Name

HBHR Gene

alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome, type 1

ATRX Gene

alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked

The protein encoded by this gene contains an ATPase/helicase domain, and thus it belongs to the SWI/SNF family of chromatin remodeling proteins. This protein is found to undergo cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation, which regulates its nuclear matrix and chromatin association, and suggests its involvement in the gene regulation at interphase and chromosomal segregation in mitosis. Mutations in this gene are associated with an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) syndrome most often accompanied by alpha-thalassemia (ATRX) syndrome. These mutations have been shown to cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation, which may provide a link between chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, and gene expression in developmental processes. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

ITGB1 Gene

integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12)

Integrins are heterodimeric proteins made up of alpha and beta subunits. At least 18 alpha and 8 beta subunits have been described in mammals. Integrin family members are membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and recognition in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic diffusion of tumor cells. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants which encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SSR2 Gene

signal sequence receptor, beta (translocon-associated protein beta)

The signal sequence receptor (SSR) is a glycosylated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane receptor associated with protein translocation across the ER membrane. The SSR consists of 2 subunits, a 34-kD glycoprotein (alpha-SSR or SSR1) and a 22-kD glycoprotein (beta-SSR or SSR2). The human beta-signal sequence receptor gene (SSR2) maps to chromosome bands 1q21-q23. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TFAP2B Gene

transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)

This gene encodes a member of the AP-2 family of transcription factors. AP-2 proteins form homo- or hetero-dimers with other AP-2 family members and bind specific DNA sequences. They are thought to stimulate cell proliferation and suppress terminal differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic development. Specific AP-2 family members differ in their expression patterns and binding affinity for different promoters. This protein functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant Char syndrome, suggesting that this gene functions in the differentiation of neural crest cell derivatives. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MGAT3 Gene

mannosyl (beta-1,4-)-glycoprotein beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase

There are believed to be over 100 different glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of protein-bound and lipid-bound oligosaccharides. The enzyme encoded by this gene transfers a GlcNAc residue to the beta-linked mannose of the trimannosyl core of N-linked oligosaccharides and produces a bisecting GlcNAc. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COPB2 Gene

coatomer protein complex, subunit beta 2 (beta prime)

The Golgi coatomer complex (see MIM 601924) constitutes the coat of nonclathrin-coated vesicles and is essential for Golgi budding and vesicular trafficking. It consists of 7 protein subunits, including COPB2.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

DBH Gene

dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine beta-monooxygenase)

The protein encoded by this gene is an oxidoreductase belonging to the copper type II, ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase family. It is present in the synaptic vesicles of postganglionic sympathetic neurons and converts dopamine to norepinephrine. It exists in both soluble and membrane-bound forms, depending on the absence or presence, respectively, of a signal peptide. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAR2B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) in activated T cells. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this subunit may play an important role in regulating energy balance and adiposity. The studies also suggest that this subunit may mediate the gene induction and cataleptic behavior induced by haloperidol. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

B3GAT3 Gene

beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glucuronyltransferase gene family, enzymes that exhibit strict acceptor specificity, recognizing nonreducing terminal sugars and their anomeric linkages. This gene product catalyzes the formation of the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage by way of a glucuronyl transfer reaction in the final step of the biosynthesis of the linkage region of proteoglycans. A pseudogene of this gene has been identified on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

B3GAT2 Gene

beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 2

The product of this gene is a transmembrane protein belonging to the glucuronyltransferase family, and catalyzes the transfer of a beta-1,3 linked glucuronic acid to a terminal galactose in different glycoproteins or glycolipids containing a Gal-beta-1-4GlcNAc or Gal-beta-1-3GlcNAc residue. The encoded protein is involved in the synthesis of the human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate epitope, a sulfated trisaccharide implicated in cellular migration and adhesion in the nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

B3GAT1 Gene

beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glucuronyltransferase gene family. These enzymes exhibit strict acceptor specificity, recognizing nonreducing terminal sugars and their anomeric linkages. This gene product functions as the key enzyme in a glucuronyl transfer reaction during the biosynthesis of the carbohydrate epitope HNK-1 (human natural killer-1, also known as CD57 and LEU7). Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HLA-DQB1 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1

HLA-DQB1 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogs. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA) and a beta chain (DQB), both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and it contains six exons. Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DQ molecule both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to four different molecules. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow transplantation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

MSMB Gene

microseminoprotein, beta-

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunoglobulin binding factor family. It is synthesized by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland and secreted into the seminal plasma. This protein has inhibin-like activity. It may have a role as an autocrine paracrine factor in uterine, breast and other female reproductive tissues. The expression of the encoded protein is found to be decreased in prostate cancer. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms are described for this gene. The use of alternate polyadenylation sites has been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HLA-DQB3 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 3

HLA-DQB2 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 2

HLA-DQB2 belongs to the family of HLA class II beta chain paralogs. Class II molecules are heterodimers consisting of an alpha (DQA) and a beta chain (DQB), both anchored in the membrane. They play a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). Polymorphisms in the alpha and beta chains specify the peptide binding specificity, and typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow transplantation. However this gene, HLA-DQB2, is not routinely typed, as it is not thought to have an effect on transplantation. There is conflicting evidence in the literature and public sequence databases for the protein-coding capacity of HLA-DQB2. Because there is evidence of transcription and an intact ORF, HLA-DQB2 is represented in Entrez Gene and in RefSeq as a protein-coding locus. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

CAMKK2 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. The major isoform of this gene plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade by phosphorylating the downstream kinases CaMK1 and CaMK4. Protein products of this gene also phosphorylate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This gene has its strongest expression in the brain and influences signalling cascades involved with learning and memory, neuronal differentiation and migration, neurite outgrowth, and synapse formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. The identified isoforms differ in their ability to undergo autophosphorylation and to phosphorylate downstream kinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

NDUFB11P1 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 11, pseudogene 1

PSMB9 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 9

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is located in the class II region of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex). Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 1 (proteasome beta 6 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. Proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PSMB8 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 8

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is located in the class II region of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex). Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 3 (proteasome beta 5 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. Proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. Two alternative transcripts encoding two isoforms have been identified; both isoforms are processed to yield the same mature subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMB7 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 7

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. The encoded protein is a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, and is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. Expression of this catalytic subunit is downregulated by gamma interferon, and proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMB6 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 6

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. The encoded protein is a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, and is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMB5 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 5

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. This catalytic subunit is not present in the immunoproteasome and is replaced by catalytic subunit 3i (proteasome beta 8 subunit). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

PSMB4 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 4

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMB3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 3

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. The 26 S proteasome may be involved in trinucleotide repeat expansion, a phenomenon which is associated with many hereditary neurological diseases. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 2 and 12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PSMB2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 2

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PSMB1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 1

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is tightly linked to the TBP (TATA-binding protein) gene in human and in mouse, and is transcribed in the opposite orientation in both species. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP3CB Gene

protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme

LOC347381 Gene

hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), beta subunit pseudogene

LOC100533945 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene

ENO3 Gene

enolase 3 (beta, muscle)

This gene encodes one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme is found in skeletal muscle cells in the adult where it may play a role in muscle development and regeneration. A switch from alpha enolase to beta enolase occurs in muscle tissue during development in rodents. Mutations in this gene have be associated glycogen storage disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

TRBJ2-4 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-4

TRBJ2-5 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-5

TRBJ2-6 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-6

TRBJ2-7 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-7

TRBJ2-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-1

TRBJ2-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-2

TRBJ2-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-3

CNGB1 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel beta 1

In humans, the rod photoreceptor cGMP-gated cation channel helps regulate ion flow into the rod photoreceptor outer segment in response to light-induced alteration of the levels of intracellular cGMP. This channel consists of two subunits, alpha and beta, with the protein encoded by this gene representing the beta subunit. Defects in this gene are a cause of cause of retinitis pigmentosa type 45. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]

LOC100421751 Gene

ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 3 polypeptide pseudogene

LMX1B Gene

LIM homeobox transcription factor 1, beta

This gene encodes a member of LIM-homeodomain family of proteins containing two N-terminal zinc-binding LIM domains, 1 homeodomain, and a C-terminal glutamine-rich domain. It functions as a transcription factor, and is essential for the normal development of dorsal limb structures, the glomerular basement membrane, the anterior segment of the eye, and dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons. Mutations in this gene are associated with nail-patella syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC100421362 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 12 pseudogene

TRBV20-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 20-1

HSP90B3P Gene

heat shock protein 90kDa beta (Grp94), member 3, pseudogene

LAMB1 Gene

laminin, beta 1

Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, signaling, neurite outgrowth and metastasis. Laminins are composed of 3 non identical chains: laminin alpha, beta and gamma (formerly A, B1, and B2, respectively) and they form a cruciform structure consisting of 3 short arms, each formed by a different chain, and a long arm composed of all 3 chains. Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. Different alpha, beta and gamma chain isomers combine to give rise to different heterotrimeric laminin isoforms which are designated by Arabic numerals in the order of their discovery, i.e. alpha1beta1gamma1 heterotrimer is laminin 1. The biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the chains have been shown to differ with respect to their tissue distribution, presumably reflecting diverse functions in vivo. This gene encodes the beta chain isoform laminin, beta 1. The beta 1 chain has 7 structurally distinct domains which it shares with other beta chain isomers. The C-terminal helical region containing domains I and II are separated by domain alpha, domains III and V contain several EGF-like repeats, and domains IV and VI have a globular conformation. Laminin, beta 1 is expressed in most tissues that produce basement membranes, and is one of the 3 chains constituting laminin 1, the first laminin isolated from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm (EHS) tumor. A sequence in the beta 1 chain that is involved in cell attachment, chemotaxis, and binding to the laminin receptor was identified and shown to have the capacity to inhibit metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LAMB3 Gene

laminin, beta 3

The product encoded by this gene is a laminin that belongs to a family of basement membrane proteins. This protein is a beta subunit laminin, which together with an alpha and a gamma subunit, forms laminin-5. Mutations in this gene cause epidermolysis bullosa junctional Herlitz type, and generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa, diseases that are characterized by blistering of the skin. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LAMB2 Gene

laminin, beta 2 (laminin S)

Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, signaling, neurite outgrowth and metastasis. Laminins, composed of 3 non identical chains: laminin alpha, beta and gamma (formerly A, B1, and B2, respectively), form a cruciform structure consisting of 3 short arms, each formed by a different chain, and a long arm composed of all 3 chains. Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. Different alpha, beta and gamma chain isomers combine to give rise to different heterotrimeric laminin isoforms which are designated by Arabic numerals in the order of their discovery, i.e. alpha1beta1gamma1 heterotrimer is laminin 1. The biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the chains have been shown to differ with respect to their tissue distribution, presumably reflecting diverse functions in vivo. This gene encodes the beta chain isoform laminin, beta 2. The beta 2 chain contains the 7 structural domains typical of beta chains of laminin, including the short alpha region. However, unlike beta 1 chain, beta 2 has a more restricted tissue distribution. It is enriched in the basement membrane of muscles at the neuromuscular junctions, kidney glomerulus and vascular smooth muscle. Transgenic mice in which the beta 2 chain gene was inactivated by homologous recombination, showed defects in the maturation of neuromuscular junctions and impairment of glomerular filtration. Alternative splicing involving a non consensus 5' splice site (gc) in the 5' UTR of this gene has been reported. It was suggested that inefficient splicing of this first intron, which does not change the protein sequence, results in a greater abundance of the unspliced form of the transcript than the spliced form. The full-length nature of the spliced transcript is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LAMB4 Gene

laminin, beta 4

ATP7B Gene

ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide

This gene is a member of the P-type cation transport ATPase family and encodes a protein with several membrane-spanning domains, an ATPase consensus sequence, a hinge domain, a phosphorylation site, and at least 2 putative copper-binding sites. This protein functions as a monomer, exporting copper out of the cells, such as the efflux of hepatic copper into the bile. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms with distinct cellular localizations, have been characterized. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Wilson disease (WD). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GJB6 Gene

gap junction protein, beta 6, 30kDa

Gap junctions allow the transport of ions and metabolites between the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. They are formed by two hemichannels, made up of six connexin proteins assembled in groups. Each connexin protein has four transmembrane segments, two extracellular loops, a cytoplasmic loop formed between the two inner transmembrane segments, and the N- and C-terminus both being in the cytoplasm. The specificity of the gap junction is determined by which connexin proteins comprise the hemichannel. In the past, connexin protein names were based on their molecular weight, however the new nomenclature uses sequential numbers based on which form (alpha or beta) of the gap junction is present. This gene encodes one of the connexin proteins. Mutations in this gene have been found in some forms of deafness and in some families with hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HLA-DMB Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM beta

HLA-DMB belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DMA) and a beta (DMB) chain, both anchored in the membrane. It is located in intracellular vesicles. DM plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP (class II-associated invariant chain peptide) molecule from the peptide binding site. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and its gene contains 6 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ACACB Gene

acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a complex multifunctional enzyme system. ACC is a biotin-containing enzyme which catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid synthesis. ACC-beta is thought to control fatty acid oxidation by means of the ability of malonyl-CoA to inhibit carnitine-palmitoyl-CoA transferase I, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid uptake and oxidation by mitochondria. ACC-beta may be involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, rather than fatty acid biosynthesis. There is evidence for the presence of two ACC-beta isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GUSBP5 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene 5

GUSBP4 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene 4

GUSBP7 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene 7

GUSBP1 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene 1

GUSBP3 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene 3

GUSBP2 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene 2

GUSBP9 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene 9

GUSBP8 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene 8

REG1B Gene

regenerating islet-derived 1 beta

This gene is a type I subclass member of the Reg gene family. The Reg gene family is a multigene family grouped into four subclasses, types I, II, III and IV based on the primary structures of the encoded proteins. This gene encodes a protein secreted by the exocrine pancreas that is highly similar to the REG1A protein. The related REG1A protein is associated with islet cell regeneration and diabetogenesis, and may be involved in pancreatic lithogenesis. Reg family members REG1A, REGL, PAP and this gene are tandemly clustered on chromosome 2p12 and may have arisen from the same ancestral gene by gene duplication. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ACTBP8 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene 8

ACTBP9 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene 9

ACTBP3 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene 3

ACTBP4 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene 4

ACTBP6 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene 6

ACTBP7 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene 7

LOC100418883 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene

TUBB8P10 Gene

tubulin, beta 8 class VIII pseudogene 10

DAGLB Gene

diacylglycerol lipase, beta

LOC101180897 Gene

Rab geranylgeranyltransferase, beta subunit pseudogene

LOC105376811 Gene

laminin subunit beta-2-like

CCBL1 Gene

cysteine conjugate-beta lyase, cytoplasmic

This gene encodes a cytosolic enzyme that is responsible for the metabolism of cysteine conjugates of certain halogenated alkenes and alkanes. This metabolism can form reactive metabolites leading to nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Increased levels of this enzyme have been linked to schizophrenia. Multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CCBL2 Gene

cysteine conjugate-beta lyase 2

This gene encodes an aminotransferase that transaminates kynurenine to form kynurenic acid. Kynurenic acid is a metabolite of tryptophan. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different proteins have been described for this gene. This gene shares 5' exon structure with the RNA binding motif protein, X-linked-like 1 locus on chromosome 1, but the coding sequences are non-overlapping. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

ALG1 Gene

ALG1, chitobiosyldiphosphodolichol beta-mannosyltransferase

The enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes the first mannosylation step in the biosynthesis of lipid-linked oligosaccharides. This gene is mutated in congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ik. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

ALG5 Gene

ALG5, dolichyl-phosphate beta-glucosyltransferase

This gene encodes a member of the glycosyltransferase 2 family. The encoded protein participates in glucosylation of the oligomannose core in N-linked glycosylation of proteins. The addition of glucose residues to the oligomannose core is necessary to ensure substrate recognition, and therefore, effectual transfer of the oligomannose core to the nascent glycoproteins. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

MAP1LC3B2 Gene

microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta 2

EEF1B2P4 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2 pseudogene 4

EEF1B2P7 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2 pseudogene 7

DEFB135 Gene

defensin, beta 135

Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the immunologic response to invading microorganisms. The antimicrobial protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 8p23. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB136 Gene

defensin, beta 136

Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the immunologic response to invading microorganisms. The antimicrobial protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 8p23. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB130 Gene

defensin, beta 130

Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the immunologic response to invading microorganisms. The antimicrobial protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 8p23. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB132 Gene

defensin, beta 132

Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the immunologic response to invading microorganisms. The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. This protein binds spermatozoa and has antimicrobial activity against E. coli. Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 20p13. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB133 Gene

defensin, beta 133

TPSAB1 Gene

tryptase alpha/beta 1

Tryptases comprise a family of trypsin-like serine proteases, the peptidase family S1. Tryptases are enzymatically active only as heparin-stabilized tetramers, and they are resistant to all known endogenous proteinase inhibitors. Several tryptase genes are clustered on chromosome 16p13.3. These genes are characterized by several distinct features. They have a highly conserved 3' UTR and contain tandem repeat sequences at the 5' flank and 3' UTR which are thought to play a role in regulation of the mRNA stability. These genes have an intron immediately upstream of the initiator Met codon, which separates the site of transcription initiation from protein coding sequence. This feature is characteristic of tryptases but is unusual in other genes. The alleles of this gene exhibit an unusual amount of sequence variation, such that the alleles were once thought to represent two separate genes, alpha and beta 1. Beta tryptases appear to be the main isoenzymes expressed in mast cells; whereas in basophils, alpha tryptases predominate. Tryptases have been implicated as mediators in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic and inflammatory disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NDUFB1P2 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 1 pseudogene 2

B3GALNT1P1 Gene

beta-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 pseudogene 1

NFYB Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a trimeric complex, forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds with high specificity to CCAAT motifs in the promoter regions in a variety of genes. This gene product, subunit B, forms a tight dimer with the C subunit, a prerequisite for subunit A association. The resulting trimer binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. Subunits B and C each contain a histone-like motif. Observation of the histone nature of these subunits is supported by two types of evidence; protein sequence alignments and experiments with mutants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MYH7B Gene

myosin, heavy chain 7B, cardiac muscle, beta

The myosin II molecule is a multi-subunit complex consisting of two heavy chains and four light chains. This gene encodes a heavy chain of myosin II, which is a member of the motor-domain superfamily. The heavy chain includes a globular motor domain, which catalyzes ATP hydrolysis and interacts with actin, and a tail domain in which heptad repeat sequences promote dimerization by interacting to form a rod-like alpha-helical coiled coil. This heavy chain subunit is a slow-twitch myosin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but the full-length nature of these variants is not determined. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

TRBV6-8 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-8

TRBV6-9 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-9

TRBV6-5 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-5

TRBV6-6 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-6

TRBV6-7 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-7 (non-functional)

TRBV6-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-2 (gene/pseudogene)

TRBV6-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-3

THRB Gene

thyroid hormone receptor, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear hormone receptor for triiodothyronine. It is one of the several receptors for thyroid hormone, and has been shown to mediate the biological activities of thyroid hormone. Knockout studies in mice suggest that the different receptors, while having certain extent of redundancy, may mediate different functions of thyroid hormone. Mutations in this gene are known to be a cause of generalized thyroid hormone resistance (GTHR), a syndrome characterized by goiter and high levels of circulating thyroid hormone (T3-T4), with normal or slightly elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNMB3P1 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 3 pseudogene 1

PSG8 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 8

The human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are a group of molecules that are mainly produced by the placental syncytiotrophoblasts during pregnancy. PSGs comprise a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. For additional general information about the PSG gene family, see PSG1 (MIM 176390).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

PSG9 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) family. This protein family and the closely related carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) gene family are both members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and are organized as a large gene cluster. This protein is thought to inhibit platelet-fibrinogen interactions. Several studies suggest that reduced serum concentrations of PSGs are associated with fetal growth restrictions, while up-regulation of this gene has been observed in colorectal cancers. Several pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosome 19. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode multiple protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

PSG6 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 6

This gene is a member of the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) gene family. The PSG genes are a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family of immunoglobulin-like genes, and are found in a gene cluster at 19q13.1-q13.2 telomeric to another cluster of CEA-related genes. The PSG genes are expressed by placental trophoblasts and released into the maternal circulation during pregnancy, and are thought to be essential for maintenance of normal pregnancy. The protein encoded by this gene contains the Arg-Gly-Asp tripeptide associated with cellular adhesion and recognition. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSG7 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 7 (gene/pseudogene)

This gene is a member of the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) gene family. The PSG genes are a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family of immunoglobulin-like genes, and are found in a gene cluster at 19q13.1-q13.2 telomeric to another cluster of CEA-related genes. The PSG genes are expressed by placental trophoblasts and released into the maternal circulation during pregnancy, and are thought to be essential for maintenance of normal pregnancy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PSG4 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 4

The human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are a family of proteins that are synthesized in large amounts by placental trophoblasts and released into the maternal circulation during pregnancy. Molecular cloning and analysis of several PSG genes has indicated that the PSGs form a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily of genes. Members of the CEA family consist of a single N domain, with structural similarity to the immunoglobulin variable domains, followed by a variable number of immunoglobulin constant-like A and/or B domains. Most PSGs have an arg-gly-asp (RGD) motif, which has been shown to function as an adhesion recognition signal for several integrins, in the N-terminal domain (summary by Teglund et al., 1994 [PubMed 7851896]). For additional general information about the PSG gene family, see PSG1 (MIM 176390).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

PSG5 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 5

The human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are a group of molecules that are mainly produced by the placental syncytiotrophoblasts during pregnancy. PSGs comprise a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. For additional general information about the PSG gene family, see PSG1 (MIM 176390).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

