Name

Hub Proteins Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Hub Proteins

sets of proteins interacting with hub proteins

NURSA Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

protein-protein interactions inferred from membership in complexes

Pathway Commons Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Pathway Commons

protein-protein interactions from low-throughput or high-throughput studies aggregated by Pathway Commons from the following databases: Reactome, NCI Pathways, PhosphoSite, HumanCyc, HPRD, PANTHER, DIP, BioGRID, IntAct, BIND, Transfac, MiRTarBase, Drugbank, Recon X, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, and KEGG

Virus MINT Protein-Viral Protein Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viral and human proteins manually curated from literature

COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by manual literature curation

COMPARTMENTS Experimental Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by integrating experimental data

COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

gene-cellular compartment co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

CORUM Protein Complexes Dataset

From CORUM

proteins participating in complexes by manual literature curation

Guide to Pharmacology Protein Ligands of Receptors Dataset

From Guide to Pharmacology

ligand-receptor interactions curated by experts

HPA Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

semiquantitative protein expression profiles for tissues

HPM Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Proteome Map

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types

InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations Dataset

From InterPro

protein domains predicted for gene products based on sequence similarity to known domain signatures

LOCATE Curated Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins from low-throughput or high-throughput protein localization assays

NURSA Protein Complexes Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

proteins identified in complexes isolated from cultured cells

ProteomicsDB Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Proteomics Database

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types reprocessed from many proteomics datasets

SILAC Phosphoproteomics Signatures of Differentially Phosphorylated Proteins for Protein Ligands Dataset

From SILAC Phosphoproteomics

phosphorylation levels of proteins in cell lines following ligand treatment

TISSUES Curated Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by manual literature curation

TISSUES Experimental Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by integrating experimental data

TISSUES Text-mining Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

gene-tissue co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

Virus MINT Protein-Virus Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viruses and human proteins manually curated from literature

LOCATE Predicted Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins by sequence similarity to localization sequences

HPA Cell Line Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for cell lines

HPA Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissues

HPA Tissue Sample Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissue samples

MAPKAPK5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a tumor suppressor and member of the serine/threonine kinase family. In response to cellular stress and proinflammatory cytokines, this kinase is activated through its phosphorylation by MAP kinases including MAPK1/ERK, MAPK14/p38-alpha, and MAPK11/p38-beta. The encoded protein is found in the nucleus but translocates to the cytoplasm upon phosphorylation and activation. This kinase phosphorylates heat shock protein HSP27 at its physiologically relevant sites. Two alternately spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

MAPKAPK3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase functions as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase)- activated protein kinase. MAP kinases are also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This kinase was shown to be activated by growth inducers and stress stimulation of cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that ERK, p38 MAP kinase and Jun N-terminal kinase were all able to phosphorylate and activate this kinase, which suggested the role of this kinase as an integrative element of signaling in both mitogen and stress responses. This kinase was reported to interact with, phosphorylate and repress the activity of E47, which is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor known to be involved in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression and cell differentiation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

MAPKAPK2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase is regulated through direct phosphorylation by p38 MAP kinase. In conjunction with p38 MAP kinase, this kinase is known to be involved in many cellular processes including stress and inflammatory responses, nuclear export, gene expression regulation and cell proliferation. Heat shock protein HSP27 was shown to be one of the substrates of this kinase in vivo. Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422438 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 pseudogene

MAPKAPK5P1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 pseudogene 1

LOC105369239 Gene

multidrug resistance-associated protein 6

BCAR4 Gene

breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 4 (non-protein coding)

This gene produces a spliced long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that has been implicated in breast cancer metastasis. It was originally identified in a screen for genes responsible for the development of resistance to anti-estrogens in breast cancer cells. It is thought that release of CCL21 enables this lncRNA to bind to the SNIP1 and PNUTS transcription factors, thereby activating a non-canonical GLI-dependent hedgehog signaling pathway that promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. A similar gene in cow expresses a protein in mature oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

XRRA1 Gene

X-ray radiation resistance associated 1

LOC104968398 Gene

adriamycin resistance-associated

CHR Gene

chromate resistance; sulfate transport

BCAR1P2 Gene

breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 pseudogene 2

BCAR1P1 Gene

breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 pseudogene 1

LOC645405 Gene

oxidation resistance 1 pseudogene

SM1 Gene

Schistosoma mansoni, susceptibility/resistance to

UVRAG Gene

UV radiation resistance associated

This gene complements the ultraviolet sensitivity of xeroderma pigmentosum group C cells and encodes a protein with a C2 domain. The protein activates the Beclin1-PI(3)KC3 complex, promoting autophagy and suppressing the proliferation and tumorigenicity of human colon cancer cells. Chromosomal aberrations involving this gene are associated with left-right axis malformation and mutations in this gene have been associated with colon cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BCAR1 Gene

breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1

BCAR1, or CAS, is an Src (MIM 190090) family kinase substrate involved in various cellular events, including migration, survival, transformation, and invasion (Sawada et al., 2006 [PubMed 17129785]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2009]

BCAR3 Gene

breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 3

Breast tumors are initially dependent on estrogens for growth and progression and can be inhibited by anti-estrogens such as tamoxifen. However, breast cancers progress to become anti-estrogen resistant. Breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance gene 3 was identified in the search for genes involved in the development of estrogen resistance. The gene encodes a component of intracellular signal transduction that causes estrogen-independent proliferation in human breast cancer cells. The protein contains a putative src homology 2 (SH2) domain, a hall mark of cellular tyrosine kinase signaling molecules, and is partly homologous to the cell division cycle protein CDC48. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

OXR1 Gene

oxidation resistance 1

LOC644172 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

MAPK1IP1L Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1-like

MAPKBP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase binding protein 1

MAPK8IPP Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein, pseudogene

LOC728098 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1-like pseudogene

MAPK8IP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a regulator of the pancreatic beta-cell function. It is highly similar to JIP-1, a mouse protein known to be a regulator of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (Mapk8). This protein has been shown to prevent MAPK8 mediated activation of transcription factors, and to decrease IL-1 beta and MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) induced apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells. This protein also functions as a DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2. RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is reported to repress the expression of this gene in insulin-secreting beta cells. This gene is found to be mutated in a type 2 diabetes family, and thus is thought to be a susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

MAPK8IP2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is closely related to MAPK8IP1/IB1/JIP-1, a scaffold protein that is involved in the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase signaling pathway. This protein is expressed in brain and pancreatic cells. It has been shown to interact with, and regulate the activity of MAPK8/JNK1, and MAP2K7/MKK7 kinases. This protein thus is thought to function as a regulator of signal transduction by protein kinase cascade in brain and pancreatic beta-cells. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

MAPK8IP3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the product of Drosophila syd gene, required for the functional interaction of kinesin I with axonal cargo. Studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that this protein may interact with, and regulate the activity of numerous protein kinases of the JNK signaling pathway, and thus function as a scaffold protein in neuronal cells. The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport possibly by integrating JNK signaling and kinesin-1 transport. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase and is part of some signal transduction cascades, including the ERK and JNK kinase pathways as well as the NF-kappa-B pathway. The encoded protein is activated by autophosphorylation and requires magnesium as a cofactor in phosphorylating other proteins. This protein has E3 ligase activity conferred by a plant homeodomain (PHD) in its N-terminus and phospho-kinase activity conferred by a kinase domain in its C-terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

LOC100533949 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418685 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418686 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418687 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

MAPKAP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase associated protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the yeast SIN1 protein, a stress-activated protein kinase. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. Alternate polyadenylation sites as well as alternate 3' UTRs have been identified for transcripts of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100533950 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533951 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC105378950 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 7-like

TAB3P1 Gene

TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 3 pseudogene 1

MAPK3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act in a signaling cascade that regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals. This kinase is activated by upstream kinases, resulting in its translocation to the nucleus where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The activation of this kinase requires its phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Upon activation, this kinase translocates to the nucleus of the stimulated cells, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. One study also suggests that this protein acts as a transcriptional repressor independent of its kinase activity. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein, but differing in the UTRs, have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

MAPK6 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and is most closely related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases). MAP kinases also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), are activated through protein phosphorylation cascades and act as integration points for multiple biochemical signals. This kinase is localized in the nucleus, and has been reported to be activated in fibroblasts upon treatment with serum or phorbol esters. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 4

Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors activate mitogen-activated protein kinases which then translocate into the nucleus and phosphorylate nuclear targets. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

MAPK8 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various cell stimuli, and targets specific transcription factors, and thus mediates immediate-early gene expression in response to cell stimuli. The activation of this kinase by tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is found to be required for TNF-alpha induced apoptosis. This kinase is also involved in UV radiation induced apoptosis, which is thought to be related to cytochrom c-mediated cell death pathway. Studies of the mouse counterpart of this gene suggested that this kinase play a key role in T cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Five alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

MAPK9 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase targets specific transcription factors, and thus mediates immediate-early gene expression in response to various cell stimuli. It is most closely related to MAPK8, both of which are involved in UV radiation induced apoptosis, thought to be related to the cytochrome c-mediated cell death pathway. This gene and MAPK8 are also known as c-Jun N-terminal kinases. This kinase blocks the ubiquitination of tumor suppressor p53, and thus it increases the stability of p53 in nonstressed cells. Studies of this gene's mouse counterpart suggest a key role in T-cell differentiation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

LOC102723727 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 7-like

LOC100996792 Gene

dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3

PRKDC Gene

protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). It functions with the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer protein in DNA double strand break repair and recombination. The protein encoded is a member of the PI3/PI4-kinase family.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

MAP3K10 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 10

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase has been shown to activate MAPK8/JNK and MKK4/SEK1, and this kinase itself can be phoshorylated, and thus activated by JNK kinases. This kinase functions preferentially on the JNK signaling pathway, and is reported to be involved in nerve growth factor (NGF) induced neuronal apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K13 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 13

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase contains a dual leucine-zipper motif, and has been shown to form dimers/oligomers through its leucine-zipper motif. This kinase can phosphorylate and activate MAPK8/JNK, MAP2K7/MKK7, which suggests a role in the JNK signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K19 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 19

MAP3K11 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 11

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase contains a SH3 domain and a leucine zipper-basic motif. This kinase preferentially activates MAPK8/JNK kinase, and functions as a positive regulator of JNK signaling pathway. This kinase can directly phosphorylate, and activates IkappaB kinase alpha and beta, and is found to be involved in the transcription activity of NF-kappaB mediated by Rho family GTPases and CDC42. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K12 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 12

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase contains a leucine-zipper domain and is predominately expressed in neuronal cells. The phosphorylation state of this kinase in synaptic terminals was shown to be regulated by membrane depolarization via calcineurin. This kinase forms heterodimers with leucine zipper containing transcription factors, such as cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and MYC, and thus may play a regulatory role in PKA or retinoic acid induced neuronal differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different proteins have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

MAP3K15 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 15

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. These family members function in a protein kinase signal transduction cascade, where an activated MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) phosphorylates and activates a specific MAPK kinase (MAP2K), which then activates a specific MAPK. This MAP3K protein plays an essential role in apoptotic cell death triggered by cellular stresses. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

BANCR Gene

BRAF-activated non-protein coding RNA

NFATC2IP Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2 interacting protein

MAPK14 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 14

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various environmental stresses and proinflammatory cytokines. The activation requires its phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinases (MKKs), or its autophosphorylation triggered by the interaction of MAP3K7IP1/TAB1 protein with this kinase. The substrates of this kinase include transcription regulator ATF2, MEF2C, and MAX, cell cycle regulator CDC25B, and tumor suppressor p53, which suggest the roles of this kinase in stress related transcription and cell cycle regulation, as well as in genotoxic stress response. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK15 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 15

MAPK10 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 10

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This protein is a neuronal-specific form of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs). Through its phosphorylation and nuclear localization, this kinase plays regulatory roles in the signaling pathways during neuronal apoptosis. Beta-arrestin 2, a receptor-regulated MAP kinase scaffold protein, is found to interact with, and stimulate the phosphorylation of this kinase by MAP kinase kinase 4 (MKK4). Cyclin-dependent kianse 5 can phosphorylate, and inhibit the activity of this kinase, which may be important in preventing neuronal apoptosis. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK11 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 11

This gene encodes a member of a family of protein kinases that are involved in the integration of biochemical signals for a wide variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, transcriptional regulation, and development. The encoded protein can be activated by proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses through phosphorylation by mitogen activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

MAPK12 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 12

Activation of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family is a major mechanism for transduction of extracellular signals. Stress-activated protein kinases are one subclass of MAP kinases. The protein encoded by this gene functions as a signal transducer during differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK13 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 13

This gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The encoded protein is a p38 MAP kinase and is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and cellular stress. Substrates of the encoded protein include the transcription factor ATF2 and the microtubule dynamics regulator stathmin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PIAS2 Gene

protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 2

This gene encodes a member of the protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family. PIAS proteins function as SUMO E3 ligases and play important roles in many cellular processes by mediating the sumoylation of target proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. Isoforms of the encoded protein enhance the sumoylation of specific target proteins including the p53 tumor suppressor protein, c-Jun, and the androgen receptor. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 4. The symbol MIZ1 has also been associated with ZBTB17 which is a different gene located on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

PIAS3 Gene

protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 3

This gene encodes a member of the PIAS [protein inhibitor of activated STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription)] family of transcriptional modulators. The protein functions as a SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier)-E3 ligase which catalyzes the covalent attachment of a SUMO protein to specific target substrates. It directly binds to several transcription factors and either blocks or enhances their activity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been identified, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIAS1 Gene

protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 1

This gene encodes a member of the mammalian PIAS [protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription-1)] family. This member contains a putative zinc-binding motif and a highly acidic region. It inhibits STAT1-mediated gene activation and the DNA binding activity, binds to Gu protein/RNA helicase II/DEAD box polypeptide 21, and interacts with androgen receptor (AR). It functions in testis as a nuclear receptor transcriptional coregulator and may have a role in AR initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIAS4 Gene

protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 4

MAP4K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 1

MAP4K3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase family. The encoded protein activates key effectors in cell signalling, among them c-Jun. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

MAP4K2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. Although this kinase is found in many tissues, its expression in lymphoid follicles is restricted to the cells of germinal centre, where it may participate in B-cell differentiation. This kinase can be activated by TNF-alpha, and has been shown to specifically activate MAP kinases. This kinase is also found to interact with TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), which is involved in the activation of MAP3K1/MEKK1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

MAP4K5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 5

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family, that is highly similar to yeast SPS1/STE20 kinase. Yeast SPS1/STE20 functions near the beginning of the MAP kinase signal cascades that is essential for yeast pheromone response. This kinase was shown to activate Jun kinase in mammalian cells, which suggested a role in stress response. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP4K4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase has been shown to specifically activate MAPK8/JNK. The activation of MAPK8 by this kinase is found to be inhibited by the dominant-negative mutants of MAP3K7/TAK1, MAP2K4/MKK4, and MAP2K7/MKK7, which suggests that this kinase may function through the MAP3K7-MAP2K4-MAP2K7 kinase cascade, and mediate the TNF-alpha signaling pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK6PS6 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 pseudogene 6

MAPK6PS3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 pseudogene 3

MAP2K4P1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 pseudogene 1

MAP3K8 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8

This gene is an oncogene that encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein localizes to the cytoplasm and can activate both the MAP kinase and JNK kinase pathways. This protein was shown to activate IkappaB kinases, and thus induce the nuclear production of NF-kappaB. This protein was also found to promote the production of TNF-alpha and IL-2 during T lymphocyte activation. This gene may also utilize a downstream in-frame translation start codon, and thus produce an isoform containing a shorter N-terminus. The shorter isoform has been shown to display weaker transforming activity. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

MAP3K9 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 9

MAP3K2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase preferentially activates other kinases involved in the MAP kinase signaling pathway. This kinase has been shown to directly phosphorylate and activate Ikappa B kinases, and thus plays a role in NF-kappa B signaling pathway. This kinase has also been found to bind and activate protein kinase C-related kinase 2, which suggests its involvement in a regulated signaling process. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3

