutral and cationic amino acids. This protein may also function as a beta-alanine carrier. Mutations in this gene may be associated with X-linked obesity. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome X.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

IGFALS Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein, acid labile subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a serum protein that binds insulin-like growth factors, increasing their half-life and their vascular localization. Production of the encoded protein, which contains twenty leucine-rich repeats, is stimulated by growth hormone. Defects in this gene are a cause of acid-labile subunit deficiency, which maifests itself in a delayed and slow puberty. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

SLC7A9 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, bo,+ system), member 9

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a family of light subunits of amino acid transporters. This protein plays a role in the high-affinity and sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids, and appears to function in the reabsorption of cystine in the kidney tubule. Mutations in this gene cause non-type I cystinuria, a disease that leads to cystine stones in the urinary system due to impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids. Alternate transcript variants, which encode the same protein, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

RARA Gene

retinoic acid receptor, alpha

This gene represents a nuclear retinoic acid receptor. The encoded protein, retinoic acid receptor alpha, regulates transcription in a ligand-dependent manner. This gene has been implicated in regulation of development, differentiation, apoptosis, granulopoeisis, and transcription of clock genes. Translocations between this locus and several other loci have been associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this locus.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

RARB Gene

retinoic acid receptor, beta

This gene encodes retinoic acid receptor beta, a member of the thyroid-steroid hormone receptor superfamily of nuclear transcriptional regulators. This receptor localizes to the cytoplasm and to subnuclear compartments. It binds retinoic acid, the biologically active form of vitamin A which mediates cellular signalling in embryonic morphogenesis, cell growth and differentiation. It is thought that this protein limits growth of many cell types by regulating gene expression. The gene was first identified in a hepatocellular carcinoma where it flanks a hepatitis B virus integration site. Alternate promoter usage and differential splicing result in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

FRA10A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(10)(q23.3) or fra(10)(q24.2)

RARG Gene

retinoic acid receptor, gamma

This gene encodes a retinoic acid receptor that belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) act as ligand-dependent transcriptional regulators. When bound to ligands, RARs activate transcription by binding as heterodimers to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) found in the promoter regions of the target genes. In their unbound form, RARs repress transcription of their target genes. RARs are involved in various biological processes, including limb bud development, skeletal growth, and matrix homeostasis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GABRB1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 1

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes GABA A receptor, beta 1 subunit. It is mapped to chromosome 4p12 in a cluster comprised of genes encoding alpha 4, alpha 2 and gamma 1 subunits of the GABA A receptor. Alteration of this gene is implicated in the pathogenetics of schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRB3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 3

This gene encodes a member of the ligand-gated ionic channel family. The encoded protein is one the subunits of a multi-subunit chloride channel that serves as the receptor for gamma-aminobutyric acid, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian nervous system. This gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 15 in a cluster with two other genes encoding related subunits of the family. This gene may be associated with the pathogenesis of several disorders including Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, nonsyndromic orofacial clefts, epilepsy and autism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

FRA2B Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(2)(q13)

FRA2A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(2)(q11.2)

FRA2K Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(2)(q22.3)

NANP Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase

NANS Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase

This gene encodes an enzyme that functions in the biosynthetic pathways of sialic acids. In vitro, the encoded protein uses N-acetylmannosamine 6-phosphate and mannose 6-phosphate as substrates to generate phosphorylated forms of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid (KDN), respectively; however, it exhibits much higher activity toward the Neu5Ac phosphate product. In insect cells, expression of this gene results in Neu5Ac and KDN production. This gene is related to the E. coli sialic acid synthase gene neuB, and it can partially restore sialic acid synthase activity in an E. coli neuB-negative mutant. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CRABP2 Gene

cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the retinoic acid (RA, a form of vitamin A) binding protein family and lipocalin/cytosolic fatty-acid binding protein family. The protein is a cytosol-to-nuclear shuttling protein, which facilitates RA binding to its cognate receptor complex and transfer to the nucleus. It is involved in the retinoid signaling pathway, and is associated with increased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

RAI1 Gene

retinoic acid induced 1

This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. It is highly similar to its mouse counterpart and is expressed at high levels mainly in neuronal tissues. The protein encoded by this gene includes a polymorphic polyglutamine tract in the N-terminal domain. Expression of the mouse counterpart in neurons is induced by retinoic acid. This gene is associated with both the severity of the phenotype and the response to medication in schizophrenic patients. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SIGLEC25P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 25, pseudogene

FAAH2 Gene

fatty acid amide hydrolase 2

This gene encodes a fatty acid amide hydrolase that shares a conserved protein motif with the amidase signature family of enzymes. The encoded enzyme is able to catalyze the hydrolysis of a broad range of bioactive lipids, including those from the three main classes of fatty acid amides; N-acylethanolamines, fatty acid primary amides and N-acyl amino acids. This enzyme has a preference for monounsaturated acyl chains as a substrate.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

GBA2 Gene

glucosidase, beta (bile acid) 2

This gene encodes a microsomal beta-glucosidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of bile acid 3-O-glucosides as endogenous compounds. Studies to determine subcellular localization of this protein in the liver indicated that the enzyme was mainly enriched in the microsomal fraction where it appeared to be confined to the endoplasmic reticulum. This putative transmembrane protein is thought to play a role in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GBA3 Gene

glucosidase, beta, acid 3 (gene/pseudogene)

The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme that can hydrolyze several types of glycosides. This gene is a polymorphic pseudogene, with the most common allele being the functional allele that encodes the full-length protein. Some individuals, as represented by the reference genome allele, contain a single nucleotide polymorphism that results in a premature stop codon in the coding region, and therefore this allele is pseudogenic due to the failure to produce a functional full-length protein. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

GABRQ Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, theta

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes the theta subunit of the GABA A receptor. The gene is mapped to chromosome Xq28 in a cluster of genes including those that encode the alpha 3 and epsilon subunits of the GABA A receptor. This gene location is also the candidate region of two different neurologic diseases: early-onset parkinsonism (Waisman syndrome) and X-linked mental retardation (MRX3). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

GABRP Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, pi

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. The subunit encoded by this gene is expressed in several non-neuronal tissues including the uterus and ovaries. This subunit can assemble with known GABA A receptor subunits, and the presence of this subunit alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