PSG2 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 2

The human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are a family of proteins that are synthesized in large amounts by placental trophoblasts and released into the maternal circulation during pregnancy. Molecular cloning and analysis of several PSG genes has indicated that the PSGs form a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily of genes. Members of the CEA family consist of a single N domain, with structural similarity to the immunoglobulin variable domains, followed by a variable number of immunoglobulin constant-like A and/or B domains. Most PSGs have an arg-gly-asp (RGD) motif, which has been shown to function as an adhesion recognition signal for several integrins, in the N-terminal domain (summary by Teglund et al., 1994 [PubMed 7851896]). For additional general information about the PSG gene family, see PSG1 (MIM 176390).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

PSG3 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 3

The human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are a family of proteins that are synthesized in large amounts by placental trophoblasts and released into the maternal circulation during pregnancy. Molecular cloning and analysis of several PSG genes has indicated that the PSGs form a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily of genes. Members of the CEA family consist of a single N domain, with structural similarity to the immunoglobulin variable domains, followed by a variable number of immunoglobulin constant-like A and/or B domains. Most PSGs have an arg-gly-asp (RGD) motif, which has been shown to function as an adhesion recognition signal for several integrins, in the N-terminal domain (summary by Teglund et al., 1994 [PubMed 7851896]). For additional general information about the PSG gene family, see PSG1 (MIM 176390).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

PSG1 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 1

The human placenta is a multihormonal endocrine organ that produces hormones, enzymes, and other molecules that support fetal survival and development. Pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein (PSBG, PSG) is a major product of the syncytiotrophoblast, reaching concentrations of 100 to 290 mg/l at term in the serum of pregnant women (Horne et al., 1976 [PubMed 971765]). PSG is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily (Watanabe and Chou, 1988 [PubMed 3257488]; Streydio et al., 1988 [PubMed 3260773]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

LOC100421417 Gene

ATPase, H+/K+ exchanging, beta polypeptide pseudogene

PSMB3P Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 3 pseudogene

TRBC1 Gene

T cell receptor beta constant 1

TRBC2 Gene

T cell receptor beta constant 2

NDUFB4P1 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 4, 15kDa pseudogene 1

LAMB2P1 Gene

laminin, beta 2 pseudogene 1

HSD11B2 Gene

hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 2

There are at least two isozymes of the corticosteroid 11-beta-dehydrogenase, a microsomal enzyme complex responsible for the interconversion of cortisol and cortisone. The type I isozyme has both 11-beta-dehydrogenase (cortisol to cortisone) and 11-oxoreductase (cortisone to cortisol) activities. The type II isozyme, encoded by this gene, has only 11-beta-dehydrogenase activity. In aldosterone-selective epithelial tissues such as the kidney, the type II isozyme catalyzes the glucocorticoid cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone, thus preventing illicit activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor. In tissues that do not express the mineralocorticoid receptor, such as the placenta and testis, it protects cells from the growth-inhibiting and/or pro-apoptotic effects of cortisol, particularly during embryonic development. Mutations in this gene cause the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess and hypertension. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

HSD11B1 Gene

hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the stress hormone cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. In addition, the encoded protein can catalyze the reverse reaction, the conversion of cortisone to cortisol. Too much cortisol can lead to central obesity, and a particular variation in this gene has been associated with obesity and insulin resistance in children. Mutations in this gene and H6PD (hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (glucose 1-dehydrogenase)) are the cause of cortisone reductase deficiency. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

TRBV21-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 21-1 (pseudogene)

GUCY1B2 Gene

guanylate cyclase 1, soluble, beta 2 (pseudogene)

SCN1B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type I beta subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are heteromeric proteins that function in the generation and propagation of action potentials in muscle and neuronal cells. They are composed of one alpha and two beta subunits, where the alpha subunit provides channel activity and the beta-1 subunit modulates the kinetics of channel inactivation. This gene encodes a sodium channel beta-1 subunit. Mutations in this gene result in generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, Brugada syndrome 5, and defects in cardiac conduction. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

TAB3P1 Gene

TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 3 pseudogene 1

NFKBIB Gene

nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the NF-kappa-B inhibitor family, which inhibit NF-kappa-B by complexing with, and trapping it in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of serine residues on these proteins by kinases marks them for destruction via the ubiquitination pathway, thereby allowing activation of the NF-kappa-B, which translocates to the nucleus to function as a transcription factor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

LOC105373314 Gene

UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-like protein 1

B4GALNT4 Gene

beta-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 4

B4GALNT1 Gene

beta-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 1

GM2 and GD2 gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. GalNAc-T is the enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of G(M2) and G(D2) glycosphingolipids. GalNAc-T catalyzes the transfer of GalNAc into G(M3) and G(D3) by a beta-1,4 linkage, resulting in the synthesis of G(M2) and G(D2), respectively. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

B4GALNT2 Gene

beta-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 2

B4GALNT2 catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the human Sd(a) antigen through the addition of an N-acetylgalactosamine residue via a beta-1,4 linkage to a subterminal galactose residue substituted with an alpha-2,3-linked sialic acid. B4GALNT2 also catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of the Cad antigen (Montiel et al., 2003 [PubMed 12678917]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

B4GALNT3 Gene

beta-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 3

B4GALNT3 transfers N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) onto glucosyl residues to form N,N-prime-diacetyllactosediamine (LacdiNAc, or LDN), a unique terminal structure of cell surface N-glycans (Ikehara et al., 2006 [PubMed 16728562]).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008]

TRBV23OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 23/OR9-2 (non-functional)

GBAP1 Gene

glucosidase, beta, acid pseudogene 1

YWHAB Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the 14-3-3 family of proteins, members of which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals. The encoded protein has been shown to interact with RAF1 and CDC25 phosphatases, suggesting that it may play a role in linking mitogenic signaling and the cell cycle machinery. Two transcript variants, which encode the same protein, have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC101927519 Gene

tubulin beta-7 chain-like

RFNG Gene

RFNG O-fucosylpeptide 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase

SCNN1B Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 beta subunit

Nonvoltage-gated, amiloride-sensitive, sodium channels control fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelia in many organs. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the beta subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1), and Liddle syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

TRBV30 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 30 (gene/pseudogene)

LOC102725016 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B'' subunit beta

ATF6B Gene

activating transcription factor 6 beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor in the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway during ER stress. Either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with ATF6-alpha, the encoded protein binds to the ER stress response element, interacting with nuclear transcription factor Y to activate UPR target genes. The protein is normally found in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum; however, under ER stress, the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain is cleaved from the rest of the protein and translocates to the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

LOC100287066 Gene

defensin, beta 131 pseudogene

GLRB Gene

glycine receptor, beta

This gene encodes the beta subunit of the glycine receptor, which is a pentamer composed of alpha and beta subunits. The receptor functions as a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel, which produces hyperpolarization via increased chloride conductance due to the binding of glycine to the receptor. Mutations in this gene cause startle disease, also known as hereditary hyperekplexia or congenital stiff-person syndrome, a disease characterized by muscular rigidity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

GLB1L2 Gene

galactosidase, beta 1-like 2

GLB1L3 Gene

galactosidase, beta 1-like 3

CRYBA2 Gene

crystallin, beta A2

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of the vertebrate eye, which function to maintain the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also defined as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group but absent in the acidic group). Beta-crystallins form aggregates of different sizes and are able to form homodimers through self-association or heterodimers with other beta-crystallins. This gene is a beta acidic group member. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding identical proteins have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CRYBA1 Gene

crystallin, beta A1

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none in the acidic group). Beta-crystallins form aggregates of different sizes and are able to self-associate to form dimers or to form heterodimers with other beta-crystallins. This gene, a beta acidic group member, encodes two proteins (crystallin, beta A3 and crystallin, beta A1) from a single mRNA, the latter protein is 17 aa shorter than crystallin, beta A3 and is generated by use of an alternate translation initiation site. Deletion of exons 3 and 4 causes the autosomal dominant disease 'zonular cataract with sutural opacities'. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CRYBA4 Gene

crystallin, beta A4

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none in the acidic group). Beta-crystallins form aggregates of different sizes and are able to self-associate to form dimers or to form heterodimers with other beta-crystallins. This gene, a beta acidic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-B1, beta-B2, and beta-B3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BTRCP1 Gene

beta-transducin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene 1

AP5B1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 5, beta 1 subunit

ITGB3 Gene

integrin, beta 3 (platelet glycoprotein IIIa, antigen CD61)

The ITGB3 protein product is the integrin beta chain beta 3. Integrins are integral cell-surface proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. A given chain may combine with multiple partners resulting in different integrins. Integrin beta 3 is found along with the alpha IIb chain in platelets. Integrins are known to participate in cell adhesion as well as cell-surface mediated signalling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGB2 Gene

integrin, beta 2 (complement component 3 receptor 3 and 4 subunit)

This gene encodes an integrin beta chain, which combines with multiple different alpha chains to form different integrin heterodimers. Integrins are integral cell-surface proteins that participate in cell adhesion as well as cell-surface mediated signalling. The encoded protein plays an important role in immune response and defects in this gene cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

ITGB5 Gene

integrin, beta 5

ITGB4 Gene

integrin, beta 4

Integrins are heterodimers comprised of alpha and beta subunits, that are noncovalently associated transmembrane glycoprotein receptors. Different combinations of alpha and beta polypeptides form complexes that vary in their ligand-binding specificities. Integrins mediate cell-matrix or cell-cell adhesion, and transduced signals that regulate gene expression and cell growth. This gene encodes the integrin beta 4 subunit, a receptor for the laminins. This subunit tends to associate with alpha 6 subunit and is likely to play a pivotal role in the biology of invasive carcinoma. Mutations in this gene are associated with epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGB7 Gene

integrin, beta 7

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the integrin superfamily. Members of this family are adhesion receptors that function in signaling from the extracellular matrix to the cell. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. The encoded protein forms dimers with an alpha4 chain or an alphaE chain and plays a role in leukocyte adhesion. Dimerization with alpha4 forms a homing receptor for migration of lymphocytes to the intestinal mucosa and Peyer's patches. Dimerization with alphaE permits binding to the ligand epithelial cadherin, a calcium-dependent adhesion molecule. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

ITGB6 Gene

integrin, beta 6

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the integrin superfamily. Members of this family are adhesion receptors that function in signaling from the extracellular matrix to the cell. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. The encoded protein forms a dimer with an alpha v chain and this heterodimer can bind to ligands like fibronectin and transforming growth factor beta 1. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

ITGB8 Gene

integrin, beta 8

This gene is a member of the integrin beta chain family and encodes a single-pass type I membrane protein with a VWFA domain and four cysteine-rich repeats. This protein noncovalently binds to an alpha subunit to form a heterodimeric integrin complex. In general, integrin complexes mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions and this complex plays a role in human airway epithelial proliferation. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGB Gene

fibrinogen beta chain

The protein encoded by this gene is the beta component of fibrinogen, a blood-borne glycoprotein comprised of three pairs of nonidentical polypeptide chains. Following vascular injury, fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form fibrin which is the most abundant component of blood clots. In addition, various cleavage products of fibrinogen and fibrin regulate cell adhesion and spreading, display vasoconstrictor and chemotactic activities, and are mitogens for several cell types. Mutations in this gene lead to several disorders, including afibrinogenemia, dysfibrinogenemia, hypodysfibrinogenemia and thrombotic tendency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

CLYBL Gene

citrate lyase beta like

AABT Gene

Beta-amino acids, renal transport of

GADD45B Gene

growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, beta

This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The genes in this group respond to environmental stresses by mediating activation of the p38/JNK pathway. This activation is mediated via their proteins binding and activating MTK1/MEKK4 kinase, which is an upstream activator of both p38 and JNK MAPKs. The function of these genes or their protein products is involved in the regulation of growth and apoptosis. These genes are regulated by different mechanisms, but they are often coordinately expressed and can function cooperatively in inhibiting cell growth. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV3-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 3-1

TRBV7-9 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-9

TRBV7-8 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-8

TRBV7-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-1 (non-functional)

TRBV7-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-3

TRBV7-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-2

TRBV7-5 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-5 (pseudogene)

TRBV7-4 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-4 (gene/pseudogene)

TRBV7-7 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-7

TRBV7-6 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-6

IFNB1 Gene

interferon, beta 1, fibroblast

HLA-DOB Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DO beta

HLA-DOB belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DOA) and a beta chain (DOB), both anchored in the membrane. It is located in intracellular vesicles. DO suppresses peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by inhibiting HLA-DM. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and its gene contains 6 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C8B Gene

complement component 8, beta polypeptide

This gene encodes one of the three subunits of the complement component 8 (C8) protein. C8 is composed of equimolar amounts of alpha, beta and gamma subunits, which are encoded by three separate genes. C8 is one component of the membrane attack complex, which mediates cell lysis, and it initiates membrane penetration of the complex. This protein mediates the interaction of C8 with the C5b-7 membrane attack complex precursor. In humans deficiency of this protein is associated with increased risk of meningococcal infections. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

PDHB Gene

pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta

The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide, and provides the primary link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The PDH complex is composed of multiple copies of three enzymatic components: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). The E1 enzyme is a heterotetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. This gene encodes the E1 beta subunit. Mutations in this gene are associated with pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-beta deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

FSHB Gene

follicle stimulating hormone, beta polypeptide

The pituitary glycoprotein hormone family includes follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone. All of these glycoproteins consist of an identical alpha subunit and a hormone-specific beta subunit. This gene encodes the beta subunit of follicle-stimulating hormone. In conjunction with luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone induces egg and sperm production. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GMFBP1 Gene

glia maturation factor, beta pseudogene 1

LOC100533944 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene

LOC390705 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', beta pseudogene

LOC100533948 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene

LOC100422013 Gene

catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa pseudogene

LOC100420944 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, beta pseudogene

TGFB1I1 Gene

transforming growth factor beta 1 induced transcript 1

This gene encodes a coactivator of the androgen receptor, a transcription factor which is activated by androgen and has a key role in male sexual differentiation. The encoded protein is thought to regulate androgen receptor activity and may have a role to play in the treatment of prostate cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

SNCB Gene

synuclein, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is highly homologous to alpha-synuclein. These proteins are abundantly expressed in the brain and putatively inhibit phospholipase D2 selectively. The encoded protein, which may play a role in neuronal plasticity, is abundant in neurofibrillary lesions of patients with Alzheimer disease. This protein has been shown to be highly expressed in the substantia nigra of the brain, a region of neuronal degeneration in patients with Parkinson disease; however, no direct relation to Parkinson disease has been established. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DEFB109P1B Gene

defensin, beta 109, pseudogene 1B

CHKB Gene

choline kinase beta

Choline kinase (CK) and ethanolamine kinase (EK) catalyze the phosphorylation of choline/ethanolamine to phosphocholine/phosphoethanolamine. This is the first enzyme in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine in all animal cells. The highly purified CKs from mammalian sources and their recombinant gene products have been shown to have EK activity also, indicating that both activities reside on the same protein. The choline kinase-like protein encoded by CHKL belongs to the choline/ethanolamine kinase family; however, its exact function is not known. Read-through transcripts are expressed from this locus that include exons from the downstream CPT1B locus. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

CNGB3 Gene

cyclic nucleotide gated channel beta 3

This gene encodes the beta subunit of a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. The encoded beta subunit appears to play a role in modulation of channel function in cone photoreceptors. This heterotetrameric channel is necessary for sensory transduction, and mutations in this gene have been associated with achromatopsia 3, progressive cone dystrophy, and juvenile macular degeneration, also known as Stargardt Disease. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

ST6GALNAC4P1 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 4 pseudogene 1

AP2B1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the assembly protein complex 2, which serves to link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. The encoded protein is found on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles in the plasma membrane. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC102723971 Gene

beta-lactoglobulin-like

IL1B Gene

interleukin 1, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This cytokine is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1 (CASP1/ICE). This cytokine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) by this cytokine in the central nervous system (CNS) is found to contribute to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PKIB Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor beta

This gene encodes a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor family. The encoded protein may play a role in the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway by interacting with the catalytic subunit of PKA, and overexpression of this gene may play a role in prostate cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

BCO1 Gene

beta-carotene oxygenase 1

Vitamin A metabolism is important for vital processes such as vision, embryonic development, cell differentiation, and membrane and skin protection. The protein encoded by this gene is a key enzyme in beta-carotene metabolism to vitamin A. It catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of beta,beta-carotene into two retinal molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP1B1P1 Gene

ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 1 polypeptide pseudogene 1

TECPR1 Gene

tectonin beta-propeller repeat containing 1

This gene encodes a tethering factor involved in autophagy. The encoded protein is found at autolysosomes, and is involved in targeting protein aggregates, damaged mitochondria, and bacterial pathogens for autophagy [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

TECPR2 Gene

tectonin beta-propeller repeat containing 2

APBB1IP Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 1 interacting protein

ST6GAL2 Gene

ST6 beta-galactosamide alpha-2,6-sialyltranferase 2

This locus encodes a sialyltransferase. The encoded type II transmembrane protein catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP to an oligosaccharide substrate. Polymorphisms at this locus may be associated with variations in risperidone response in schizophrenic patients. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

ATP5BP1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide pseudogene 1

CGB8 Gene

chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide 8

This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta 8 subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG). Glycoprotein hormones are heterodimers consisting of a common alpha subunit and an unique beta subunit which confers biological specificity. CG is produced by the trophoblastic cells of the placenta and stimulates the ovaries to synthesize the steroids that are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. The beta subunit of CG is encoded by 6 genes which are arranged in tandem and inverted pairs on chromosome 19q13.3 and contiguous with the luteinizing hormone beta subunit gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CGB5 Gene

chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide 5

This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta 5 subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG). Glycoprotein hormones are heterodimers consisting of a common alpha subunit and an unique beta subunit which confers biological specificity. CG is produced by the trophoblastic cells of the placenta and stimulates the ovaries to synthesize the steroids that are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. The beta subunit of CG is encoded by 6 genes which are arranged in tandem and inverted pairs on chromosome 19q13.3 and contiguous with the luteinizing hormone beta subunit gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CGB7 Gene

chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide 7

This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta 7 subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG). Glycoprotein hormones are heterodimers consisting of a common alpha subunit and an unique beta subunit which confers biological specificity. CG is produced by the trophoblastic cells of the placenta and stimulates the ovaries to synthesize the steroids that are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. The beta subunit of CG is encoded by 6 genes which are arranged in tandem and inverted pairs on chromosome 19q13.3 and contiguous with the luteinizing hormone beta subunit gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CGB1 Gene

chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide 1

The beta subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CGB) is encoded by six highly homologous and structurally similar genes that are arranged in tandem and inverted pairs on chromosome 19q13.3, and contiguous with the luteinizing hormone beta (LHB) subunit gene. The CGB genes are primarily distinguished by differences in the 5' untranscribed region. This gene was originally thought to be one of the two pseudogenes (CGB1 and CGB2) of CGB subunit, however, detection of CGB1 and CGB2 transcripts in vivo, and their presence on the polysomes, suggested that these transcripts are translated. To date, a protein product corresponding to CGB1 has not been isolated. The deduced sequence of the hypothetical protein of 132 aa does not share any similarity with that of functional CGB subunits (PMID:8954017). However, a 155 aa protein, translated from a different frame, is about the same size, and shares 98% identity with other CGB subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CGB2 Gene

chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide 2

The beta subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CGB) is encoded by six highly homologous and structurally similar genes that are arranged in tandem and inverted pairs on chromosome 19q13.3, and contiguous with the luteinizing hormone beta (LHB) subunit gene. The CGB genes are primarily distinguished by differences in the 5' untranscribed region. This gene was originally thought to be one of the two pseudogenes (CGB1 and CGB2) of CGB subunit, however, detection of CGB1 and CGB2 transcripts in vivo, and their presence on the polysomes, suggested that these transcripts are translated. To date, a protein product corresponding to CGB2 has not been isolated. The deduced sequence of the hypothetical protein of 132 aa does not share any similarity with that of functional CGB subunits (PMID:8954017). However, a 163 aa protein, translated from a different frame, is about the same size, and shares 98% identity with other CGB subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100128711 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 10, 22kDa pseudogene

TMSB4X Gene

thymosin beta 4, X-linked

This gene encodes an actin sequestering protein which plays a role in regulation of actin polymerization. The protein is also involved in cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. This gene escapes X inactivation and has a homolog on chromosome Y. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMSB4Y Gene

thymosin beta 4, Y-linked

This gene lies within the male specific region of chromosome Y. Its homolog on chromosome X escapes X inactivation and encodes an actin sequestering protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

APBB1 Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 1 (Fe65)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Fe65 protein family. It is an adaptor protein localized in the nucleus. It interacts with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP), transcription factor CP2/LSF/LBP1 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. APP functions as a cytosolic anchoring site that can prevent the gene product's nuclear translocation. This encoded protein could play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. It is thought to regulate transcription. Also it is observed to block cell cycle progression by downregulating thymidylate synthase expression. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

APBB2 Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the cytoplasmic domains of amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein and amyloid beta (A4) precursor-like protein 2. This protein contains two phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains, which are thought to function in signal transduction. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with Alzheimer's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

APBB3 Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the APBB protein family. It is found in the cytoplasm and binds to the intracellular domain of the Alzheimer's disease beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as to other APP-like proteins. It is thought that the protein encoded by this gene may modulate the internalization of APP. Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GUSBP11 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene 11

This transcribed pseudogene is similar to two functional genes. The 5' portion of the pseudogene is related to glucuronidase, beta, and the 3' portion is related to immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

