Name

GO Cellular Component Annotations Dataset

From Gene Ontology

curated annotations of genes with cellular components

GEO Signatures of Differentially Expressed Genes for Kinase Perturbations Dataset

From Gene Expression Omnibus

mRNA expression profiles for cell lines or tissues following kinase perturbation (inhibition, activation, knockdown, knockout, over-expression, mutation)

LINCS Kinativ Kinase Inhibitor Bioactivity Profiles Dataset

From LINCS Kinativ

percent inhibition of kinases by small molecules measured in cell lysates

LINCS KinomeScan Kinase Inhibitor Targets Dataset

From LINCS KinomeScan

kinase inhibitor targets from percent inhibition of kinases by small molecules measured using purified kinases

Hub Proteins Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Hub Proteins

sets of proteins interacting with hub proteins

NURSA Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

protein-protein interactions inferred from membership in complexes

Pathway Commons Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Pathway Commons

protein-protein interactions from low-throughput or high-throughput studies aggregated by Pathway Commons from the following databases: Reactome, NCI Pathways, PhosphoSite, HumanCyc, HPRD, PANTHER, DIP, BioGRID, IntAct, BIND, Transfac, MiRTarBase, Drugbank, Recon X, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, and KEGG

Virus MINT Protein-Viral Protein Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viral and human proteins manually curated from literature

COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by manual literature curation

COMPARTMENTS Experimental Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by integrating experimental data

COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

gene-cellular compartment co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

CORUM Protein Complexes Dataset

From CORUM

proteins participating in complexes by manual literature curation

Guide to Pharmacology Protein Ligands of Receptors Dataset

From Guide to Pharmacology

ligand-receptor interactions curated by experts

HPA Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

semiquantitative protein expression profiles for tissues

HPM Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Proteome Map

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types

InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations Dataset

From InterPro

protein domains predicted for gene products based on sequence similarity to known domain signatures

LOCATE Curated Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins from low-throughput or high-throughput protein localization assays

NURSA Protein Complexes Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

proteins identified in complexes isolated from cultured cells

ProteomicsDB Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Proteomics Database

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types reprocessed from many proteomics datasets

SILAC Phosphoproteomics Signatures of Differentially Phosphorylated Proteins for Protein Ligands Dataset

From SILAC Phosphoproteomics

phosphorylation levels of proteins in cell lines following ligand treatment

TISSUES Curated Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by manual literature curation

TISSUES Experimental Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by integrating experimental data

TISSUES Text-mining Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

gene-tissue co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

Virus MINT Protein-Virus Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viruses and human proteins manually curated from literature

LOCATE Predicted Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins by sequence similarity to localization sequences

HPA Cell Line Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for cell lines

HPA Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissues

HPA Tissue Sample Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissue samples

KEA Substrates of Kinases Dataset

From Kinase Enrichment Analysis

protein substrates of kinases from published low-throughput and high-throughput phosphoproteomics studies

BUB1 Gene

BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase

This gene encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase that play a central role in mitosis. The encoded protein functions in part by phosphorylating members of the mitotic checkpoint complex and activating the spindle checkpoint. This protein also plays a role in inhibiting the activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome. This protein may also function in the DNA damage response. Mutations in this gene have been associated with aneuploidy and several forms of cancer. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

BUB1B Gene

BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B

This gene encodes a kinase involved in spindle checkpoint function. The protein has been localized to the kinetochore and plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), delaying the onset of anaphase and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Impaired spindle checkpoint function has been found in many forms of cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BUB1P1 Gene

BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase pseudogene 1

LOC100128497 Gene

mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2A-like

MZT2A Gene

mitotic spindle organizing protein 2A

MZT2B Gene

mitotic spindle organizing protein 2B

MZT1P2 Gene

mitotic spindle organizing protein 1 pseudogene 2

MZT1 Gene

mitotic spindle organizing protein 1

MISP Gene

mitotic spindle positioning

BUB3 Gene

BUB3 mitotic checkpoint protein

This gene encodes a protein involved in spindle checkpoint function. The encoded protein contains four WD repeat domains and has sequence similarity with the yeast BUB3 protein. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BUB3P1 Gene

BUB3 mitotic checkpoint protein pseudogene 1

MKNK2 Gene

MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMK) Ser/Thr protein kinase family, which belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. This protein contains conserved DLG (asp-leu-gly) and ENIL (glu-asn-ile-leu) motifs, and an N-terminal polybasic region which binds importin A and the translation factor scaffold protein eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G). This protein is one of the downstream kinases activated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. It phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), thus playing important roles in the initiation of mRNA translation, oncogenic transformation and malignant cell proliferation. In addition to eIF4E, this protein also interacts with von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL), ring-box 1 (Rbx1) and Cullin2 (Cul2), which are all components of the CBC(VHL) ubiquitin ligase E3 complex. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but the full-length nature and biological activity of only two variants are determined. These two variants encode distinct isoforms which differ in activity and regulation, and in subcellular localization. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

MKNK1 Gene

MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 1

This gene encodes a Ser/Thr protein kinase that interacts with, and is activated by ERK1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, and thus may play a role in the response to environmental stress and cytokines. This kinase may also regulate transcription by phosphorylating eIF4E via interaction with the C-terminal region of eIF4G. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