GABRE Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, epsilon

The product of this gene belongs to the ligand-gated ionic channel (TC 1.A.9) family. It encodes the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor which is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes an epsilon subunit. It is mapped to chromosome Xq28 in a cluster comprised of genes encoding alpha 3, beta 4 and theta subunits of the same receptor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, but only one is thought to encode a protein. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

GABRD Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, delta

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. The GABA-A receptor is generally pentameric and there are five types of subunits: alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and rho. This gene encodes the delta subunit. Mutations in this gene have been associated with susceptibility to generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures, type 5. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRDMT1 Gene

tRNA aspartic acid methyltransferase 1

This gene encodes a protein responsible for the methylation of aspartic acid transfer RNA, specifically at the cytosine-38 residue in the anticodon loop. This enzyme also possesses residual DNA-(cytosine-C5) methyltransferase activity. While similar in sequence and structure to DNA cytosine methyltransferases, this gene is distinct and highly conserved in its function among taxa. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

HCAR3 Gene

hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3

HCAR2 Gene

hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2

HCAR1 Gene

hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, or GPRs), such as GPR81, contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins.[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2005]

CSAD Gene

cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase

This gene encodes a member of the group 2 decarboxylase family. A similar protein in rodents plays a role in multiple biological processes as the rate-limiting enzyme in taurine biosynthesis, catalyzing the decarboxylation of cysteinesulfinate to hypotaurine. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

SLC27A5 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 5

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (VLCS). It is capable of activating very long-chain fatty-acids containing 24- and 26-carbons. It is expressed in liver and associated with endoplasmic reticulum but not with peroxisomes. Its primary role is in fatty acid elongation or complex lipid synthesis rather than in degradation. This gene has a mouse ortholog. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC27A4 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 4

This gene encodes a member of a family of fatty acid transport proteins, which are involved in translocation of long-chain fatty acids cross the plasma membrane. This protein is expressed at high levels on the apical side of mature enterocytes in the small intestine, and appears to be the principal fatty acid transporter in enterocytes. Clinical studies suggest this gene as a candidate gene for the insulin resistance syndrome. Mutations in this gene have been associated with ichthyosis prematurity syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

SLC27A6 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 6

This gene encodes a member of the fatty acid transport protein family (FATP). FATPs are involved in the uptake of long-chain fatty acids and have unique expression patterns. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC27A3 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 3

SLC27A2 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. This isozyme activates long-chain, branched-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids containing 22 or more carbons to their CoA derivatives. It is expressed primarily in liver and kidney, and is present in both endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes, but not in mitochondria. Its decreased peroxisomal enzyme activity is in part responsible for the biochemical pathology in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

LPAR2 Gene

lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

This gene encodes a member of family I of the G protein-coupled receptors, as well as the EDG family of proteins. This protein functions as a lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor and contributes to Ca2+ mobilization, a critical cellular response to LPA in cells, through association with Gi and Gq proteins. An alternative splice variant has been described but its full length sequence has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LPAR3 Gene

lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3

This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, as well as the EDG family of proteins. This protein functions as a cellular receptor for lysophosphatidic acid and mediates lysophosphatidic acid-evoked calcium mobilization. This receptor couples predominantly to G(q/11) alpha proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LPAR6 Gene

lysophosphatidic acid receptor 6

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors, that are preferentially activated by adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This gene aligns with an internal intron of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene in the reverse orientation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

LPAR4 Gene

lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4

This gene encodes a member of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor family. It may also be related to the P2Y receptors, a family of receptors that bind purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and are coupled to G proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in monocytic differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

LPAR5 Gene

lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5

This gene encodes a member of the rhodopsin class of G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. This protein transmits extracellular signals from lysophosphatidic acid to cells through heterotrimeric G proteins and mediates numerous cellular processes. Many G protein receptors serve as targets for pharmaceutical drugs. Transcript variants of this gene have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

SLC7A8 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, L system), member 8

SLC7A7 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, y+L system), member 7

The protein encoded by this gene is the light subunit of a cationic amino acid transporter. This sodium-independent transporter is formed when the light subunit encoded by this gene dimerizes with the heavy subunit transporter protein SLC3A2. This transporter is found in epithelial cell membranes where it transfers cationic and large neutral amino acids from the cell to the extracellular space. Defects in this gene are a cause of lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

SLC7A5 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, L system), member 5

SLC7A2 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a cationic amino acid transporter and a member of the APC (amino acid-polyamine-organocation) family of transporters. The encoded membrane protein is responsible for the cellular uptake of arginine, lysine and ornithine. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

SLC7A3 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3

This gene encodes a member of the solute carrier family 7. The encoded protein is a sodium-independent cationic amino acid transporter. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcripts that encoded the same protein.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

FADS1 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family. Desaturase enzymes regulate unsaturation of fatty acids through the introduction of double bonds between defined carbons of the fatty acyl chain. FADS family members are considered fusion products composed of an N-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain and a C-terminal multiple membrane-spanning desaturase portion, both of which are characterized by conserved histidine motifs. This gene is clustered with family members FADS1 and FADS2 at 11q12-q13.1; this cluster is thought to have arisen evolutionarily from gene duplication based on its similar exon/intron organization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FADS3 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family. Desaturase enzymes regulate unsaturation of fatty acids through the introduction of double bonds between defined carbons of the fatty acyl chain. FADS family members are considered fusion products composed of an N-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain and a C-terminal multiple membrane-spanning desaturase portion, both of which are characterized by conserved histidine motifs. This gene is clustered with family members FADS1 and FADS2 at 11q12-q13.1; this cluster is thought to have arisen evolutionarily from gene duplication based on its similar exon/intron organization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FADS2 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family. Desaturase enzymes regulate unsaturation of fatty acids through the introduction of double bonds between defined carbons of the fatty acyl chain. FADS family members are considered fusion products composed of an N-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain and a C-terminal multiple membrane-spanning desaturase portion, both of which are characterized by conserved histidine motifs. This gene is clustered with family members at 11q12-q13.1; this cluster is thought to have arisen evolutionarily from gene duplication based on its similar exon/intron organization. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