HSD17B8 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 8

In mice, the Ke6 protein is a 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that can regulate the concentration of biologically active estrogens and androgens. It is preferentially an oxidative enzyme and inactivates estradiol, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone. However, the enzyme has some reductive activity and can synthesize estradiol from estrone. The protein encoded by this gene is similar to Ke6 and is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase superfamily. An alternatively spliced transcript of this gene has been detected, but the full-length nature of this variant has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HSD17B1 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 1

HSD17B2 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 2

HSD17B3 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 3

This isoform of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase is expressed predominantly in the testis and catalyzes the conversion of androstenedione to testosterone. It preferentially uses NADP as cofactor. Deficiency can result in male pseudohermaphroditism with gynecomastia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HSD17B4 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a bifunctional enzyme that is involved in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway for fatty acids. It also acts as a catalyst for the formation of 3-ketoacyl-CoA intermediates from both straight-chain and 2-methyl-branched-chain fatty acids. Defects in this gene that affect the peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation activity are a cause of D-bifunctional protein deficiency (DBPD). An apparent pseudogene of this gene is present on chromosome 8. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

HSD17B6 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 6

The protein encoded by this gene has both oxidoreductase and epimerase activities and is involved in androgen catabolism. The oxidoreductase activity can convert 3 alpha-adiol to dihydrotestosterone, while the epimerase activity can convert androsterone to epi-androsterone. Both reactions use NAD+ as the preferred cofactor. This gene is a member of the retinol dehydrogenase family. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

HSD17B7 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 7

HSD17B7 encodes an enzyme that functions both as a 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.62) in the biosynthesis of sex steroids and as a 3-ketosteroid reductase (EC 1.1.1.270) in the biosynthesis of cholesterol (Marijanovic et al., 2003 [PubMed 12829805]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2010]

LOC100287189 Gene

Sec61 beta subunit pseudogene

LOC643373 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene

LOC643371 Gene

tubulin, beta 2B class IIb pseudogene

LOC100128174 Gene

defensin, beta 131 pseudogene

TPSB2 Gene

tryptase beta 2 (gene/pseudogene)

Tryptases comprise a family of trypsin-like serine proteases, the peptidase family S1. Tryptases are enzymatically active only as heparin-stabilized tetramers, and they are resistant to all known endogenous proteinase inhibitors. Several tryptase genes are clustered on chromosome 16p13.3. These genes are characterized by several distinct features. They have a highly conserved 3' UTR and contain tandem repeat sequences at the 5' flank and 3' UTR which are thought to play a role in regulation of the mRNA stability. These genes have an intron immediately upstream of the initiator Met codon, which separates the site of transcription initiation from protein coding sequence. This feature is characteristic of tryptases but is unusual in other genes. The alleles of this gene exhibit an unusual amount of sequence variation, such that the alleles were once thought to represent two separate genes, beta II and beta III. Beta tryptases appear to be the main isoenzymes expressed in mast cells, whereas in basophils, alpha-tryptases predominate. Tryptases have been implicated as mediators in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic and inflammatory disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST6GAL1 Gene

ST6 beta-galactosamide alpha-2,6-sialyltranferase 1

This gene encodes a member of glycosyltransferase family 29. The encoded protein is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to galactose-containing substrates. The protein, which is normally found in the Golgi but can be proteolytically processed to a soluble form, is involved in the generation of the cell-surface carbohydrate determinants and differentiation antigens HB-6, CD75, and CD76. This gene has been incorrectly referred to as CD75. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

ERO1LB Gene

ERO1-like beta (S. cerevisiae)

DEFB4B Gene

defensin, beta 4B

Defensins form a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence. This gene encodes defensin, beta 4, an antibiotic peptide which is locally regulated by inflammation. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFB4A Gene

defensin, beta 4A

Defensins form a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence. This gene encodes defensin, beta 4, an antibiotic peptide which is locally regulated by inflammation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IL20RB Gene

interleukin 20 receptor beta

IL20RB and IL20RA (MIM 605620) form a heterodimeric receptor for interleukin-20 (IL20; MIM 605619) (Blumberg et al., 2001 [PubMed 11163236]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2009]

TRBV21OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 21/OR9-2 (pseudogene)

CAMK2B Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a beta chain. It is possible that distinct isoforms of this chain have different cellular localizations and interact differently with calmodulin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

RARB Gene

retinoic acid receptor, beta

This gene encodes retinoic acid receptor beta, a member of the thyroid-steroid hormone receptor superfamily of nuclear transcriptional regulators. This receptor localizes to the cytoplasm and to subnuclear compartments. It binds retinoic acid, the biologically active form of vitamin A which mediates cellular signalling in embryonic morphogenesis, cell growth and differentiation. It is thought that this protein limits growth of many cell types by regulating gene expression. The gene was first identified in a hepatocellular carcinoma where it flanks a hepatitis B virus integration site. Alternate promoter usage and differential splicing result in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

LOC101059997 Gene

alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 17A-like

LOC391741 Gene

actin, beta-like 2 pseudogene

LOC647208 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', beta pseudogene

LAPTM4B Gene

lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 beta

CRYBB2 Gene

crystallin, beta B2

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none in the acidic group). Beta-crystallins form aggregates of different sizes and are able to self-associate to form dimers or to form heterodimers with other beta-crystallins. This gene, a beta basic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-A4, beta-B1, and beta-B3. A chain-terminating mutation was found to cause type 2 cerulean cataracts. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CRYBB3 Gene

crystallin, beta B3

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none in the acidic group). Beta-crystallins form aggregates of different sizes and are able to self-associate to form dimers or to form heterodimers with other beta-crystallins. This gene, a beta basic group member, is part of a gene cluster with beta-A4, beta-B1, and beta-B2. Mutations in this gene result in cataract congenital nuclear autosomal recessive type 2. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

CRYBB1 Gene

crystallin, beta B1

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Beta-crystallins, the most heterogeneous, differ by the presence of the C-terminal extension (present in the basic group, none in the acidic group). Beta-crystallins form aggregates of different sizes and are able to self-associate to form dimers or to form heterodimers with other beta-crystallins. This gene, a beta basic group member, undergoes extensive cleavage at its N-terminal extension during lens maturation. It is also a member of a gene cluster with beta-A4, beta-B2, and beta-B3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DEFB107B Gene

defensin, beta 107B

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical copies of defensin, beta 107, DEFB107A and DEFB107B, in tail-to-tail orientation. This gene, DEFB107B, represents the more telomeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFB107A Gene

defensin, beta 107A

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical copies of defensin, beta 107, DEFB107A and DEFB107B, in tail-to-tail orientation. This gene, DEFB107A, represents the more centromeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

LOC644936 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene

TMSB10P1 Gene

thymosin beta 10 pseudogene 1

TMSB10P2 Gene

thymosin beta 10 pseudogene 2

RETNLB Gene

resistin like beta

LOC100132223 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene

MAT2B Gene

methionine adenosyltransferase II, beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) family. MAT catalyzes the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP. This protein is the regulatory beta subunit of MAT. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GUCY1B3 Gene

guanylate cyclase 1, soluble, beta 3

This gene encodes the beta subunit of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), which catalyzes the conversion of GTP (guanosine triphosphate) to cGMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate). The encoded protein contains an HNOX domain, which serves as a receptor for ligands such as nitric oxide, oxygen and nitrovasodilator drugs. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

GNB2L1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like 1

LOC100653061 Gene

beta-glucuronidase-like protein SMA4

TRBD1 Gene

T cell receptor beta diversity 1

HSD17B12 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 12

This gene encodes a very important 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) that converts estrone into estradiol in ovarian tissue. This enzyme is also involved in fatty acid elongation. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

HSD17B13 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 13

HSD17B11 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 11

Short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases, such as HSD17B11, metabolize secondary alcohols and ketones (Brereton et al., 2001 [PubMed 11165019]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

HSD17B14 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 14

17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, such as HSD17B14, are primarily involved in metabolism of steroids at the C17 position and also of other substrates, such as fatty acids, prostaglandins, and xenobiotics (Lukacik et al., 2007 [PubMed 17067289]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

LOC105379652 Gene

DLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR-1 beta chain-like

LOC101928297 Gene

tubulin beta-8 chain-like

RABGGTB Gene

Rab geranylgeranyltransferase, beta subunit

This gene encodes the beta-subunit of the enzyme Rab geranylgeranyl-transferase (RabGGTase), which belongs to the protein prenyltransferase family. RabGGTase catalyzes the post-translational addition of geranylgeranyl groups to C-terminal cysteine residues of Rab GTPases. Three small nucleolar RNA genes are present in the intronic regions of this gene. Alternately spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. A pseudogene associated with this gene is located on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

TUBB Gene

tubulin, beta class I

This gene encodes a beta tubulin protein. This protein forms a dimer with alpha tubulin and acts as a structural component of microtubules. Mutations in this gene cause cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 6. Alternative splicing results in multiple splice variants. There are multiple pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

CEBPB Gene

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta

This intronless gene encodes a transcription factor that contains a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain. The encoded protein functions as a homodimer but can also form heterodimers with CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins alpha, delta, and gamma. Activity of this protein is important in the regulation of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses, among other processes. The use of alternative in-frame AUG start codons results in multiple protein isoforms, each with distinct biological functions. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]

PHKB Gene

phosphorylase kinase, beta

Phosphorylase kinase is a polymer of 16 subunits, four each of alpha, beta, gamma and delta. The alpha subunit includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, encoded by two different genes. The beta subunit is the same in both the muscle and hepatic isoforms, encoded by this gene, which is a member of the phosphorylase b kinase regulatory subunit family. The gamma subunit also includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, encoded by two different genes. The delta subunit is a calmodulin and can be encoded by three different genes. The gamma subunits contain the active site of the enzyme, whereas the alpha and beta subunits have regulatory functions controlled by phosphorylation. The delta subunit mediates the dependence of the enzyme on calcium concentration. Mutations in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type 9B, also known as phosphorylase kinase deficiency of liver and muscle. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified in this gene. Two pseudogenes have been found on chromosomes 14 and 20, respectively.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

LOC100131072 Gene

karyopherin (importin) beta 1 pseudogene

AP4B1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of a heterotetrameric adapter-like complex 4 that is involved in targeting proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the endosomal-lysosomal system. Mutations in this gene are associated with cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegic type 5 (CPSQ5) disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

TUBB3P1 Gene

tubulin, beta 3 class III pseudogene 1

GABRB1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 1

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes GABA A receptor, beta 1 subunit. It is mapped to chromosome 4p12 in a cluster comprised of genes encoding alpha 4, alpha 2 and gamma 1 subunits of the GABA A receptor. Alteration of this gene is implicated in the pathogenetics of schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRB3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 3

This gene encodes a member of the ligand-gated ionic channel family. The encoded protein is one the subunits of a multi-subunit chloride channel that serves as the receptor for gamma-aminobutyric acid, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian nervous system. This gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 15 in a cluster with two other genes encoding related subunits of the family. This gene may be associated with the pathogenesis of several disorders including Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, nonsyndromic orofacial clefts, epilepsy and autism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

LOC100128596 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 9, 22kDa pseudogene

B2M Gene

beta-2-microglobulin

This gene encodes a serum protein found in association with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I heavy chain on the surface of nearly all nucleated cells. The protein has a predominantly beta-pleated sheet structure that can form amyloid fibrils in some pathological conditions. The encoded antimicrobial protein displays antibacterial activity in amniotic fluid. A mutation in this gene has been shown to result in hypercatabolic hypoproteinemia.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

LOC100129216 Gene

beta-defensin 131-like

FARSBP1 Gene

phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, beta subunit pseudogene 1

APP Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein

This gene encodes a cell surface receptor and transmembrane precursor protein that is cleaved by secretases to form a number of peptides. Some of these peptides are secreted and can bind to the acetyltransferase complex APBB1/TIP60 to promote transcriptional activation, while others form the protein basis of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease. In addition, two of the peptides are antimicrobial peptides, having been shown to have bacteriocidal and antifungal activities. Mutations in this gene have been implicated in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease and cerebroarterial amyloidosis (cerebral amyloid angiopathy). Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

PGGT1BP1 Gene

protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I, beta subunit pseudogene 1

CSF2RB Gene

colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, beta, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage)

The protein encoded by this gene is the common beta chain of the high affinity receptor for IL-3, IL-5 and CSF. Defects in this gene have been reported to be associated with protein alveolar proteinosis (PAP). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ACTBP1 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene 1

ACTBP2 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene 2

PRKACB Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein is a catalytic subunit of cAMP (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, which mediates signalling though cAMP. cAMP signaling is important to a number of processes, including cell proliferaton and differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

LOC390029 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene

CTNNBIP1 Gene

catenin, beta interacting protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene binds CTNNB1 and prevents interaction between CTNNB1 and TCF family members. The encoded protein is a negative regulator of the Wnt signaling pathway. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBJ2-2P Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-2P (non-functional)

LOC645900 Gene

lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 beta pseudogene

ITGBL1 Gene

integrin, beta-like 1 (with EGF-like repeat domains)

This gene encodes a beta integrin-related protein that is a member of the EGF-like protein family. The encoded protein contains integrin-like cysteine-rich repeats. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

TUBB4BP2 Gene

tubulin, beta 4B class IVb pseudogene 2

TRBV11-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 11-3

TRBV11-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 11-1

EIF2S2P1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 1

EIF2S2P3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 3

EIF2S2P2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 2

EIF2S2P5 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 5

EIF2S2P4 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 4

EIF2S2P7 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 7

EIF2S2P6 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 6

DACT1 Gene

dishevelled-binding antagonist of beta-catenin 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the dapper family, characterized by the presence of PDZ-binding motif at the C-terminus. It interacts with, and positively regulates dishevelled-mediated signaling pathways during development. Depletion of this mRNA from xenopus embryos resulted in loss of notochord and head structures, and mice lacking this gene died shortly after birth from severe posterior malformations. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

DACT3 Gene

dishevelled-binding antagonist of beta-catenin 3

DACT2 Gene

dishevelled-binding antagonist of beta-catenin 2

SPTBN5 Gene

spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 5

SPTBN4 Gene

spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 4

Spectrin is an actin crosslinking and molecular scaffold protein that links the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton, and functions in the determination of cell shape, arrangement of transmembrane proteins, and organization of organelles. It is composed of two antiparallel dimers of alpha- and beta- subunits. This gene is one member of a family of beta-spectrin genes. The encoded protein localizes to the nuclear matrix, PML nuclear bodies, and cytoplasmic vesicles. A highly similar gene in the mouse is required for localization of specific membrane proteins in polarized regions of neurons. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPTBN2 Gene

spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 2

Spectrins are principle components of a cell's membrane-cytoskeleton and are composed of two alpha and two beta spectrin subunits. The protein encoded by this gene (SPTBN2), is called spectrin beta non-erythrocytic 2 or beta-III spectrin. It is related to, but distinct from, the beta-II spectrin gene which is also known as spectrin beta non-erythrocytic 1 (SPTBN1). SPTBN2 regulates the glutamate signaling pathway by stabilizing the glutamate transporter EAAT4 at the surface of the plasma membrane. Mutations in this gene cause a form of spinocerebellar ataxia, SCA5, that is characterized by neurodegeneration, progressive locomotor incoordination, dysarthria, and uncoordinated eye movements. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

SPTBN1 Gene

spectrin, beta, non-erythrocytic 1

Spectrin is an actin crosslinking and molecular scaffold protein that links the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton, and functions in the determination of cell shape, arrangement of transmembrane proteins, and organization of organelles. It is composed of two antiparallel dimers of alpha- and beta- subunits. This gene is one member of a family of beta-spectrin genes. The encoded protein contains an N-terminal actin-binding domain, and 17 spectrin repeats which are involved in dimer formation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100131348 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit pseudogene

ADRBK1 Gene

adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 1

The product of this gene phosphorylates the beta-2-adrenergic receptor and appears to mediate agonist-specific desensitization observed at high agonist concentrations. This protein is an ubiquitous cytosolic enzyme that specifically phosphorylates the activated form of the beta-adrenergic and related G-protein-coupled receptors. Abnormal coupling of beta-adrenergic receptor to G protein is involved in the pathogenesis of the failing heart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADRBK2 Gene

adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 2

The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G protein-coupled receptors. Overall, the beta adrenergic receptor kinase 2 has 85% amino acid similarity with beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1, with the protein kinase catalytic domain having 95% similarity. These data suggest the existence of a family of receptor kinases which may serve broadly to regulate receptor function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GP1BB Gene

glycoprotein Ib (platelet), beta polypeptide

Platelet glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) is a heterodimeric transmembrane protein consisting of a disulfide-linked 140 kD alpha chain and 22 kD beta chain. It is part of the GPIb-V-IX system that constitutes the receptor for von Willebrand factor (VWF), and mediates platelet adhesion in the arterial circulation. GPIb alpha chain provides the VWF binding site, and GPIb beta contributes to surface expression of the receptor and participates in transmembrane signaling through phosphorylation of its intracellular domain. Mutations in the GPIb beta subunit have been associated with Bernard-Soulier syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome and giant platelet disorder. The 206 amino acid precursor of GPIb beta is synthesized from a 1.0 kb mRNA expressed in plateletes and megakaryocytes. A 411 amino acid protein arising from a longer, unspliced transcript in endothelial cells has been described; however, the authenticity of this product has been questioned. Yet another less abundant GPIb beta mRNA species of 3.5 kb, expressed in nonhematopoietic tissues such as endothelium, brain and heart, was shown to result from inefficient usage of a non-consensus polyA signal in the neighboring upstream gene (SEPT5, septin 5). In the absence of polyadenylation from its own imperfect site, the SEPT5 gene produces read-through transcripts that use the consensus polyA signal of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

GLB1 Gene

galactosidase, beta 1

This gene encodes beta-galactosidase-1, a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes the terminal beta-galactose from ganglioside substrates and other glycoconjugates. Defects in this gene are the cause of GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio B syndrome. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

HSD17B7P1 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 7 pseudogene 1

HSD17B7P2 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 7 pseudogene 2

DEFB108P3 Gene

defensin, beta 108, pseudogene 3

DEFB108P2 Gene

defensin, beta 108, pseudogene 2

APOH Gene

apolipoprotein H (beta-2-glycoprotein I)

Apolipoprotein H has been implicated in a variety of physiologic pathways including lipoprotein metabolism, coagulation, and the production of antiphospholipid autoantibodies. APOH may be a required cofactor for anionic phospholipid binding by the antiphospholipid autoantibodies found in sera of many patients with lupus and primary antiphospholipid syndrome, but it does not seem to be required for the reactivity of antiphospholipid autoantibodies associated with infections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

APBA1 Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adapter protein that interacts with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP). It stabilizes APP and inhibits production of proteolytic APP fragments including the A beta peptide that is deposited in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. This gene product is believed to be involved in signal transduction processes. It is also regarded as a putative vesicular trafficking protein in the brain that can form a complex with the potential to couple synaptic vesicle exocytosis to neuronal cell adhesion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

APBA3 Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is an adapter protein that interacts with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein. This gene product is believed to be involved in signal transduction processes. This gene is a candidate gene for Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

APBA2 Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adapter protein that interacts with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP). It stabilizes APP and inhibits production of proteolytic APP fragments including the A beta peptide that is deposited in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. This gene product is believed to be involved in signal transduction processes. It is also regarded as a putative vesicular trafficking protein in the brain that can form a complex with the potential to couple synaptic vesicle exocytosis to neuronal cell adhesion. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DFFB Gene

DNA fragmentation factor, 40kDa, beta polypeptide (caspase-activated DNase)

Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for caspase-3 and triggers DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. DFF becomes activated when DFFA is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFFA dissociate from DFFB, the active component of DFF. DFFB has been found to trigger both DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene but the biological validity of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

NGF Gene

nerve growth factor (beta polypeptide)

This gene is a member of the NGF-beta family and encodes a secreted protein which homodimerizes and is incorporated into a larger complex. This protein has nerve growth stimulating activity and the complex is involved in the regulation of growth and the differentiation of sympathetic and certain sensory neurons. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, type 5 (HSAN5), and dysregulation of this gene's expression is associated with allergic rhinitis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB18P Gene

protocadherin beta 18 pseudogene

PITPNB Gene

phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, beta

This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein that catalyzes the transfer of phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine between membranes. This transfer activity is required for COPI complex-mediated retrograde transport from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

HBBP1 Gene

hemoglobin, beta pseudogene 1

LOC643307 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene

GBA2 Gene

glucosidase, beta (bile acid) 2

This gene encodes a microsomal beta-glucosidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of bile acid 3-O-glucosides as endogenous compounds. Studies to determine subcellular localization of this protein in the liver indicated that the enzyme was mainly enriched in the microsomal fraction where it appeared to be confined to the endoplasmic reticulum. This putative transmembrane protein is thought to play a role in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GBA3 Gene

glucosidase, beta, acid 3 (gene/pseudogene)

The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme that can hydrolyze several types of glycosides. This gene is a polymorphic pseudogene, with the most common allele being the functional allele that encodes the full-length protein. Some individuals, as represented by the reference genome allele, contain a single nucleotide polymorphism that results in a premature stop codon in the coding region, and therefore this allele is pseudogenic due to the failure to produce a functional full-length protein. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

ATP5B Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the beta subunit of the catalytic core. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV24-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 24-1

DOC2B Gene

double C2-like domains, beta

There are at least two protein isoforms of the Double C2 protein, namely alpha (DOC2A) and beta (DOC2B), which contain two C2-like domains. DOC2A and DOC2B are encoded by different genes; these genes are at times confused with the unrelated DAB2 gene which was initially named DOC-2. DOC2B is expressed ubiquitously and is suggested to be involved in Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular vesicle trafficking in various types of cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CYBB Gene

cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide

Cytochrome b (-245) is composed of cytochrome b alpha (CYBA) and beta (CYBB) chain. It has been proposed as a primary component of the microbicidal oxidase system of phagocytes. CYBB deficiency is one of five described biochemical defects associated with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). In this disorder, there is decreased activity of phagocyte NADPH oxidase; neutrophils are able to phagocytize bacteria but cannot kill them in the phagocytic vacuoles. The cause of the killing defect is an inability to increase the cell's respiration and consequent failure to deliver activated oxygen into the phagocytic vacuole. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