This gene product is a 626-amino acid polypeptide that is 96.5% identical to mouse Mekk3. Its catalytic domain is closely related to those of several other kinases, including mouse Mekk2, tobacco NPK, and yeast Ste11. Northern blot analysis revealed a 4.6-kb transcript that appears to be ubiquitously expressed. This protein directly regulates the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathways by activating SEK and MEK1/2 respectively; it does not regulate the p38 pathway. In cotransfection assays, it enhanced transcription from a nuclear factor kappa-B (NFKB)-dependent reporter gene, consistent with a role in the SAPK pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K7 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase mediates the signaling transduction induced by TGF beta and morphogenetic protein (BMP), and controls a variety of cell functions including transcription regulation and apoptosis. In response to IL-1, this protein forms a kinase complex including TRAF6, MAP3K7P1/TAB1 and MAP3K7P2/TAB2; this complex is required for the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. This kinase can also activate MAPK8/JNK, MAP2K4/MKK4, and thus plays a role in the cell response to environmental stresses. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4

The central core of each mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a conserved cascade of 3 protein kinases: an activated MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) phosphorylates and activates a specific MAPK kinase (MAPKK), which then activates a specific MAPK. While the ERK MAPKs are activated by mitogenic stimulation, the CSBP2 and JNK MAPKs are activated by environmental stresses such as osmotic shock, UV irradiation, wound stress, and inflammatory factors. This gene encodes a MAPKKK, the MEKK4 protein, also called MTK1. This protein contains a protein kinase catalytic domain at the C terminus. The N-terminal nonkinase domain may contain a regulatory domain. Expression of MEKK4 in mammalian cells activated the CSBP2 and JNK MAPK pathways, but not the ERK pathway. In vitro kinase studies indicated that recombinant MEKK4 can specifically phosphorylate and activate PRKMK6 and SERK1, MAPKKs that activate CSBP2 and JNK, respectively but cannot phosphorylate PRKMK1, an MAPKK that activates ERKs. MEKK4 is a major mediator of environmental stresses that activate the CSBP2 MAPK pathway, and a minor mediator of the JNK pathway. Several alternatively spliced transcripts encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

MAP3K5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades include MAPK or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), MAPK kinase (MKK or MEK), and MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MEKK). MAPKK kinase/MEKK phosphorylates and activates its downstream protein kinase, MAPK kinase/MEK, which in turn activates MAPK. The kinases of these signaling cascades are highly conserved, and homologs exist in yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells. MAPKKK5 contains 1,374 amino acids with all 11 kinase subdomains. Northern blot analysis shows that MAPKKK5 transcript is abundantly expressed in human heart and pancreas. The MAPKKK5 protein phosphorylates and activates MKK4 (aliases SERK1, MAPKK4) in vitro, and activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) during transient expression in COS and 293 cells; MAPKKK5 does not activate MAPK/ERK. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is activated by mitogenic and environmental stress, and participates in the MAP kinase-mediated signaling cascade. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK14/p38-MAPK. This kinase can be activated by insulin, and is necessary for the expression of glucose transporter. Expression of RAS oncogene is found to result in the accumulation of the active form of this kinase, which thus leads to the constitutive activation of MAPK14, and confers oncogenic transformation of primary cells. The inhibition of this kinase is involved in the pathogenesis of Yersina pseudotuberculosis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode distinct isoforms have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK2/ERK3. The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. Mutations in this gene cause cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC syndrome), a disease characterized by heart defects, mental retardation, and distinctive facial features similar to those found in Noonan syndrome. The inhibition or degradation of this kinase is also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of Yersinia and anthrax. A pseudogene, which is located on chromosome 7, has been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon wide variety of extra- and intracellular signals. As an essential component of MAP kinase signal transduction pathway, this kinase is involved in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K7 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase specifically activates MAPK8/JNK1 and MAPK9/JNK2, and this kinase itself is phosphorylated and activated by MAP kinase kinase kinases including MAP3K1/MEKK1, MAP3K2/MEKK2,MAP3K3/MEKK5, and MAP4K2/GCK. This kinase is involved in the signal transduction mediating the cell responses to proinflammatory cytokines, and environmental stresses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

MAP2K6 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6

This gene encodes a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which functions as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein phosphorylates and activates p38 MAP kinase in response to inflammatory cytokines or environmental stress. As an essential component of p38 MAP kinase mediated signal transduction pathway, this gene is involved in many cellular processes such as stress induced cell cycle arrest, transcription activation and apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase specifically interacts with and activates MAPK7/ERK5. This kinase itself can be phosphorylated and activated by MAP3K3/MEKK3, as well as by atypical protein kinase C isoforms (aPKCs). The signal cascade mediated by this kinase is involved in growth factor stimulated cell proliferation and muscle cell differentiation. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

MAP2K4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4

This gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. Members of this family act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation, and development. They form a three-tiered signaling module composed of MAPKKKs, MAPKKs, and MAPKs. This protein is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues by MAPKKKs and subsequently phosphorylates downstream MAPK targets at threonine and tyrosine residues. A similar protein in mouse has been reported to play a role in liver organogenesis. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome X. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PRKAA2 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a catalytic subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this catalytic subunit may control whole-body insulin sensitivity and is necessary for maintaining myocardial energy homeostasis during ischemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAA1 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ser/thr protein kinase family. It is the catalytic subunit of the 5'-prime-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a cellular energy sensor conserved in all eukaryotic cells. The kinase activity of AMPK is activated by the stimuli that increase the cellular AMP/ATP ratio. AMPK regulates the activities of a number of key metabolic enzymes through phosphorylation. It protects cells from stresses that cause ATP depletion by switching off ATP-consuming biosynthetic pathways. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC646214 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 2 pseudogene

MAPK6PS4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 pseudogene 4

MAPK6PS5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 pseudogene 5

MAPK6PS2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 pseudogene 2

MAPK6PS1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 pseudogene 1

PRKAB2 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, beta 2 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit may be a positive regulator of AMPK activity. It is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and thus may have tissue-specific roles. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PRKAB1 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, beta 1 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit may be a positive regulator of AMPK activity. The myristoylation and phosphorylation of this subunit have been shown to affect the enzyme activity and cellular localization of AMPK. This subunit may also serve as an adaptor molecule mediating the association of the AMPK complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K6 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 6

This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that forms a component of protein kinase-mediated signal transduction cascades. The encoded kinase participates in the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

PRKAG1 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 1 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit is one of the gamma regulatory subunits of AMPK. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAG3 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 3 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit is one of the gamma regulatory subunits of AMPK. It is dominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. Studies of the pig counterpart suggest that this subunit may play a key role in the regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAG2 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 2 non-catalytic subunit

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric protein composed of a catalytic alpha subunit, a noncatalytic beta subunit, and a noncatalytic regulatory gamma subunit. Various forms of each of these subunits exist, encoded by different genes. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status and functions by inactivating key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This gene is a member of the AMPK gamma subunit family. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and glycogen storage disease of the heart. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

PAK4 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 4

PAK proteins, a family of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, include PAK1, PAK2, PAK3 and PAK4. PAK proteins are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. They serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. PAK4 interacts specifically with the GTP-bound form of Cdc42Hs and weakly activates the JNK family of MAP kinases. PAK4 is a mediator of filopodia formation and may play a role in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAK6 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 6

This gene encodes a member of a family of p21-stimulated serine/threonine protein kinases, which contain an amino-terminal Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) domain and a carboxyl-terminal kinase domain. These kinases function in a number of cellular processes, including cytoskeleton rearrangement, apoptosis, and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway. The protein encoded by this gene interacts with androgen receptor (AR) and translocates to the nucleus, where it is involved in transcriptional regulation. Changes in expression of this gene have been linked to prostate cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

PAK7 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PAK family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. PAK family members are known to be effectors of Rac/Cdc42 GTPases, which have been implicated in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics, proliferation, and cell survival signaling. This kinase contains a CDC42/Rac1 interactive binding (CRIB) motif, and has been shown to bind CDC42 in the presence of GTP. This kinase is predominantly expressed in brain. It is capable of promoting neurite outgrowth, and thus may play a role in neurite development. This kinase is associated with microtubule networks and induces microtubule stabilization. The subcellular localization of this kinase is tightly regulated during cell cycle progression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAK1 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1

This gene encodes a family member of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, known as PAK proteins. These proteins are critical effectors that link RhoGTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling, and they serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac. This specific family member regulates cell motility and morphology. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PAK2 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 2

The p21 activated kinases (PAK) are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. The PAK proteins are a family of serine/threonine kinases that serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins, CDC42 and RAC1, and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. The protein encoded by this gene is activated by proteolytic cleavage during caspase-mediated apoptosis, and may play a role in regulating the apoptotic events in the dying cell. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAK3 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 3

PAK proteins are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. PAK proteins, a family of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and RAC and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. The protein encoded by this gene forms an activated complex with GTP-bound RAS-like (P21), CDC2 and RAC1 proteins which then catalyzes a variety of targets. This protein may be necessary for dendritic development and for the rapid cytoskeletal reorganization in dendritic spines associated with synaptic plasticity. Defects in this gene are the cause of non-syndromic mental retardation X-linked type 30 (MRX30), also called X-linked mental retardation type 47 (MRX47). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAB3 Gene

TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 3

The product of this gene functions in the NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway. The encoded protein, and the similar and functionally redundant protein MAP3K7IP2/TAB2, forms a ternary complex with the protein kinase MAP3K7/TAK1 and either TRAF2 or TRAF6 in response to stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF or IL-1. Subsequent MAP3K7/TAK1 kinase activity triggers a signaling cascade leading to activation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor. The human genome contains a related pseudogene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAB2 Gene

TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is an activator of MAP3K7/TAK1, which is required for for the IL-1 induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB and MAPK8/JNK. This protein forms a kinase complex with TRAF6, MAP3K7 and TAB1, and it thus serves as an adaptor that links MAP3K7 and TRAF6. This protein, along with TAB1 and MAP3K7, also participates in the signal transduction induced by TNFSF11/RANKl through the activation of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB (TNFRSF11A/RANK), which may regulate the development and function of osteoclasts. Studies of the related mouse protein indicate that it functions to protect against liver damage caused by chemical stressors. Mutations in this gene cause congenital heart defects, multiple types, 2 (CHTD2). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

TAB1 Gene

TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a regulator of the MAP kinase kinase kinase MAP3K7/TAK1, which is known to mediate various intracellular signaling pathways, such as those induced by TGF beta, interleukin 1, and WNT-1. This protein interacts and thus activates TAK1 kinase. It has been shown that the C-terminal portion of this protein is sufficient for binding and activation of TAK1, while a portion of the N-terminus acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of TGF beta, suggesting that this protein may function as a mediator between TGF beta receptors and TAK1. This protein can also interact with and activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14/p38alpha), and thus represents an alternative activation pathway, in addition to the MAPKK pathways, which contributes to the biological responses of MAPK14 to various stimuli. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK7 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is specifically activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MAP2K5/MEK5). It is involved in the downstream signaling processes of various receptor molecules including receptor type kinases, and G protein-coupled receptors. In response to extracelluar signals, this kinase translocates to cell nucleus, where it regulates gene expression by phosphorylating, and activating different transcription factors. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding two distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K1P1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 pseudogene 1

LOC407835 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 pseudogene

LOC100533708 Gene

protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 2 pseudogene

MAP3K14 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14

This gene encodes mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14, which is a serine/threonine protein-kinase. This kinase binds to TRAF2 and stimulates NF-kappaB activity. It shares sequence similarity with several other MAPKK kinases. It participates in an NF-kappaB-inducing signalling cascade common to receptors of the tumour-necrosis/nerve-growth factor (TNF/NGF) family and to the interleukin-1 type-I receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC101929026 Gene

zinc-activated ligand-gated ion channel-like

NFATC1 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1

The product of this gene is a component of the nuclear factor of activated T cells DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and an inducible nuclear component. Proteins belonging to this family of transcription factors play a central role in inducible gene transcription during immune response. The product of this gene is an inducible nuclear component. It functions as a major molecular target for the immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin A. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. Different isoforms of this protein may regulate inducible expression of different cytokine genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

NFATC2 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2

This gene is a member of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family. The product of this gene is a DNA-binding protein with a REL-homology region (RHR) and an NFAT-homology region (NHR). This protein is present in the cytosol and only translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, where it becomes a member of the nuclear factors of activated T cells transcription complex. This complex plays a central role in inducing gene transcription during the immune response. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

NFATC4 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 4

This gene encodes a member of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) protein family. The encoded protein is part of a DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor stimulation and an inducible nuclear component. NFAT proteins are activated by the calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin. The encoded protein plays a role in the inducible expression of cytokine genes in T cells, especially in the induction of interleukin-2 and interleukin-4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

KCNN4 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a potentially heterotetrameric voltage-independent potassium channel that is activated by intracellular calcium. Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization, which promotes calcium influx. The encoded protein may be part of the predominant calcium-activated potassium channel in T-lymphocytes. This gene is similar to other KCNN family potassium channel genes, but it differs enough to possibly be considered as part of a new subfamily. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNN3 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 3

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. This gene belongs to the KCNN family of potassium channels. It encodes an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel, which is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. This gene contains two CAG repeat regions in the coding sequence. It was thought that expansion of one or both of these repeats could lead to an increased susceptibility to schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, but studies indicate that this is probably not the case. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

KCNN2 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 2

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. The protein encoded by this gene is activated before membrane hyperpolarization and is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. This gene is a member of the KCNN family of potassium channel genes. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel with three other calmodulin-binding subunits. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

KCNN1 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 1

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. The protein encoded by this gene is activated before membrane hyperpolarization and is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel with three other calmodulin-binding subunits. This gene is a member of the KCNN family of potassium channel genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNT2 Gene

potassium channel, sodium activated subfamily T, member 2

FASTK Gene

Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase was shown to be activated rapidly during Fas-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat cells. In response to Fas receptor ligation, it phosphorylates TIA1, an apoptosis-promoting nuclear RNA-binding protein. The encoded protein is a strong inducer of lymphocyte apoptosis. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Other variants exist, but their full-length natures have not yet been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422548 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4 pseudogene

LOC100422549 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4 pseudogene

KCNMA1 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated large conductance subfamily M alpha, member 1

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit, which is the product of this gene, and the modulatory beta subunit. Intracellular calcium regulates the physical association between the alpha and beta subunits. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DFFB Gene

DNA fragmentation factor, 40kDa, beta polypeptide (caspase-activated DNase)

Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for caspase-3 and triggers DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. DFF becomes activated when DFFA is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFFA dissociate from DFFB, the active component of DFF. DFFB has been found to trigger both DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene but the biological validity of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

NFAT5 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5, tonicity-responsive

The product of this gene is a member of the nuclear factors of activated T cells family of transcription factors. Proteins belonging to this family play a central role in inducible gene transcription during the immune response. This protein regulates gene expression induced by osmotic stress in mammalian cells. Unlike monomeric members of this protein family, this protein exists as a homodimer and forms stable dimers with DNA elements. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LAKLG Gene

lymphokine-activated killer cell ligand

PPRC1 Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator-related 1

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to PPAR-gamma coactivator 1 (PPARGC1/PGC-1), a protein that can activate mitochondrial biogenesis in part through a direct interaction with nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1). This protein has been shown to interact with NRF1. It is thought to be a functional relative of PPAR-gamma coactivator 1 that activates mitochondrial biogenesis through NRF1 in response to proliferative signals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

ALCAM Gene

activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule

This gene encodes activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), also known as CD166 (cluster of differentiation 166), which is a member of a subfamily of immunoglobulin receptors with five immunoglobulin-like domains (VVC2C2C2) in the extracellular domain. This protein binds to T-cell differentiation antigene CD6, and is implicated in the processes of cell adhesion and migration. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

