Name

TAM Gene

Myeloproliferative syndrome, transient (transient abnormal

ASPM Gene

asp (abnormal spindle) homolog, microcephaly associated (Drosophila)

This gene is the human ortholog of the Drosophila melanogaster 'abnormal spindle' gene (asp), which is essential for normal mitotic spindle function in embryonic neuroblasts. Studies in mouse also suggest a role of this gene in mitotic spindle regulation, with a preferential role in regulating neurogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with microcephaly primary type 5. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

LVCAT8 Gene

liver cancer-associated transcript 8

LVCAT1 Gene

liver cancer-associated transcript 1

ALPL Gene

alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney

There are at least four distinct but related alkaline phosphatases: intestinal, placental, placental-like, and liver/bone/kidney (tissue non-specific). The first three are located together on chromosome 2, while the tissue non-specific form is located on chromosome 1. The product of this gene is a membrane bound glycosylated enzyme that is not expressed in any particular tissue and is, therefore, referred to as the tissue-nonspecific form of the enzyme. The exact physiological function of the alkaline phosphatases is not known. A proposed function of this form of the enzyme is matrix mineralization; however, mice that lack a functional form of this enzyme show normal skeletal development. This enzyme has been linked directly to hypophosphatasia, a disorder that is characterized by hypercalcemia and includes skeletal defects. The character of this disorder can vary, however, depending on the specific mutation since this determines age of onset and severity of symptoms. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

LVCAT5 Gene

liver cancer-associated transcript 5

CDH17 Gene

cadherin 17, LI cadherin (liver-intestine)

This gene is a member of the cadherin superfamily, genes encoding calcium-dependent, membrane-associated glycoproteins. The encoded protein is cadherin-like, consisting of an extracellular region, containing 7 cadherin domains, and a transmembrane region but lacking the conserved cytoplasmic domain. The protein is a component of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreatic ducts, acting as an intestinal proton-dependent peptide transporter in the first step in oral absorption of many medically important peptide-based drugs. The protein may also play a role in the morphological organization of liver and intestine. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

GFER Gene

growth factor, augmenter of liver regeneration

The hepatotrophic factor designated augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is thought to be one of the factors responsible for the extraordinary regenerative capacity of mammalian liver. It has also been called hepatic regenerative stimulation substance (HSS). The gene resides on chromosome 16 in the interval containing the locus for polycystic kidney disease (PKD1). The putative gene product is 42% similar to the scERV1 protein of yeast. The yeast scERV1 gene had been found to be essential for oxidative phosphorylation, the maintenance of mitochondrial genomes, and the cell division cycle. The human gene is both the structural and functional homolog of the yeast scERV1 gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PFKL Gene

phosphofructokinase, liver

This gene encodes the liver (L) subunit of an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 6-phosphate to D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, which is a key step in glucose metabolism (glycolysis). This enzyme is a tetramer that may be composed of different subunits encoded by distinct genes in different tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

PKLR Gene

pyruvate kinase, liver and RBC

The protein encoded by this gene is a pyruvate kinase that catalyzes the transphosphorylation of phohsphoenolpyruvate into pyruvate and ATP, which is the rate-limiting step of glycolysis. Defects in this enzyme, due to gene mutations or genetic variations, are the common cause of chronic hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA or HNSHA). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PYGL Gene

phosphorylase, glycogen, liver

This gene encodes a homodimeric protein that catalyses the cleavage of alpha-1,4-glucosidic bonds to release glucose-1-phosphate from liver glycogen stores. This protein switches from inactive phosphorylase B to active phosphorylase A by phosphorylation of serine residue 15. Activity of this enzyme is further regulated by multiple allosteric effectors and hormonal controls. Humans have three glycogen phosphorylase genes that encode distinct isozymes that are primarily expressed in liver, brain and muscle, respectively. The liver isozyme serves the glycemic demands of the body in general while the brain and muscle isozymes supply just those tissues. In glycogen storage disease type VI, also known as Hers disease, mutations in liver glycogen phosphorylase inhibit the conversion of glycogen to glucose and results in moderate hypoglycemia, mild ketosis, growth retardation and hepatomegaly. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

RNASE2 Gene

ribonuclease, RNase A family, 2 (liver, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin)

The protein encoded by this gene is a non-secretory ribonuclease that belongs to the pancreatic ribonuclease family, a subset of the ribonuclease A superfamily. The protein antimicrobial activity against viruses. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

COX7A2P2 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa polypeptide 2 (liver) pseudogene 2

GYS2 Gene

glycogen synthase 2 (liver)

The protein encoded by this gene, liver glycogen synthase, catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of glycogen - the transfer of a glucose molecule from UDP-glucose to a terminal branch of the glycogen molecule. Mutations in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type 0 (GSD-0) - a rare type of early childhood fasting hypoglycemia with decreased liver glycogen content. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

ECRP Gene

ribonuclease, RNase A family, 2 (liver, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin) pseudogene

NAFLD2 Gene

Fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic, susceptibility to, 2

NAFLD1 Gene

Fatty liver disease 1, susceptiblity to

CPT1A Gene

carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (liver)

The mitochondrial oxidation of long-chain fatty acids is initiated by the sequential action of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (which is located in the outer membrane and is detergent-labile) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (which is located in the inner membrane and is detergent-stable), together with a carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase. CPT I is the key enzyme in the carnitine-dependent transport across the mitochondrial inner membrane and its deficiency results in a decreased rate of fatty acid beta-oxidation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP1 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 1, liver

This gene encodes the fatty acid binding protein found in liver. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. This protein and FABP6 (the ileal fatty acid binding protein) are also able to bind bile acids. It is thought that FABPs roles include fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

GLS2 Gene

glutaminase 2 (liver, mitochondrial)

The protein encoded by this gene is a mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to stoichiometric amounts of glutamate and ammonia. Originally thought to be liver-specific, this protein has been found in other tissues as well. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

LRLE1 Gene

liver-related low express protein 1

COX7A2 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa polypeptide 2 (liver)

Cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the electron transfer from reduced cytochrome c to oxygen. This component is a heteromeric complex consisting of three catalytic subunits encoded by mitochondrial genes, and multiple structural subunits encoded by nuclear genes. The mitochondrially-encoded subunits function in electron transfer, while the nuclear-encoded subunits may function in the regulation and assembly of the complex. This nuclear gene encodes polypeptide 2 (liver isoform) of subunit VIIa, with this polypeptide being present in both muscle and non-muscle tissues. In addition to polypeptide 2, subunit VIIa includes polypeptide 1 (muscle isoform), which is present only in muscle tissues, and a related protein, which is present in all tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 4 and 14. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

COX7A2P1 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa polypeptide 2 (liver) pseudogene 1

PHKA2 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, alpha 2 (liver)

Phosphorylase kinase is a polymer of 16 subunits, four each of alpha, beta, gamma and delta. The alpha subunit includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, and the hepatic isoform is encoded by this gene. The beta subunit is the same in both the muscle and hepatic isoforms, and encoded by one gene. The gamma subunit also includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, which are encoded by two different genes. The delta subunit is a calmodulin and can be encoded by three different genes. The gamma subunits contain the active site of the enzyme, whereas the alpha and beta subunits have regulatory functions controlled by phosphorylation. The delta subunit mediates the dependence of the enzyme on calcium concentration. Mutations in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type 9A, also known as X-linked liver glycogenosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported, but the full-length nature of these variants has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

LEAP2 Gene

liver expressed antimicrobial peptide 2

This gene encodes a cysteine-rich cationic antimicrobial peptide that is expressed predominantly in the liver. The mature peptide has activity against gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]