B4GALT1 Gene

UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 1

This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and beta4GalT2, beta4GalT3 and beta4GalT4, beta4GalT5 and beta4GalT6, and beta4GalT7. This gene is unique among the beta4GalT genes because it encodes an enzyme that participates both in glycoconjugate and lactose biosynthesis. For the first activity, the enzyme adds galactose to N-acetylglucosamine residues that are either monosaccharides or the nonreducing ends of glycoprotein carbohydrate chains. The second activity is restricted to lactating mammary tissues where the enzyme forms a heterodimer with alpha-lactalbumin to catalyze UDP-galactose + D-glucose <=> UDP + lactose. The two enzymatic forms result from alternate transcription initiation sites and post-translational processing. Two transcripts, which differ only at the 5' end, with approximate lengths of 4.1 kb and 3.9 kb encode the same protein. The longer transcript encodes the type II membrane-bound, trans-Golgi resident protein involved in glycoconjugate biosynthesis. The shorter transcript encodes a protein which is cleaved to form the soluble lactose synthase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

B4GALT3 Gene

UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 3

This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and beta4GalT2, beta4GalT3 and beta4GalT4, beta4GalT5 and beta4GalT6, and beta4GalT7. This gene encodes an enzyme that may be mainly involved in the synthesis of the first N-acetyllactosamine unit of poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

B4GALT2 Gene

UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 2

This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and beta4GalT2, beta4GalT3 and beta4GalT4, beta4GalT5 and beta4GalT6, and beta4GalT7. The enzyme encoded by this gene synthesizes N-acetyllactosamine in glycolipids and glycoproteins. Its substrate specificity is affected by alpha-lactalbumin but it is not expressed in lactating mammary tissue. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

B4GALT5 Gene

UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 5

This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and beta4GalT2, beta4GalT3 and beta4GalT4, beta4GalT5 and beta4GalT6, and beta4GalT7. The function of the enzyme encoded by this gene is not clear. This gene was previously designated as B4GALT4 but was renamed to B4GALT5. In the literature it is also referred to as beta4GalT2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

B4GALT4 Gene

UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 4

This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and beta4GalT2, beta4GalT3 and beta4GalT4, beta4GalT5 and beta4GalT6, and beta4GalT7. The enzyme encoded by this gene appears to mainly play a role in glycolipid biosynthesis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

B4GALT7 Gene

xylosylprotein beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 7

This gene is a member of the beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) family. Family members encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose. Each beta4GalT member has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. The enzyme encoded by this gene attaches the first galactose in the common carbohydrate-protein linkage (GlcA-beta1,3-Gal-beta1,3-Gal-beta1,4-Xyl-beta1-O-Ser) found in proteoglycans. This enzyme differs from other beta4GalTs because it lacks the conserved Cys residues found in beta4GalT1-beta4GalT6 and it is located in cis-Golgi instead of trans-Golgi. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the progeroid form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

PPP2R1B Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, beta

This gene encodes a constant regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2. Protein phosphatase 2 is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The constant regulatory subunit A serves as a scaffolding molecule to coordinate the assembly of the catalytic subunit and a variable regulatory B subunit. This gene encodes a beta isoform of the constant regulatory subunit A. Mutations in this gene have been associated with some lung and colon cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

STRADBP1 Gene

STE20-related kinase adaptor beta pseudogene 1

NTF6B Gene

neurotrophin 6 beta (pseudogene)

MANBAL Gene

mannosidase, beta A, lysosomal-like

ACTR1B Gene

ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog B, centractin beta (yeast)

This gene encodes a 42.3 kD subunit of dynactin, a macromolecular complex consisting of 10 subunits ranging in size from 22 to 150 kD. Dynactin binds to both microtubules and cytoplasmic dynein and is involved in a diverse array of cellular functions, including ER-to-Golgi transport, the centripetal movement of lysosomes and endosomes, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear positioning, and axonogenesis. This subunit, like ACTR1A, is an actin-related protein. These two proteins, which are of equal length and share 90% amino acid identity, are present in a constant ratio of approximately 1:15 in the dynactin complex. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

PIP4K2B Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, beta

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate on the fourth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring to form phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate. This gene is a member of the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase family. The encoded protein sequence does not show similarity to other kinases, but the protein does exhibit kinase activity. Additionally, the encoded protein interacts with p55 TNF receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGB1P1 Gene

integrin beta 1 pseudogene 1

DEFB116 Gene

defensin, beta 116

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFB117 Gene

defensin, beta 117 (pseudogene)

DEFB114 Gene

defensin, beta 114

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. The protein encoded by this gene is a beta-defensin with antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans. The encoded protein also binds and neutralizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a factor involved in inflammatory diseases and male reproductive issues. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB115 Gene

defensin, beta 115

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFB112 Gene

defensin, beta 112

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFB113 Gene

defensin, beta 113

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFB110 Gene

defensin, beta 110

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFB118 Gene

defensin, beta 118

This gene encodes a member of the beta subfamily of defensins. Beta-defensins are antimicrobial peptides that protect tissues and organs from infection by a variety of microorganisms. Expression of this gene is regulated by androgen, and the encoded protein binds to sperm and exhibits antibacterial activity against E. coli. This gene is found in a cluster with other beta-defensin genes on the long arm of chromosome 20. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB119 Gene

defensin, beta 119

This gene encodes a member of the beta subfamily of defensins. Beta-defensins are antimicrobial peptides that protect tissues and organs from infection by a variety of microorganisms. This gene is found in a cluster with other beta-defensin genes on the long arm of chromosome 20. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

PDGFRB Gene

platelet-derived growth factor receptor, beta polypeptide

This gene encodes a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor for members of the platelet-derived growth factor family. These growth factors are mitogens for cells of mesenchymal origin. The identity of the growth factor bound to a receptor monomer determines whether the functional receptor is a homodimer or a heterodimer, composed of both platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta polypeptides. This gene is flanked on chromosome 5 by the genes for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor receptor; all three genes may be implicated in the 5-q syndrome. A translocation between chromosomes 5 and 12, that fuses this gene to that of the translocation, ETV6, leukemia gene, results in chronic myeloproliferative disorder with eosinophilia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMSB10 Gene

thymosin beta 10

TRBV10-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 10-2

TRBV10-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 10-3

TRBV10-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 10-1(gene/pseudogene)

B4GAT1 Gene

beta-1,4-glucuronyltransferase 1

This gene encodes a member of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase family. This enzyme is a type II transmembrane protein. It is essential for the synthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine, a determinant for the blood group i antigen. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100499223 Gene

beta-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (globoside blood group) pseudogene

LOC100422491 Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2 pseudogene

LOC100422492 Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2 pseudogene

B3GALNT2P1 Gene

beta-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2 pseudogene 1

PSMB11 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 11

Proteasomes generate peptides that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I molecules to other cells of the immune system. Proteolysis is conducted by 20S proteasomes, complexes of 28 subunits arranged as a cylinder in 4 heteroheptameric rings: alpha-1 to -7, beta-1 to -7, beta-1 to -7, and alpha-1 to -7. The catalytic subunits are beta-1 (PSMB6; MIM 600307), beta-2 (PSMB7; MIM 604030), and beta-5 (PSMB5; MIM 600306). Three additional subunits, beta-1i (PSMB9; MIM 177045), beta-2i (PSMB10; MIM 176847), and beta-5i (PSMB8; MIM 177046), are induced by gamma-interferon (IFNG; MIM 147570) and are preferentially incorporated into proteasomes to make immunoproteasomes. PSMB11, or beta-5t, is a catalytic subunit expressed exclusively in cortical thymic epithelial cells (Murata et al., 2007 [PubMed 17540904]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PSMB10 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 10

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. Proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon, and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 2 (proteasome beta 7 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CRYBG3 Gene

beta-gamma crystallin domain containing 3

PCYT1B Gene

phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cytidylyltransferase family. It is involved in the regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

SCN3B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type III beta subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel beta subunit gene family, and influences the inactivation kinetics of the sodium channel. Two alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MGAT5B Gene

mannosyl (alpha-1,6-)-glycoprotein beta-1,6-N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase, isozyme B

The MGAT5B gene encodes a beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.155) that functions in the synthesis of complex cell surface N-glycans (Kaneko et al., 2003 [PubMed 14623122]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2008]

GABPB2 Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit 2

GABPB1 Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit 1

This gene encodes the GA-binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit. This protein forms a tetrameric complex with the alpha subunit, and stimulates transcription of target genes. The encoded protein may be involved in activation of cytochrome oxidase expression and nuclear control of mitochondrial function. The crystal structure of a similar protein in mouse has been resolved as a ternary protein complex. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2B Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is sensitive to low nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmanin. The C2 domain of this protein was shown to bind phospholipids but not Ca2+, which suggests that this enzyme may function in a calcium-independent manner. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV25-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 25-1

PEX11B Gene

peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 beta

The protein encoded by this gene facilitates peroxisomal proliferation and interacts with PEX19. The encoded protein is found in the peroxisomal membrane. Several transcript variants, some protein-coding and some not protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

ACTB Gene

actin, beta

This gene encodes one of six different actin proteins. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility, structure, and integrity. This actin is a major constituent of the contractile apparatus and one of the two nonmuscle cytoskeletal actins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MGAT1 Gene

mannosyl (alpha-1,3-)-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase

There are believed to be over 100 different glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of protein-bound and lipid-bound oligosaccharides. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:alpha-3-D-mannoside beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I is a medial-Golgi enzyme essential for the synthesis of hybrid and complex N-glycans. The protein, encoded by a single exon, shows typical features of a type II transmembrane protein. The protein is believed to be essential for normal embryogenesis. Several variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MGAT2 Gene

mannosyl (alpha-1,6-)-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase

The product of this gene is a Golgi enzyme catalyzing an essential step in the conversion of oligomannose to complex N-glycans. The enzyme has the typical glycosyltransferase domains: a short N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a hydrophobic non-cleavable signal-anchor domain, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Mutations in this gene may lead to carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, type II. The coding region of this gene is intronless. Transcript variants with a spliced 5' UTR may exist, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MGAT5 Gene

mannosyl (alpha-1,6-)-glycoprotein beta-1,6-N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the glycosyltransferase family. It catalyzes the addition of beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine to the alpha-linked mannose of biantennary N-linked oligosaccharides present on the newly synthesized glycoproteins. It is one of the most important enzymes involved in the regulation of the biosynthesis of glycoprotein oligosaccharides. Alterations of the oligosaccharides on cell surface glycoproteins cause significant changes in the adhesive or migratory behavior of a cell. Increase in the activity of this enzyme has been correlated with the progression of invasive malignancies. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GNPTAB Gene

N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase, alpha and beta subunits

This gene encodes two of three subunit types of the membrane-bound enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase, a heterohexameric complex composed of two alpha, two beta, and two gamma subunits. The encoded protein is proteolytically cleaved at the Lys928-Asp929 bond to yield mature alpha and beta polypeptides while the gamma subunits are the product of a distinct gene (GeneID 84572). In the Golgi apparatus, the heterohexameric complex catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of mannose 6-phosphate recognition markers on certain oligosaccharides of newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes. These recognition markers are essential for appropriate trafficking of lysosomal enzymes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with both mucolipidosis II and mucolipidosis IIIA.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PPFIBP1 Gene

PTPRF interacting protein, binding protein 1 (liprin beta 1)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. It has been proposed that liprins are multivalent proteins that form complex structures and act as scaffolds for the recruitment and anchoring of LAR family of tyrosine phosphatases. This protein was found to interact with S100A4, a calcium-binding protein related to tumor invasiveness and metastasis. In vitro experiment demonstrated that the interaction inhibited the phosphorylation of this protein by protein kinase C and protein kinase CK2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPFIBP2 Gene

PTPRF interacting protein, binding protein 2 (liprin beta 2)

This gene encodes a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. The encoded protein is a beta liprin and plays a role in axon guidance and neuronal synapse development by recruiting LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatases to the plasma membrane. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

TUBB1P1 Gene

tubulin, beta 1 class VI pseudogene 1

TUBB1P2 Gene

tubulin, beta 1 class VI pseudogene 2

DEFB134 Gene

defensin, beta 134

Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the immunologic response to invading microorganisms. The antimicrobial protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 8p23. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB131 Gene

defensin, beta 131

Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the immunologic response to invading microorganisms. The antimicrobial protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 4p16. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

TBL1YP1 Gene

transducin (beta)-like 1, Y-linked pseudogene 1

GSK3B Gene

glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine-threonine kinase, belonging to the glycogen synthase kinase subfamily. It is involved in energy metabolism, neuronal cell development, and body pattern formation. Polymorphisms in this gene have been implicated in modifying risk of Parkinson disease, and studies in mice show that overexpression of this gene may be relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

LACTB Gene

lactamase, beta

This gene encodes a mitochondrially-localized protein that has sequence similarity to prokaryotic beta-lactamases. Many of the residues responsible for beta-lactamase activity are not conserved in this protein, suggesting it may have a different enzymatic function. Increased expression of the related mouse gene was found to be associated with obesity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

TRBV17 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 17 (non-functional)

TRBV16 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 16 (gene/pseudogene)

TRBV15 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 15

TRBV14 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 14

TRBV13 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 13

TRBV19 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 19

TRBV18 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 18

SUCLA2P1 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene 1

SUCLA2P2 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene 2

SUCLA2P3 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene 3

LOC100421300 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 9 pseudogene

PPP2CBP1 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme pseudogene 1

PIK3R2 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 2 (beta)

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a lipid kinase that phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol and similar compounds, creating second messengers important in growth signaling pathways. PI3K functions as a heterodimer of a regulatory and a catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory component of PI3K. Two transcript variants, one protein coding and the other non-protein coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

LOC653435 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene

SLC51B Gene

solute carrier family 51, beta subunit

CGB Gene

chorionic gonadotropin, beta polypeptide

This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta 3 subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG). Glycoprotein hormones are heterodimers consisting of a common alpha subunit and an unique beta subunit which confers biological specificity. CG is produced by the trophoblastic cells of the placenta and stimulates the ovaries to synthesize the steroids that are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. The beta subunit of CG is encoded by 6 genes which are arranged in tandem and inverted pairs on chromosome 19q13.3 and contiguous with the luteinizing hormone beta subunit gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBVAOR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable A/OR9-2 (pseudogene)

PDGFB Gene

platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor family. The four members of this family are mitogenic factors for cells of mesenchymal origin and are characterized by a motif of eight cysteines. This gene product can exist either as a homodimer (PDGF-BB) or as a heterodimer with the platelet-derived growth factor alpha polypeptide (PDGF-AB), where the dimers are connected by disulfide bonds. Mutations in this gene are associated with meningioma. Reciprocal translocations between chromosomes 22 and 17, at sites where this gene and that for collagen type 1, alpha 1 are located, are associated with a particular type of skin tumor called dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans resulting from unregulated expression of growth factor. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

PRKAR1B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, beta

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is an essential enzyme in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Through phosphorylation of target proteins, PKA controls many biochemical events in the cell including regulation of metabolism, ion transport, and gene transcription. The PKA holoenzyme is composed of 2 regulatory and 2 catalytic subunits and dissociates from the regulatory subunits upon binding of cAMP.[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

IL10RB Gene

interleukin 10 receptor, beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cytokine receptor family. It is an accessory chain essential for the active interleukin 10 receptor complex. Coexpression of this and IL10RA proteins has been shown to be required for IL10-induced signal transduction. This gene and three other interferon receptor genes, IFAR2, IFNAR1, and IFNGR2, form a class II cytokine receptor gene cluster located in a small region on chromosome 21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MFNG Gene

MFNG O-fucosylpeptide 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase

This gene is a member of the fringe gene family which also includes radical and lunatic fringe genes. They all encode evolutionarily conserved secreted proteins that act in the Notch receptor pathway to demarcate boundaries during embryonic development. While their genomic structure is distinct from other glycosyltransferases, fringe proteins have a fucose-specific beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity that leads to elongation of O-linked fucose residues on Notch, which alters Notch signaling. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

C4BPB Gene

complement component 4 binding protein, beta

This gene encodes a member of a superfamily of proteins composed predominantly of tandemly arrayed short consensus repeats of approximately 60 amino acids. A single, unique beta-chain encoded by this gene assembles with seven identical alpha-chains into the predominant isoform of C4b-binding protein, a multimeric protein that controls activation of the complement cascade through the classical pathway. C4b-binding protein has a regulatory role in the coagulation system also, mediated through the beta-chain binding of protein S, a vitamin K-dependent protein that serves as a cofactor of activated protein C. The genes encoding both alpha and beta chains are located adjacent to each other on human chromosome 1 in the regulator of complement activation gene cluster. Alternative splicing gives rise to multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NDUFB8P1 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 8, pseudogene 1

NDUFB8P3 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 8, pseudogene 3

ARRB2 Gene

arrestin, beta 2

Members of arrestin/beta-arrestin protein family are thought to participate in agonist-mediated desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors and cause specific dampening of cellular responses to stimuli such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or sensory signals. Arrestin beta 2, like arrestin beta 1, was shown to inhibit beta-adrenergic receptor function in vitro. It is expressed at high levels in the central nervous system and may play a role in the regulation of synaptic receptors. Besides the brain, a cDNA for arrestin beta 2 was isolated from thyroid gland, and thus it may also be involved in hormone-specific desensitization of TSH receptors. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

ARRB1 Gene

arrestin, beta 1

Members of arrestin/beta-arrestin protein family are thought to participate in agonist-mediated desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors and cause specific dampening of cellular responses to stimuli such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or sensory signals. Arrestin beta 1 is a cytosolic protein and acts as a cofactor in the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (BARK) mediated desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors. Besides the central nervous system, it is expressed at high levels in peripheral blood leukocytes, and thus the BARK/beta-arrestin system is believed to play a major role in regulating receptor-mediated immune functions. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms of arrestin beta 1 have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

LOC440973 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, beta pseudogene

PSG11 Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 11

The human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are a group of molecules that are mainly produced by the placental syncytiotrophoblasts during pregnancy. PSGs comprise a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. For additional general information about the PSG gene family, see PSG1 (MIM 176390).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

LHB Gene

luteinizing hormone beta polypeptide

This gene is a member of the glycoprotein hormone beta chain family and encodes the beta subunit of luteinizing hormone (LH). Glycoprotein hormones are heterodimers consisting of a common alpha subunit and an unique beta subunit which confers biological specificity. LH is expressed in the pituitary gland and promotes spermatogenesis and ovulation by stimulating the testes and ovaries to synthesize steroids. The genes for the beta chains of chorionic gonadotropin and for luteinizing hormone are contiguous on chromosome 19q13.3. Mutations in this gene are associated with hypogonadism which is characterized by infertility and pseudohermaphroditism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAPZB Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, beta

This gene encodes the beta subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein, which belongs to the F-actin capping protein family. The capping protein is a heterodimeric actin capping protein that blocks actin filament assembly and disassembly at the fast growing (barbed) filament ends and functions in regulating actin filament dynamics as well as in stabilizing actin filament lengths in muscle and nonmuscle cells. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 2. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

TOP3BP1 Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) III beta pseudogene 1

This gene was predicted by automated computational analysis. It encodes a protein with similarity to human topoisomerase (DNA) III beta, which is thought to relax supercoiled DNA upon replication, transcription, and cell division. This gene lies in the immunoglobulin lambda gene cluster on chromosome 22q11.21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PBG1 Gene

pancreatic beta cell glycoprotein 1

TUBB4BP6 Gene

tubulin, beta 4B class IVb pseudogene 6

LOC100419014 Gene

tubulin, beta 6 class V pseudogene

TMSB15B Gene

thymosin beta 15B

TMSB15A Gene

thymosin beta 15a

PROS2P Gene

protein S (beta) pseudogene

STRADB Gene

STE20-related kinase adaptor beta

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase STE20 subfamily. One of the active site residues in the protein kinase domain of this protein is altered, and it is thus a pseudokinase. This protein is a component of a complex involved in the activation of serine/threonine kinase 11, a master kinase that regulates cell polarity and energy-generating metabolism. This complex regulates the relocation of this kinase from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and it is essential for G1 cell cycle arrest mediated by this kinase. The protein encoded by this gene can also interact with the X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and this interaction enhances the anti-apoptotic activity of this protein via the JNK1 signal transduction pathway. Two pseudogenes, located on chromosomes 1 and 7, have been found for this gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

LOC402221 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene

ALG1L Gene

ALG1, chitobiosyldiphosphodolichol beta-mannosyltransferase-like

LOC100421483 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor 1 pseudogene

HSD17B10 Gene

hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 10

This gene encodes 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type II, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. The gene product is a mitochondrial protein that catalyzes the oxidation of a wide variety of fatty acids and steroids, and is a subunit of mitochondrial ribonuclease P, which is involved in tRNA maturation. The protein has been implicated in the development of Alzheimer disease, and mutations in the gene are the cause of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 (HSD10) deficiency. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, but the full-length nature of only two transcript variants has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

GNB5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta 5

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNB4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNB1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

GNB3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 3

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit which belongs to the WD repeat G protein beta family. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (C825T) in this gene is associated with essential hypertension and obesity. This polymorphism is also associated with the occurrence of the splice variant GNB3-s, which appears to have increased activity. GNB3-s is an example of alternative splicing caused by a nucleotide change outside of the splice donor and acceptor sites. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