CANT1 Gene

calcium activated nucleotidase 1

This protein encoded by this gene belongs to the apyrase family. It functions as a calcium-dependent nucleotidase with a preference for UDP. Mutations in this gene are associated with Desbuquois dysplasia with hand anomalies. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been noted for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC100132239 Gene

calcium activated nucleotidase 1 pseudogene

ORAI2 Gene

ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 2

ORAI3 Gene

ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 3

ORAI1 Gene

ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane calcium channel subunit that is activated by the calcium sensor STIM1 when calcium stores are depleted. This type of channel is the primary way for calcium influx into T-cells. Defects in this gene are a cause of immune dysfunction with T-cell inactivation due to calcium entry defect type 1 (IDTICED1). [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PPARGC1A Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism. This protein interacts with PPARgamma, which permits the interaction of this protein with multiple transcription factors. This protein can interact with, and regulate the activities of, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear respiratory factors (NRFs). It provides a direct link between external physiological stimuli and the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and is a major factor that regulates muscle fiber type determination. This protein may be also involved in controlling blood pressure, regulating cellular cholesterol homoeostasis, and the development of obesity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPARGC1B Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta

The protein encoded by this gene stimulates the activity of several transcription factors and nuclear receptors, including estrogen receptor alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and glucocorticoid receptor. The encoded protein may be involved in fat oxidation, non-oxidative glucose metabolism, and the regulation of energy expenditure. This protein is downregulated in prediabetic and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Certain allelic variations in this gene increase the risk of the development of obesity. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PPARG Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. PPARs form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and these heterodimers regulate transcription of various genes. Three subtypes of PPARs are known: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-delta, and PPAR-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene is PPAR-gamma and is a regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, PPAR-gamma has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPARD Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta

This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family. PPARs are nuclear hormone receptors that bind peroxisome proliferators and control the size and number of peroxisomes produced by cells. PPARs mediate a variety of biological processes, and may be involved in the development of several chronic diseases, including diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and cancer. This protein is a potent inhibitor of ligand-induced transcription activity of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma. It may function as an integrator of transcription repression and nuclear receptor signaling. The expression of this gene is found to be elevated in colorectal cancer cells. The elevated expression can be repressed by adenomatosis polyposis coli (APC), a tumor suppressor protein related to APC/beta-catenin signaling pathway. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of this protein in myelination of the corpus callosum, lipid metabolism, and epidermal cell proliferation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

PPARA Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

Peroxisome proliferators include hypolipidemic drugs, herbicides, leukotriene antagonists, and plasticizers; this term arises because they induce an increase in the size and number of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles found in plants and animals that contain enzymes for respiration and for cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The action of peroxisome proliferators is thought to be mediated via specific receptors, called PPARs, which belong to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. PPARs affect the expression of target genes involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation and in immune and inflammation responses. Three closely related subtypes (alpha, beta/delta, and gamma) have been identified. This gene encodes the subtype PPAR-alpha, which is a nuclear transcription factor. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene, although the full-length nature of only two has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC5A4 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4

ZACN Gene

zinc activated ligand-gated ion channel

LGICZ1 is a zinc-activated ligand-gated ion channel that defines a new subgroup of the cysteine-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (Davies et al., 2003 [PubMed 12381728]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC644110 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 2 pseudogene

HCN1 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 1

The membrane protein encoded by this gene is a hyperpolarization-activated cation channel that contributes to the native pacemaker currents in heart and neurons. The encoded protein can homodimerize or heterodimerize with other pore-forming subunits to form a potassium channel. This channel may act as a receptor for sour tastes. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

HCN3 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 3

This gene encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that functions as a voltage gated cation channel. The encoded protein is a member of a family of closely related cyclic adenosine monophosphate-binding channel proteins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

HCN2 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 2

Hyperpolarization-activated cation channels of the HCN gene family, such as HCN2, contribute to spontaneous rhythmic activity in both heart and brain.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]

HCN4 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 4

This gene encodes a member of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channels. The encoded protein shows slow kinetics of activation and inactivation, and is necessary for the cardiac pacemaking process. This channel may also mediate responses to sour stimuli. Mutations in this gene have been linked to sick sinus syndrome 2, also known as atrial fibrillation with bradyarrhythmia or familial sinus bradycardia. Two pseudogenes have been identified on chromosome 15. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

KCNT1 Gene

potassium channel, sodium activated subfamily T, member 1

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a sodium-activated potassium channel subunit which is thought to function in ion conductance and developmental signaling pathways. Mutations in this gene cause the early-onset epileptic disorders, malignant migrating partial seizures of infancy and autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

CRACR2B Gene

calcium release activated channel regulator 2B

CRACR2A Gene

calcium release activated channel regulator 2A

NFATC3 Gene

nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 3

The product of this gene is a member of the nuclear factors of activated T cells DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and an inducible nuclear component. Other members of this family participate to form this complex also. The product of this gene plays a role in the regulation of gene expression in T cells and immature thymocytes. Several transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

SLC5A4P1 Gene

solute carrier family 5 (glucose activated ion channel), member 4 pseudogene 1

LOC728424 Gene

hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium channel 2 pseudogene

ANO1 Gene

anoctamin 1, calcium activated chloride channel

ANO2 Gene

anoctamin 2, calcium activated chloride channel

ANO2 belongs to a family of calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) (reviewed by Hartzell et al., 2009 [PubMed 19015192]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

PANDAR Gene

promoter of CDKN1A antisense DNA damage activated RNA

TP53I3 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to oxidoreductases, which are enzymes involved in cellular responses to oxidative stresses and irradiation. This gene is induced by the tumor suppressor p53 and is thought to be involved in p53-mediated cell death. It contains a p53 consensus binding site in its promoter region and a downstream pentanucleotide microsatellite sequence. P53 has been shown to transcriptionally activate this gene by interacting with the downstream pentanucleotide microsatellite sequence. The microsatellite is polymorphic, with a varying number of pentanucleotide repeats directly correlated with the extent of transcriptional activation by p53. It has been suggested that the microsatellite polymorphism may be associated with differential susceptibility to cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

LOC100533940 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC101927309 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3-like

LOC100288073 Gene

heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa) pseudogene

G3BP1 Gene

GTPase activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 1

This gene encodes one of the DNA-unwinding enzymes which prefers partially unwound 3'-tailed substrates and can also unwind partial RNA/DNA and RNA/RNA duplexes in an ATP-dependent fashion. This enzyme is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins and is also an element of the Ras signal transduction pathway. It binds specifically to the Ras-GTPase-activating protein by associating with its SH3 domain. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RASA1 Gene

RAS p21 protein activator (GTPase activating protein) 1

The protein encoded by this gene is located in the cytoplasm and is part of the GAP1 family of GTPase-activating proteins. The gene product stimulates the GTPase activity of normal RAS p21 but not its oncogenic counterpart. Acting as a suppressor of RAS function, the protein enhances the weak intrinsic GTPase activity of RAS proteins resulting in the inactive GDP-bound form of RAS, thereby allowing control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Mutations leading to changes in the binding sites of either protein are associated with basal cell carcinomas. Mutations also have been associated with hereditary capillary malformations (CM) with or without arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and Parkes Weber syndrome. Alternative splicing results in two isoforms where the shorter isoform, lacking the N-terminal hydrophobic region but retaining the same activity, appears to be abundantly expressed in placental but not adult tissues. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

PPFIA4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 4

PPFIA4, or liprin-alpha-4, belongs to the liprin-alpha gene family. See liprin-alpha-1 (LIP1, or PPFIA1; MIM 611054) for background on liprins.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC101928777 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

LOC644909 Gene

ligand of numb-protein X 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

MYCBP2 Gene

MYC binding protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

GNG5P4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 4

TP53I11 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible protein 11

RNF128 Gene

ring finger protein 128, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane protein that localizes to the endocytic pathway. This protein contains a RING zinc-finger motif and has been shown to possess E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Expression of this gene in retrovirally transduced T cell hybridoma significantly inhibits activation-induced IL2 and IL4 cytokine production. Induced expression of this gene was observed in anergic CD4(+) T cells, which suggested a role in the induction of anergic phenotype. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RNF125 Gene

ring finger protein 125, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains a RING finger domain in the N-terminus and three zinc-binding and one ubiquitin-interacting motif in the C-terminus. As a result of myristoylation, this protein associates with membranes and is primarily localized to intracellular membrane systems. The encoded protein may function as a positive regulator in the T-cell receptor signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

GNG10P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 pseudogene 1

APBB1IP Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 1 interacting protein

GNG5P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 1

GNG5P3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 3

GNG5P2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 2

GNG5P5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 5

LOC100422713 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

LOC100422710 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

TP53I13 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible protein 13

PTPRCAP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C-associated protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a transmembrane phosphoprotein specifically associated with tyrosine phosphatase PTPRC/CD45, a key regulator of T- and B-lymphocyte activation. The interaction with PTPRC may be required for the stable expression of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC101927789 Gene

putative ubiquitin-like protein FUBI-like protein ENSP00000310146

LOC102724042 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

GNB2L1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like 1

TP53BP1 Gene

tumor protein p53 binding protein 1

TP53BP2 Gene

tumor protein p53 binding protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) family of p53 interacting proteins. The protein contains four ankyrin repeats and an SH3 domain involved in protein-protein interactions. It is localized to the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm, and regulates apoptosis and cell growth through interactions with other regulatory molecules including members of the p53 family. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC102723528 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

LOC346329 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class) pseudogene

RNF138P1 Gene

ring finger protein 138, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene 1

LRPAP1 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein associated protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein and facilitates its proper folding and localization by preventing the binding of ligands. Mutations in this gene have been identified in individuals with myopia 23. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

LOC100287794 Gene

double homeobox protein 4-like protein 4

GNA14 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 14

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding, or G protein family. G proteins are heterotrimers consisting of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. The encoded protein is a member of the alpha family of G proteins, more specifically the alpha q subfamily of G proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in pertussis-toxin resistant activation of phospholipase C-beta and its downstream effectors.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

GNA15 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 15 (Gq class)

GNA12 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) alpha 12

GNA13 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 13

GNA11 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which function as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. G proteins are composed of 3 units: alpha, beta and gamma. This gene encodes one of the alpha subunits (subunit alpha-11). Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type II (HHC2) and hypocalcemia dominant 2 (HYPOC2). Patients with HHC2 and HYPOC2 exhibit decreased or increased sensitivity, respectively, to changes in extracellular calcium concentrations. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

PRKCDBP Gene

protein kinase C, delta binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a binding protein of the protein kinase C, delta (PRKCD). The expression of this gene in cultured cell lines is strongly induced by serum starvation. The expression of this protein was found to be down-regulated in various cancer cell lines, suggesting the possible tumor suppressor function of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TP53AIP1 Gene

tumor protein p53 regulated apoptosis inducing protein 1

This gene is specifically expressed in the thymus, and encodes a protein that is localized to the mitochondrion. The expression of this gene is inducible by p53, and it is thought to play an important role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

NUFIP2 Gene

nuclear fragile X mental retardation protein interacting protein 2

NUFIP1 Gene

nuclear fragile X mental retardation protein interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a nuclear RNA binding protein that contains a C2H2 zinc finger motif and a nuclear localization signal. This protein is associated with the nuclear matrix in perichromatin fibrils and, in neurons, localizes to the cytoplasm in association with endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes. This protein interacts with the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), the tumor suppressor protein BRCA1, upregulates RNA polymerase II transcription, and is involved in box C/D snoRNP biogenesis. A pseudogene of this gene resides on chromosome 6q12. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

RNF19A Gene

ring finger protein 19A, RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the ring between ring fingers (RBR) protein family, and the encoded protein contains two RING-finger motifs and an in between RING fingers motif. This protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is localized to Lewy bodies, and ubiquitylates synphilin-1, which is an interacting protein of alpha synuclein in neurons. The encoded protein may be involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GNG7 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 7

GNG4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 4

GNG5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5

G proteins are trimeric (alpha-beta-gamma) membrane-associated proteins that regulate flow of information from cell surface receptors to a variety of internal metabolic effectors. Interaction of a G protein with its activated receptor promotes exchange of GTP for GDP that is bound to the alpha subunit. The alpha-GTP complex dissociates from the beta-gamma heterodimer so that the subunits, in turn, may interact with and regulate effector molecules (Gilman, 1987 [PubMed 3113327]; summary by Ahmad et al., 1995) [PubMed 7606925].[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

GNG2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2

This gene encodes one of the gamma subunits of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Such proteins are involved in signaling mechanisms across membranes. Various subunits forms heterodimers which then interact with the different signal molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GNG3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 3

Guanine nucleotide binding proteins are heterotrimeric signal-transducing molecules consisting of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The gamma subunit determines the specificity of which signaling pathways will be affected by this particular complex. The protein encoded by this gene represents the gamma subunit of both inhibitory and stimulatory complexes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

GNG8 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 8

LOC101930078 Gene

double homeobox protein 4-like protein 4

VAPB Gene

VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-associated protein B and C

The protein encoded by this gene is a type IV membrane protein found in plasma and intracellular vesicle membranes. The encoded protein is found as a homodimer and as a heterodimer with VAPA. This protein also can interact with VAMP1 and VAMP2 and may be involved in vesicle trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VAPA Gene

VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-associated protein A, 33kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is a type IV membrane protein. It is present in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles. It may also be associated with the cytoskeleton. This protein may function in vesicle trafficking, membrane fusion, protein complex assembly and cell motility. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SKP2 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbls class; in addition to an F-box, this protein contains 10 tandem leucine-rich repeats. This protein is an essential element of the cyclin A-CDK2 S-phase kinase. It specifically recognizes phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B, also referred to as p27 or KIP1) predominantly in S phase and interacts with S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1 or p19). In addition, this gene is established as a protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. Alternative splicing of this gene generates three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

LOC101060346 Gene

T-complex protein 11 X-linked protein 2-like

LOC101928467 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

PPFIBP1 Gene

PTPRF interacting protein, binding protein 1 (liprin beta 1)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. It has been proposed that liprins are multivalent proteins that form complex structures and act as scaffolds for the recruitment and anchoring of LAR family of tyrosine phosphatases. This protein was found to interact with S100A4, a calcium-binding protein related to tumor invasiveness and metastasis. In vitro experiment demonstrated that the interaction inhibited the phosphorylation of this protein by protein kinase C and protein kinase CK2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPFIBP2 Gene

PTPRF interacting protein, binding protein 2 (liprin beta 2)

This gene encodes a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. The encoded protein is a beta liprin and plays a role in axon guidance and neuronal synapse development by recruiting LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatases to the plasma membrane. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

LCP2 Gene

lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 (SH2 domain containing leukocyte protein of 76kDa)

SLP-76 was originally identified as a substrate of the ZAP-70 protein tyrosine kinase following T cell receptor (TCR) ligation in the leukemic T cell line Jurkat. The SLP-76 locus has been localized to human chromosome 5q33 and the gene structure has been partially characterized in mice. The human and murine cDNAs both encode 533 amino acid proteins that are 72% identical and comprised of three modular domains. The NH2-terminus contains an acidic region that includes a PEST domain and several tyrosine residues which are phosphorylated following TCR ligation. SLP-76 also contains a central proline-rich domain and a COOH-terminal SH2 domain. A number of additional proteins have been identified that associate with SLP-76 both constitutively and inducibly following receptor ligation, supporting the notion that SLP-76 functions as an adaptor or scaffold protein. Studies using SLP-76 deficient T cell lines or mice have provided strong evidence that SLP-76 plays a positive role in promoting T cell development and activation as well as mast cell and platelet function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNAQP1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), q polypeptide pseudogene 1

PAIP1P1 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene 1

LOC105373377 Gene

putative paraneoplastic antigen-like protein 6B-like protein LOC649238

GNB5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta 5

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNB4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNB1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