FADS6 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 6

FABP5P1 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 1

FABP5P3 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 3

FABP5P2 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 2

FABP5P5 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 5

FABP5P4 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 4

FABP5P7 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 7

FABP5P6 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 6

FABP5P9 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 9

FABP5P8 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 8

GPBAR1 Gene

G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1

This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. This enzyme functions as a cell surface receptor for bile acids. Treatment of cells expressing this GPCR with bile acids induces the production of intracellular cAMP, activation of a MAP kinase signaling pathway, and internalization of the receptor. The receptor is implicated in the suppression of macrophage functions and regulation of energy homeostasis by bile acids. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422417 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14 pseudogene

SIGLEC28P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 28, pseudogene

ASAH1 Gene

N-acylsphingosine amidohydrolase (acid ceramidase) 1

This gene encodes a heterodimeric protein consisting of a nonglycosylated alpha subunit and a glycosylated beta subunit that is cleaved to the mature enzyme posttranslationally. The encoded protein catalyzes the synthesis and degradation of ceramide into sphingosine and fatty acid. Mutations in this gene have been associated with a lysosomal storage disorder known as Farber disease. Multiple transcript variants encoding several distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105369259 Gene

putative L-type amino acid transporter 1-like protein MLAS

GABRG3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, gamma 3

This gene encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. GABA-A receptors are pentameric, consisting of proteins from several subunit classes: alpha, beta, gamma, delta and rho. The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma subunit, which contains the benzodiazepine binding site. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

GABRG2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, gamma 2

This gene encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammlian brain, where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. GABA-A receptors are pentameric, consisting of proteins from several subunit classes: alpha, beta, gamma, delta and rho. Mutations in this gene have been associated with epilepsy and febrile seizures. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRG1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, gamma 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ligand-gated ionic channel family. It is an integral membrane protein and plays an important role in inhibiting neurotransmission by binding to the benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. This gene is clustered with three other family members on chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SIGLEC20P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 20, pseudogene

GCN1L1 Gene

GCN1 general control of amino-acid synthesis 1-like 1 (yeast)

RARRES2 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2

This gene encodes a secreted chemotactic protein that initiates chemotaxis via the ChemR23 G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane domain ligand. Expression of this gene is upregulated by the synthetic retinoid tazarotene and occurs in a wide variety of tissues. The active protein has several roles, including that as an adipokine and as an antimicrobial protein with activity against bacteria and fungi. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

RARRES3 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 3

Retinoids exert biologic effects such as potent growth inhibitory and cell differentiation activities and are used in the treatment of hyperproliferative dermatological diseases. These effects are mediated by specific nuclear receptor proteins that are members of the steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily of transcriptional regulators. RARRES1, RARRES2, and RARRES3 are genes whose expression is upregulated by the synthetic retinoid tazarotene. RARRES3 is thought act as a tumor suppressor or growth regulator. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RARRES1 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 1

This gene was identified as a retinoid acid (RA) receptor-responsive gene. It encodes a type 1 membrane protein. The expression of this gene is upregulated by tazarotene as well as by retinoic acid receptors. The expression of this gene is found to be downregulated in prostate cancer, which is caused by the methylation of its promoter and CpG island. Alternatively spliced transcript variant encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SIAE Gene

sialic acid acetylesterase

This gene encodes an enzyme which removes 9-O-acetylation modifications from sialic acids. Mutations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune disease 6. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms, found either in the cytosol or in the lysosome, have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

FRA5G Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(5)(q35)

LOC102723333 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 pseudogene

ATHL1 Gene

ATH1, acid trehalase-like 1 (yeast)

FABP5P15 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 15

FABP5P14 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 14

FABP5P10 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 10

FABP5P12 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 12

NABP2 Gene

nucleic acid binding protein 2

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins, such as OBFC2B, are ubiquitous and essential for a variety of DNA metabolic processes, including replication, recombination, and detection and repair of damage (Richard et al., 2008 [PubMed 18449195]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2008]

NABP1 Gene

nucleic acid binding protein 1

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins, such as OBFC2A, are ubiquitous and essential for a variety of DNA metabolic processes, including replication, recombination, and detection and repair of damage (Richard et al., 2008 [PubMed 18449195]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2008]

SLC27A1 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 1

FRA16A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(16)(p13.11)

There are several phenotypes associated with variation in pericentric region of chromosome 16: see the 16p12.2-p11.2 deletion syndrome (MIM 613604); see MIM 611913 for a deletion or duplication at 16p11.2 associated with autism (AUTS14); and see MIM 613444 for a 220-kb deletion at 16p11.2 associated with isolated severe early-onset obesity and obesity with developmental delay.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

LOC284379 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3 pseudogene

ATRAID Gene

all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation factor

This gene is thought to be involved in apoptosis, and may also be involved in hematopoietic development and differentiation. The use of alternative splice sites and promotors result in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

SLC10A2 Gene

solute carrier family 10 (sodium/bile acid cotransporter), member 2

This gene encodes a sodium/bile acid cotransporter. This transporter is the primary mechanism for uptake of intestinal bile acids by apical cells in the distal ileum. Bile acids are the catabolic product of cholesterol metabolism, so this protein is also critical for cholesterol homeostasis. Mutations in this gene cause primary bile acid malabsorption (PBAM); muatations in this gene may also be associated with other diseases of the liver and intestines, such as familial hypertriglyceridemia (FHTG). [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

SLC10A6 Gene

solute carrier family 10 (sodium/bile acid cotransporter), member 6

LOC105372490 Gene

sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 14

PIPOX Gene

pipecolic acid oxidase

BCAT2 Gene

branched chain amino-acid transaminase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a branched chain aminotransferase found in mitochondria. The encoded protein forms a dimer that catalyzes the first step in the production of the branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

BCAT1 Gene

branched chain amino-acid transaminase 1, cytosolic

This gene encodes the cytosolic form of the enzyme branched-chain amino acid transaminase. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible transamination of branched-chain alpha-keto acids to branched-chain L-amino acids essential for cell growth. Two different clinical disorders have been attributed to a defect of branched-chain amino acid transamination: hypervalinemia and hyperleucine-isoleucinemia. As there is also a gene encoding a mitochondrial form of this enzyme, mutations in either gene may contribute to these disorders. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