GNB2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. This gene contains a trinucleotide (CCG) repeat length polymorphism in its 5' UTR. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PARD3B Gene

par-3 family cell polarity regulator beta

FLNB Gene

filamin B, beta

This gene encodes a member of the filamin family. The encoded protein interacts with glycoprotein Ib alpha as part of the process to repair vascular injuries. The platelet glycoprotein Ib complex includes glycoprotein Ib alpha, and it binds the actin cytoskeleton. Mutations in this gene have been found in several conditions: atelosteogenesis type 1 and type 3; boomerang dysplasia; autosomal dominant Larsen syndrome; and spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

APLP1 Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor-like protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the highly conserved amyloid precursor protein gene family. The encoded protein is a membrane-associated glycoprotein that is cleaved by secretases in a manner similar to amyloid beta A4 precursor protein cleavage. This cleavage liberates an intracellular cytoplasmic fragment that may act as a transcriptional activator. The encoded protein may also play a role in synaptic maturation during cortical development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV6-4 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-4

TRBV6-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-1

POLB Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a DNA polymerase involved in base excision and repair, also called gap-filling DNA synthesis. The encoded protein, acting as a monomer, is normally found in the cytoplasm, but it translocates to the nucleus upon DNA damage. Several transcript variants of this gene exist, but the full-length nature of only one has been described to date. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

LOC100287046 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene

LOC100129370 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 9, 22kDa pseudogene

DEFB129 Gene

defensin, beta 129

Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the immunologic response to invading microorganisms. The antimicrobial protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 20p13. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB128 Gene

defensin, beta 128

Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the immunologic response to invading microorganisms. The antimicrobial protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 20p13. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB127 Gene

defensin, beta 127

Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the immunologic response to invading microorganisms. The antimicrobial protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 20p13. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB126 Gene

defensin, beta 126

Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the immunologic response to invading microorganisms. The antimicrobial protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 20p13. The encoded protein is highly similar to an epididymal-specific secretory protein (ESP13.2) from cynomolgus monkey. Mutation of this gene is associated with impaired sperm function. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB125 Gene

defensin, beta 125

Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the host immunologic response to invading microorganisms. The antimicrobial protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 20p13. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB123 Gene

defensin, beta 123

Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the host immunologic response to invading microorganisms. This antimicrobial protein is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 20q11.1. Two transcript variants, one protein-coding and the other not, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB122 Gene

defensin, beta 122 (pseudogene)

COPB1 Gene

coatomer protein complex, subunit beta 1

This gene encodes a protein subunit of the coatomer complex associated with non-clathrin coated vesicles. The coatomer complex, also known as the coat protein complex 1, forms in the cytoplasm and is recruited to the Golgi by activated guanosine triphosphatases. Once at the Golgi membrane, the coatomer complex may assist in the movement of protein and lipid components back to the endoplasmic reticulum. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

GLB1L Gene

galactosidase, beta 1-like

EEF1B2 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2

This gene encodes a translation elongation factor. The protein is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor involved in the transfer of aminoacylated tRNAs to the ribosome. Alternative splicing results in three transcript variants which differ only in the 5' UTR. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422398 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

HSP90B2P Gene

heat shock protein 90kDa beta (Grp94), member 2, pseudogene

TBL2 Gene

transducin (beta)-like 2

This gene encodes a member of the beta-transducin protein family. Most proteins of the beta-transducin family are involved in regulatory functions. This protein is possibly involved in some intracellular signaling pathway. This gene is deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a developmental disorder caused by deletion of multiple genes at 7q11.23. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TBL3 Gene

transducin (beta)-like 3

The protein encoded by this gene has sequence similarity with members of the WD40 repeat-containing protein family. The WD40 group is a large family of proteins, which appear to have a regulatory function. It is believed that the WD40 repeats mediate protein-protein interactions and members of the family are involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, gene regulation, vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal assembly and may play a role in the control of cytotypic differentiation. This gene has multiple polyadenylation sites. It might have multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants but the variants have not been fully described yet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MANBB Gene

mannosidase, beta B, soluble

MANBA Gene

mannosidase, beta A, lysosomal

This gene encodes a member of the glycosyl hydrolase 2 family. The encoded protein localizes to the lysosome where it is the final exoglycosidase in the pathway for N-linked glycoprotein oligosaccharide catabolism. Mutations in this gene are associated with beta-mannosidosis, a lysosomal storage disease that has a wide spectrum of neurological involvement. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TUBB8P8 Gene

tubulin, beta 8 class VIII pseudogene 8

TUBB8P5 Gene

tubulin, beta 8 class VIII pseudogene 5

CSNK2B Gene

casein kinase 2, beta polypeptide

This gene encodes the beta subunit of casein kinase II, a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and replication. The enzyme is composed of three subunits, alpha, alpha prime and beta, which form a tetrameric holoenzyme. The alpha and alpha prime subunits are catalytic, while the beta subunit serves regulatory functions. The enzyme localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

ATP1B3P1 Gene

ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 3 pseudogene

EIF2S2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta, 38kDa

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (EIF-2) functions in the early steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA and binding to a 40S ribosomal subunit. EIF-2 is composed of three subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma, with the protein encoded by this gene representing the beta subunit. The beta subunit catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP, which recycles the EIF-2 complex for another round of initiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC392456 Gene

catenin, beta like 1 pseudogene

LTBR Gene

lymphotoxin beta receptor (TNFR superfamily, member 3)

This gene encodes a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The major ligands of this receptor include lymphotoxin alpha/beta and tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 14. The encoded protein plays a role in signalling during the development of lymphoid and other organs, lipid metabolism, immune response, and programmed cell death. Activity of this receptor has also been linked to carcinogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

NDUFB4P2 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 4, 15kDa pseudogene 2

FARSB Gene

phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, beta subunit

This gene encodes a highly conserved enzyme that belongs to the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase class IIc subfamily. This enzyme comprises the regulatory beta subunits that form a tetramer with two catalytic alpha subunits. In the presence of ATP, this tetramer is responsible for attaching L-phenylalanine to the terminal adenosine of the appropriate tRNA. A pseudogene located on chromosome 10 has been identified. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

HSD3BP1 Gene

hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta, pseudogene 1

HSD3BP3 Gene

hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta, pseudogene 3

HSD3BP2 Gene

hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta, pseudogene 2

HSD3BP5 Gene

hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta, pseudogene 5

HSD3BP4 Gene

hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta, pseudogene 4

TOP2B Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) II beta 180kDa

This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This nuclear enzyme is involved in processes such as chromosome condensation, chromatid separation, and the relief of torsional stress that occurs during DNA transcription and replication. It catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of two strands of duplex DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus altering the topology of DNA. Two forms of this enzyme exist as likely products of a gene duplication event. The gene encoding this form, beta, is localized to chromosome 3 and the alpha form is localized to chromosome 17. The gene encoding this enzyme functions as the target for several anticancer agents and a variety of mutations in this gene have been associated with the development of drug resistance. Reduced activity of this enzyme may also play a role in ataxia-telangiectasia. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants; however, the second variant has not yet been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NDUFB3P5 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 3, 12kDa pseudogene 5

SGCB Gene

sarcoglycan, beta (43kDa dystrophin-associated glycoprotein)

This gene encodes a member of the sarcoglycan family. Sarcoglycans are transmembrane components in the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex which help stabilize the muscle fiber membranes and link the muscle cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Mutations in this gene have been associated with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

IDH3B Gene

isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (NAD+) beta

Isocitrate dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to 2-oxoglutarate. These enzymes belong to two distinct subclasses, one of which utilizes NAD(+) as the electron acceptor and the other NADP(+). Five isocitrate dehydrogenases have been reported: three NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, which localize to the mitochondrial matrix, and two NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, one of which is mitochondrial and the other predominantly cytosolic. NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases catalyze the allosterically regulated rate-limiting step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Each isozyme is a heterotetramer that is composed of two alpha subunits, one beta subunit, and one gamma subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is the beta subunit of one isozyme of NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DGKB Gene

diacylglycerol kinase, beta 90kDa

Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are regulators of the intracellular concentration of the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) and thus play a key role in cellular processes. Nine mammalian isotypes have been identified, which are encoded by separate genes. Mammalian DGK isozymes contain a conserved catalytic (kinase) domain and a cysteine-rich domain (CRD). The protein encoded by this gene is a diacylglycerol kinase, beta isotype. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TECTB Gene

tectorin beta

This gene encodes a non-collagenous glycoprotein component of the tectorial membrane, which covers the auditory hair cells in the cochlea of the inner ear. A similar protein in mouse functions in low-frequency hearing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

APPBP2 Gene

amyloid beta precursor protein (cytoplasmic tail) binding protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with microtubules and is functionally associated with beta-amyloid precursor protein transport and/or processing. The beta-amyloid precursor protein is a cell surface protein with signal-transducing properties, and it is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The encoded protein may be involved in regulating cell death. This gene has been found to be highly expressed in breast cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

LOC100422440 Gene

general transcription factor IIE, polypeptide 2, beta 34kDa pseudogene

TRBV28 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 28

TRBV26 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 26 (pseudogene)

NDUFB9 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 9, 22kDa

NDUFB8 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 8, 19kDa

NDUFB7 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 7, 18kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the multisubunit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). Mammalian complex I is composed of 45 different subunits. It is located at the mitochondrial inner membrane. This protein has NADH dehydrogenase activity and oxidoreductase activity. It transfers electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NDUFB6 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 6, 17kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the multisubunit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). Mammalian complex I is composed of 45 different subunits. It locates at the mitochondrial inner membrane. This protein has NADH dehydrogenase activity and oxidoreductase activity. It transfers electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and three transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

NDUFB5 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 5, 16kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the multisubunit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). Mammalian complex I is composed of 45 different subunits. It locates at the mitochondrial inner membrane. This protein has NADH dehydrogenase activity and oxidoreductase activity. It transfers electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

NDUFB4 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 4, 15kDa

This gene encodes a non-catalytic subunit of the multisubunit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the first enzyme complex in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (complex I). Mammalian complex I is composed of 45 different subunits and transfers electrons from NADH to ubiquinone. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

NDUFB3 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 3, 12kDa

This gene encodes an accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) which is the first enzyme in the electron transport chain of mitochondria. This protein localizes to the inner membrane of the mitochondrion as a single-pass membrane protein. Mutations in this gene contribute to mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. Humans have multiple pseudogenes of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

NDUFB2 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 2, 8kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the multisubunit NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). Mammalian complex I is composed of 45 different subunits. This protein has NADH dehydrogenase activity and oxidoreductase activity. It plays a important role in transfering electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone. Hydropathy analysis revealed that this subunit and 4 other subunits have an overall hydrophilic pattern, even though they are found within the hydrophobic protein (HP) fraction of complex I. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NDUFB1 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 1, 7kDa

PGGT1B Gene

protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I, beta subunit

Protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I) transfers a geranylgeranyl group to the cysteine residue of candidate proteins containing a C-terminal CAAX motif in which 'A' is an aliphatic amino acid and 'X' is leucine (summarized by Zhang et al., 1994 [PubMed 8106351]). The enzyme is composed of a 48-kD alpha subunit (FNTA; MIM 134635) and a 43-kD beta subunit, encoded by the PGGT1B gene. The FNTA gene encodes the alpha subunit for both GGTase-I and the related enzyme farnesyltransferase.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

LOC105369240 Gene

beta-defensin 131-like

LOC102725009 Gene

putative beta-glucuronidase-like protein MGC156142

P4HB Gene

prolyl 4-hydroxylase, beta polypeptide

This gene encodes the beta subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase, a highly abundant multifunctional enzyme that belongs to the protein disulfide isomerase family. When present as a tetramer consisting of two alpha and two beta subunits, this enzyme is involved in hydroxylation of prolyl residues in preprocollagen. This enzyme is also a disulfide isomerase containing two thioredoxin domains that catalyze the formation, breakage and rearrangement of disulfide bonds. Other known functions include its ability to act as a chaperone that inhibits aggregation of misfolded proteins in a concentration-dependent manner, its ability to bind thyroid hormone, its role in both the influx and efflux of S-nitrosothiol-bound nitric oxide, and its function as a subunit of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DEFB105A Gene

defensin, beta 105A

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical copies of defensin, beta 105, DEFB105A and DEFB105B, in tail-to-tail orientation. This gene, DEFB105A, represents the more centromeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFB105B Gene

defensin, beta 105B

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical copies of defensin, beta 105, DEFB105A and DEFB105B, in tail-to-tail orientation. This gene, DEFB105B, represents the more telomeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DFFBP1 Gene

DNA fragmentation factor, 40kDa, beta polypeptide pseudogene 1

TMSB4XP3 Gene

thymosin beta 4, X-linked pseudogene 3

RXRB Gene

retinoid X receptor, beta

This gene encodes a member of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors which are involved in mediating the effects of retinoic acid (RA). The encoded protein forms homodimers with the retinoic acid, thyroid hormone, and vitamin D receptors, increasing both DNA binding and transcriptional function on their respective response elements. This gene lies within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region on chromosome 6. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PCDHB19P Gene

protocadherin beta 19 pseudogene

SPTB Gene

spectrin, beta, erythrocytic

This locus encodes a member of the spectrin gene family. Spectrin proteins, along with ankyrin, play a role in cell membrane organization and stability. The protein encoded by this locus functions in stability of erythrocyte membranes, and mutations in this gene have been associated with spherocytosis type 2, hereditary elliptocytosis, and neonatal hemolytic anemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

GJB7 Gene

gap junction protein, beta 7, 25kDa

Connexins, such as GJB7, are involved in the formation of gap junctions, intercellular conduits that directly connect the cytoplasms of contacting cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of 2 hemichannels, each of which contains 6 connexin subunits (Sohl et al., 2003 [PubMed 12881038]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CHRNB1 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 1 (muscle)

The muscle acetylcholine receptor is composed of five subunits: two alpha subunits and one beta, one gamma, and one delta subunit. This gene encodes the beta subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. The acetylcholine receptor changes conformation upon acetylcholine binding leading to the opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. Mutations in this gene are associated with slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHRNB3 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 3 (neuronal)

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast signal transmission at synapses. The nAChRs are (hetero)pentamers composed of homologous subunits. The subunits that make up the muscle and neuronal forms of nAChRs are encoded by separate genes and have different primary structure. There are several subtypes of neuronal nAChRs that vary based on which homologous subunits are arranged around the central channel. They are classified as alpha-subunits if, like muscle alpha-1 (MIM 100690), they have a pair of adjacent cysteines as part of the presumed acetylcholine binding site. Subunits lacking these cysteine residues are classified as beta-subunits (Groot Kormelink and Luyten, 1997 [PubMed 9009220]). Elliott et al. (1996) [PubMed 8906617] stated that the proposed structure for each subunit is a conserved N-terminal extracellular domain followed by 3 conserved transmembrane domains, a variable cytoplasmic loop, a fourth conserved transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal extracellular region.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

CHRNB2 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 2 (neuronal)

Neuronal acetylcholine receptors are homo- or heteropentameric complexes composed of homologous alpha and beta subunits. They belong to a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels which allow the flow of sodium and potassium across the plasma membrane in response to ligands such as acetylcholine and nicotine. This gene encodes one of several beta subunits. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHRNB4 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 4 (neuronal)

LOC100422275 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 5 pseudogene

LOC100533947 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene

LOC100533946 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene

ITGB1BP1 Gene

integrin beta 1 binding protein 1

The cytoplasmic domains of integrins are essential for cell adhesion. The protein encoded by this gene binds to the beta1 integrin cytoplasmic domain. The interaction between this protein and beta1 integrin is highly specific. Two isoforms of this protein are derived from alternatively spliced transcripts. The shorter form of this protein does not interact with the beta1 integrin cytoplasmic domain. The longer form is a phosphoprotein and the extent of its phosphorylation is regulated by the cell-matrix interaction, suggesting an important role of this protein during integrin-dependent cell adhesion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGB1BP2 Gene

integrin beta 1 binding protein (melusin) 2

TUBB8P12 Gene

tubulin beta 8 pseudogene 12

TUBB8P11 Gene

tubulin, beta 8 class VIII pseudogene 11

TUBBP10 Gene

tubulin, beta class I pseudogene 10

HSP90B1 Gene

heat shock protein 90kDa beta (Grp94), member 1

This gene encodes a member of a family of adenosine triphosphate(ATP)-metabolizing molecular chaperones with roles in stabilizing and folding other proteins. The encoded protein is localized to melanosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression of this protein is associated with a variety of pathogenic states, including tumor formation. There is a microRNA gene located within the 5' exon of this gene. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1 and 15. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

IL2RB Gene

interleukin 2 receptor, beta

The interleukin 2 receptor, which is involved in T cell-mediated immune responses, is present in 3 forms with respect to ability to bind interleukin 2. The low affinity form is a monomer of the alpha subunit and is not involved in signal transduction. The intermediate affinity form consists of an alpha/beta subunit heterodimer, while the high affinity form consists of an alpha/beta/gamma subunit heterotrimer. Both the intermediate and high affinity forms of the receptor are involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis and transduction of mitogenic signals from interleukin 2. The protein encoded by this gene represents the beta subunit and is a type I membrane protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

B3GNT4 Gene

UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 4

This gene encodes a member of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase protein family. The encoded enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains and prefers lacto-N-neotetraose as a substrate. It is a type II transmembrane protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

B3GNT5 Gene

UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 5

This gene encodes a member of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase family. This enzyme is a type II membrane protein. It exhibits strong activity to transfer GlcNAc to glycolipid substrates and is identified as the most likely candidate for lactotriaosylceramide synthase. This enzyme is essential for the expression of Lewis X epitopes on glycolipids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

B3GNT6 Gene

UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 6

B3GNT7 Gene

UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 7

B3GNT2 Gene

UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2

This gene encodes a member of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase family. This enzyme is a type II transmembrane protein. It prefers the substrate of lacto-N-neotetraose, and is involved in the biosynthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

B3GNT3 Gene

UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 3

This gene encodes a member of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase family. This enzyme is a type II transmembrane protein and contains a signal anchor that is not cleaved. It prefers the substrates of lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-neotetraose, and is involved in the biosynthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains and the biosynthesis of the backbone structure of dimeric sialyl Lewis a. It plays dominant roles in L-selectin ligand biosynthesis, lymphocyte homing and lymphocyte trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC729222 Gene

liprin-beta-1-like

B3GNT8 Gene

UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 8

B3GNT9 Gene

UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 9

HLA-DRB8 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 8 (pseudogene)

HLA-DRB9 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 9 (pseudogene)

HLA-DRB2 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 2 (pseudogene)

HLA-DRB3 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 3

HLA-DRB3 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DRA) and a beta (DRB) chain, both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and its gene contains 6 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DR molecule the beta chain contains all the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. DRB1 is expressed at a level five times higher than its paralogues DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5. The presence of DRB3 is linked with allelic variants of DRB1, otherwise it is omitted. There are 4 related pseudogenes: DRB2, DRB6, DRB7, DRB8 and DRB9. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HLA-DRB1 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1

HLA-DRB1 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogs. The class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DRA) and a beta chain (DRB), both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa. It is encoded by 6 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide; exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains; exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain; and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DR molecule the beta chain contains all the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities. Hundreds of DRB1 alleles have been described and typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. DRB1 is expressed at a level five times higher than its paralogs DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5. DRB1 is present in all individuals. Allelic variants of DRB1 are linked with either none or one of the genes DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5. There are 4 related pseudogenes: DRB2, DRB6, DRB7, DRB8 and DRB9. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HLA-DRB6 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 6 (pseudogene)

HLA-DRB7 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 7 (pseudogene)

HLA-DRB4 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 4

HLA-DRB4 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DRA) and a beta (DRB) chain, both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and its gene contains 6 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DR molecule the beta chain contains all the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. DRB1 is expressed at a level five times higher than its paralogues DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5. The presence of DRB4 is linked with allelic variants of DRB1, otherwise it is omitted. There are 4 related pseudogenes: DRB2, DRB6, DRB7, DRB8 and DRB9. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HLA-DRB5 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 5

HLA-DRB5 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DRA) and a beta (DRB) chain, both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and its gene contains 6 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DR molecule the beta chain contains all the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. DRB1 is expressed at a level five times higher than its paralogues DRB3, DRB4 and DRB5. The presence of DRB5 is linked with allelic variants of DRB1, otherwise it is omitted. There are 4 related pseudogenes: DRB2, DRB6, DRB7, DRB8 and DRB9. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC102723964 Gene

alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 17A-like

TRBV20OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 20/OR9-2 (non-functional)

LOC100130731 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 1 pseudogene

ITGB3BP Gene

integrin beta 3 binding protein (beta3-endonexin)

This gene encodes a transcriptional coregulator that binds to and enhances the activity of members of the nuclear receptor families, thyroid hormone receptors and retinoid X receptors. This protein also acts as a corepressor of NF-kappaB-dependent signaling. This protein induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through a caspase 2-mediated signaling pathway. This protein is also a component of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant nucleosome associated complex (CENP-NAC) and may be involved in mitotic progression by recruiting the histone H3 variant CENP-A to the centromere. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PARD6B Gene

par-6 family cell polarity regulator beta

This gene is a member of the PAR6 family and encodes a protein with a PSD95/Discs-large/ZO1 (PDZ) domain, an OPR domain and a semi-Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) domain. This cytoplasmic protein is involved in asymmetrical cell division and cell polarization processes as a member of a multi-protein complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ENGASE Gene

endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase

This gene encodes a cytosolic enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptides and proteins with mannose modifications to produce free oligosaccharides. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