GNB3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 3

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit which belongs to the WD repeat G protein beta family. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (C825T) in this gene is associated with essential hypertension and obesity. This polymorphism is also associated with the occurrence of the splice variant GNB3-s, which appears to have increased activity. GNB3-s is an example of alternative splicing caused by a nucleotide change outside of the splice donor and acceptor sites. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

GNB2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. This gene contains a trinucleotide (CCG) repeat length polymorphism in its 5' UTR. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAIP2 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 2

PAIP1 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with poly(A)-binding protein and with the cap-binding complex eIF4A. It is involved in translational initiation and protein biosynthesis. Overexpression of this gene in COS7 cells stimulates translation. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and three transcript variants encoding three distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NUFIP1P Gene

nuclear fragile X mental retardation protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

GPRASP2 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family that regulates the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The encoded protein has been shown to be capable of interacting with several GPCRs, including the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and the calcitonin receptor. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GPRASP1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the GPRASP (G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein) family. The protein may modulate lysosomal sorting and functional down-regulation of a variety of G-protein coupled receptors. It targets receptors for degradation in lysosomes. The receptors interacting with this sorting protein include D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), delta opioid receptor (OPRD1), beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) and cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R). Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GNAI2P2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 pseudogene 2

GNAI2P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 pseudogene 1

TP53BP2P1 Gene

tumor protein p53 binding protein 2 pseudogene 1

RNF138P2 Gene

ring finger protein 138, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene 2

LOC648044 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12-like

APPBP2 Gene

amyloid beta precursor protein (cytoplasmic tail) binding protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with microtubules and is functionally associated with beta-amyloid precursor protein transport and/or processing. The beta-amyloid precursor protein is a cell surface protein with signal-transducing properties, and it is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The encoded protein may be involved in regulating cell death. This gene has been found to be highly expressed in breast cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

RAMP1 Gene

receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of the RAMP family are expressed. In the presence of this (RAMP1) protein, CRLR functions as a CGRP receptor. The RAMP1 protein is involved in the terminal glycosylation, maturation, and presentation of the CGRP receptor to the cell surface. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

RAMP3 Gene

receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of the RAMP family are expressed. In the presence of this (RAMP3) protein, CRLR functions as an adrenomedullin receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAMP2 Gene

receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of the RAMP family are expressed. In the presence of this (RAMP2) protein, CRLR functions as an adrenomedullin receptor. The RAMP2 protein is involved in core glycosylation and transportation of adrenomedullin receptor to the cell surface. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TP53INP1 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 1

TP53INP2 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 2

RNF34 Gene

ring finger protein 34, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RINF finger, a motif known to be involved in protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. This protein interacts with DNAJA3/hTid-1, which is a DnaJ protein reported to function as a modulator of apoptosis. Overexpression of this gene in Hela cells was shown to confer the resistance to TNF-alpha induced apoptosis, suggesting an anti-apoptotic function of this protein. This protein can be cleaved by caspase-3 during the induction of apoptosis. This protein also targets p53 and phospho-p53 for degradation. Alternatively splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

TP53COR1 Gene

tumor protein p53 pathway corepressor 1 (non-protein coding)

LOC100130500 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

LOC100533943 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533942 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533941 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

RNF138 Gene

ring finger protein 138, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger, a motif present in a variety of functionally distinct proteins and known to be involved in protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNAQ Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), q polypeptide

This locus encodes a guanine nucleotide-binding protein. The encoded protein, an alpha subunit in the Gq class, couples a seven-transmembrane domain receptor to activation of phospolipase C-beta. Mutations at this locus have been associated with problems in platelet activation and aggregation. A related pseudogene exists on chromosome 2.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

GNAZ Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha z polypeptide

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a G protein subfamily that mediates signal transduction in pertussis toxin-insensitive systms. This encoded protein may play a role in maintaining the ionic balance of perilymphatic and endolymphatic cochlear fluids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNAL Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide, olfactory type

This gene encodes a stimulatory G protein alpha subunit which mediates odorant signaling in the olfactory epithelium. This protein couples dopamine type 1 receptors and adenosine A2A receptors and is widely expressed in the central nervous system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia 25 and this gene is located in a susceptibility region for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

RNF8 Gene

ring finger protein 8, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger motif and an FHA domain. This protein has been shown to interact with several class II ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2), including UBE2E1/UBCH6, UBE2E2, and UBE2E3, and may act as an ubiquitin ligase (E3) in the ubiquitination of certain nuclear proteins. This protein is also known to play a role in the DNA damage response and depletion of this protein causes cell growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

RNF5 Gene

ring finger protein 5, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger, which is a motif known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. This protein is a membrane-bound ubiquitin ligase. It can regulate cell motility by targeting paxillin ubiquitination and altering the distribution and localization of paxillin in cytoplasm and cell focal adhesions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMEM129 Gene

transmembrane protein 129, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

RNF5P1 Gene

ring finger protein 5, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene 1

GNG10 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10

GNG11 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 11

This gene is a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) gamma family and encodes a lipid-anchored, cell membrane protein. As a member of the heterotrimeric G protein complex, this protein plays a role in this transmembrane signaling system. This protein is also subject to carboxyl-terminal processing. Decreased expression of this gene is associated with splenic marginal zone lymphomas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNG12 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12

GNG13 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 13

Heterotrimeric G proteins, which consist of alpha (see MIM 139320), beta (see MIM 139380), and gamma subunits, function as signal transducers for the 7-transmembrane-helix G protein-coupled receptors. GNG13 is a gamma subunit that is expressed in taste, retinal, and neuronal tissues and plays a key role in taste transduction (Li et al., 2006 [PubMed 16473877]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

ELK3 Gene

ELK3, ETS-domain protein (SRF accessory protein 2)

This gene encodes a member of the ETS-domain transcription factor family and the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily. Proteins in this subfamily regulate transcription when recruited by serum response factor to bind to serum response elements. This protein is activated by signal-induced phosphorylation; studies in rodents suggest that it is a transcriptional inhibitor in the absence of Ras, but activates transcription when Ras is present. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

ELK4 Gene

ELK4, ETS-domain protein (SRF accessory protein 1)

This gene is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors and of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily. Proteins of the TCF subfamily form a ternary complex by binding to the the serum response factor and the serum reponse element in the promoter of the c-fos proto-oncogene. The protein encoded by this gene is phosphorylated by the kinases, MAPK1 and MAPK8. Several transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNAO1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide O

GNAT1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha transducing activity polypeptide 1

Transducin is a 3-subunit guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) which stimulates the coupling of rhodopsin and cGMP-phoshodiesterase during visual impulses. The transducin alpha subunits in rods and cones are encoded by separate genes. This gene encodes the alpha subunit in rods. This gene is also expressed in other cells, and has been implicated in bitter taste transduction in rat taste cells. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

GNAT2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha transducing activity polypeptide 2

Transducin is a 3-subunit guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) which stimulates the coupling of rhodopsin and cGMP-phoshodiesterase during visual impulses. The transducin alpha subunits in rods and cones are encoded by separate genes. This gene encodes the alpha subunit in cones. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100418622 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418623 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418620 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC101928960 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

PAIP2B Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 2B

Most mRNAs, except for histones, contain a 3-prime poly(A) tail. Poly(A)-binding protein (PABP; see MIM 604679) enhances translation by circularizing mRNA through its interaction with the translation initiation factor EIF4G1 (MIM 600495) and the poly(A) tail. Various PABP-binding proteins regulate PABP activity, including PAIP1 (MIM 605184), a translational stimulator, and PAIP2A (MIM 605604) and PAIP2B, translational inhibitors (Derry et al., 2006 [PubMed 17381337]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC391465 Gene

STIP1 homology and U-box containing protein 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

LOC105372731 Gene

CMT1A duplicated region transcript 15 protein-like protein

HP1BP3 Gene

heterochromatin protein 1, binding protein 3

RNF41 Gene

ring finger protein 41, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The encoded protein plays a role in type 1 cytokine receptor signaling by controlling the balance between JAK2-associated cytokine receptor degradation and ectodomain shedding. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

LOC102724961 Gene

double homeobox protein 4-like protein 4

RPS19BP1 Gene

ribosomal protein S19 binding protein 1

LOC100533938 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533939 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

RNF168 Gene

ring finger protein 168, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase protein that contains a RING finger, a motif present in a variety of functionally distinct proteins and known to be involved in protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions. The protein is involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Mutations in this gene result in Riddle syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

ZIK1P1 Gene

zinc finger protein interacting with K protein 1 pseudogene 1

G3BP2 Gene

GTPase activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 2

PPFIA2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. It has been proposed that liprins are multivalent proteins that form complex structures and act as scaffolds for the recruitment and anchoring of LAR family of tyrosine phosphatases. This protein has been shown to bind the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family) protein (also known as CASK) and proposed to regulate higher-order brain functions in mammals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PPFIA3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. Liprin family protein has been shown to localize phosphatase LAR to cell focal adhesions and may be involved in the molecular organization of presynaptic active zones. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPFIA1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. This protein binds to the intracellular membrane-distal phosphatase domain of tyrosine phosphatase LAR, and appears to localize LAR to cell focal adhesions. This interaction may regulate the disassembly of focal adhesion and thus help orchestrate cell-matrix interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS7BP Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 7 binding protein

This gene encodes a protein that binds to all members of the R7 subfamily of regulators of G protein signaling and regulates their translocation between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. The encoded protein could be regulated by reversible palmitoylation, which anchors it to the plasma membrane. Depalmitoylation localizes the protein to the nucleus. Polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with risk of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

LOC101930525 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

LNX1 Gene

ligand of numb-protein X 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a membrane-bound protein that is involved in signal transduction and protein interactions. The encoded product is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, which mediates ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of proteins containing phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains. This protein may play an important role in tumorogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. A pseudogene, which is located on chromosome 17, has been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NAB1 Gene

NGFI-A binding protein 1 (EGR1 binding protein 1)

NAB2 Gene

NGFI-A binding protein 2 (EGR1 binding protein 2)

This gene encodes a member of the family of NGFI-A binding (NAB) proteins, which function in the nucleus to repress transcription induced by some members of the EGR (early growth response) family of transactivators. NAB proteins can homo- or hetero-multimerize with other EGR or NAB proteins through a conserved N-terminal domain, and repress transcription through two partially redundant C-terminal domains. Transcriptional repression by the encoded protein is mediated in part by interactions with the nucleosome remodeling and deactylase (NuRD) complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100289060 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 pseudogene

CCNB1IP1 Gene

cyclin B1 interacting protein 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

HEI10 is a member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase family and functions in progression of the cell cycle through G(2)/M.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

CSRP3 Gene

cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (cardiac LIM protein)

This gene encodes a member of the CSRP family of LIM domain proteins, which may be involved in regulatory processes important for development and cellular differentiation. The LIM/double zinc-finger motif found in this protein is found in a group of proteins with critical functions in gene regulation, cell growth, and somatic differentiation. Mutations in this gene are thought to cause heritable forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans. Alternatively spliced transcript variants with different 5' UTR, but encoding the same protein, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SERPINH1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade H (heat shock protein 47), member 1, (collagen binding protein 1)

This gene encodes a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. The encoded protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and plays a role in collagen biosynthesis as a collagen-specific molecular chaperone. Autoantibodies to the encoded protein have been found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Expression of this gene may be a marker for cancer, and nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with preterm birth caused by preterm premature rupture of membranes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

LOC105374753 Gene

class E vacuolar protein-sorting machinery protein hse1-like

RGS9BP Gene

regulator of G protein signaling 9 binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene functions as a regulator of G protein-coupled receptor signaling in phototransduction. Studies in bovine and mouse show that this gene is expressed only in the retina, and is localized in the rod outer segment membranes. This protein is associated with a heterotetrameric complex, specifically interacting with the regulator of G-protein signaling 9, and appears to function as the membrane anchor for the other largely soluble interacting partners. Mutations in this gene are associated with prolonged electroretinal response suppression (PERRS), also known as bradyopsia. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC100287954 Gene

double homeobox protein 4-like protein 4

LOC653503 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 pseudogene

GNAI2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2

The protein encoded by this gene is an alpha subunit of guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins). The encoded protein contains the guanine nucleotide binding site and is involved in the hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

GNAI3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 3

Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling pathways. G proteins are composed of 3 units: alpha, beta and gamma. This gene encodes an alpha subunit and belongs to the G-alpha family. Mutation in this gene, resulting in a gly40-to-arg substitution, is associated with auriculocondylar syndrome, and shown to affect downstream targets in the G protein-coupled endothelin receptor pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

GNAI1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 1

Guanine nucleotide binding proteins are heterotrimeric signal-transducing molecules consisting of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The alpha subunit binds guanine nucleotide, can hydrolyze GTP, and can interact with other proteins. The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit of an inhibitory complex. The encoded protein is part of a complex that responds to beta-adrenergic signals by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

LOC100418619 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

RNF40 Gene

ring finger protein 40, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger, a motif known to be involved in protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. This protein was reported to interact with the tumor suppressor protein RB1. Studies of the rat counterpart suggested that this protein may function as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, and facilitate the ubiquitination and degradation of syntaxin 1, which is an essential component of the neurotransmitter release machinery. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

LOC100422559 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like 1 pseudogene

LOC100287823 Gene

double homeobox protein 4-like protein 4

LOC102723438 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

RNF20 Gene

ring finger protein 20, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with BRE1 of S. cerevisiae. The protein encoded by this human gene is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates chromosome structure by monoubiquitinating histone H2B. This protein acts as a putative tumor suppressor and positively regulates the p53 tumor suppressor as well as numerous histone H2A and H2B genes. In contrast, this protein also suppresses the expression of several protooncogenes and growth-related genes, including many genes that are induced by epidermal growth factor. This gene selectively suppresses the expression of some genes by interfering with chromatin recruitment of transcription elongation factor SII (TFIIS). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ZIK1 Gene

zinc finger protein interacting with K protein 1

LOC100422338 Gene

GTPase activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100422337 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 13 pseudogene

VCPIP1 Gene

valosin containing protein (p97)/p47 complex interacting protein 1

LOC100533937 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC105374377 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

GNB1L Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1-like

This gene encodes a G-protein beta-subunit-like polypeptide which is a member of the WD repeat protein family. WD repeats are minimally conserved regions of approximately 40 amino acids typically bracketed by gly-his and trp-asp (GH-WD), which may facilitate formation of heterotrimeric or multiprotein complexes. Members of this family are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, apoptosis, and gene regulation. This protein contains 6 WD repeats and is highly expressed in the heart. The gene maps to the region on chromosome 22q11, which is deleted in DiGeorge syndrome, trisomic in derivative 22 syndrome and tetrasomic in cat-eye syndrome. Therefore, this gene may contribute to the etiology of those disorders. Transcripts from this gene share exons with some transcripts from the C22orf29 gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100418624 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418625 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418621 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

HSPA5 Gene

heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family. It is localized in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and is involved in the folding and assembly of proteins in the ER. As this protein interacts with many ER proteins, it may play a key role in monitoring protein transport through the cell.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

LOC100422561 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like 1 pseudogene

LOC100422562 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like 1 pseudogene

LOC400750 Gene

heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa) pseudogene

AP1AR Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1 associated regulatory protein

LOC645139 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC286456 Gene

NGFI-A binding protein 1 (EGR1 binding protein 1) pseudogene

STUB1 Gene

STIP1 homology and U-box containing protein 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a protein containing tetratricopeptide repeat and a U-box that functions as a ubiquitin ligase/cochaperone. The encoded protein binds to and ubiquitinates shock cognate 71 kDa protein (Hspa8) and DNA polymerase beta (Polb), among other targets. Mutations in this gene cause spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 16. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