SLC43A2 Gene

solute carrier family 43 (amino acid system L transporter), member 2

System L amino acid transporters, such as SLC43A2, mediate sodium-independent transport of bulky neutral amino acids across cell membranes (Bodoy et al., 2005 [PubMed 15659399]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SLC43A1 Gene

solute carrier family 43 (amino acid system L transporter), member 1

SLC43A1 belongs to the system L family of plasma membrane carrier proteins that transports large neutral amino acids (Babu et al., 2003 [PubMed 12930836]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TRNAE-CUC Gene

transfer RNA glutamic acid (anticodon CUC)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

UAQTL6 Gene

Uric acid concentration, serum, QTL6

UAQTL5 Gene

Uric acid concentration, serum, QTL5

UAQTL4 Gene

Uric acid concentration, serum, QTL4

UAQTL3 Gene

Uric acid concentration, serum, QTL3

FABP12 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 12

SIGLEC17P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 17, pseudogene

FRA8A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(8)(q22.3)

GBA Gene

glucosidase, beta, acid

This gene encodes a lysosomal membrane protein that cleaves the beta-glucosidic linkage of glycosylceramide, an intermediate in glycolipid metabolism. Mutations in this gene cause Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disease characterized by an accumulation of glucocerebrosides. A related pseudogene is approximately 12 kb downstream of this gene on chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

SLC3A2 Gene

solute carrier family 3 (amino acid transporter heavy chain), member 2

This gene is a member of the solute carrier family and encodes a cell surface, transmembrane protein. The protein exists as the heavy chain of a heterodimer, covalently bound through di-sulfide bonds to one of several possible light chains. The encoded transporter plays a role in regulation of intracellular calcium levels and transports L-type amino acids. Alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

SLC3A1 Gene

solute carrier family 3 (amino acid transporter heavy chain), member 1

This gene encodes a type II membrane glycoprotein which is one of the components of the renal amino acid transporter which transports neutral and basic amino acids in the renal tubule and intestinal tract. Mutations and deletions in this gene are associated with cystinuria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MGARP Gene

mitochondria-localized glutamic acid-rich protein

PPAP2C Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2C

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in de novo synthesis of glycerolipids as well as in receptor-activated signal transduction mediated by phospholipase D. This protein is similar to phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2A (PPAP2A) and type 2B (PPAP2B). All three proteins contain 6 transmembrane regions, and a consensus N-glycosylation site. This protein has been shown to possess membrane associated PAP activity. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPAP2B Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in de novo synthesis of glycerolipids as well as in receptor-activated signal transduction mediated by phospholipase D. This protein is a membrane glycoprotein localized at the cell plasma membrane. It has been shown to actively hydrolyze extracellular lysophosphatidic acid and short-chain phosphatidic acid. The expression of this gene is found to be enhanced by epidermal growth factor in Hela cells. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PPAP2A Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2A

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in synthesis of glycerolipids and in phospholipase D-mediated signal transduction. This enzyme is an integral membrane glycoprotein that plays a role in the hydrolysis and uptake of lipids from extracellular space. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

LOC401767 Gene

1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6 (lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, zeta) pseudogene

STRA8 Gene

stimulated by retinoic acid 8

This gene encodes a retinoic acid-responsive protein. A homologous protein in mouse has been shown to be involved in the regulation of meiotic initiation in both spermatogenesis and oogenesis, though feature differences between the mouse and human proteins suggest that these homologs are not entirely functionally equivalent. It is thought that this gene may play a role in spermatogenesis in humans. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

BRINP3 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein/retinoic acid inducible neural-specific 3

BRINP2 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein/retinoic acid inducible neural-specific 2

BRINP1 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein/retinoic acid inducible neural-specific 1

This gene is located within a chromosomal region that shows loss of heterozygosity in some bladder cancers. It contains a 5' CpG island that may be a frequent target of hypermethylation, and it may undergo hypermethylation-based silencing in some bladder cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAPL Gene

iron/zinc purple acid phosphatase-like protein

Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), including PAPL, are a family of binuclear metallohydrolases that have been identified in plants, animals, and fungi (Flanagan et al., 2006 [PubMed 16793224]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

FRA10AC1 Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(10)(q23.3) or fra(10)(q24.2) candidate 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear phosphoprotein of unknown function. The 5' UTR of this gene is part of a CpG island and contains a tandem CGG repeat region that normally consists of 8-14 repeats but can expand to over 200 repeats. The expanded allele becomes hypermethylated and is not transcribed; however, an expanded repeat region has not been associated with any disease phenotype. This gene is found within the rare FRA10A folate-sensitive fragile site. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

TRNAD-GUC Gene

transfer RNA aspartic acid (anticodon GUC)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

SLC23A1 Gene

solute carrier family 23 (ascorbic acid transporter), member 1

The absorption of vitamin C into the body and its distribution to organs requires two sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters. This gene encodes one of the two transporters. The encoded protein is active in bulk vitamin C transport involving epithelial surfaces. Previously, this gene had an official symbol of SLC23A2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

FABP6 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 6, ileal

This gene encodes the ileal fatty acid binding protein. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. FABP6 and FABP1 (the liver fatty acid binding protein) are also able to bind bile acids. It is thought that FABPs roles include fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. Transcript variants generated by alternate transcription promoters and/or alternate splicing have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP7 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 7, brain

The protein encoded by this gene is a brain fatty acid binding protein. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. FABPs are thought to play roles in fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP4 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 4, adipocyte

FABP4 encodes the fatty acid binding protein found in adipocytes. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. It is thought that FABPs roles include fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP5 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 (psoriasis-associated)

This gene encodes the fatty acid binding protein found in epidermal cells, and was first identified as being upregulated in psoriasis tissue. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. FABPs may play roles in fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with type 2 diabetes. The human genome contains many pseudogenes similar to this locus.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

FABP2 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 2, intestinal

The intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) belong to a multigene family with nearly twenty identified members. FABPs are divided into at least three distinct types, namely the hepatic-, intestinal- and cardiac-type. They form 14-15 kDa proteins and are thought to participate in the uptake, intracellular metabolism and/or transport of long-chain fatty acids. They may also be responsible in the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene contains four exons and is an abundant cytosolic protein in small intestine epithelial cells. This gene has a polymorphism at codon 54 that identified an alanine-encoding allele and a threonine-encoding allele. Thr-54 protein is associated with increased fat oxidation and insulin resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP3 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 3, muscle and heart

The intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) belongs to a multigene family. FABPs are divided into at least three distinct types, namely the hepatic-, intestinal- and cardiac-type. They form 14-15 kDa proteins and are thought to participate in the uptake, intracellular metabolism and/or transport of long-chain fatty acids. They may also be responsible in the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. Fatty acid-binding protein 3 gene contains four exons and its function is to arrest growth of mammary epithelial cells. This gene is a candidate tumor suppressor gene for human breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA5 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 5

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. Transcript variants utilizing three different alternative non-coding first exons have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA4 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 4

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. This gene encodes subunit alpha-4, which is involved in the etiology of autism and eventually increases autism risk through interaction with another subunit, gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor beta-1 (GABRB1). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

GABRA6 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 6

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 1

This gene encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. GABA-A receptors are pentameric, consisting of proteins from several subunit classes: alpha, beta, gamma, delta and rho. Mutations in this gene cause juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and childhood absence epilepsy type 4. Multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 3

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 2

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

LOC100422432 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14 pseudogene

SIGLEC21P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 21, pseudogene

SIGLEC8 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 8

Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins, or SIGLECs (e.g., CD33 (MIM 159590)), are a family of type 1 transmembrane proteins each having a unique expression pattern, mostly in hemopoietic cells. SIGLEC8 is a member of the CD33-like subgroup of SIGLECs, which are localized to 19q13.3-q13.4 and have 2 conserved cytoplasmic tyrosine-based motifs: an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif, or ITIM (see MIM 604964), and a motif homologous to one identified in signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; MIM 603492) that mediates an association with SLAM-associated protein (SAP; MIM 300490) (summarized by Foussias et al., 2000 [PubMed 11095983]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2010]

SIGLEC9 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 9

SIGLEC5 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 5

This gene encodes a member of the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec) family. These cell surface lectins are characterized by structural motifs in the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains and sialic acid recognition sites in the first Ig V set domain. The encoded protein is a member of the CD33-related subset of Siglecs and inhibits the activation of several cell types including monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. Binding of group B Streptococcus (GBS) to the encoded protein plays a role in GBS immune evasion. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

SIGLEC6 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 6

SIGLEC7 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 7

SIGLEC1 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 1, sialoadhesin

This gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The encoded protein is a lectin-like adhesion molecule that binds glycoconjugate ligands on cell surfaces in a sialic acid-dependent manner. It is a type I transmembrane protein expressed only by a subpopulation of macrophages and is involved in mediating cell-cell interactions. Alternative splicing produces a transcript variant encoding an isoform that is soluble rather than membrane-bound; however, the full-length nature of this variant has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FFAR4 Gene

free fatty acid receptor 4

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) which belongs to the rhodopsin family of GPRs. The encoded protein functions as a receptor for free fatty acids, including omega-3, and participates in suppressing anti-inflammatory responses and insulin sensitizing. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

RAET1K Gene

retinoic acid early transcript 1K pseudogene

RAET1M Gene

retinoic acid early transcript 1M pseudogene

GLCE Gene

glucuronic acid epimerase

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a negatively charged cell surface polysaccharide required for the biologic activities of circulating extracellular ligands. GLCE is responsible for epimerization of D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) to L-iduronic acid (IdoA) of HS, which endows the nascent polysaccharide chain with the ability to bind growth factors and cytokines (Ghiselli and Agrawal, 2005 [PubMed 15853773]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2008]

SIGLEC26P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 26, pseudogene

GABBR2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 2

The multi-pass membrane protein encoded by this gene belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family and GABA-B receptor subfamily. The GABA-B receptors inhibit neuronal activity through G protein-coupled second-messenger systems, which regulate the release of neurotransmitters, and the activity of ion channels and adenylyl cyclase. This receptor subunit forms an active heterodimeric complex with GABA-B receptor subunit 1, neither of which is effective on its own. Allelic variants of this gene have been associated with nicotine dependence.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

SIGLEC18P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 18, pseudogene

FRA22A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(22)(q13)

GAA Gene

glucosidase, alpha; acid

This gene encodes acid alpha-glucosidase, which is essential for the degradation of glycogen to glucose in lysosomes. Different forms of acid alpha-glucosidase are obtained by proteolytic processing. Defects in this gene are the cause of glycogen storage disease II, also known as Pompe's disease, which is an autosomal recessive disorder with a broad clinical spectrum. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP1 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 1, liver

This gene encodes the fatty acid binding protein found in liver. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. This protein and FABP6 (the ileal fatty acid binding protein) are also able to bind bile acids. It is thought that FABPs roles include fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

SLC16A10 Gene

solute carrier family 16 (aromatic amino acid transporter), member 10

SLC16A10 is a member of a family of plasma membrane amino acid transporters that mediate the Na(+)-independent transport of aromatic amino acids across the plasma membrane.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

FRAXE Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(X)(q28) E

FRAXA Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(X)(q27.3) A (macroorchidism, mental retardation)

RAI2 Gene

retinoic acid induced 2

Retinoic acid plays a critical role in development, cellular growth, and differentiation. The specific function of this retinoic acid-induced gene has not yet been determined but it may play a role in development. The chromosomal location of this gene designates it to be a candidate for diseases such as Nance-Horan syndrome, sensorineural deafness, non-specific X-linked mental retardation, oral-facial-digital syndrome, and Fried syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

SIGLEC31P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 31, pseudogene

SLC7A5P1 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, L system), member 5 pseudogene 1

This locus represents a transcribed pseudogene of the L-type amino acid transporter 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC7A5P2 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, L system), member 5 pseudogene 2

RAE1 Gene

ribonucleic acid export 1

Mutations in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rae1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gle2 genes have been shown to result in accumulation of poly(A)-containing mRNA in the nucleus, suggesting that the encoded proteins are involved in RNA export. The protein encoded by this gene is a homolog of yeast Rae1. It contains four WD40 motifs, and has been shown to localize to distinct foci in the nucleoplasm, to the nuclear rim, and to meshwork-like structures throughout the cytoplasm. This gene is thought to be involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport, and in directly or indirectly attaching cytoplasmic mRNPs to the cytoskeleton. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SIGLEC29P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 29, pseudogene