HBB Gene

hemoglobin, beta

The alpha (HBA) and beta (HBB) loci determine the structure of the 2 types of polypeptide chains in adult hemoglobin, Hb A. The normal adult hemoglobin tetramer consists of two alpha chains and two beta chains. Mutant beta globin causes sickle cell anemia. Absence of beta chain causes beta-zero-thalassemia. Reduced amounts of detectable beta globin causes beta-plus-thalassemia. The order of the genes in the beta-globin cluster is 5'-epsilon -- gamma-G -- gamma-A -- delta -- beta--3'. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NAPB Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, beta

PGGT1BP2 Gene

protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I, beta subunit pseudogene 2

SGTB Gene

small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing, beta

DTNB Gene

dystrobrevin, beta

This gene encodes dystrobrevin beta, a component of the dystrophin-associated protein complex (DPC). The DPC consists of dystrophin and several integral and peripheral membrane proteins, including dystroglycans, sarcoglycans, syntrophins and dystrobrevin alpha and beta. The DPC localizes to the sarcolemma and its disruption is associated with various forms of muscular dystrophy. Dystrobrevin beta is thought to interact with syntrophin and the DP71 short form of dystrophin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LACTBL1 Gene

lactamase, beta-like 1

TRBV25OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 25/OR9-2 (pseudogene)

KCNE2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, isk-related subfamily. This member is a small integral membrane subunit that assembles with the KCNH2 gene product, a pore-forming protein, to alter its function. This gene is expressed in heart and muscle and the gene mutations are associated with cardiac arrhythmia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNE3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 3

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, isk-related subfamily. This member is a type I membrane protein, and a beta subunit that assembles with a potassium channel alpha-subunit to modulate the gating kinetics and enhance stability of the multimeric complex. This gene is prominently expressed in the kidney. A missense mutation in this gene is associated with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNE1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 1

The product of this gene belongs to the potassium channel KCNE family. Potassium ion channels are essential to many cellular functions and show a high degree of diversity, varying in their electrophysiologic and pharmacologic properties. This gene encodes a transmembrane protein known to associate with the product of the KVLQT1 gene to form the delayed rectifier potassium channel. Mutation in this gene are associated with both Jervell and Lange-Nielsen and Romano-Ward forms of long-QT syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNE4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 4

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, isk-related subfamily. This member is a type I membrane protein, and a beta subunit that assembles with a potassium channel alpha-subunit to modulate the gating kinetics and enhance stability of the multimeric complex. This gene is prominently expressed in the embryo and in adult uterus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNE5 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily E regulatory beta subunit 5

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a membrane protein which has sequence similarity to the KCNE1 gene product, a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, isk-related subfamily. This intronless gene is deleted in AMME contiguous gene syndrome and may be involved in the cardiac and neurologic abnormalities found in the AMME contiguous gene syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100506747 Gene

alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-like protein LOC641515 homolog

LOC100418630 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene

PPP2R3B Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', beta

Protein phosphatase 2 (formerly named type 2A) is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. Protein phosphatase 2 holoenzymes are heterotrimeric proteins composed of a structural subunit A, a catalytic subunit C, and a regulatory subunit B. The regulatory subunit is encoded by a diverse set of genes that have been grouped into the B/PR55, B'/PR61, and B''/PR72 families. These different regulatory subunits confer distinct enzymatic specificities and intracellular localizations to the holozenzyme. The product of this gene belongs to the B'' family. The B'' family has been further divided into subfamilies. The product of this gene belongs to the beta subfamily of regulatory subunit B''. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

ST6GALNAC2P1 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 2 pseudogene 1

GPHB5 Gene

glycoprotein hormone beta 5

GPHB5 is a cystine knot-forming polypeptide and a subunit of the dimeric glycoprotein hormone family (Hsu et al., 2002 [PubMed 12089349]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TPM2 Gene

tropomyosin 2 (beta)

This gene encodes beta-tropomyosin, a member of the actin filament binding protein family, and mainly expressed in slow, type 1 muscle fibers. Mutations in this gene can alter the expression of other sarcomeric tropomyosin proteins, and cause cap disease, nemaline myopathy and distal arthrogryposis syndromes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

TGFBR2 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor II (70/80kDa)

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family and the TGFB receptor subfamily. The encoded protein is a transmembrane protein that has a protein kinase domain, forms a heterodimeric complex with another receptor protein, and binds TGF-beta. This receptor/ligand complex phosphorylates proteins, which then enter the nucleus and regulate the transcription of a subset of genes related to cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Marfan Syndrome, Loeys-Deitz Aortic Aneurysm Syndrome, and the development of various types of tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TGFBR1 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor 1

The protein encoded by this gene forms a heteromeric complex with type II TGF-beta receptors when bound to TGF-beta, transducing the TGF-beta signal from the cell surface to the cytoplasm. The encoded protein is a serine/threonine protein kinase. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Loeys-Dietz aortic aneurysm syndrome (LDAS). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

ETFB Gene

electron-transfer-flavoprotein, beta polypeptide

This gene encodes electron-transfer-flavoprotein, beta polypeptide, which shuttles electrons between primary flavoprotein dehydrogenases involved in mitochondrial fatty acid and amino acid catabolism and the membrane-bound electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase. The gene deficiencies have been implicated in type II glutaricaciduria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GBA Gene

glucosidase, beta, acid

This gene encodes a lysosomal membrane protein that cleaves the beta-glucosidic linkage of glycosylceramide, an intermediate in glycolipid metabolism. Mutations in this gene cause Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disease characterized by an accumulation of glucocerebrosides. A related pseudogene is approximately 12 kb downstream of this gene on chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

GMFB Gene

glia maturation factor, beta

LOC100422399 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

C1GALT1P2 Gene

ore 1 synthase, glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta-galactosyltransferase 1 pseudogene 2

CACNB3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 3 subunit

This gene encodes a regulatory beta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel. Beta subunits are composed of five domains, which contribute to the regulation of surface expression and gating of calcium channels and may also play a role in the regulation of transcription factors and calcium transport. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CACNB2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 2 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of a voltage-dependent calcium channel protein that is a member of the voltage-gated calcium channel superfamily. The gene product was originally identified as an antigen target in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, an autoimmune disorder. Mutations in this gene are associated with Brugada syndrome. Alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

CACNB1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the calcium channel beta subunit family. It plays an important role in the calcium channel by modulating G protein inhibition, increasing peak calcium current, controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting and shifting the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and three transcript variants encoding three distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNB4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 4 subunit

This gene encodes a member of the beta subunit family of voltage-dependent calcium channel complex proteins. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. The protein encoded by this locus plays an important role in calcium channel function by modulating G protein inhibition, increasing peak calcium current, controlling the alpha-1 subunit membrane targeting and shifting the voltage dependence of activation and inactivation. Certain mutations in this gene have been associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

TGFBRAP1 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor associated protein 1

B3GALNT2 Gene

beta-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2

This gene encodes a member of the glycosyltransferase 31 family. The encoded protein synthesizes GalNAc:beta-1,3GlcNAc, a novel carbohydrate structure, on N- and O-glycans. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

B3GALNT1 Gene

beta-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (globoside blood group)

This gene is a member of the beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase (beta3GalT) gene family. This family encodes type II membrane-bound glycoproteins with diverse enzymatic functions using different donor substrates (UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) and different acceptor sugars (N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine). The beta3GalT genes are distantly related to the Drosophila Brainiac gene and have the protein coding sequence contained in a single exon. The beta3GalT proteins also contain conserved sequences not found in the beta4GalT or alpha3GalT proteins. The carbohydrate chains synthesized by these enzymes are designated as type 1, whereas beta4GalT enzymes synthesize type 2 carbohydrate chains. The ratio of type 1:type 2 chains changes during embryogenesis. By sequence similarity, the beta3GalT genes fall into at least two groups: beta3GalT4 and 4 other beta3GalT genes (beta3GalT1-3, beta3GalT5). The encoded protein of this gene does not use N-acetylglucosamine as an acceptor sugar at all. Multiple transcript variants that are alternatively spliced in the 5' UTR have been described; they all encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NDUFB3P2 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 3, 12kDa pseudogene 2

NDUFB3P3 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 3, 12kDa pseudogene 3

NDUFB3P1 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 3, 12kDa pseudogene 1

NDUFB3P4 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 3, 12kDa pseudogene 4

DEFB124 Gene

defensin, beta 124

Defensins are cysteine-rich cationic polypeptides that are important in the host immunologic response to invading microorganisms. This antimicrobial protein is secreted and is a member of the beta defensin protein family. Beta defensin genes are found in several clusters throughout the genome, with this gene mapping to a cluster at 20q11.1. The encoded protein may serve to enhance innate immunity in the prostate. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

DEFB121 Gene

defensin, beta 121

This gene encodes a member of the beta subfamily of defensins. Beta-defensins are antimicrobial peptides that protect tissues and organs from infection by a variety of microorganisms. This gene is found in a cluster with other beta-defensin genes on the long arm of chromosome 20. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

B3GALTL Gene

beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase-like

The protein encoded by this gene is a beta-1,3-glucosyltransferase that transfers glucose to O-linked fucosylglycans on thrombospondin type-1 repeats (TSRs) of several proteins. The encoded protein is a type II membrane protein. Defects in this gene are a cause of Peters-plus syndrome (PPS).[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

B3GALT4 Gene

UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 4

This gene is a member of the beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase (beta3GalT) gene family. This family encodes type II membrane-bound glycoproteins with diverse enzymatic functions using different donor substrates (UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) and different acceptor sugars (N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine). The beta3GalT genes are distantly related to the Drosophila Brainiac gene and have the protein coding sequence contained in a single exon. The beta3GalT proteins also contain conserved sequences not found in the beta4GalT or alpha3GalT proteins. The carbohydrate chains synthesized by these enzymes are designated as type 1, whereas beta4GalT enzymes synthesize type 2 carbohydrate chains. The ratio of type 1:type 2 chains changes during embryogenesis. By sequence similarity, the beta3GalT genes fall into at least two groups: beta3GalT4 and 4 other beta3GalT genes (beta3GalT1-3, beta3GalT5). This gene is oriented telomere to centromere in close proximity to the ribosomal protein S18 gene. The functionality of the encoded protein is limited to ganglioseries glycolipid biosynthesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

B3GALT5 Gene

UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 5

This gene encodes a member of a family of membrane-bound glycoproteins. The encoded protein may synthesize type 1 Lewis antigens, which are elevated in gastrointestinal and pancreatic cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

B3GALT6 Gene

UDP-Gal:betaGal beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase polypeptide 6

The enzyme encoded by this intronless gene is a beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase found in the medial Golgi apparatus, where it catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-galactose to substrates containing a terminal beta-linked galactose moiety. The encoded enzyme has a particular affinity for galactose-beta-1,4-xylose found in the linker region of glycosamines. This enzyme is required for glycosaminoglycan synthesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

B3GALT1 Gene

UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 1

This gene is a member of the beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase (beta3GalT) gene family. This family encodes type II membrane-bound glycoproteins with diverse enzymatic functions using different donor substrates (UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) and different acceptor sugars (N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine). The beta3GalT genes are distantly related to the Drosophila Brainiac gene and have the protein coding sequence contained in a single exon. The beta3GalT proteins also contain conserved sequences not found in the beta4GalT or alpha3GalT proteins. The carbohydrate chains synthesized by these enzymes are designated as type 1, whereas beta4GalT enzymes synthesize type 2 carbohydrate chains. The ratio of type 1:type 2 chains changes during embryogenesis. By sequence similarity, the beta3GalT genes fall into at least two groups: beta3GalT4 and 4 other beta3GalT genes (beta3GalT1-3, beta3GalT5). This gene is expressed exclusively in the brain. The encoded protein shows strict donor substrate specificity for UDP-galactose. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

B3GALT2 Gene

UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 2

This gene is a member of the beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase (beta3GalT) gene family. This family encodes type II membrane-bound glycoproteins with diverse enzymatic functions using different donor substrates (UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) and different acceptor sugars (N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine). The beta3GalT genes are distantly related to the Drosophila Brainiac gene and have the protein coding sequence contained in a single exon. The beta3GalT proteins also contain conserved sequences not found in the beta4GalT or alpha3GalT proteins. The carbohydrate chains synthesized by these enzymes are designated as type 1, whereas beta4GalT enzymes synthesize type 2 carbohydrate chains. The ratio of type 1:type 2 chains changes during embryogenesis. By sequence similarity, the beta3GalT genes fall into at least two groups: beta3GalT4 and 4 other beta3GalT genes (beta3GalT1-3, beta3GalT5). This gene encodes a protein that functions in N-linked glycoprotein glycosylation and shows strict donor substrate specificity for UDP-galactose. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105379570 Gene

DLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR-1 beta chain-like

TRBV22OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 22/OR9-2 (pseudogene)

TRA2B Gene

transformer 2 beta homolog (Drosophila)

This gene encodes a nuclear protein which functions as sequence-specific serine/arginine splicing factor which plays a role in mRNA processing, splicing patterns, and gene expression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LFNG Gene

LFNG O-fucosylpeptide 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase

This gene is a member of the fringe gene family which also includes radical and manic fringe genes. They all encode evolutionarily conserved glycosyltransferases that act in the Notch signaling pathway to define boundaries during embryonic development. While their genomic structure is distinct from other glycosyltransferases, fringe proteins have a fucose-specific beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity that leads to elongation of O-linked fucose residues on Notch, which alters Notch signaling. This gene product is predicted to be a single-pass type II Golgi membrane protein but it may also be secreted and proteolytically processed like the related proteins in mouse and Drosophila (PMID: 9187150). Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal recessive spondylocostal dysostosis 3. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

DEFB106A Gene

defensin, beta 106A

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical copies of defensin, beta 106, DEFB106A and DEFB106B, in head-to-head orientation. This gene, DEFB106A, represents the more centromeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFB106B Gene

defensin, beta 106B

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical copies of defensin, beta 106, DEFB106A and DEFB106B, in head-to-head orientation. This gene, DEFB106B, represents the more telomeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

ACTBL2 Gene

actin, beta-like 2

HEXB Gene

hexosaminidase B (beta polypeptide)

Hexosaminidase B is the beta subunit of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase that, together with the cofactor GM2 activator protein, catalyzes the degradation of the ganglioside GM2, and other molecules containing terminal N-acetyl hexosamines. Beta-hexosaminidase is composed of two subunits, alpha and beta, which are encoded by separate genes. Both beta-hexosaminidase alpha and beta subunits are members of family 20 of glycosyl hydrolases. Mutations in the alpha or beta subunit genes lead to an accumulation of GM2 ganglioside in neurons and neurodegenerative disorders termed the GM2 gangliosidoses. Beta subunit gene mutations lead to Sandhoff disease (GM2-gangliosidosis type II). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

TGFB1 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta 1

This gene encodes a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family of cytokines, which are multifunctional peptides that regulate proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and other functions in many cell types. Many cells have TGFB receptors, and the protein positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. The secreted protein is cleaved into a latency-associated peptide (LAP) and a mature TGFB1 peptide, and is found in either a latent form composed of a TGFB1 homodimer, a LAP homodimer, and a latent TGFB1-binding protein, or in an active form composed of a TGFB1 homodimer. The mature peptide may also form heterodimers with other TGFB family members. This gene is frequently upregulated in tumor cells, and mutations in this gene result in Camurati-Engelmann disease.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

TGFB2 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta 2

This gene encodes a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) family of cytokines, which are multifunctional peptides that regulate proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and other functions in many cell types by transducing their signal through combinations of transmembrane type I and type II receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2) and their downstream effectors, the SMAD proteins. Disruption of the TGFB/SMAD pathway has been implicated in a variety of human cancers. The encoded protein is secreted and has suppressive effects of interleukin-2 dependent T-cell growth. Translocation t(1;7)(q41;p21) between this gene and HDAC9 is associated with Peters' anomaly, a congenital defect of the anterior chamber of the eye. The knockout mice lacking this gene show perinatal mortality and a wide range of developmental, including cardiac, defects. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

TGFB3 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta 3

This gene encodes a member of the TGF-beta family of proteins. The encoded protein is secreted and is involved in embryogenesis and cell differentiation. Defects in this gene are a cause of familial arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 1. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

TGFBI Gene

transforming growth factor, beta-induced, 68kDa

This gene encodes an RGD-containing protein that binds to type I, II and IV collagens. The RGD motif is found in many extracellular matrix proteins modulating cell adhesion and serves as a ligand recognition sequence for several integrins. This protein plays a role in cell-collagen interactions and may be involved in endochondrial bone formation in cartilage. The protein is induced by transforming growth factor-beta and acts to inhibit cell adhesion. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple types of corneal dystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ACTBP12 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene 12

ACTBP13 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene 13

ACTBP10 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene 10

ACTBP11 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene 11

SNTB2 Gene

syntrophin, beta 2 (dystrophin-associated protein A1, 59kDa, basic component 2)

Dystrophin is a large, rod-like cytoskeletal protein found at the inner surface of muscle fibers. Dystrophin is missing in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients and is present in reduced amounts in Becker Muscular Dystrophy patients. The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein found associated with dystrophin and dystrophin-related proteins. This gene is a member of the syntrophin gene family, which contains at least two other structurally-related genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SNTB1 Gene

syntrophin, beta 1 (dystrophin-associated protein A1, 59kDa, basic component 1)

Dystrophin is a large, rod-like cytoskeletal protein found at the inner surface of muscle fibers. Dystrophin is missing in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients and is present in reduced amounts in Becker Muscular Dystrophy patients. The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein found associated with dystrophin and dystrophin-related proteins. This gene is a member of the syntrophin gene family, which contains at least two other structurally-related genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105379665 Gene

DLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR-1 beta chain-like

KCNMB1 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 1

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit and the product of this gene, the modulatory beta subunit. Intracellular calcium regulates the physical association between the alpha and beta subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNMB3 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 3

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit and the modulatory beta subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is an auxiliary beta subunit which may partially inactivate or slightly decrease the activation time of MaxiK alpha subunit currents. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

KCNMB2 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 2

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit and the modulatory beta subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is an auxiliary beta subunit which decreases the activation time of MaxiK alpha subunit currents. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. Additional variants are discussed in the literature, but their full length nature has not been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KCNMB4 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 4

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit and the modulatory beta subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is an auxiliary beta subunit which slows activation kinetics, leads to steeper calcium sensitivity, and shifts the voltage range of current activation to more negative potentials than does the beta 1 subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CCT2 Gene

chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 2 (beta)

The protein encoded by this gene is a molecular chaperone that is a member of the chaperonin containing TCP1 complex (CCT), also known as the TCP1 ring complex (TRiC). This complex consists of two identical stacked rings, each containing eight different proteins. Unfolded polypeptides enter the central cavity of the complex and are folded in an ATP-dependent manner. The complex folds various proteins, including actin and tubulin. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

TRBV22-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 22-1 (pseudogene)

ASPH Gene

aspartate beta-hydroxylase

This gene is thought to play an important role in calcium homeostasis. The gene is expressed from two promoters and undergoes extensive alternative splicing. The encoded set of proteins share varying amounts of overlap near their N-termini but have substantial variations in their C-terminal domains resulting in distinct functional properties. The longest isoforms (a and f) include a C-terminal Aspartyl/Asparaginyl beta-hydroxylase domain that hydroxylates aspartic acid or asparagine residues in the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains of some proteins, including protein C, coagulation factors VII, IX, and X, and the complement factors C1R and C1S. Other isoforms differ primarily in the C-terminal sequence and lack the hydroxylase domain, and some have been localized to the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Some of these isoforms are found in complexes with calsequestrin, triadin, and the ryanodine receptor, and have been shown to regulate calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Some isoforms have been implicated in metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

CTNNB1 Gene

catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1, 88kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex of proteins that constitute adherens junctions (AJs). AJs are necessary for the creation and maintenance of epithelial cell layers by regulating cell growth and adhesion between cells. The encoded protein also anchors the actin cytoskeleton and may be responsible for transmitting the contact inhibition signal that causes cells to stop dividing once the epithelial sheet is complete. Finally, this protein binds to the product of the APC gene, which is mutated in adenomatous polyposis of the colon. Mutations in this gene are a cause of colorectal cancer (CRC), pilomatrixoma (PTR), medulloblastoma (MDB), and ovarian cancer. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

ATP1B4 Gene

ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 4 polypeptide

This gene has been found in all vertebrate genomes sequenced to date. However, this gene has undergone a change in function in placental mammals compared to other species. Specifically, in fish, avian, and amphibian species, this gene encodes plasma membrane-bound beta-subunits of Na,K-ATPase. In placental mammals, the encoded protein interacts with the nuclear transcriptional coregulator SKIP and may be involved in the regulation of TGF-beta signaling. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

ATP1B2 Gene

ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 2 polypeptide

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of Na+/K+ and H+/K+ ATPases beta chain proteins, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane. The glycoprotein subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes a beta 2 subunit. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

ATP1B3 Gene

ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 3 polypeptide

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of Na+/K+ and H+/K+ ATPases beta chain proteins, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane. The glycoprotein subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes a beta 3 subunit. This gene encodes a beta 3 subunit. A pseudogene exists for this gene, and it is located on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP1B1 Gene

ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 1 polypeptide

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of Na+/K+ and H+/K+ ATPases beta chain proteins, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane. The glycoprotein subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes a beta 1 subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described, but their biological validity is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

SEC61B Gene

Sec61 beta subunit

The Sec61 complex is the central component of the protein translocation apparatus of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Oligomers of the Sec61 complex form a transmembrane channel where proteins are translocated across and integrated into the ER membrane. This complex consists of three membrane proteins- alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the beta-subunit protein. The Sec61 subunits are also observed in the post-ER compartment, suggesting that these proteins can escape the ER and recycle back. There is evidence for multiple polyadenylated sites for this transcript. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADH1B Gene

alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (class I), beta polypeptide