TYROBP Gene

TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein

This gene encodes a transmembrane signaling polypeptide which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in its cytoplasmic domain. The encoded protein may associate with the killer-cell inhibitory receptor (KIR) family of membrane glycoproteins and may act as an activating signal transduction element. This protein may bind zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa (ZAP-70) and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and play a role in signal transduction, bone modeling, brain myelination, and inflammation. Mutations within this gene have been associated with polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL), also known as Nasu-Hakola disease. Its putative receptor, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), also causes PLOSL. Multiple alternative transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

GNGT2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2

Phototransduction in rod and cone photoreceptors is regulated by groups of signaling proteins. The encoded protein is thought to play a crucial role in cone phototransduction. It belongs to the G protein gamma family and localized specifically in cones. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

GNGT1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 1

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) transduce extracellular signals received by transmembrane receptors to effector proteins. Transducin is a guanine nucleotide-binding protein found specifically in rod outer segments, where it mediates activation by rhodopsin of a cyclic GTP-specific (guanosine monophosphate) phosphodiesterase. Transducin is also referred to as GMPase. GNGT1 encodes the gamma subunit of transducin (Hurley et al., 1984 [PubMed 6438626]; Scherer et al., 1996 [PubMed 8661128]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC102724602 Gene

COMM domain-containing protein 6-like

CHMP1B Gene

charged multivesicular body protein 1B

CHMP1B belongs to the chromatin-modifying protein/charged multivesicular body protein (CHMP) family. These proteins are components of ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III), a complex involved in degradation of surface receptor proteins and formation of endocytic multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Some CHMPs have both nuclear and cytoplasmic/vesicular distributions, and one such CHMP, CHMP1A (MIM 164010), is required for both MVB formation and regulation of cell cycle progression (Tsang et al., 2006 [PubMed 16730941]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC643630 Gene

ribosomal protein L7a pseudogene

NSRP1 Gene

nuclear speckle splicing regulatory protein 1

LINC01221 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1221

RPS4XP3 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 3

RPS4XP1 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 1

RPS4XP6 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 6

RPS4XP7 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 7

RPS4XP4 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 4

BCL2A1 Gene

BCL2-related protein A1

This gene encodes a member of the BCL-2 protein family. The proteins of this family form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- and pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities such as embryonic development, homeostasis and tumorigenesis. The protein encoded by this gene is able to reduce the release of pro-apoptotic cytochrome c from mitochondria and block caspase activation. This gene is a direct transcription target of NF-kappa B in response to inflammatory mediators, and is up-regulated by different extracellular signals, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), CD40, phorbol ester and inflammatory cytokine TNF and IL-1, which suggests a cytoprotective function that is essential for lymphocyte activation as well as cell survival. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RPS4XP8 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 8

RPS4XP9 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 9

LOC101928959 Gene

probable ribosome biogenesis protein RLP24 pseudogene

CKS1B Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B

CKS1B protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. The CKS1B mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects a specialized role for the encoded protein. At least two transcript variants have been identified for this gene, and it appears that only one of them encodes a protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

RPL31P13 Gene

ribosomal protein L31 pseudogene 13

CRTAP Gene

cartilage associated protein

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to the chicken and mouse CRTAP genes. The encoded protein is a scaffolding protein that may influence the activity of at least one member of the cytohesin/ARNO family in response to specific cellular stimuli. Defects in this gene are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta, a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HPYR1 Gene

Helicobacter pylori responsive 1 (non-protein coding)

CPEB4 Gene

cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4

CPEB1 Gene

cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein family. This highly conserved protein binds to a specific RNA sequence, called the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element, found in the 3' untranslated region of some mRNAs. The encoded protein functions in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. It is involved in the regulation of mRNA translation, as well as processing of the 3' untranslated region, and may play a role in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

CPEB3 Gene

cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 3

CPEB2 Gene

cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB), an mRNA-binding protein that regulates cytoplasmic polyadenylation of mRNA as a trans factor in oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested a possible role of this protein in transcriptionally inactive haploid spermatids. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105379427 Gene

zinc finger protein 717-like

LOC649935 Gene

UPF0607 protein ENSP00000381514-like

LINC01227 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1227

LOC100131241 Gene

SERPINE1 mRNA binding protein 1 pseudogene

PISRT1 Gene

polled intersex syndrome regulated transcript 1 (non-protein coding RNA)

LOC101927006 Gene

40S ribosomal protein SA-like

AAGAB Gene

alpha- and gamma-adaptin binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the gamma-adaptin and alpha-adaptin subunits of complexes involved in clathrin-coated vesicle trafficking. Mutations in this gene are associated with type I punctate palmoplantar keratoderma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

LOC101060569 Gene

golgin subfamily A member 6-like protein 1

LOC442041 Gene

zinc finger protein 532 pseudogene

RFPL4AL1 Gene

ret finger protein-like 4A-like 1

LOC100419140 Gene

ribosomal protein L5 pseudogene

RPL12P31 Gene

ribosomal protein L12 pseudogene 31

LOC391600 Gene

transmembrane epididymal protein 1 pseudogene

MRPS31P4 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S31 pseudogene 4

LOC100287243 Gene

nuclease-sensitive element-binding protein 1 pseudogene

ZNF117 Gene

zinc finger protein 117

ZNF114 Gene

zinc finger protein 114

ZNF112 Gene

zinc finger protein 112

PRKAR2A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAR2B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) in activated T cells. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this subunit may play an important role in regulating energy balance and adiposity. The studies also suggest that this subunit may mediate the gene induction and cataleptic behavior induced by haloperidol. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMEM200B Gene

transmembrane protein 200B

RPL12P36 Gene

ribosomal protein L12 pseudogene 36

LOC100420186 Gene

WW domain binding protein 2 pseudogene

KRTAP2-3 Gene

keratin associated protein 2-3

KRTAP2-2 Gene

keratin associated protein 2-2

KRTAP2-1 Gene

keratin associated protein 2-1

KRTAP2-4 Gene

keratin associated protein 2-4

This protein is a member of the keratin-associated protein (KAP) family. The KAP proteins form a matrix of keratin intermediate filaments which contribute to the structure of hair fibers. KAP family members appear to have unique, family-specific amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions and are subdivided into three multi-gene families according to amino acid composition: the high sulfur, the ultrahigh sulfur, and the high tyrosine/glycine KAPs. This protein is a member of the high sulfur KAP family and the gene is localized to a cluster of KAPs at 17q12-q21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RPL12P38 Gene

ribosomal protein L12 pseudogene 38

ZNF736P3Y Gene

zinc finger protein 736 pseudogene 3, Y-linked

VMP1 Gene

vacuole membrane protein 1

LOC100420828 Gene

nuclear pore associated protein 1 pseudogene

RPS26P43 Gene

ribosomal protein S26 pseudogene 43

RPS26P42 Gene

ribosomal protein S26 pseudogene 42

RPS26P41 Gene

ribosomal protein S26 pseudogene 41

RPS26P40 Gene

ribosomal protein S26 pseudogene 40

RPS26P47 Gene

ribosomal protein S26 pseudogene 47

RPS26P46 Gene

ribosomal protein S26 pseudogene 46

RPS26P45 Gene

ribosomal protein S26 pseudogene 45

RPS26P44 Gene

ribosomal protein S26 pseudogene 44

RPS26P49 Gene

ribosomal protein S26 pseudogene 49

RPS26P48 Gene

ribosomal protein S26 pseudogene 48

FAM90A10P Gene

putative protein FAM90A10

FAM90A10 belongs to subfamily II of the primate-specific FAM90A gene family, which originated from multiple duplications and rearrangements (Bosch et al., 2007 [PubMed 17684299]). For background information on the FAM90A gene family, as well as information on the evolution of FAM90A genes, see FAM90A1 (MIM 613041).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

LOC389842 Gene

RAN binding protein 1 pseudogene

DLGAP2 Gene

discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 2

The product of this gene is a membrane-associated protein that may play a role in synapse organization and signalling in neuronal cells. This gene is biallelically expressed in the brain, however, only the paternal allele is expressed in the testis (PMID:18055845). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

DLGAP3 Gene

discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 3

DLGAP1 Gene

discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 1

DLGAP4 Gene

discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 4

The product of this gene is a membrane-associated guanylate kinase found at the postsynaptic density in neuronal cells. It is a signaling molecule that can interact with potassium channels and receptors, as well as other signaling molecules. The protein encoded by this gene can interact with PSD-95 through its guanylate kinase domain and may be involved in clustering PSD-95 in the postsynaptic density region. The encoded protein is one of at least four similar proteins that have been found. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DLGAP5 Gene

discs, large (Drosophila) homolog-associated protein 5

FBXL14 Gene

F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 14

Members of the F-box protein family, such as FBXL14, are characterized by an approximately 40-amino acid F-box motif. SCF complexes, formed by SKP1 (MIM 601434), cullin (see CUL1; MIM 603134), and F-box proteins, act as protein-ubiquitin ligases. F-box proteins interact with SKP1 through the F box, and they interact with ubiquitination targets through other protein interaction domains (Jin et al., 2004 [PubMed 15520277]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

OIP5 Gene

Opa interacting protein 5

FBXL19 Gene

F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 19

This gene encodes a member of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. The encoded protein is reported to bind to the transmembrane receptor interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 and regulate its ubiquitination and degradation. This protein has been linked to the regulation of pulmonary inflammation and psoriasis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

LOC100421559 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 5, mu 1 subunit pseudogene

PTPN18 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 18 (brain-derived)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, the mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a PEST motif, which often serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may be related to protein intracellular half-live. This protein can differentially dephosphorylate autophosphorylated tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in tumor tissues, and it appears to regulate HER2, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

PTPN13 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 13 (APO-1/CD95 (Fas)-associated phosphatase)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP is a large intracellular protein. It has a catalytic PTP domain at its C-terminus and two major structural domains: a region with five PDZ domains and a FERM domain that binds to plasma membrane and cytoskeletal elements. This PTP was found to interact with, and dephosphorylate, Fas receptor and IkappaBalpha through the PDZ domains. This suggests it has a role in Fas mediated programmed cell death. This PTP was also shown to interact with GTPase-activating protein, and thus may function as a regulator of Rho signaling pathways. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

PTPN12 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 12

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a C-terminal PEST motif, which serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may regulate protein intracellular half-life. This PTP was found to bind and dephosphorylate the product of the oncogene c-ABL and thus may play a role in oncogenesis. This PTP was also shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate, various products related to cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion, such as p130 (Cas), CAKbeta/PTK2B, PSTPIP1, and paxillin. This suggests it has a regulatory role in controlling cell shape and mobility. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

PTPN11 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains two tandem Src homology-2 domains, which function as phospho-tyrosine binding domains and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. This PTP is widely expressed in most tissues and plays a regulatory role in various cell signaling events that are important for a diversity of cell functions, such as mitogenic activation, metabolic control, transcription regulation, and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Noonan syndrome as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

RPL32P35 Gene

ribosomal protein L32 pseudogene 35

RPL32P32 Gene

ribosomal protein L32 pseudogene 32

RPL32P33 Gene

ribosomal protein L32 pseudogene 33

RPL32P30 Gene

ribosomal protein L32 pseudogene 30

PTPN14 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 14

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal noncatalytic domain similar to that of band 4.1 superfamily cytoskeleton-associated proteins, which suggested the membrane or cytoskeleton localization of this protein. It appears to regulate lymphatic development in mammals, and a loss of function mutation has been found in a kindred with a lymphedema-choanal atresia. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

TRAPPC6A Gene

trafficking protein particle complex 6A

This gene encodes a component of the trafficking protein particle complex, which tethers transport vesicles to the cis-Golgi membrane. Loss of expression of the related gene in mouse affects coat and eye pigmentation, suggesting that the encoded protein may be involved in melanosome biogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

MZB1 Gene

marginal zone B and B1 cell-specific protein

TRAPPC6B Gene

trafficking protein particle complex 6B

TRAPPC6B is a component of TRAPP complexes, which are tethering complexes involved in vesicle transport (Kummel et al., 2005 [PubMed 16025134]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

HSPE1P16 Gene

heat shock 10kDa protein 1 pseudogene 16

HSPE1P12 Gene

heat shock 10kDa protein 1 pseudogene 12

RPL23AP29 Gene

ribosomal protein L23a pseudogene 29

HSPE1P10 Gene

heat shock 10kDa protein 1 pseudogene 10

RPL23AP27 Gene

ribosomal protein L23a pseudogene 27

LOC105378958 Gene

adhesive plaque matrix protein-like

RPL23AP26 Gene

ribosomal protein L23a pseudogene 26

LOC105378957 Gene

basic salivary proline-rich protein 2-like

LOC105378955 Gene

tripartite motif-containing protein LOC642612

LOC100419801 Gene

zinc finger protein 532 pseudogene

RPL23AP23 Gene

ribosomal protein L23a pseudogene 23

LOC100419803 Gene

zinc finger protein 510 pseudogene

LOC100419802 Gene

zinc finger protein 184 pseudogene

LOC100419806 Gene

zinc finger protein 519 pseudogene

CAMKK2 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. The major isoform of this gene plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade by phosphorylating the downstream kinases CaMK1 and CaMK4. Protein products of this gene also phosphorylate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This gene has its strongest expression in the brain and influences signalling cascades involved with learning and memory, neuronal differentiation and migration, neurite outgrowth, and synapse formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. The identified isoforms differ in their ability to undergo autophosphorylation and to phosphorylate downstream kinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CAMKK1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade. Three transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RPL23AP21 Gene

ribosomal protein L23a pseudogene 21

PPP1R1AP2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1A pseudogene 2

LOC102724970 Gene

putative uncharacterized protein FLJ35883

LOC102724971 Gene

putative V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing-like protein IGHV4OR15-8

CHMP3 Gene

charged multivesicular body protein 3

This gene encodes a protein that sorts transmembrane proteins into lysosomes/vacuoles via the multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. This protein, along with other soluble coiled-coil containing proteins, forms part of the ESCRT-III protein complex that binds to the endosomal membrane and recruits additional cofactors for protein sorting into the MVB. This protein may also co-immunoprecipitate with a member of the IFG-binding protein superfamily. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the upstream ring finger protein 103 (RNF103) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

RPL36AL Gene

ribosomal protein L36a-like

Cytoplasmic ribosomes, organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein, which shares sequence similarity with yeast ribosomal protein L44, belongs to the L44E (L36AE) family of ribosomal proteins. This gene and the human gene officially named ribosomal protein L36a (RPL36A) encode nearly identical proteins; however, they are distinct genes. Although the name of this gene has been referred to as ribosomal protein L36a (RPL36A), its official name is ribosomal protein L36a-like (RPL36AL). As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHMP7 Gene

charged multivesicular body protein 7

CHMP5 Gene

charged multivesicular body protein 5

CHMP5 belongs to the chromatin-modifying protein/charged multivesicular body protein (CHMP) family. These proteins are components of ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III), a complex involved in degradation of surface receptor proteins and formation of endocytic multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Some CHMPs have both nuclear and cytoplasmic/vesicular distributions, and one such CHMP, CHMP1A (MIM 164010), is required for both MVB formation and regulation of cell cycle progression (Tsang et al., 2006 [PubMed 16730941]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RPS4XP2 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 2

KRTAP11-1 Gene

keratin associated protein 11-1

LOC729468 Gene

putative PGM5-like protein 1

LOC101060086 Gene

cell cycle exit and neuronal differentiation protein 1-like

RPL35AP Gene

ribosomal protein L35a pseudogene

EBP Gene

emopamil binding protein (sterol isomerase)

The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. It is a high affinity binding protein for the antiischemic phenylalkylamine Ca2+ antagonist [3H]emopamil and the photoaffinity label [3H]azidopamil. It is similar to sigma receptors and may be a member of a superfamily of high affinity drug-binding proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum of different tissues. This protein shares structural features with bacterial and eukaryontic drug transporting proteins. It has four putative transmembrane segments and contains two conserved glutamate residues which may be involved in the transport of cationic amphiphilics. Another prominent feature of this protein is its high content of aromatic amino acid residues (>23%) in its transmembrane segments. These aromatic amino acid residues have been suggested to be involved in the drug transport by the P-glycoprotein. Mutations in this gene cause Chondrodysplasia punctata 2 (CDPX2; also known as Conradi-Hunermann syndrome). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LINC01091 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1091