LOC100422614 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter), member 13 pseudogene

LOC100422610 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3 pseudogene

FA2H Gene

fatty acid 2-hydroxylase

This gene encodes a protein that catalyzes the synthesis of 2-hydroxysphingolipids, a subset of sphingolipids that contain 2-hydroxy fatty acids. Sphingolipids play roles in many cellular processes and their structural diversity arises from modification of the hydrophobic ceramide moiety, such as by 2-hydroxylation of the N-acyl chain, and the existence of many different head groups. Mutations in this gene have been associated with leukodystrophy dysmyelinating with spastic paraparesis with or without dystonia.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

SLC6A19 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 19

This gene encodes a system B(0) transmembrane protein that actively transports most neutral amino acids across the apical membrane of epithelial cells. Mutations in this gene result in Hartnup disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC6A18 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 18

The SLC6 family of proteins, which includes SLC6A18, act as specific transporters for neurotransmitters, amino acids, and osmolytes like betaine, taurine, and creatine. SLC6 proteins are sodium cotransporters that derive the energy for solute transport from the electrochemical gradient for sodium ions (Hoglund et al., 2005 [PubMed 16125675]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

STRA13 Gene

stimulated by retinoic acid 13

LOC101060604 Gene

putative L-type amino acid transporter 1-like protein IMAA

PPAPDC1B Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 1B

PPAPDC1A Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 1A

FADS2P1 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 2 pseudogene 1

FABP9 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 9, testis

RARRES2P8 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2 pseudogene 8

RARRES2P2 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2 pseudogene 2

RARRES2P1 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2 pseudogene 1

RARRES2P4 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2 pseudogene 4

KAR Gene

Aromatic alpha-keto acid reductase

FFAR2 Gene

free fatty acid receptor 2

This gene encodes a member of the GP40 family of G protein-coupled receptors that are clustered together on chromosome 19. The encoded protein is a receptor for short chain free fatty acids and may be involved in the inflammatory response and in regulating lipid plasma levels. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

FFAR3 Gene

free fatty acid receptor 3

RAET1E Gene

retinoic acid early transcript 1E

This gene belong to the RAET1 family, which consists of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related genes located in a cluster on chromosome 6q24.2-q25.3. This and RAET1G protein differ from other RAET1 proteins in that they have type I membrane-spanning sequences at their C termini rather than glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor sequences. This protein functions as a ligand for NKG2D receptor, which is expressed on the surface of several types of immune cells, and is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

RAET1G Gene

retinoic acid early transcript 1G

Members of the RAET1 family, such as RAET1G, are major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related genes located within a 180-kb cluster on chromosome 6q24.2-q25.3. RAET1 proteins contain MHC class I-like alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains. RAET1E (MIM 609243) and RAET1G differ from the other RAET1 proteins (e.g., RAET1I, or ULBP1; MIM 605697) in that they have type I membrane-spanning sequences at their C termini rather than glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor sequences. (Radosavljevic et al., 2002 [PubMed 11827464]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RAET1F Gene

retinoic acid early transcript 1F pseudogene

RAET1L Gene

retinoic acid early transcript 1L

RAET1L belongs to the RAET1 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related genes, which are located within a 180-kb cluster on chromosome 6q24.2-q25.3. The REAT1 genes encode glycoproteins that contain extracellular alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains, but they lack the membrane proximal Ig-like alpha-3 domain. Most RAET1 glycoproteins are anchored to the membrane via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage (Radosavljevic et al., 2002 [PubMed 11827464]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SMPDL3B Gene

sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, acid-like 3B

SMPDL3A Gene

sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, acid-like 3A

LIPA Gene

lipase A, lysosomal acid, cholesterol esterase

This gene encodes lipase A, the lysosomal acid lipase (also known as cholesterol ester hydrolase). This enzyme functions in the lysosome to catalyze the hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Mutations in this gene can result in Wolman disease and cholesteryl ester storage disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

LIPB Gene

lipase B, lysosomal acid

FRA6A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(6)(p23)

GABRB2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 2

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes GABA A receptor, beta 2 subunit. It is mapped to chromosome 5q34 in a cluster comprised of genes encoding alpha 1 and gamma 2 subunits of the GABA A receptor. Alternative splicing of this gene generates 2 transcript variants, differing by a 114 bp insertion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NARR Gene

nine-amino acid residue-repeats

LOC100462652 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14 pseudogene

DAO Gene

D-amino-acid oxidase

This gene encodes the peroxisomal enzyme D-amino acid oxidase. The enzyme is a flavoprotein which uses flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as its prosthetic group. Its substrates include a wide variety of D-amino acids, but it is inactive on the naturally occurring L-amino acids. Its biological function is not known; it may act as a detoxifying agent which removes D-amino acids that accumulate during aging. In mice, it degrades D-serine, a co-agonist of the NMDA receptor. This gene may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRRG4 Gene

proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 4 (transmembrane)

PRRG1 Gene

proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 1

This gene encodes a vitamin K-dependent, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-containing, single-pass transmembrane protein. This protein contains a Gla domain at the N-terminus, preceded by a propeptide sequence required for post-translational gamma-carboxylation of specific glutamic acid residues by a vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase. The C-terminus is proline-rich containing PPXY and PXXP motifs found in a variety of signaling and cytoskeletal proteins. This gene is highly expressed in the spinal cord. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PRRG2 Gene

proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 2

PRRG3 Gene

proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 3 (transmembrane)

This gene encodes a protein which contains a vitamin K-dependent carboxylation/gamma-carboxyglutamic domain. The encoded protein is a member of a family of vitamin K-dependent transmembrane proteins which contain a glutamate-rich extracellular domain. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ACP5 Gene

acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant

This gene encodes an iron containing glycoprotein which catalyzes the conversion of orthophosphoric monoester to alcohol and orthophosphate. It is the most basic of the acid phosphatases and is the only form not inhibited by L(+)-tartrate. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