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this enzyme family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. This encoded protein, consisting of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, exhibits high activity for ethanol oxidation and plays a major role in ethanol catabolism. Three genes encoding alpha, beta and gamma subunits are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

HLA-DPB1 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP beta 1

HLA-DPB belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DPA) and a beta chain (DPB), both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and its gene contains 6 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DP molecule both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to 4 different molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HLA-DPB2 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP beta 2 (pseudogene)

TUBB8 Gene

tubulin, beta 8 class VIII

TUBB6 Gene

tubulin, beta 6 class V

TUBB3 Gene

tubulin, beta 3 class III

This gene encodes a class III member of the beta tubulin protein family. Beta tubulins are one of two core protein families (alpha and beta tubulins) that heterodimerize and assemble to form microtubules. This protein is primarily expressed in neurons and may be involved in neurogenesis and axon guidance and maintenance. Mutations in this gene are the cause of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 3. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

TUBB1 Gene

tubulin, beta 1 class VI

This gene encodes a member of the beta tubulin protein family. Beta tubulins are one of two core protein families (alpha and beta tubulins) that heterodimerize and assemble to form microtubules. This protein is specifically expressed in platelets and megakaryocytes and may be involved in proplatelet production and platelet release. A mutations in this gene is associated with autosomal dominant macrothrombocytopenia. Two pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosome Y.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

ESRRB Gene

estrogen-related receptor beta

This gene encodes a protein with similarity to the estrogen receptor. Its function is unknown; however, a similar protein in mouse plays an essential role in placental development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422431 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 5, 16kDa pseudogene

PCDHB17P Gene

protocadherin beta 17 pseudogene

LCRB Gene

locus control region, beta

HSD3B7 Gene

hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 7

This gene encodes an enzyme which is involved in the initial stages of the synthesis of bile acids from cholesterol and a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. The encoded protein is a membrane-associated endoplasmic reticulum protein which is active against 7-alpha hydrosylated sterol substrates. Mutations in this gene are associated with a congenital bile acid synthesis defect which leads to neonatal cholestasis, a form of progressive liver disease. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

HSD3B1 Gene

hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 1

HSD3B2 Gene

hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of delta(5)-ene-3-beta-hydroxy steroid, and the oxidative conversion of ketosteroids. It plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of all classes of hormonal steroids. This gene is predominantly expressed in the adrenals and the gonads. Mutations in this gene are associated with 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, type II, deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

TUBB4BP7 Gene

tubulin, beta 4B class IVb pseudogene 7

PRKAB2 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, beta 2 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit may be a positive regulator of AMPK activity. It is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and thus may have tissue-specific roles. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PRKAB1 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, beta 1 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit may be a positive regulator of AMPK activity. The myristoylation and phosphorylation of this subunit have been shown to affect the enzyme activity and cellular localization of AMPK. This subunit may also serve as an adaptor molecule mediating the association of the AMPK complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV11-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 11-2

LOC100287928 Gene

hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), beta subunit pseudogene

TBRG1 Gene

transforming growth factor beta regulator 1

TBRG4 Gene

transforming growth factor beta regulator 4

MAP1LC3BP1 Gene

microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta pseudogene 1

HADHB Gene

hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), beta subunit

This gene encodes the beta subunit of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein, which catalyzes the last three steps of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of long chain fatty acids. The mitochondrial membrane-bound heterocomplex is composed of four alpha and four beta subunits, with the beta subunit catalyzing the 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase activity. The encoded protein can also bind RNA and decreases the stability of some mRNAs. The genes of the alpha and beta subunits of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein are located adjacent to each other in the human genome in a head-to-head orientation. Mutations in this gene result in trifunctional protein deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

TUBB4B Gene

tubulin, beta 4B class IVb

TUBB4A Gene

tubulin, beta 4A class IVa

This gene encodes a member of the beta tubulin family. Beta tubulins are one of two core protein families (alpha and beta tubulins) that heterodimerize and assemble to form microtubules. Mutations in this gene cause hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-6 and autosomal dominant torsion dystonia-4. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GUSBP10 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene 10

GUSBP12 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene 12

GJB1 Gene

gap junction protein, beta 1, 32kDa

This gene encodes a member of the gap junction protein family. The gap junction proteins are membrane-spanning proteins that assemble to form gap junction channels that facilitate the transfer of ions and small molecules between cells. According to sequence similarities at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, the gap junction proteins are divided into two categories, alpha and beta. Mutations in this gene cause X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, an inherited peripheral neuropathy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

GJB3 Gene

gap junction protein, beta 3, 31kDa

This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of arrays of intercellular channels that provide a route for the diffusion of low molecular weight materials from cell to cell. Mutations in this gene can cause non-syndromic deafness or erythrokeratodermia variabilis, a skin disorder. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GJB2 Gene

gap junction protein, beta 2, 26kDa

This gene encodes a member of the gap junction protein family. The gap junctions were first characterized by electron microscopy as regionally specialized structures on plasma membranes of contacting adherent cells. These structures were shown to consist of cell-to-cell channels that facilitate the transfer of ions and small molecules between cells. The gap junction proteins, also known as connexins, purified from fractions of enriched gap junctions from different tissues differ. According to sequence similarities at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, the gap junction proteins are divided into two categories, alpha and beta. Mutations in this gene are responsible for as much as 50% of pre-lingual, recessive deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

GJB5 Gene

gap junction protein, beta 5, 31.1kDa

This gene encodes a member of the beta-type (group I) connexin family. The encoded protein is a gap junction protein involved in intercellular communication related to epidermal differentiation and environmental sensing. This gene has been linked to non-small cell lung cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GJB4 Gene

gap junction protein, beta 4, 30.3kDa

This gene encodes a transmembrane connexin protein that is a component of gap junctions. Mutations in this gene have been associated with erythrokeratodermia variabilis, progressive symmetric erythrokeratoderma and hearing impairment. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

SMA5 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene

SMA4 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene

TRBV4-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 4-2

TRBV4-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 4-3

TRBV4-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 4-1

COLGALT2 Gene

collagen beta(1-O)galactosyltransferase 2

COLGALT1 Gene

collagen beta(1-O)galactosyltransferase 1

LOC387869 Gene

microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta pseudogene

SIRPB2 Gene

signal-regulatory protein beta 2

SIRPB1 Gene

signal-regulatory protein beta 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the signal-regulatory-protein (SIRP) family, and also belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. SIRP family members are receptor-type transmembrane glycoproteins known to be involved in the negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase-coupled signaling processes. This protein was found to interact with TYROBP/DAP12, a protein bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs. This protein was also reported to participate in the recruitment of tyrosine kinase SYK. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

LOC105379658 Gene

DLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR-1 beta chain-like

TRBV5-7 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-7 (non-functional)

TRBV5-6 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-6

TRBV5-5 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-5

TRBV5-4 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-4

TRBV5-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-3 (non-functional)

TRBV5-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-2 (pseudogene)

TRBV5-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-1

TRBV5-8 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-8

UPB1 Gene

ureidopropionase, beta

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the CN hydrolase family. Beta-ureidopropionase catalyzes the last step in the pyrimidine degradation pathway. The pyrimidine bases uracil and thymine are degraded via the consecutive action of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DHPDH), dihydropyrimidinase (DHP) and beta-ureidopropionase (UP) to beta-alanine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid, respectively. UP deficiencies are associated with N-carbamyl-beta-amino aciduria and may lead to abnormalities in neurological activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DEFB109P2 Gene

defensin, beta 109, pseudogene 2

IFNAR2 Gene

interferon (alpha, beta and omega) receptor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane protein that forms one of the two chains of a receptor for interferons alpha and beta. Binding and activation of the receptor stimulates Janus protein kinases, which in turn phosphorylate several proteins, including STAT1 and STAT2. Multiple transcript variants encoding at least two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFNAR1 Gene

interferon (alpha, beta and omega) receptor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane protein that forms one of the two chains of a receptor for interferons alpha and beta. Binding and activation of the receptor stimulates Janus protein kinases, which in turn phosphorylate several proteins, including STAT1 and STAT2. The encoded protein also functions as an antiviral factor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DEFB109P1 Gene

defensin, beta 109, pseudogene 1

MCCC2 Gene

methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (beta)

This gene encodes the small subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. This enzyme functions as a heterodimer and catalyzes the carboxylation of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA to form 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA. Mutations in this gene are associated with 3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria, an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KPNB1 Gene

karyopherin (importin) beta 1

Nucleocytoplasmic transport, a signal- and energy-dependent process, takes place through nuclear pore complexes embedded in the nuclear envelope. The import of proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) requires the NLS import receptor, a heterodimer of importin alpha and beta subunits also known as karyopherins. Importin alpha binds the NLS-containing cargo in the cytoplasm and importin beta docks the complex at the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex. In the presence of nucleoside triphosphates and the small GTP binding protein Ran, the complex moves into the nuclear pore complex and the importin subunits dissociate. Importin alpha enters the nucleoplasm with its passenger protein and importin beta remains at the pore. Interactions between importin beta and the FG repeats of nucleoporins are essential in translocation through the pore complex. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the importin beta family. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

BACE1 Gene

beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1

Cerebral deposition of amyloid beta peptide is an early and critical feature of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid beta peptide is generated by proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by two proteases, one of which is the protein encoded by this gene. The encoded protein, a member of the peptidase A1 protein family, is a type I integral membrane glycoprotein and aspartic protease that is found mainly in the Golgi. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

BACE2 Gene

beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 2

This gene encodes an integral membrane glycoprotein that functions as an aspartic protease. The encoded protein cleaves amyloid precursor protein into amyloid beta peptide, which is a critical step in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome. The protein precursor is further processed into an active mature peptide. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

MBLAC2 Gene

metallo-beta-lactamase domain containing 2

MBLAC1 Gene

metallo-beta-lactamase domain containing 1

LOC653080 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene

PCDHB9 Gene

protocadherin beta 9

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB8 Gene

protocadherin beta 8

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB3 Gene

protocadherin beta 3

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB2 Gene

protocadherin beta 2

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB1 Gene

protocadherin beta 1

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB7 Gene

protocadherin beta 7

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. The transcript for this particular family member uses more than one polyadenylation site. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB6 Gene

protocadherin beta 6

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes do not share common 3' exons. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins that most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

PCDHB5 Gene

protocadherin beta 5

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB4 Gene

protocadherin beta 4

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB@ Gene

protocadherin beta cluster

The protocadherin beta cluster is one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The protocadherin genes have an immunoglobulin-like genomic organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes. Each gene product contains 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that diverges from other cadherin superfamily members. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the beta cluster has a variable region but lacks a constant region. Without this downstream region of shared exons, each transcript encodes a unique cytoplasmic tail. The specific functions of these one-exon gene products are unknown; however, they are thought to play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DEFB109 Gene

defensin, beta 109

ADRB2 Gene

adrenoceptor beta 2, surface

This gene encodes beta-2-adrenergic receptor which is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This receptor is directly associated with one of its ultimate effectors, the class C L-type calcium channel Ca(V)1.2. This receptor-channel complex also contains a G protein, an adenylyl cyclase, cAMP-dependent kinase, and the counterbalancing phosphatase, PP2A. The assembly of the signaling complex provides a mechanism that ensures specific and rapid signaling by this G protein-coupled receptor. This gene is intronless. Different polymorphic forms, point mutations, and/or downregulation of this gene are associated with nocturnal asthma, obesity and type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DEFB108P1 Gene

defensin, beta 108, pseudogene 1

PPARGC1B Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta

The protein encoded by this gene stimulates the activity of several transcription factors and nuclear receptors, including estrogen receptor alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and glucocorticoid receptor. The encoded protein may be involved in fat oxidation, non-oxidative glucose metabolism, and the regulation of energy expenditure. This protein is downregulated in prediabetic and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Certain allelic variations in this gene increase the risk of the development of obesity. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC102724560 Gene

cystathionine beta-synthase

LOC100133128 Gene

Beta-defensin 108B-like

LOC100287355 Gene

microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta pseudogene

TRBD2 Gene

T cell receptor beta diversity 2

BSND Gene

barttin CLCNK-type chloride channel accessory beta subunit

This gene encodes an essential beta subunit for CLC chloride channels. These heteromeric channels localize to basolateral membranes of renal tubules and of potassium-secreting epithelia of the inner ear. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Bartter syndrome with sensorineural deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IKBKB Gene

inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase beta

The protein encoded by this gene phosphorylates the inhibitor in the inhibitor/NF-kappa-B complex, causing dissociation of the inhibitor and activation of NF-kappa-B. The encoded protein itself is found in a complex of proteins. Several transcript variants, some protein-coding and some not, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

LOC100130137 Gene

integrin beta 1 binding protein 1 pseudogene

SCN2B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type II beta subunit

TRBV8-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 8-2 (pseudogene)

TRBV8-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 8-1 (pseudogene)

TRBV26OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 26/OR9-2 (pseudogene)

TRB Gene

T cell receptor beta locus

T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens which have been processed as small peptides and bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules at the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). Each T cell receptor is a dimer consisting of one alpha and one beta chain or one delta and one gamma chain. In a single cell, the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed in the order delta, gamma, beta, and alpha. If both delta and gamma rearrangements produce functional chains, the cell expresses delta and gamma. If not, the cell proceeds to rearrange the beta and alpha loci. This region represents the germline organization of the T cell receptor beta locus. The beta locus includes V (variable), J (joining), diversity (D), and C (constant) segments. During T cell development, the beta chain is synthesized by a recombination event at the DNA level joining a D segment with a J segment; a V segment is then joined to the D-J gene. The C segment is later joined by splicing at the RNA level. Recombination of many different V segments with several J segments provides a wide range of antigen recognition. Additional diversity is attained by junctional diversity, resulting from the random additional of nucleotides by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase. Several V segments and one J segment of the beta locus are known to be incapable of encoding a protein and are considered pseudogenes. The beta locus also includes eight trypsinogen genes, three of which encode functional proteins and five of which are pseudogenes. Chromosomal abnormalities involving the T-cell receptor beta locus have been associated with T-cell lymphomas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP3R2 Gene

protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, beta

ALG1L2 Gene

ALG1, chitobiosyldiphosphodolichol beta-mannosyltransferase-like 2

DNAJC5B Gene

DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 5 beta

TXLNB Gene

taxilin beta

PDE6B Gene

phosphodiesterase 6B, cGMP-specific, rod, beta

Photon absorption triggers a signaling cascade in rod photoreceptors that activates cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE), resulting in the rapid hydrolysis of cGMP, closure of cGMP-gated cation channels, and hyperpolarization of the cell. PDE is a peripheral membrane heterotrimeric enzyme made up of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. This gene encodes the beta subunit. Mutations in this gene result in retinitis pigmentosa and autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

SUCLA2 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit

Succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme that acts as a heterodimer, being composed of an invariant alpha subunit and a substrate-specific beta subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is an ATP-specific SCS beta subunit that dimerizes with the SCS alpha subunit to form SCS-A, an essential component of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. SCS-A hydrolyzes ATP to convert succinate to succinyl-CoA. Defects in this gene are a cause of myopathic mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome. A pseudogene of this gene has been found on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C1GALT1P1 Gene

core 1 synthase, glycoprotein-N-acetylgalactosamine 3-beta-galactosyltransferase 1 pseudogene 1

TUBB3P2 Gene

tubulin, beta 3 class III pseudogene 2

TGFBR3 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor III

This locus encodes the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta type III receptor. The encoded receptor is a membrane proteoglycan that often functions as a co-receptor with other TGF-beta receptor superfamily members. Ectodomain shedding produces soluble TGFBR3, which may inhibit TGFB signaling. Decreased expression of this receptor has been observed in various cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

DEFB103B Gene

defensin, beta 103B

Defensins form a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence. This gene encodes defensin, beta 103, which has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and may play an important role in innate epithelial defense. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFB103A Gene

defensin, beta 103A

Defensins form a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence. This gene encodes defensin, beta 103, an antibiotic peptide which is induced by bacteria and interferon gamma, and which displays antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, S. pyogenes, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and C. albicans. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

INHBA Gene

inhibin, beta A

The inhibin beta A subunit joins the alpha subunit to form a pituitary FSH secretion inhibitor. Inhibin has been shown to regulate gonadal stromal cell proliferation negatively and to have tumor-suppressor activity. In addition, serum levels of inhibin have been shown to reflect the size of granulosa-cell tumors and can therefore be used as a marker for primary as well as recurrent disease. Because expression in gonadal and various extragonadal tissues may vary severalfold in a tissue-specific fashion, it is proposed that inhibin may be both a growth/differentiation factor and a hormone. Furthermore, the beta A subunit forms a homodimer, activin A, and also joins with a beta B subunit to form a heterodimer, activin AB, both of which stimulate FSH secretion. Finally, it has been shown that the beta A subunit mRNA is identical to the erythroid differentiation factor subunit mRNA and that only one gene for this mRNA exists in the human genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INHBB Gene

inhibin, beta B

The inhibin beta B subunit joins the alpha subunit to form a pituitary FSH secretion inhibitor. Inhibin has been shown to regulate gonadal stromal cell proliferation negatively and to have tumour-suppressor activity. In addition, serum levels of inhibin have been shown to reflect the size of granulosa-cell tumors and can therefore be used as a marker for primary as well as recurrent disease. Because expression in gonadal and various extragonadal tissues may vary severalfold in a tissue-specific fashion, it is proposed that inhibin may be both a growth/differentiation factor and a hormone. Furthermore, the beta B subunit forms a homodimer, activin B, and also joins with the beta A subunit to form a heterodimer, activin AB, both of which stimulate FSH secretion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INHBC Gene

inhibin, beta C

This gene encodes the beta C chain of inhibin, a member of the TGF-beta superfamily. This subunit forms heterodimers with beta A and beta B subunits. Inhibins and activins, also members of the TGF-beta superfamily, are hormones with opposing actions and are involved in hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal hormone secretion, as well as growth and differentiation of various cell types. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INHBE Gene

inhibin, beta E

INHBE is a member of the activin beta family (see INHBA; MIM 147290) that plays a role in pancreatic exocrine cell growth and proliferation (Hashimoto et al., 2006 [PubMed 16426570]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2008]

TSHB Gene

thyroid stimulating hormone, beta

The four human glycoprotein hormones chorionic gonadotropin (CG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are dimers consisting of alpha and beta subunits that are associated noncovalently. The alpha subunits of these hormones are identical, however, their beta chains are unique and confer biological specificity. Thyroid stimulating hormone functions in the control of thyroid structure and metabolism. The protein encoded by this gene is the beta subunit of thyroid stimulating hormone. Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital central and secondary hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

AP1B1P1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit pseudogene 1

AP1B1P2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit pseudogene 2

TUBB7P Gene

tubulin, beta 7, pseudogene

LOC100422369 Gene

par-6 family cell polarity regulator beta pseudogene

EIF2B2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 2 beta, 39kDa

This gene encodes the beta subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2B (EIF2B). EIF2B is involved in protein synthesis and exchanges GDP and GTP for its activation and deactivation. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ACTBP14 Gene

actin, beta pseudogene 14

TRBJ1-6 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 1-6

TRBJ1-5 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 1-5

TRBJ1-4 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 1-4

TRBJ1-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 1-3

TRBJ1-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 1-2

TRBJ1-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 1-1

CSF2RBP1 Gene

colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, beta, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage) pseudogene 1

TRBV23-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 23-1 (non-functional)

BAS Gene

Beta-adrenergic stimulation, response to

PMPCB Gene

peptidase (mitochondrial processing) beta

This gene is a member of the peptidase M16 family and encodes a protein with a zinc-binding motif. This protein is located in the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes the cleavage of the leader peptides of precursor proteins newly imported into the mitochondria, though it only functions as part of a heterodimeric complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MEP1B Gene

meprin A, beta

Meprins are multidomain zinc metalloproteases that are highly expressed in mammalian kidney and intestinal brush border membranes, and in leukocytes and certain cancer cells. They are involved in the hydrolysis of a variety of peptide and protein substrates, and have been implicated in cancer and intestinal inflammation. Mature meprins are oligomers of evolutionarily related, but separately encoded alpha and/or beta subunits. Homooligomers of alpha subunit are secreted, whereas, oligomers containing the beta subunit are plasma membrane-bound. This gene encodes the beta subunit. Targeted disruption of this gene in mice affects embryonic viability, renal gene expression profiles, and distribution of the membrane-associated alpha subunit in kidney and intestine. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

ARHGDIB Gene

Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) beta

Members of the Rho (or ARH) protein family (see MIM 165390) and other Ras-related small GTP-binding proteins (see MIM 179520) are involved in diverse cellular events, including cell signaling, proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and secretion. The GTP-binding proteins are active only in the GTP-bound state. At least 3 classes of proteins tightly regulate cycling between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound states: GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), guanine nucleotide-releasing factors (GRFs), and GDP-dissociation inhibitors (GDIs). The GDIs, including ARHGDIB, decrease the rate of GDP dissociation from Ras-like GTPases (summary by Scherle et al., 1993 [PubMed 8356058]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2010]

LOC100288914 Gene

mannosidase, beta A, lysosomal-like pseudogene

DNMT3B Gene

DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3 beta

CpG methylation is an epigenetic modification that is important for embryonic development, imprinting, and X-chromosome inactivation. Studies in mice have demonstrated that DNA methylation is required for mammalian development. This gene encodes a DNA methyltransferase which is thought to function in de novo methylation, rather than maintenance methylation. The protein localizes primarily to the nucleus and its expression is developmentally regulated. Mutations in this gene cause the immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies (ICF) syndrome. Eight alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. The full length sequences of variants 4 and 5 have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