LINC01090 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1090

LINC01093 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1093

LINC01095 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1095

LINC01094 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1094

LINC01097 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1097

LINC01096 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1096

LINC01098 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1098

PTPMT1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, mitochondrial 1

LINC00320 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 320

LINC00323 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 323

LINC00324 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 324

LINC00326 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 326

LINC00327 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 327

LINC00328 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 328

RAB3GAP2 Gene

RAB3 GTPase activating protein subunit 2 (non-catalytic)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the RAB3 protein family, members of which are involved in regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters and hormones. This protein forms the Rab3 GTPase-activating complex with RAB3GAP1, where it constitutes the regulatory subunit, whereas the latter functions as the catalytic subunit. This gene has the highest level of expression in the brain, consistent with it having a key role in neurodevelopment. Mutations in this gene are associated with Martsolf syndrome.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

RAB3GAP1 Gene

RAB3 GTPase activating protein subunit 1 (catalytic)

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of a Rab GTPase activating protein. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a non-catalytic subunit to specifically regulate the activity of members of the Rab3 subfamily of small G proteins. This protein mediates the hydrolysis of GTP bound Rab3 to the GDP bound form. Mutations in this gene are associated with Warburg micro syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

SGSM3 Gene

small G protein signaling modulator 3

RPL35P7 Gene

ribosomal protein L35 pseudogene 7

LOC105370045 Gene

filamin-interacting protein FAM101A

GGA1 Gene

golgi-associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin ear-containing, ARF-binding (GGA) protein family. Members of this family are ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the lysosome. These proteins share an amino-terminal VHS domain which mediates sorting of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors at the trans-Golgi network. They also contain a carboxy-terminal region with homology to the ear domain of gamma-adaptins. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGA3 Gene

golgi-associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 3

This gene encodes a member of the Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin ear-containing, ARF-binding (GGA) family. This family includes ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the lysosome. These proteins share an amino-terminal VHS domain which mediates sorting of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors at the trans-Golgi network. They also contain a carboxy-terminal region with homology to the ear domain of gamma-adaptins. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified in this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

GGA2 Gene

golgi-associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin ear-containing, ARF-binding (GGA) family. This family includes ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the lysosome. These proteins share an amino-terminal VHS domain which mediates sorting of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors at the trans-Golgi network. They also contain a carboxy-terminal region with homology to the ear domain of gamma-adaptins. This family member may play a significant role in cargo molecules regulation and clathrin-coated vesicle assembly. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GJC2 Gene

gap junction protein, gamma 2, 47kDa

This gene encodes a gap junction protein. Gap junction proteins are members of a large family of homologous connexins and comprise 4 transmembrane, 2 extracellular, and 3 cytoplasmic domains. This gene plays a key role in central myelination and is involved in peripheral myelination in humans. Defects in this gene are the cause of autosomal recessive Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease-1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GJC3 Gene

gap junction protein, gamma 3, 30.2kDa

This gene encodes a gap junction protein. The encoded protein, also known as a connexin, plays a role in formation of gap junctions, which provide direct connections between neighboring cells. Mutations in this gene have been reported to be associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

GJC1 Gene

gap junction protein, gamma 1, 45kDa

This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of arrays of intercellular channels that provide a route for the diffusion of low molecular weight materials from cell to cell. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same isoform have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LMBR1L Gene

limb development membrane protein 1-like

ITM2BP1 Gene

integral membrane protein 2B pseudogene 1

FLJ90680 Gene

FLJ90680 protein

LTN1 Gene

listerin E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1

Like most RING finger proteins, LTN1 functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase (Chu et al., 2009 [PubMed 19196968]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

VPS13D Gene

vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog D (S. cerevisiae)

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the vacuolar-protein-sorting-13 gene family. In yeast, vacuolar-protein-sorting-13 proteins are involved in trafficking of membrane proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the prevacuolar compartment. While several transcript variants may exist for this gene, the full-length natures of only two have been described to date. These two represent the major variants of this gene and encode distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VPS13A Gene

vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog A (S. cerevisiae)

The protein encoded by this gene may control steps in the cycling of proteins through the trans-Golgi network to endosomes, lysosomes and the plasma membrane. Mutations in this gene cause the autosomal recessive disorder, chorea-acanthocytosis. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SH3KBP1 Gene

SH3-domain kinase binding protein 1

This gene encodes an adapter protein that contains three N-terminal Src homology domains, a proline rich region and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. The encoded protein facilitates protein-protein interactions and has been implicated in numerous cellular processes including apoptosis, cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell adhesion and in the regulation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

VPS13C Gene

vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog C (S. cerevisiae)

This gene encodes a member of the vacuolar protein sorting-associated 13 gene family. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

VPS13B Gene

vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog B (yeast)

This gene encodes a potential transmembrane protein that may function in vesicle-mediated transport and sorting of proteins within the cell. This protein may play a role in the development and the function of the eye, hematological system, and central nervous system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Cohen syndrome. Multiple splice variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC101929185 Gene

putative glycine-rich cell wall structural protein 1

TMEM160 Gene

transmembrane protein 160

TMEM163 Gene

transmembrane protein 163

TMEM165 Gene

transmembrane protein 165

This gene encodes a predicted transmembrane protein with a perinuclear Golgi-like distribution in fibroblasts. Mutations in this gene are associated with the autosomal recessive disorder congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIk. Knockdown of this gene's expression causes decreased sialylation in HEK cells and suggests this gene plays a role in terminal Golgi glycosylation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

TMEM164 Gene

transmembrane protein 164

TMEM168 Gene

transmembrane protein 168

RPLP2P2 Gene

ribosomal protein, large, P2 pseudogene 2

SNAP91 Gene

synaptosomal-associated protein, 91kDa

LOC101926982 Gene

protein GVQW1-like

LOC101926984 Gene

putative uncharacterized protein FLJ43826

LOC101926986 Gene

glioma tumor suppressor candidate region gene 1 protein-like

LOC105371032 Gene

polyadenylate-binding protein 4 pseudogene

RPL15P3 Gene

ribosomal protein L15 pseudogene 3

RPL15P2 Gene

ribosomal protein L15 pseudogene 2

RPL15P1 Gene

ribosomal protein L15 pseudogene 1

RPL15P7 Gene

ribosomal protein L15 pseudogene 7

RPL15P6 Gene

ribosomal protein L15 pseudogene 6

RPL15P5 Gene

ribosomal protein L15 pseudogene 5

RPL15P4 Gene

ribosomal protein L15 pseudogene 4

RPL15P9 Gene

ribosomal protein L15 pseudogene 9

RPL15P8 Gene

ribosomal protein L15 pseudogene 8

LOC100271907 Gene

myotubularin related protein 7 pseudogene

LINC01215 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1215

LINC01214 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1214

SYCE1 Gene

synaptonemal complex central element protein 1

LINC00847 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 847

RALBP1 Gene

ralA binding protein 1

RALBP1 plays a role in receptor-mediated endocytosis and is a downstream effector of the small GTP-binding protein RAL (see RALA; MIM 179550). Small G proteins, such as RAL, have GDP-bound inactive and GTP-bound active forms, which shift from the inactive to the active state through the action of RALGDS (MIM 601619), which in turn is activated by RAS (see HRAS; MIM 190020) (summary by Feig, 2003 [PubMed 12888294]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

ZNF831 Gene

zinc finger protein 831

ZNF830 Gene

zinc finger protein 830

ZNF835 Gene

zinc finger protein 835

ZNF837 Gene

zinc finger protein 837

ZNF836 Gene

zinc finger protein 836

ZNF839 Gene

zinc finger protein 839

MRPS24P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S24 pseudogene 1

LINC00849 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 849

TSPY8 Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 8

ZPBP Gene

zona pellucida binding protein

ZPBP is one of several proteins that are thought to participate in secondary binding between acrosome-reacted sperm and the egg-specific extracellular matrix, the zona pellucida (McLeskey et al., 1998 [PubMed 9378618]).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008]

TSPY2 Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 2

TSPY1 Gene

testis specific protein, Y-linked 1

The protein encoded by this gene is found only in testicular tissue and may be involved in spermatogenesis. Approximately 35 copies of this gene are present in humans, but only a single, nonfunctional orthologous gene is found in mouse. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

ITCH Gene

itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the Nedd4 family of HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases. HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin from E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes to protein substrates, thus targeting specific proteins for lysosomal degradation. The encoded protein plays a role in multiple cellular processes including erythroid and lymphoid cell differentiation and the regulation of immune responses. Mutations in this gene are a cause of syndromic multisystem autoimmune disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

CHMP4A Gene

charged multivesicular body protein 4A

CHMP4A belongs to the chromatin-modifying protein/charged multivesicular body protein (CHMP) family. These proteins are components of ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III), a complex involved in degradation of surface receptor proteins and formation of endocytic multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Some CHMPs have both nuclear and cytoplasmic/vesicular distributions, and one such CHMP, CHMP1A (MIM 164010), is required for both MVB formation and regulation of cell cycle progression (Tsang et al., 2006 [PubMed 16730941]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CHMP4B Gene

charged multivesicular body protein 4B

This gene encodes a member of the chromatin-modifying protein/charged multivesicular body protein (CHMP) protein family. The protein is part of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complex III (ESCRT-III), which functions in the sorting of endocytosed cell-surface receptors into multivesicular endosomes. The ESCRT machinery also functions in the final abscisson stage of cytokinesis and in the budding of enveloped viruses such as HIV-1. The three proteins of the CHMP4 subfamily interact with programmed cell death 6 interacting protein (PDCD6IP, also known as ALIX), which also functions in the ESCRT pathway. The CHMP4 proteins assemble into membrane-attached 5-nm filaments that form circular scaffolds and promote or stabilize outward budding. These polymers are proposed to help generate the luminal vesicles of multivesicular bodies. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant posterior polar cataracts.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

CHMP4C Gene

charged multivesicular body protein 4C

CHMP4C belongs to the chromatin-modifying protein/charged multivesicular body protein (CHMP) family. These proteins are components of ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III), a complex involved in degradation of surface receptor proteins and formation of endocytic multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Some CHMPs have both nuclear and cytoplasmic/vesicular distributions, and one such CHMP, CHMP1A (MIM 164010), is required for both MVB formation and regulation of cell cycle progression (Tsang et al., 2006 [PubMed 16730941]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

COBLL1 Gene

cordon-bleu WH2 repeat protein-like 1

LOC100421595 Gene

thyroid hormone receptor associated protein 3 pseudogene

TMEM255B Gene

transmembrane protein 255B

TMEM255A Gene

transmembrane protein 255A

WBP2P1 Gene

WW domain binding protein 2 pseudogene 1

ZNF304 Gene

zinc finger protein 304

ZNF302 Gene

zinc finger protein 302

This gene encodes a member of the zinc-finger protein family. The encoded protein contains seven C2H2-type zinc fingers and a KRAB domain, but its function has yet to be determined. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

ZNF300 Gene

zinc finger protein 300

The protein encoded by this gene is a C2H2-type zinc finger DNA binding protein and likely transcriptional regulator. The function of this protein is not yet known. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC100419755 Gene

zinc finger protein 426 pseudogene

PPP3CA Gene

protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme

PPP3CB Gene

protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme

PPP3CC Gene

protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme

Calcineurin is a calcium-dependent, calmodulin-stimulated protein phosphatase involved in the downstream regulation of dopaminergic signal transduction. Calcineurin is composed of a regulatory subunit and a catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of the regulatory subunits that has been found for calcineurin. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

RPL12 Gene

ribosomal protein L12

Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein belongs to the L11P family of ribosomal proteins. It is located in the cytoplasm. The protein binds directly to the 26S rRNA. This gene is co-transcribed with the U65 snoRNA, which is located in its fourth intron. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC359819 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L39 pseudogene

GACAT2 Gene

gastric cancer associated transcript 2 (non-protein coding)

GACAT1 Gene

gastric cancer associated transcript 1 (non-protein coding)

LOC347381 Gene

hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), beta subunit pseudogene

RPL17P37 Gene

ribosomal protein L17 pseudogene 37

LINC01251 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1251

LINC01250 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1250

LINC01257 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1257

TIAL1 Gene

TIA1 cytotoxic granule-associated RNA binding protein-like 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of RNA-binding proteins, has three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), and binds adenine and uridine-rich elements in mRNA and pre-mRNAs of a wide range of genes. It regulates various activities including translational control, splicing and apoptosis. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. The different isoforms have been show to function differently with respect to post-transcriptional silencing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FUBP3 Gene

far upstream element (FUSE) binding protein 3

FUBP1 Gene

far upstream element (FUSE) binding protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a single stranded DNA-binding protein that binds to multiple DNA elements, including the far upstream element (FUSE) located upstream of c-myc. Binding to FUSE occurs on the non-coding strand, and is important to the regulation of c-myc in undifferentiated cells. This protein contains three domains, an amphipathic helix N-terminal domain, a DNA-binding central domain, and a C-terminal transactivation domain that contains three tyrosine-rich motifs. The N-terminal domain is thought to repress the activity of the C-terminal domain. This protein is also thought to bind RNA, and contains 3'-5' helicase activity with in vitro activity on both DNA-DNA and RNA-RNA duplexes. Aberrant expression of this gene has been found in malignant tissues, and this gene is important to neural system and lung development. Binding of this protein to viral RNA is thought to play a role in several viral diseases, including hepatitis C and hand, foot and mouth disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

SCHIP1 Gene

schwannomin interacting protein 1

SAP30 Gene

Sin3A-associated protein, 30kDa

Histone acetylation plays a key role in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by multisubunit complexes. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the histone deacetylase complex, which includes SIN3, SAP18, HDAC1, HDAC2, RbAp46, RbAp48, and other polypeptides. This complex is active in deacetylating core histone octamers, but inactive in deacetylating nucleosomal histones. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100533903 Gene

ribosomal protein L3 pseudogene

LOC100533902 Gene

ribosomal protein L3 pseudogene

LOC100533900 Gene

ribosomal protein L3 pseudogene

RPL37P9 Gene

ribosomal protein L37 pseudogene 9

RPL37P8 Gene

ribosomal protein L37 pseudogene 8

BRIP1 Gene

BRCA1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RecQ DEAH helicase family and interacts with the BRCT repeats of breast cancer, type 1 (BRCA1). The bound complex is important in the normal double-strand break repair function of breast cancer, type 1 (BRCA1). This gene may be a target of germline cancer-inducing mutations. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PATL2 Gene

protein associated with topoisomerase II homolog 2 (yeast)

IL18RAP Gene

interleukin 18 receptor accessory protein

The protein encoded by this gene is an accessory subunit of the heterodimeric receptor for interleukin 18 (IL18), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in inducing cell-mediated immunity. This protein enhances the IL18-binding activity of the IL18 receptor and plays a role in signaling by IL18. Mutations in this gene are associated with Crohn's disease and inflammatory bowel disease, and susceptibility to celiac disease and leprosy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

TMEM167AP1 Gene

transmembrane protein 167A pseudogene 1

FKBP14 Gene

FK506 binding protein 14, 22 kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the FK506-binding protein family of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases. The encoded protein is found in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is thought to accelerate protein folding. Defects in this gene are a cause of a type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Both a protein-coding variant and noncoding variants are transcribed from this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

FKBP15 Gene

FK506 binding protein 15, 133kDa

FKBP10 Gene

FK506 binding protein 10, 65 kDa

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) family. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and acts as a molecular chaperone. Alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms have been reported, but their biological validity has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

FKBP11 Gene

FK506 binding protein 11, 19 kDa

FKBP11 belongs to the FKBP family of peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases, which catalyze the folding of proline-containing polypeptides. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity of FKBP proteins is inhibited by the immunosuppressant compounds FK506 and rapamycin (Rulten et al., 2006 [PubMed 16596453]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