ACP6 Gene

acid phosphatase 6, lysophosphatidic

ACP1 Gene

acid phosphatase 1, soluble

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase family of proteins. It functions as an acid phosphatase and a protein tyrosine phosphatase by hydrolyzing protein tyrosine phosphate to protein tyrosine and orthophosphate. This enzyme also hydrolyzes orthophosphoric monoesters to alcohol and orthophosphate. This gene is genetically polymorphic, and three common alleles segregating at the corresponding locus give rise to six phenotypes. Each allele appears to encode at least two electrophoretically different isozymes, Bf and Bs, which are produced in allele-specific ratios. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

ACP2 Gene

acid phosphatase 2, lysosomal

This gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP). LAP is chemically and genetically distinct from red cell acid phosphatase. The encoded protein belongs to a family of distinct isoenzymes which hydrolyze orthophosphoric monoesters to alcohol and phosphate. LAP-deficiencies in mice cause multiple defects including bone structure alterations, lysosomal storage defects in the kidneys and central nervous system, and an increased tendency towards seizures. An enzymatically-inactive allele of LAP in mice exhibited a more severe phenotype than the null allele, and defects included cerebellum abnormalities, growth retardation, hair-follicle abnormalities, and an ataxia-like phenotype. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

ACPT Gene

acid phosphatase, testicular

Acid phosphatases are enzymes capable of hydrolyzing orthophosphoric acid esters in an acid medium. This gene is up-regulated by androgens and is down-regulated by estrogens in the prostate cancer cell line. This gene exhibits a lower level of expression in testicular cancer tissues than in normal tissues. The protein encoded by this gene has structural similarity to prostatic and lysosomal acid phosphatases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ACPP Gene

acid phosphatase, prostate

This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of orthophosphoric monoester to alcohol and orthophosphate. It is synthesized under androgen regulation and is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. An alternatively spliced transcript variant encoding a longer isoform has been found for this gene. This isoform contains a transmembrane domain and is localized in the plasma membrane-endosomal-lysosomal pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

NAAA Gene

N-acylethanolamine acid amidase

This gene encodes an N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing enzyme which is highly similar to acid ceramidase. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RERE Gene

arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE) repeats

This gene encodes a member of the atrophin family of arginine-glutamic acid (RE) dipeptide repeat-containing proteins. The encoded protein co-localizes with a transcription factor in the nucleus, and its overexpression triggers apoptosis. A similar protein in mouse associates with histone deacetylase and is thought to function as a transcriptional co-repressor during embryonic development. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CMAHP Gene

cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase, pseudogene

Sialic acids are terminal components of the carbohydrate chains of glycoconjugates involved in ligand-receptor, cell-cell, and cell-pathogen interactions. The two most common forms of sialic acid found in mammalian cells are N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and its hydroxylated derivative, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Studies of sialic acid distribution show that Neu5Gc is not detectable in normal human tissues although it was an abundant sialic acid in other mammals. Neu5Gc is, in actuality, immunogenic in humans. The absense of Neu5Gc in humans is due to a deletion within the human gene CMAH encoding cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase, an enzyme responsible for Neu5Gc biosynthesis. Sequences encoding the mouse, pig, and chimpanzee hydroxylase enzymes were obtained by cDNA cloning and found to be highly homologous. However, the homologous human cDNA differs from these cDNAs by a 92-bp deletion in the 5' region. This deletion, corresponding to exon 6 of the mouse hydroxylase gene, causes a frameshift mutation and premature termination of the polypeptide chain in human. It seems unlikely that the truncated human hydroxylase mRNA encodes for an active enzyme explaining why Neu5Gc is undetectable in normal human tissues. Human genomic DNA also shows evidence of this deletion which does not occur in the genomes of African great apes. Nonetheless, the CMAH gene maps to 6p21.32 in humans and great apes indicating that mutation of the CMAH gene occurred following human divergence from chimpanzees and bonobos. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPAPDC3 Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 3

PPAPDC2 Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 2

FURIN Gene

furin (paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme)

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. It encodes a type 1 membrane bound protease that is expressed in many tissues, including neuroendocrine, liver, gut, and brain. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER and then sorts to the trans-Golgi network through endosomes where a second autocatalytic event takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. The product of this gene is one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. Some of its substrates include proparathyroid hormone, transforming growth factor beta 1 precursor, proalbumin, pro-beta-secretase, membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, beta subunit of pro-nerve growth factor and von Willebrand factor. It is also thought to be one of the proteases responsible for the activation of HIV envelope glycoproteins gp160 and gp140 and may play a role in tumor progression. This gene is located in close proximity to family member proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 6 and upstream of the FES oncogene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

SLC10A1 Gene

solute carrier family 10 (sodium/bile acid cotransporter), member 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the sodium/bile acid cotransporter family, which are integral membrane glycoproteins that participate in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Two homologous transporters are involved in the reabsorption of bile acids; the ileal sodium/bile acid cotransporter with an apical cell localization that absorbs bile acids from the intestinal lumen, bile duct and kidney, and the liver-specific sodium/bile acid cotransporter, represented by this protein, that is found in the basolateral membranes of hepatocytes. Bile acids are the catabolic product of cholesterol metabolism, hence this protein is important for cholesterol homeostasis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

FRA11A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(11)(q13.3)

BCKDHB Gene

branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1, beta polypeptide

Branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase is a multienzyme complex associated with the inner membrane of mitochondria, and functions in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids. The complex consists of multiple copies of 3 components: branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), lipoamide acyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). This gene encodes the E1 beta subunit, and mutations therein have been associated with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), type 1B, a disease characterized by a maple syrup odor to the urine in addition to mental and physical retardation, and feeding problems. Alternative splicing at this locus results in transcript variants with different 3' non-coding regions, but encoding the same isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BCKDHA Gene

branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1, alpha polypeptide

The branched-chain alpha-keto acid (BCAA) dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex is an innter mitochondrial enzyme complex that catalyzes the second major step in the catabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The BCKD complex consists of three catalytic components: a heterotetrameric (alpha2-beta2) branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), a dihydrolipoyl transacylase (E2), and a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the decarboxylase (E1) component. Mutations in this gene result in maple syrup urine disease, type IA. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