TUBB4AP1 Gene

tubulin, beta 4A class IVa pseudogene 1

LOC100288420 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 4, 15kDa pseudogene

IL36B Gene

interleukin 36, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. Protein structure modeling indicated that this cytokine may contain a 12-stranded beta-trefoil structure that is conserved between IL1A (IL-A alpha) and IL1B (IL-1 beta). This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AP1B1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit

Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates both the recruitment of clathrin to the membrane and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane receptors. This complex is a heterotetramer composed of two large, one medium, and one small adaptin subunit. The protein encoded by this gene serves as one of the large subunits of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. This gene is a candidate meningioma gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

GTF3C2 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 2, beta 110kDa

IL12RB1 Gene

interleukin 12 receptor, beta 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane protein that belongs to the hemopoietin receptor superfamily. This protein binds to interleukine 12 (IL12) with a low affinity, and is thought to be a part of IL12 receptor complex. This protein forms a disulfide-linked oligomer, which is required for its IL12 binding activity. The coexpression of this and IL12RB2 proteins was shown to lead to the formation of high-affinity IL12 binding sites and reconstitution of IL12 dependent signaling. Mutations in this gene impair the development of interleukin-17-producing T lymphocytes and result in increased susceptibility to mycobacterial and Salmonella infections. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

IL12RB2 Gene

interleukin 12 receptor, beta 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane protein identified as a subunit of the interleukin 12 receptor complex. The coexpression of this and IL12RB1 proteins was shown to lead to the formation of high-affinity IL12 binding sites and reconstitution of IL12 dependent signaling. The expression of this gene is up-regulated by interferon gamma in Th1 cells, and plays a role in Th1 cell differentiation. The up-regulation of this gene is found to be associated with a number of infectious diseases, such as Crohn's disease and leprosy, which is thought to contribute to the inflammatory response and host defense. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms and non-protein coding transcripts have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

GABRB2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 2

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes GABA A receptor, beta 2 subunit. It is mapped to chromosome 5q34 in a cluster comprised of genes encoding alpha 1 and gamma 2 subunits of the GABA A receptor. Alternative splicing of this gene generates 2 transcript variants, differing by a 114 bp insertion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP2R5B Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', beta

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes a beta isoform of the regulatory subunit B56 subfamily. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASPHD2 Gene

aspartate beta-hydroxylase domain containing 2

ASPHD1 Gene

aspartate beta-hydroxylase domain containing 1

PCDHB14 Gene

protocadherin beta 14

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP1LC3B Gene

microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta

The product of this gene is a subunit of neuronal microtubule-associated MAP1A and MAP1B proteins, which are involved in microtubule assembly and important for neurogenesis. Studies on the rat homolog implicate a role for this gene in autophagy, a process that involves the bulk degradation of cytoplasmic component. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB13 Gene

protocadherin beta 13

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB12 Gene

protocadherin beta 12

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB11 Gene

protocadherin beta 11

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB10 Gene

protocadherin beta 10

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB16 Gene

protocadherin beta 16

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHB15 Gene

protocadherin beta 15

This gene is a member of the protocadherin beta gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The gene clusters demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The beta cluster contains 16 genes and 3 pseudogenes, each encoding 6 extracellular cadherin domains and a cytoplasmic tail that deviates from others in the cadherin superfamily. The extracellular domains interact in a homophilic manner to specify differential cell-cell connections. Unlike the alpha and gamma clusters, the transcripts from these genes are made up of only one large exon, not sharing common 3' exons as expected. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins. Their specific functions are unknown but they most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell neural connections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LTBP4 Gene

latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 4

The protein encoded by this gene binds transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) as it is secreted and targeted to the extracellular matrix. TGFB is biologically latent after secretion and insertion into the extracellular matrix, and sheds TGFB and other proteins upon activation. Defects in this gene may be a cause of cutis laxa and severe pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and urinary abnormalities. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LTBP3 Gene

latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene forms a complex with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) proteins and may be involved in their subcellular localization. Activation of this complex requires removal of the encoded binding protein. This protein also may play a structural role in the extracellular matrix. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

LTBP2 Gene

latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta binding proteins (LTBP), which are extracellular matrix proteins with multi-domain structure. This protein is the largest member of the LTBP family possessing unique regions and with most similarity to the fibrillins. It has thus been suggested that it may have multiple functions: as a member of the TGF-beta latent complex, as a structural component of microfibrils, and a role in cell adhesion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LTBP1 Gene

latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of latent TGF-beta binding proteins (LTBPs). The secretion and activation of TGF-betas is regulated by their association with latency-associated proteins and with latent TGF-beta binding proteins. The product of this gene targets latent complexes of transforming growth factor beta to the extracellular matrix, where the latent cytokine is subsequently activated by several different mechanisms. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DEFB1 Gene

defensin, beta 1

Defensins form a family of microbicidal and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence. This gene encodes defensin, beta 1, an antimicrobial peptide implicated in the resistance of epithelial surfaces to microbial colonization. This gene maps in close proximity to defensin family member, defensin, alpha 1 and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GUSB Gene

glucuronidase, beta

This gene encodes a hydrolase that degrades glycosaminoglycans, including heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and chondroitin-4,6-sulfate. The enzyme forms a homotetramer that is localized to the lysosome. Mutations in this gene result in mucopolysaccharidosis type VII. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. There are many pseudogenes of this locus in the human genome.[provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

PSG10P Gene

pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 10, pseudogene

The human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are a group of molecules that are mainly produced by the placental syncytiotrophoblasts during pregnancy. PSGs comprise a subgroup of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. For additional general information about the PSG gene family, see PSG1 (MIM 176390).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

LOC100271842 Gene

phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 beta pseudogene

FNTB Gene

farnesyltransferase, CAAX box, beta

LOC100288337 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 5, 16kDa pseudogene

PHKBP1 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, beta pseudogene 1

PHKBP2 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, beta pseudogene 2

BGLT3 Gene

beta globin locus transcript 3 (non-protein coding)

TBL1X Gene

transducin (beta)-like 1X-linked

The protein encoded by this gene has sequence similarity with members of the WD40 repeat-containing protein family. The WD40 group is a large family of proteins, which appear to have a regulatory function. It is believed that the WD40 repeats mediate protein-protein interactions and members of the family are involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, gene regulation, vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal assembly and may play a role in the control of cytotypic differentiation. This encoded protein is found as a subunit in corepressor SMRT (silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors) complex along with histone deacetylase 3 protein. This gene is located adjacent to the ocular albinism gene and it is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of the ocular albinism with late-onset sensorineural deafness phenotype. Four transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. This gene is highly similar to the Y chromosome TBL1Y gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

TBL1Y Gene

transducin (beta)-like 1, Y-linked

The protein encoded by this gene has sequence similarity with members of the WD40 repeat-containing protein family. The WD40 group is a large family of proteins, which appear to have a regulatory function. It is believed that the WD40 repeats mediate protein-protein interactions and members of the family are involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, gene regulation, vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal assembly and may play a role in the control of cytotypic differentiation. This gene is highly similar to TBL1X gene in nucleotide sequence and protein sequence, but the TBL1X gene is located on chromosome X and this gene is on chromosome Y. This gene has three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CALCB Gene

calcitonin-related polypeptide beta

CD79B Gene

CD79b molecule, immunoglobulin-associated beta

The B lymphocyte antigen receptor is a multimeric complex that includes the antigen-specific component, surface immunoglobulin (Ig). Surface Ig non-covalently associates with two other proteins, Ig-alpha and Ig-beta, which are necessary for expression and function of the B-cell antigen receptor. This gene encodes the Ig-beta protein of the B-cell antigen component. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMSB4XP7 Gene

thymosin beta 4, X-linked pseudogene 7

TMSB4XP5 Gene

thymosin beta 4, X-linked pseudogene 5

TMSB4XP2 Gene

thymosin beta 4, X-linked pseudogene 2

TMSB4XP1 Gene

thymosin beta 4, X-linked pseudogene 1

TMSB4XP8 Gene

thymosin beta 4, X-linked pseudogene 8

B2MR Gene

beta-2-microglobulin regulator

TUBB2BP1 Gene

tubulin, beta 2B class IIb pseudogene 1

TAB3 Gene

TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 3

The product of this gene functions in the NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway. The encoded protein, and the similar and functionally redundant protein MAP3K7IP2/TAB2, forms a ternary complex with the protein kinase MAP3K7/TAK1 and either TRAF2 or TRAF6 in response to stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF or IL-1. Subsequent MAP3K7/TAK1 kinase activity triggers a signaling cascade leading to activation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor. The human genome contains a related pseudogene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAB2 Gene

TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is an activator of MAP3K7/TAK1, which is required for for the IL-1 induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB and MAPK8/JNK. This protein forms a kinase complex with TRAF6, MAP3K7 and TAB1, and it thus serves as an adaptor that links MAP3K7 and TRAF6. This protein, along with TAB1 and MAP3K7, also participates in the signal transduction induced by TNFSF11/RANKl through the activation of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB (TNFRSF11A/RANK), which may regulate the development and function of osteoclasts. Studies of the related mouse protein indicate that it functions to protect against liver damage caused by chemical stressors. Mutations in this gene cause congenital heart defects, multiple types, 2 (CHTD2). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

TAB1 Gene

TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a regulator of the MAP kinase kinase kinase MAP3K7/TAK1, which is known to mediate various intracellular signaling pathways, such as those induced by TGF beta, interleukin 1, and WNT-1. This protein interacts and thus activates TAK1 kinase. It has been shown that the C-terminal portion of this protein is sufficient for binding and activation of TAK1, while a portion of the N-terminus acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of TGF beta, suggesting that this protein may function as a mediator between TGF beta receptors and TAK1. This protein can also interact with and activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14/p38alpha), and thus represents an alternative activation pathway, in addition to the MAPKK pathways, which contributes to the biological responses of MAPK14 to various stimuli. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100133050 Gene

glucuronidase, beta pseudogene

LOC100422559 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like 1 pseudogene

LOC100421602 Gene

CDC42 binding protein kinase beta (DMPK-like) pseudogene

LACTB2 Gene

lactamase, beta 2

BTRC Gene

beta-transducin repeat containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbws class; in addition to an F-box, this protein contains multiple WD-40 repeats. The encoded protein mediates degradation of CD4 via its interaction with HIV-1 Vpu. It has also been shown to ubiquitinate phosphorylated NFKBIA (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha), targeting it for degradation and thus activating nuclear factor kappa-B. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. A related pseudogene exists in chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

TGFBR3L Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor III-like

DNASE2B Gene

deoxyribonuclease II beta

The protein encoded by this gene shares considerable sequence similarity to, and is structurally related to DNase II. The latter is a well characterized endonuclease that catalyzes DNA hydrolysis in the absence of divalent cations at acidic pH. Unlike DNase II which is ubiquitously expressed, expression of this gene product is restricted to the salivary gland and lungs. The gene has been localized to chromosome 1p22.3 adjacent (and in opposite orientation) to the uricase pseudogene. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKCB Gene

protein kinase C, beta

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This protein kinase has been reported to be involved in many different cellular functions, such as B cell activation, apoptosis induction, endothelial cell proliferation, and intestinal sugar absorption. Studies in mice also suggest that this kinase may also regulate neuronal functions and correlate fear-induced conflict behavior after stress. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNAB1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily A regulatory beta subunit 1

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member includes distinct isoforms which are encoded by alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene. Some of these isoforms are beta subunits, which form heteromultimeric complexes with alpha subunits and modulate the activity of the pore-forming alpha subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

KCNAB3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily A regulatory beta subunit 3

This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. The encoded protein is one of the beta subunits, which are auxiliary proteins associating with functional Kv-alpha subunits. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with the potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related subfamily, member 5 gene product and regulates the activity of the alpha subunit. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

KCNAB2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated subfamily A regulatory beta subunit 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member is one of the beta subunits, which are auxiliary proteins associating with functional Kv-alpha subunits. This member alters functional properties of the KCNA4 gene product. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

B4GALT6 Gene

UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 6

This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and beta4GalT2, beta4GalT3 and beta4GalT4, beta4GalT5 and beta4GalT6, and beta4GalT7. The enzyme encoded by this gene is a lactosylceramide synthase important for glycolipid biosynthesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TOP3B Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) III beta

This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This enzyme catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of a single strand of DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus relaxing the supercoils and altering the topology of DNA. The enzyme interacts with DNA helicase SGS1 and plays a role in DNA recombination, cellular aging and maintenance of genome stability. Low expression of this gene may be related to higher survival rates in breast cancer patients. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 22. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

TBL1XR1 Gene

transducin (beta)-like 1 X-linked receptor 1

The protein encoded by this gene has sequence similarity with members of the WD40 repeat-containing protein family. The WD40 group is a large family of proteins, which appear to have a regulatory function. It is believed that the WD40 repeats mediate protein-protein interactions and members of the family are involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, gene regulation, vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal assembly and may play a role in the control of cytotypic differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PI4K2B Gene

phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase type 2 beta

Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) phosphorylate phosphatidylinositol to generate phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), an immediate precursor of several important signaling and scaffolding molecules. PIP itself may also have direct functional and structural roles. PI4K2B is a primarily cytosolic PI4K that is recruited to membranes, where it stimulates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate synthesis (Wei et al., 2002 [PubMed 12324459]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2008]

EEF1B2P8 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2 pseudogene 8

EEF1B2P1 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2 pseudogene 1

EEF1B2P3 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2 pseudogene 3

EEF1B2P2 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2 pseudogene 2

EEF1B2P5 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2 pseudogene 5

EEF1B2P6 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2 pseudogene 6

TRBV27 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 27

CBFB Gene

core-binding factor, beta subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is the beta subunit of a heterodimeric core-binding transcription factor belonging to the PEBP2/CBF transcription factor family which master-regulates a host of genes specific to hematopoiesis (e.g., RUNX1) and osteogenesis (e.g., RUNX2). The beta subunit is a non-DNA binding regulatory subunit; it allosterically enhances DNA binding by alpha subunit as the complex binds to the core site of various enhancers and promoters, including murine leukemia virus, polyomavirus enhancer, T-cell receptor enhancers and GM-CSF promoters. Alternative splicing generates two mRNA variants, each encoding a distinct carboxyl terminus. In some cases, a pericentric inversion of chromosome 16 [inv(16)(p13q22)] produces a chimeric transcript consisting of the N terminus of core-binding factor beta in a fusion with the C-terminal portion of the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain 11. This chromosomal rearrangement is associated with acute myeloid leukemia of the M4Eo subtype. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DEFB104B Gene

defensin, beta 104B

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical copies of defensin, beta 104, DEFB104A and DEFB104B, in head-to-head orientation. This gene, DEFB104B, represents the more telomeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFB104A Gene

defensin, beta 104A

Defensins form a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides made by neutrophils. Defensins are short, processed peptide molecules that are classified by structure into three groups: alpha-defensins, beta-defensins and theta-defensins. All beta-defensin genes are densely clustered in four to five syntenic chromosomal regions. Chromosome 8p23 contains at least two copies of the duplicated beta-defensin cluster. This duplication results in two identical copies of defensin, beta 104, DEFB104A and DEFB104B, in head-to-head orientation. This gene, DEFB104A, represents the more centromeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

PLCB1 Gene

phospholipase C, beta 1 (phosphoinositide-specific)

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This reaction uses calcium as a cofactor and plays an important role in the intracellular transduction of many extracellular signals. This gene is activated by two G-protein alpha subunits, alpha-q and alpha-11. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PLCB2 Gene

phospholipase C, beta 2

PLCB3 Gene

phospholipase C, beta 3 (phosphatidylinositol-specific)

This gene encodes a member of the phosphoinositide phospholipase C beta enzyme family that catalyze the production of the secondary messengers diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate from phosphatidylinositol in G-protein-linked receptor-mediated signal transduction. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PLCB4 Gene

phospholipase C, beta 4

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This reaction uses calcium as a cofactor and plays an important role in the intracellular transduction of many extracellular signals in the retina. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

TRBV3-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 3-2 (pseudogene)

ESR2 Gene

estrogen receptor 2 (ER beta)

This gene encodes a member of the family of estrogen receptors and superfamily of nuclear receptor transcription factors. The gene product contains an N-terminal DNA binding domain and C-terminal ligand binding domain and is localized to the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Upon binding to 17beta-estradiol or related ligands, the encoded protein forms homo- or hetero-dimers that interact with specific DNA sequences to activate transcription. Some isoforms dominantly inhibit the activity of other estrogen receptor family members. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

B3GNT2P1 Gene

UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2 pseudogene 1

NDUFAB1 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1, alpha/beta subcomplex, 1, 8kDa

LOC105379648 Gene

DLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR-1 beta chain-like

TUBB2A Gene

tubulin, beta 2A class IIa

TUBB2B Gene

tubulin, beta 2B class IIb

The protein encoded by this gene is a beta isoform of tubulin, which binds GTP and is a major component of microtubules. This gene is highly similar to TUBB2A and TUBB2C. Defects in this gene are a cause of asymmetric polymicrogyria. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

TRBV12-4 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 12-4

TRBV12-5 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 12-5

TRBV12-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 12-1 (pseudogene)

TRBV12-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 12-2 (pseudogene)

TRBV12-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 12-3

PSME2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 2 (PA28 beta)

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The immunoproteasome contains an alternate regulator, referred to as the 11S regulator or PA28, that replaces the 19S regulator. Three subunits (alpha, beta and gamma) of the 11S regulator have been identified. This gene encodes the beta subunit of the 11S regulator, one of the two 11S subunits that is induced by gamma-interferon. Three beta and three alpha subunits combine to form a heterohexameric ring. Six pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 10 and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST3GAL1P1 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 1 pseudogene 1

CTNNBL1 Gene

catenin, beta like 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the pre-mRNA-processing factor 19-cell division cycle 5-like (PRP19-CDC5L) protein complex, which activates pre-mRNA splicing and is an integral part of the spliceosome. The encoded protein is also a nuclear localization sequence binding protein, and binds to activation-induced deaminase and is important for antibody diversification. This gene may also be associated with the development of obesity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

CSN2 Gene

casein beta

This gene is a member of the beta casein family. There are two types of casein protein, beta (encoded by this gene) and kappa, both of which are secreted in human milk. Beta casein is the principal protein in human milk and the primary source of essential amino acids for a suckling infant. Beta and kappa casein proteins acting together form spherical micelles which bind within them important dietary minerals, such as calcium and phosphorous. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

PIK3CB Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit beta

This gene encodes an isoform of the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). These kinases are important in signaling pathways involving receptors on the outer membrane of eukaryotic cells and are named for their catalytic subunit. The encoded protein is the catalytic subunit for PI3Kbeta (PI3KB). PI3KB has been shown to be part of the activation pathway in neutrophils which have bound immune complexes at sites of injury or infection. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

LOC100133267 Gene

defensin, beta 130-like

ST3GAL3 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to galactose-containing substrates. The encoded protein is normally found in the Golgi apparatus but can be proteolytically processed to a soluble form. This protein is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal recessive nonsymdromic mental retardation-12 (MRT12). Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

ST3GAL2 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to galactose-containing substrates. The encoded protein is normally found in the Golgi but can be proteolytically processed to a soluble form. This protein, which is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29, can use the same acceptor substrates as does sialyltransferase 4A. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST3GAL1 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to galactose-containing substrates. The encoded protein is normally found in the Golgi but can be proteolytically processed to a soluble form. Correct glycosylation of the encoded protein may be critical to its sialyltransferase activity. This protein, which is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29, can use the same acceptor substrates as does sialyltransferase 4B. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. Other transcript variants may exist, but have not been fully characterized yet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST3GAL6 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the sialyltransferase family. Members of this family are enzymes that transfer sialic acid from the activated cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid to terminal positions on sialylated glycolipids (gangliosides) or to the N- or O-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins. This protein has high specificity for neolactotetraosylceramide and neolactohexaosylceramide as glycolipid substrates and may contribute to the formation of selectin ligands and sialyl Lewis X, a carbohydrate important for cell-to-cell recognition and a blood group antigen. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

ST3GAL5 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 5

Ganglioside GM3 is known to participate in the induction of cell differentiation, modulation of cell proliferation, maintenance of fibroblast morphology, signal transduction, and integrin-mediated cell adhesion. The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein which catalyzes the formation of GM3 using lactosylceramide as the substrate. The encoded protein is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29 and may be localized to the Golgi apparatus. Mutation in this gene has been associated with Amish infantile epilepsy syndrome. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST3GAL4 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 4

This gene encodes a member of the glycosyltransferase 29 family, a group of enzymes involved in protein glycosylation. The encoded protein is targeted to Golgi membranes but may be proteolytically processed and secreted. The gene product may also be involved in the increased expression of sialyl Lewis X antigen seen in inflammatory responses. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

BCKDHB Gene

branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1, beta polypeptide

Branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase is a multienzyme complex associated with the inner membrane of mitochondria, and functions in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids. The complex consists of multiple copies of 3 components: branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), lipoamide acyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). This gene encodes the E1 beta subunit, and mutations therein have been associated with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), type 1B, a disease characterized by a maple syrup odor to the urine in addition to mental and physical retardation, and feeding problems. Alternative splicing at this locus results in transcript variants with different 3' non-coding regions, but encoding the same isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AP3B1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit

This gene encodes a protein that may play a role in organelle biogenesis associated with melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin. Mutations in this gene are associated with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

AP3B2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit

Adaptor protein-3 (AP3) is a heterote