FBXO10 Gene

F-box protein 10

Members of the F-box protein family, such as FBXO10, are characterized by an approximately 40-amino acid F-box motif. SCF complexes, formed by SKP1 (MIM 601434), cullin (see CUL1; MIM 603134), and F-box proteins, act as protein-ubiquitin ligases. F-box proteins interact with SKP1 through the F box, and they interact with ubiquitination targets through other protein interaction domains (Jin et al., 2004 [PubMed 15520277]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

FBXO11 Gene

F-box protein 11

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbxs class. It can function as an arginine methyltransferase that symmetrically dimethylates arginine residues, and it acts as an adaptor protein to mediate the neddylation of p53, which leads to the suppression of p53 function. This gene is known to be down-regulated in melanocytes from patients with vitiligo, a skin disorder that results in depigmentation. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with chronic otitis media with effusion and recurrent otitis media (COME/ROM), a hearing loss disorder, and the knockout of the homologous mouse gene results in the deaf mouse mutant Jeff (Jf), a single gene model of otitis media. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

FBXO16 Gene

F-box protein 16

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family, members of which are characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into three classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbx class. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

FBXO17 Gene

F-box protein 17

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by the F-box motif. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of the ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbxs class and it contains an F-box domain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

FBXO15 Gene

F-box protein 15

Members of the F-box protein family, such as FBXO15, are characterized by an approximately 40-amino acid F-box motif. SCF complexes, formed by SKP1 (MIM 601434), cullin (see CUL1; MIM 603134), and F-box proteins, act as protein-ubiquitin ligases. F-box proteins interact with SKP1 through the F box, and they interact with ubiquitination targets through other protein interaction domains (Jin et al., 2004 [PubMed 15520277]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

KRTAP1-1 Gene

keratin associated protein 1-1

This protein is a member of the keratin-associated protein (KAP) family. The KAP proteins form a matrix of keratin intermediate filaments which contribute to the structure of hair fibers. KAP family members appear to have unique, family-specific amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions and are subdivided into three multi-gene families according to amino acid composition: the high sulfur, the ultrahigh sulfur, and the high tyrosine/glycine KAPs. This protein is a member of the high sulfur KAP family and the gene is localized to a cluster of KAPs at 17q12-q21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRTAP1-3 Gene

keratin associated protein 1-3

This protein is a member of the keratin-associated protein (KAP) family. The KAP proteins form a matrix of keratin intermediate filaments which contribute to the structure of hair fibers. KAP family members appear to have unique, family-specific amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions and are subdivided into three multi-gene families according to amino acid composition: the high sulfur, the ultrahigh sulfur, and the high tyrosine/glycine KAPs. This protein is a member of the high sulfur KAP family and the gene is localized to a cluster of KAPs at 17q12-q21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRTAP1-4 Gene

keratin associated protein 1-4

The main structural proteins of mammalian hair fiber are the hair keratins (see MIM 601077) and the keratin-associated proteins (KAPs), which form a rigid and resistant hair shaft through extensive disulfide bond crosslinking with the abundant cysteines of hair keratins (Shimomura et al., 2002 [PubMed 12228244]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2009]

KRTAP1-5 Gene

keratin associated protein 1-5

This protein is a member of the keratin-associated protein (KAP) family. The KAP proteins form a matrix of keratin intermediate filaments which contribute to the structure of hair fibers. KAP family members appear to have unique, family-specific amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions and are subdivided into three multi-gene families according to amino acid composition: the high sulfur, the ultrahigh sulfur, and the high tyrosine/glycine KAPs. This protein is a member of the high sulfur KAP family and the gene is localized to a cluster of KAPs at 17q12-q21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100313942 Gene

transmembrane protein 92 pseudogene

LOC440181 Gene

transmembrane protein 98 pseudogene

GHITM Gene

growth hormone inducible transmembrane protein

RPL7P57 Gene

ribosomal protein L7 pseudogene 57

LOC127011 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal accessory protein 2 pseudogene

FKBP1B Gene

FK506 binding protein 1B, 12.6 kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunophilin protein family, which play a role in immunoregulation and basic cellular processes involving protein folding and trafficking. This encoded protein is a cis-trans prolyl isomerase that binds the immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin. It is highly similar to the FK506-binding protein 1A. Its physiological role is thought to be in excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle. There are two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FKBP1C Gene

FK506 binding protein 1C

FKBP1A Gene

FK506 binding protein 1A, 12kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunophilin protein family, which play a role in immunoregulation and basic cellular processes involving protein folding and trafficking. The protein is a cis-trans prolyl isomerase that binds the immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin. It interacts with several intracellular signal transduction proteins including type I TGF-beta receptor. It also interacts with multiple intracellular calcium release channels, and coordinates multi-protein complex formation of the tetrameric skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. In mouse, deletion of this homologous gene causes congenital heart disorder known as noncompaction of left ventricular myocardium. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. The human genome contains five pseudogenes related to this gene, at least one of which is transcribed. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

RPL17P6 Gene

ribosomal protein L17 pseudogene 6

MAP10 Gene

microtubule-associated protein 10

RPL17P9 Gene

ribosomal protein L17 pseudogene 9

LOC100133102 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac2) pseudogene

RPL17P8 Gene

ribosomal protein L17 pseudogene 8

MAP1A Gene

microtubule-associated protein 1A

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the microtubule-associated protein family. The proteins of this family are thought to be involved in microtubule assembly, which is an essential step in neurogenesis. The product of this gene is a precursor polypeptide that presumably undergoes proteolytic processing to generate the final MAP1A heavy chain and LC2 light chain. Expression of this gene is almost exclusively in the brain. Studies of the rat microtubule-associated protein 1A gene suggested a role in early events of spinal cord development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP1B Gene

microtubule-associated protein 1B

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the microtubule-associated protein family. The proteins of this family are thought to be involved in microtubule assembly, which is an essential step in neurogenesis. The product of this gene is a precursor polypeptide that presumably undergoes proteolytic processing to generate the final MAP1B heavy chain and LC1 light chain. Gene knockout studies of the mouse microtubule-associated protein 1B gene suggested an important role in development and function of the nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP1S Gene

microtubule-associated protein 1S

CCP110 Gene

centriolar coiled coil protein 110kDa

RPL18A Gene

ribosomal protein L18a

Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a member of the L18AE family of ribosomal proteins that is a component of the 60S subunit. The encoded protein may play a role in viral replication by interacting with the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES). This gene is co-transcribed with the U68 snoRNA, located within the third intron. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed throughout the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

FOXCUT Gene

FOXC1 upstream transcript (non-protein coding)

TARDBPP1 Gene

TAR DNA binding protein pseudogene 1

TARDBPP2 Gene

TAR DNA binding protein pseudogene 2

EPB41L1 Gene

erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 1

Erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) is a multifunctional protein that mediates interactions between the erythrocyte cytoskeleton and the overlying plasma membrane. The encoded protein binds and stabilizes D2 and D3 dopamine receptors at the neuronal plasma membrane. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

EPB41L3 Gene

erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3

EPB41L2 Gene

erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 2

EPB41L5 Gene

erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 like 5

ZNF848P Gene

zinc finger protein 848, pseudogene

RBMY2JP Gene

RNA binding motif protein, Y-linked, family 2, member J pseudogene

RNF175 Gene

ring finger protein 175

RNF170 Gene

ring finger protein 170

This gene encodes a RING domain-containing protein that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. This protein functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase and mediates ubiquitination and processing of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors via the ER-associated protein degradation pathway. It is recruited to the activated IP3 receptors by the ERLIN1/ERLIN2 complex to which it is constitutively bound. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant sensory ataxia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

GAFA2 Gene

FGF-2 activity-associated protein 2

GAFA3 Gene

FGF-2 activity-associated protein 3

PCNP Gene

PEST proteolytic signal containing nuclear protein

PCAT1 Gene

prostate cancer associated transcript 1 (non-protein coding)

PCAT2 Gene

prostate cancer associated transcript 2 (non-protein coding)

PCAT4 Gene

prostate cancer associated transcript 4 (non-protein coding)

PCAT7 Gene

prostate cancer associated transcript 7 (non-protein coding)

LOC101059914 Gene

protein FAM218A-like

LOC101059915 Gene

uncharacterized protein CXorf49-like

PPT1 Gene

palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a small glycoprotein involved in the catabolism of lipid-modified proteins during lysosomal degradation. The encoded enzyme removes thioester-linked fatty acyl groups such as palmitate from cysteine residues. Defects in this gene are a cause of infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 1 (CLN1, or INCL) and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 4 (CLN4). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

FLJ44674 Gene

FLJ44674 protein

MRPL3P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L3 pseudogene 1

MGC40069 Gene

uncharacterized protein MGC40069

TRNP1 Gene

TMF1-regulated nuclear protein 1

YBX3P1 Gene

Y box binding protein 3 pseudogene 1

PPP1R26 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 26

PPP1R27 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 27

PPP1R21 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 21

ZNF605 Gene

zinc finger protein 605

KCP Gene

kielin/chordin-like protein

LOC606724 Gene

coronin, actin binding protein, 1A pseudogene

LINC01255 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1255

LOC148430 Gene

ribosomal protein S2 pseudogene

LOC729603 Gene

calcineurin-like EF-hand protein 1 pseudogene

This locus on chromosome 6q25.3 represents a single-exon transcribed pseudogene of the multi-exon calcium binding protein P22 gene which resides on chromosome 15q13.3. This pseudogene is situated within an intron region of the insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor gene (IGF2R). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

OPALIN Gene

oligodendrocytic myelin paranodal and inner loop protein

NDEL1 Gene

nudE neurodevelopment protein 1-like 1

This gene encodes a coiled-coil protein that plays a role in multiple processes including cytoskeletal organization, cell signaling and neuron migration, outgrowth and maintenance. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

LOC100130209 Gene

charged multivesicular body protein 4A pseudogene

SP140L Gene

SP140 nuclear body protein-like

PLTP Gene

phospholipid transfer protein

The protein encoded by this gene is one of at least two lipid transfer proteins found in human plasma. The encoded protein transfers phospholipids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to high density lipoprotein (HDL). In addition to regulating the size of HDL particles, this protein may be involved in cholesterol metabolism. At least two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FKBP9P1 Gene

FK506 binding protein 9 pseudogene 1

SETBP1 Gene

SET binding protein 1

This gene encodes a protein which contains a several motifs including a ski homology region and a SET-binding region in addition to three nuclear localization signals. The encoded protein has been shown to bind the SET nuclear oncogene which is involved in DNA replication. Mutations in this gene are associated with Schinzel-Giedion midface retraction syndrome. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC100421257 Gene

lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 pseudogene

RPL7P26 Gene

ribosomal protein L7 pseudogene 26

LOC105369260 Gene

double homeobox protein 4-like

ADGRA1-AS1 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor A1 antisense RNA 1

LOC100421250 Gene

epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 pseudogene

LOC105372260 Gene

protein capicua homolog

PAXIP1 Gene

PAX interacting (with transcription-activation domain) protein 1

This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) gene family and encodes a nuclear protein with six BRCT (breast cancer carboxy-terminal) domains. This protein plays a critical role in maintaining genome stability, condensation of chromatin and progression through mitosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105369264 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 20

VPRBP Gene

Vpr (HIV-1) binding protein

RPL13AP7 Gene

ribosomal protein L13a pseudogene 7

RPL13AP6 Gene

ribosomal protein L13a pseudogene 6

RPL13AP5 Gene

ribosomal protein L13a pseudogene 5

RPL13AP3 Gene

ribosomal protein L13a pseudogene 3

RPL13AP2 Gene

ribosomal protein L13a pseudogene 2

RPL13AP9 Gene

ribosomal protein L13a pseudogene 9

RPL13AP8 Gene

ribosomal protein L13a pseudogene 8

CNRIP1 Gene

cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the C-terminal tail of cannabinoid receptor 1. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

LINC01491 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1491

LINC01490 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1490

LINC01198 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1198

LINC01194 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1194

LINC01195 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1195

LINC01197 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1197

LINC01191 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1191

LINC01192 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1192

LINC01193 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1193

MRPL42P5 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L42 pseudogene 5

MRPL42P4 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L42 pseudogene 4

MRPL42P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L42 pseudogene 1

VPS28 Gene

vacuolar protein sorting 28 homolog (S. cerevisiae)

This gene encodes a protein subunit of the ESCRT-I complex (endosomal complexes required for transport), which functions in the transport and sorting of proteins into subcellular vesicles. This complex can also be hijacked to facilitate the budding of enveloped viruses from the cell membrane. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GRID2IP Gene

glutamate receptor, ionotropic, delta 2 (Grid2) interacting protein

Glutamate receptor delta-2 (GRID2; MIM 602368) is predominantly expressed at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell postsynapses and plays crucial roles in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. GRID2IP1 interacts with GRID2 and may control GRID2 signaling in Purkinje cells (Matsuda et al., 2006 [PubMed 16835239]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PPP1R13B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13B

This gene encodes a member of the ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) family of p53 interacting proteins. The protein contains four ankyrin repeats and an SH3 domain involved in protein-protein interactions. ASPP proteins are required for the induction of apoptosis by p53-family proteins. They promote DNA binding and transactivation of p53-family proteins on the promoters of proapoptotic genes. Expression of this gene is regulated by the E2F transcription factor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R13L Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13 like

IASPP is one of the most evolutionarily conserved inhibitors of p53 (TP53; MIM 191170), whereas ASPP1 (MIM 606455) and ASPP2 (MIM 602143) are activators of p53.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RPL15P22 Gene

ribosomal protein L15 pseudogene 22

RPL15P20 Gene

ribosomal protein L15 pseudogene 20

RPL15P21 Gene

ribosomal protein L15 pseudogene 21

HSP90B3P Gene

heat shock protein 90kDa beta (Grp94), member 3, pseudogene

LOC642490 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 pseudogene

RPL36AP35 Gene

ribosomal protein L36a pseudogene 35

RPL36AP32 Gene

ribosomal protein L36a pseudogene 32

RPL36AP33 Gene

ribosomal protein L36a pseudogene 33

RPL36AP31 Gene

ribosomal protein L36a pseudogene 31

RPL36AP38 Gene

ribosomal protein L36a pseudogene 38

RPL36AP39 Gene

ribosomal protein L36a pseudogene 39

LOC100190922 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 2 pseudogene

MRPS35P2 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S35 pseudogene 2

MRPS35P3 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S35 pseudogene 3

MRPS35P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein S35 pseudogene 1

MGA Gene

MGA, MAX dimerization protein

MGP Gene

matrix Gla protein

The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and likely acts as an inhibitor of bone formation. The encoded protein is found in the organic matrix of bone and cartilage. Defects in this gene are a cause of Keutel syndrome (KS). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

GJB6 Gene

gap junction protein, beta 6, 30kDa

Gap junctions allow the transport of ions and metabolites between the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. They are formed by two hemichannels, made up of six connexin proteins assembled in groups. Each connexin protein has four transmembrane segments, two extracellular loops, a cytoplasmic loop formed between the two inner transmembrane segments, and the N- and C-terminus both being in the cytoplasm. The specificity of the gap junction is determined by which connexin proteins comprise the hemichannel. In the past, connexin protein names were based on their molecular weight, however the new nomenclature uses sequential numbers based on which form (alpha or beta) of the gap junction is present. This gene encodes one of the connexin proteins. Mutations in this gene have been found in some forms of deafness and in some families with hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LINC01360 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1360