CMAS Gene

cytidine monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase

Sialic acids are a family of nine-carbon sugars on cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids that play a pivotal role in determining the structure and function of many animal tissues. The pattern of cell surface sialylation is highly regulated during embryonic development and N-glycosylation is a common post-translational modification during cellular differentiation. Sialic acids play important roles in cell-cell communications and immune responses. Sialylated glycoprotein and glycolipid formation requires the activation of a sialic acid to a cytidine monophosphate (CMP) diester by the enzyme encoded by this gene: CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

RAI14 Gene

retinoic acid induced 14

FRA1M Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(1)(p21.3)

SLC35A1 Gene

solute carrier family 35 (CMP-sialic acid transporter), member A1

The protein encoded by this gene is found in the membrane of the Golgi apparatus, where it transports nucleotide sugars into the Golgi. One such nucleotide sugar is CMP-sialic acid, which is imported into the Golgi by the encoded protein and subsequently glycosylated. Defects in this gene are a cause of congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2F (CDG2F). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

ASIC5 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel family member 5

This gene belongs to the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel and degenerin (NaC/DEG) family, members of which have been identified in many animal species ranging from the nematode to human. The amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channel encoded by this gene is primarily expressed in the small intestine, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASIC4 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel family member 4

This gene belongs to the superfamily of acid-sensing ion channels, which are proton-gated, amiloride-sensitive sodium channels. These channels have been implicated in synaptic transmission, pain perception as well as mechanoperception. This gene is predominantly expressed in the pituitary gland, and was considered a candidate for paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC), a movement disorder, however, no correlation was found between mutations in this gene and PDC. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ASIC1 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 1

This gene encodes a member of the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) family of proteins, which are part of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. Members of the ASIC family are sensitive to amiloride and function in neurotransmission. The encoded proteins function in learning, pain transduction, touch sensation, and development of memory and fear. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ASIC3 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 3

This gene encodes a member of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. The members of this family are amiloride-sensitive sodium channels that contain intracellular N and C termini, two hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and a large extracellular loop, which has many cysteine residues with conserved spacing. The member encoded by this gene is an acid sensor and may play an important role in the detection of lasting pH changes. In addition, a heteromeric association between this member and acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channel 2 has been observed as proton-gated channels sensitive to gadolinium. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ASIC2 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 2

This gene encodes a member of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. The members of this family are amiloride-sensitive sodium channels that contain intracellular N and C termini, 2 hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and a large extracellular loop, which has many cysteine residues with conserved spacing. The member encoded by this gene may play a role in neurotransmission. In addition, a heteromeric association between this member and acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channel 3 has been observed to co-assemble into proton-gated channels sensitive to gadolinium. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and two variants, encoding distinct isoforms, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

FRA19B Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(19)(p13)

SIGLEC24P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 24, pseudogene

FABP3P2 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 3, pseudogene 2

FRA20A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(20)(p11.23)

FRA9B Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(9)(q32)

FRA9A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(9)(p21)

SLC1A4 Gene

solute carrier family 1 (glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter), member 4

SLC1A5 Gene

solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5

The SLC1A5 gene encodes a sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that can act as a receptor for RD114/type D retrovirus (Larriba et al., 2001 [PubMed 11781704]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

ELOVL6 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 6

Fatty acid elongases (EC 6.2.1.3), such as ELOVL6, use malonyl-CoA as a 2-carbon donor in the first and rate-limiting step of fatty acid elongation (Moon et al., 2001 [PubMed 11567032]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ELOVL7 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 7

ELOVL4 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 4

This gene encodes a membrane-bound protein which is a member of the ELO family, proteins which participate in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. Consistent with the expression of the encoded protein in photoreceptor cells of the retina, mutations and small deletions in this gene are associated with Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) and autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (ADMD), also referred to as autosomal dominant atrophic macular degeneration. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ELOVL5 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 5

This gene belongs to the ELO family. It is highly expressed in the adrenal gland and testis, and encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. This protein is involved in the elongation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Mutations in this gene have been associated with spinocerebellar ataxia-38 (SCA38). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

ELOVL2 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 2

ELOVL3 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 3

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the GNS1/SUR4 family. Members of this family play a role in elongation of long chain fatty acids to provide precursors for synthesis of sphingolipids and ceramides. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

ELOVL1 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 1

FFAR1 Gene

free fatty acid receptor 1

This gene encodes a member of the GP40 family of G protein-coupled receptors that are clustered together on chromosome 19. The encoded protein is a receptor for medium and long chain free fatty acids and may be involved in the metabolic regulation of insulin secretion. Polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

LOC100129728 Gene

nucleic acid binding protein 2 pseudogene

FABP5P11 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 11

FAXDC2 Gene

fatty acid hydroxylase domain containing 2

FRA12A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(12)(q13.1)

FRA12A is a folate-sensitive chromosomal fragile site prone to breakage. No consistent phenotype has been observed with FRA12A, and it can be inherited without phenotypic effect (Berg et al., 2000 [PubMed 10955484]). However, mental retardation with or without other anomalies has been described in patients with over 40% of cells expressing FRA12A (Winnepenninckx et al., 2007).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

FRA12D Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(12)(q24.13)

DDC Gene

dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase)

The encoded protein catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine. Defects in this gene are the cause of aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase deficiency (AADCD). AADCD deficiency is an inborn error in neurotransmitter metabolism that leads to combined serotonin and catecholamine deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

FAAH Gene

fatty acid amide hydrolase

This gene encodes a protein that is responsible for the hydrolysis of a number of primary and secondary fatty acid amides, including the neuromodulatory compounds anandamide and oleamide. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC7A10 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (neutral amino acid transporter light chain, asc system), member 10

SLC7A10, in association with 4F2HC (SLC3A2; MIM 158070), mediates high-affinity transport of D-serine and several other neutral amino acids (Nakauchi et al., 2000 [PubMed 10863037]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SLC7A11 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter light chain, xc- system), member 11

This gene encodes a member of a heteromeric, sodium-independent, anionic amino acid transport system that is highly specific for cysteine and glutamate. In this system, designated Xc(-), the anionic form of cysteine is transported in exchange for glutamate. This protein has been identified as the predominant mediator of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus fusion and entry permissiveness into cells. Also, increased expression of this gene in primary gliomas (compared to normal brain tissue) was associated with increased glutamate secretion via the XCT channels, resulting in neuronal cell death. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

SLC7A13 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter), member 13