LOC100507022 Gene

FLJ00291 protein

KRTAP26-1 Gene

keratin associated protein 26-1

ZW10 Gene

zw10 kinetochore protein

This gene encodes a protein that is one of many involved in mechanisms to ensure proper chromosome segregation during cell division. This protein is an essential component of the mitotic checkpoint, which prevents cells from prematurely exiting mitosis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC105371478 Gene

breakpoint cluster region protein-like

RPS15AP8 Gene

ribosomal protein S15a pseudogene 8

RPS15AP9 Gene

ribosomal protein S15a pseudogene 9

ARHGAP44 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 44

ZNF733P Gene

zinc finger protein 733, pseudogene

ARHGAP40 Gene

Rho GTPase activating protein 40

LOC100420832 Gene

cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2 pseudogene

RPS21P7 Gene

ribosomal protein S21 pseudogene 7

CDC42EP3 Gene

CDC42 effector protein (Rho GTPase binding) 3

This gene encodes a member of a small family of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) metabolizing proteins that contain a CRIB (Cdc42, Rac interactive binding) domain. Members of this family of proteins act as effectors of CDC42 function. The encoded protein is involved in actin cytoskeleton re-organization during cell shape changes, including pseudopodia formation. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 19. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CDC42EP2 Gene

CDC42 effector protein (Rho GTPase binding) 2

CDC42, a small Rho GTPase, regulates the formation of F-actin-containing structures through its interaction with the downstream effector proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Borg family of CDC42 effector proteins. Borg family proteins contain a CRIB (Cdc42/Rac interactive-binding) domain. They bind to, and negatively regulate the function of CDC42. Coexpression of this protein with CDC42 suggested a role of this protein in actin filament assembly and cell shape control. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

CDC42EP1 Gene

CDC42 effector protein (Rho GTPase binding) 1

CDC42 is a member of the Rho GTPase family that regulates multiple cellular activities, including actin polymerization. The protein encoded by this gene is a CDC42 binding protein that mediates actin cytoskeleton reorganization at the plasma membrane. This protein is secreted and is primarily found in bone marrow. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDC42EP5 Gene

CDC42 effector protein (Rho GTPase binding) 5

Cell division control protein 42 (CDC42), a small Rho GTPase, regulates the formation of F-actin-containing structures through its interaction with the downstream effector proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Borg (binder of Rho GTPases) family of CDC42 effector proteins. Borg family proteins contain a CRIB (Cdc42/Rac interactive-binding) domain. They bind to CDC42 and regulate its function negatively. The encoded protein may inhibit c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) independently of CDC42 binding. The protein may also play a role in septin organization and inducing pseudopodia formation in fibroblasts [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

CDC42EP4 Gene

CDC42 effector protein (Rho GTPase binding) 4

The product of this gene is a member of the CDC42-binding protein family. Members of this family interact with Rho family GTPases and regulate the organization of the actin cytoskeleton. This protein has been shown to bind both CDC42 and TC10 GTPases in a GTP-dependent manner. When overexpressed in fibroblasts, this protein was able to induce pseudopodia formation, which suggested a role in inducing actin filament assembly and cell shape control. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPRC6A Gene

G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 6, member A

Members of family C of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, such as GPRC6A, are characterized by an evolutionarily conserved amino acid-sensing motif linked to an intramembranous 7-transmembrane loop region. Several members of GPCR family C, including GPRC6A, also have a long N-terminal domain (summary by Pi et al., 2005 [PubMed 16199532]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

TBKBP1 Gene

TBK1 binding protein 1

TBKBP1 is an adaptor protein that binds to TBK1 (MIM 604834) and is part of the interaction network in the TNF (MIM 191160)/NFKB (see MIM 164011) pathway (Bouwmeester et al., 2004 [PubMed 14743216]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PITPNC1 Gene

phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, cytoplasmic 1

This gene encodes a member of the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein family. The encoded cytoplasmic protein plays a role in multiple processes including cell signaling and lipid metabolism by facilitating the transfer of phosphatidylinositol between membrane compartments. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

LOC105374156 Gene

protein FAM188B2-like

LOC100631380 Gene

protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 2 pseudogene 1

LINC01365 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1365

CYFIP1 Gene

cytoplasmic FMR1 interacting protein 1

CYFIP2 Gene

cytoplasmic FMR1 interacting protein 2

KRTAP29-1 Gene

keratin associated protein 29-1

RPS4XP18 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 18

LOC391020 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 pseudogene

LOC101929349 Gene

activator of 90 kDa heat shock protein ATPase homolog 2-like

CLMP Gene

CXADR-like membrane protein

The CTX (see VSIG2, MIM 606011) family of proteins, including ASAM, are type I transmembrane proteins within the Ig superfamily that localize to junctional complexes between endothelial and epithelial cells and may play a role in cell-cell adhesion (Raschperger et al., 2004 [PubMed 14573622]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RPS28P5 Gene

ribosomal protein S28 pseudogene 5

LOC100419882 Gene

transmembrane protein 98 pseudogene

LOC100419888 Gene

zinc finger protein 331 pseudogene

RPS28P1 Gene

ribosomal protein S28 pseudogene 1

CEP170P1 Gene

centrosomal protein 170kDa pseudogene 1

This locus appears to be a transcribed pseudogene similar to centrosomal protein 170kDa (CEP170). An approximately 50 kb region upstream of this locus also is homologous to CEP170, but is not transcribed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RPS28P8 Gene

ribosomal protein S28 pseudogene 8

RPS28P9 Gene

ribosomal protein S28 pseudogene 9

FAM205CP Gene

transmembrane protein C9orf144B pseudogene

GPR146 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 146

ZNF213 Gene

zinc finger protein 213

C2H2 zinc finger proteins, such as ZNF213, have bipartite structures in which one domain binds DNA or RNA and the other modulates target gene expression.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

GPR142 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 142

GPR142 is a member of the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) (Fredriksson et al., 2003 [PubMed 14623098]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GPR143 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 143

This gene encodes a protein that binds to heterotrimeric G proteins and is targeted to melanosomes in pigment cells. This protein is thought to be involved in intracellular signal transduction mechanisms. Mutations in this gene cause ocular albinism type 1, also referred to as Nettleship-Falls type ocular albinism, a severe visual disorder. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome Y. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

GPR148 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 148

GPR149 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 149

CRABP1 Gene

cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1

This gene encodes a specific binding protein for a vitamin A family member and is thought to play an important role in retinoic acid-mediated differentiation and proliferation processes. It is structurally similar to the cellular retinol-binding proteins, but binds only retinoic acid at specific sites within the nucleus, which may contribute to vitamin A-directed differentiation in epithelial tissue. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZNF419 Gene

zinc finger protein 419

ZNF418 Gene

zinc finger protein 418

ZNF417 Gene

zinc finger protein 417

ZNF416 Gene

zinc finger protein 416

ZNF415 Gene

zinc finger protein 415

ZNF414 Gene

zinc finger protein 414

ZNF410 Gene

zinc finger protein 410

LINC01547 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1547

LINC01546 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1546

LINC01545 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1545

RASA4 Gene

RAS p21 protein activator 4

This gene encodes a member of the GAP1 family of GTPase-activating proteins that suppresses the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in response to Ca(2+). Stimuli that increase intracellular Ca(2+) levels result in the translocation of this protein to the plasma membrane, where it activates Ras GTPase activity. Consequently, Ras is converted from the active GTP-bound state to the inactive GDP-bound state and no longer activates downstream pathways that regulate gene expression, cell growth, and differentiation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LINC01549 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1549

LINC01548 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1548

RASA2 Gene

RAS p21 protein activator 2

The protein encoded by this gene is member of the GAP1 family of GTPase-activating proteins. The gene product stimulates the GTPase activity of normal RAS p21 but not its oncogenic counterpart. Acting as a suppressor of RAS function, the protein enhances the weak intrinsic GTPase activity of RAS proteins resulting in the inactive GDP-bound form of RAS, thereby allowing control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

RASA3 Gene

RAS p21 protein activator 3

The protein encoded by this gene is member of the GAP1 family of GTPase-activating proteins. The gene product stimulates the GTPase activity of normal RAS p21 but not its oncogenic counterpart. Acting as a suppressor of RAS function, the protein enhances the weak intrinsic GTPase activity of RAS proteins resulting in the inactive GDP-bound form of RAS, thereby allowing control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. This family member is an inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate-binding protein, like the closely related RAS p21 protein activator 2. The two family members have distinct pleckstrin-homology domains, with this particular member having a domain consistent with its localization to the plasma membrane. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NGFRAP1 Gene

nerve growth factor receptor (TNFRSF16) associated protein 1

AMER1 Gene

APC membrane recruitment protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene upregulates trancriptional activation by the Wilms tumor protein and interacts with many other proteins, including CTNNB1, APC, AXIN1, and AXIN2. Defects in this gene are a cause of osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS). [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LOC646012 Gene

aurora kinase A interacting protein 1 pseudogene

GPR165P Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 165 pseudogene

GPR152 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 152

RPS10P26 Gene

ribosomal protein S10 pseudogene 26

LOC105371063 Gene

putative uncharacterized protein encoded by LINC00596

GPR150 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 150

ABLIM1 Gene

actin binding LIM protein 1

This gene encodes a cytoskeletal LIM protein that binds to actin filaments via a domain that is homologous to erythrocyte dematin. LIM domains, found in over 60 proteins, play key roles in the regulation of developmental pathways. LIM domains also function as protein-binding interfaces, mediating specific protein-protein interactions. The protein encoded by this gene could mediate such interactions between actin filaments and cytoplasmic targets. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ABLIM3 Gene

actin binding LIM protein family, member 3

The LIM domain is a double zinc finger structure that promotes protein-protein interactions. LIM domain proteins, such as ABLIM3, play roles in embryonic development, cell lineage determination, and cancer (Krupp et al., 2006 [PubMed 16328021]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ABLIM2 Gene

actin binding LIM protein family, member 2

GPR157 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 157

LINC00633 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 633

LINC00630 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 630

LINC00636 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 636

LINC00637 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 637

LINC00635 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 635

LINC00638 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 638

LINC00639 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 639

LOC729080 Gene

glycine cleavage system protein H (aminomethyl carrier) pseudogene

RPL34P24 Gene

ribosomal protein L34 pseudogene 24

LOC102724187 Gene

uroplakin-3b-like protein-like

TFAP4 Gene

transcription factor AP-4 (activating enhancer binding protein 4)

Transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix-zipper (bHLH-ZIP) family contain a basic domain, which is used for DNA binding, and HLH and ZIP domains, which are used for oligomerization. Transcription factor AP4 activates both viral and cellular genes by binding to the symmetrical DNA sequence CAGCTG (Mermod et al., 1988 [PubMed 2833704]; Hu et al., 1990 [PubMed 2123466]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2009]

SPDL1 Gene

spindle apparatus coiled-coil protein 1

ST13P19 Gene

suppression of tumorigenicity 13 (colon carcinoma) (Hsp70 interacting protein) pseudogene 19

ST13P18 Gene

suppression of tumorigenicity 13 (colon carcinoma) (Hsp70 interacting protein) pseudogene 18

ST13P17 Gene

suppression of tumorigenicity 13 (colon carcinoma) (Hsp70 interacting protein) pseudogene 17

ST13P16 Gene

suppression of tumorigenicity 13 (colon carcinoma) (Hsp70 interacting protein) pseudogene 16

ST13P15 Gene

suppression of tumorigenicity 13 (colon carcinoma) (Hsp70 interacting protein) pseudogene 15

ST13P14 Gene

suppression of tumorigenicity 13 (colon carcinoma) (Hsp70 interacting protein) pseudogene 14

ST13P13 Gene

suppression of tumorigenicity 13 (colon carcinoma) (Hsp70 interacting protein) pseudogene 13

ST13P12 Gene

suppression of tumorigenicity 13 (colon carcinoma) (Hsp70 interacting protein) pseudogene 12

ST13P11 Gene

suppression of tumorigenicity 13 (colon carcinoma) (Hsp70 interacting protein) pseudogene 11

ST13P10 Gene

suppression of tumorigenicity 13 (colon carcinoma) (Hsp70 interacting protein) pseudogene 10

LOC102724728 Gene

putative POM121-like protein 1

LOC102724727 Gene

protein FRG1B-like

LOC100128373 Gene

AKT interacting protein pseudogene

MRPL22P1 Gene

mitochondrial ribosomal protein L22 pseudogene 1

LOC100996316 Gene

ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 20A2-like

ADGRL4 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L4

ADGRL2 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L2

This gene encodes a member of the latrophilin subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein participates in the regulation of exocytosis. The proprotein is thought to be further cleaved within a cysteine-rich G-protein-coupled receptor proteolysis site into two chains that are non-covalently bound at the cell membrane. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

ADGRL3 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L3

This gene encodes a member of the latrophilin subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Latrophilins may function in both cell adhesion and signal transduction. In experiments with non-human species, endogenous proteolytic cleavage within a cysteine-rich GPS (G-protein-coupled-receptor proteolysis site) domain resulted in two subunits (a large extracellular N-terminal cell adhesion subunit and a subunit with substantial similarity to the secretin/calcitonin family of GPCRs) being non-covalently bound at the cell membrane. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADGRL1 Gene

adhesion G protein-coupled receptor L1

This gene encodes a member of the latrophilin subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Latrophilins may function in both cell adhesion and signal transduction. In experiments with non-human species, endogenous proteolytic cleavage within a cysteine-rich GPS (G-protein-coupled-receptor proteolysis site) domain resulted in two subunits (a large extracellular N-terminal cell adhesion subunit and a subunit with substantial similarity to the secretin/calcitonin family of GPCRs) being non-covalently bound at the cell membrane. Latrophilin-1 has been shown to recruit the neurotoxin from black widow spider venom, alpha-latrotoxin, to the synapse plasma membrane. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

LOC401679 Gene

filamin binding LIM protein 1 pseudogene

LOC105379731 Gene

putative uncharacterized protein FLJ44672

TMEM258 Gene

transmembrane protein 258

TMEM257 Gene

transmembrane protein 257

This intronless gene is expressed in the hippocampus and maps close to a candidate region for several X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) syndromes. It is conserved in primates, cow, and horse, but not found in mouse and rat. The exact function of this gene is not known, but on the basis of its physical location and expression pattern, it is proposed to have an important function in the brain. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

TMEM256 Gene

transmembrane protein 256

TMEM254 Gene

transmembrane protein 254

TMEM253 Gene

transmembrane protein 253

TMEM252 Gene

transmembrane protein 252

TMEM251 Gene

transmembrane protein 251

LOC646044 Gene

single stranded DNA binding protein 4 pseudogene

CP20 Gene

Lymphocyte cytosolic protein, molecular weight 20kD

LOC729557 Gene

density-regulated protein pseudogene

RBPJL Gene

recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region-like

This gene encodes a member of the suppressor of hairless protein family. A similar protein in mouse is a transcription factor that binds to DNA sequences almost identical to that bound by the Notch receptor signaling pathway transcription factor recombining binding protein J. The mouse protein has been shown to activate transcription in concert with Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-2. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

SYNCRIP Gene

synaptotagmin binding, cytoplasmic RNA interacting protein

This gene encodes a member of the cellular heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) family. hnRNPs are RNA binding proteins that complex with heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) and regulate alternative splicing, polyadenylation, and other aspects of mRNA metabolism and transport. The encoded protein plays a role in multiple aspects of mRNA maturation and is associated with several multiprotein complexes including the apoB RNA editing-complex and survival of motor neurons (SMN) complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 20. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

RPL32P36 Gene

ribosomal protein L32 pseudogene 36

RPL32P34 Gene

ribosomal protein L32 pseudogene 34

RPL32P31 Gene

ribosomal protein L32 pseudogene 31

HAR1A Gene

highly accelerated region 1A (non-protein coding)

RPS15AP38 Gene

ribosomal protein S15a pseudogene 38

RPS15AP39 Gene

ribosomal protein S15a pseudogene 39

RPS15AP30 Gene

ribosomal protein S15a pseudogene 30

RPS15AP31 Gene

ribosomal protein S15a pseudogene 31

RPS15AP32 Gene

ribosomal protein S15a pseudogene 32

RPS15AP33 Gene

ribosomal protein S15a pseudogene 33

RPS15AP34