MKNK2P1 Gene

MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 pseudogene 1

STRAP Gene

serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein

NIM1K Gene

NIM1 serine/threonine protein kinase

STK11IP Gene

serine/threonine kinase 11 interacting protein

LOC102724428 Gene

serine/threonine-protein kinase SIK1

LOC105371128 Gene

serine/threonine-protein kinase SMG1-like

LOC392226 Gene

serine/threonine-protein kinase PLK1-like

SGK494 Gene

uncharacterized serine/threonine-protein kinase SgK494

DSTYK Gene

dual serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase

This gene encodes a dual serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase which is expressed in multiple tissues. It is thought to function as a regulator of cell death. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

LOC102723432 Gene

serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 2 pseudogene

STK26 Gene

serine/threonine protein kinase 26

The product of this gene is a member of the GCK group III family of kinases, which are a subset of the Ste20-like kinases. The encoded protein contains an amino-terminal kinase domain, and a carboxy-terminal regulatory domain that mediates homodimerization. The protein kinase localizes to the Golgi apparatus and is specifically activated by binding to the Golgi matrix protein GM130. It is also cleaved by caspase-3 in vitro, and may function in the apoptotic pathway. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105375252 Gene

serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein pseudogene

LOC344382 Gene

serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein pseudogene

BMPR2 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase)

This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. The ligands of this receptor are BMPs, which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. BMPs are involved in endochondral bone formation and embryogenesis. These proteins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes of two different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in the absence of type I receptors, but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II receptors for ligand binding. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary pulmonary hypertension, both familial and fenfluramine-associated, and with pulmonary venoocclusive disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RIPK1 Gene

receptor (TNFRSF)-interacting serine-threonine kinase 1

RIPK3 Gene

receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 3

The product of this gene is a member of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and contains a C-terminal domain unique from other RIP family members. The encoded protein is predominantly localized to the cytoplasm, and can undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling dependent on novel nuclear localization and export signals. It is a component of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-I signaling complex, and can induce apoptosis and weakly activate the NF-kappaB transcription factor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RIPK2 Gene

receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein contains a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD), and is a component of signaling complexes in both the innate and adaptive immune pathways. It is a potent activator of NF-kappaB and inducer of apoptosis in response to various stimuli. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FASTK Gene

Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase was shown to be activated rapidly during Fas-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat cells. In response to Fas receptor ligation, it phosphorylates TIA1, an apoptosis-promoting nuclear RNA-binding protein. The encoded protein is a strong inducer of lymphocyte apoptosis. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Other variants exist, but their full-length natures have not yet been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK38L Gene

serine/threonine kinase 38 like

STK19 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 19

This gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase which localizes predominantly to the nucleus. Its specific function is unknown; it is possible that phosphorylation of this protein is involved in transcriptional regulation. This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6 and expresses two transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK10 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 10

This gene encodes a member of the Ste20 family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and is similar to several known polo-like kinase kinases. The protein can associate with and phosphorylate polo-like kinase 1, and overexpression of a kinase-dead version of the protein interferes with normal cell cycle progression. The kinase can also negatively regulate interleukin 2 expression in T-cells via the mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 1 pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK11 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 11

This gene, which encodes a member of the serine/threonine kinase family, regulates cell polarity and functions as a tumor suppressor. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the growth of polyps in the gastrointestinal tract, pigmented macules on the skin and mouth, and other neoplasms. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK16 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 16

MTOR Gene

mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of phosphatidylinositol kinase-related kinases. These kinases mediate cellular responses to stresses such as DNA damage and nutrient deprivation. This protein acts as the target for the cell-cycle arrest and immunosuppressive effects of the FKBP12-rapamycin complex. The ANGPTL7 gene is located in an intron of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

STK25P1 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 25 pseudogene 1

BRAF Gene

B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the raf/mil family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This protein plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway, which affects cell division, differentiation, and secretion. Mutations in this gene are associated with cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, a disease characterized by heart defects, mental retardation and a distinctive facial appearance. Mutations in this gene have also been associated with various cancers, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma, colorectal cancer, malignant melanoma, thyroid carcinoma, non-small cell lung carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of lung. A pseudogene, which is located on chromosome X, has been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PXK Gene

PX domain containing serine/threonine kinase

This gene encodes a phox (PX) domain-containing protein which may be involved in synaptic transmission and the ligand-induced internalization and degradation of epidermal growth factors. Variations in this gene may be associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

STK32C Gene

serine/threonine kinase 32C

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The specific function of this kinase is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK32B Gene

serine/threonine kinase 32B

STK32A Gene

serine/threonine kinase 32A

MASTL Gene

microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase-like

This gene encodes a microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase. Mutations at this locus have been associated with autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia, also known as thrombocytopenia-2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this locus. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

MAST1 Gene

microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase 1

MAST2 Gene

microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase 2

MAST3 Gene

microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase 3

MAST4 Gene

microtubule associated serine/threonine kinase family member 4

This gene encodes a member of the microtubule-associated serine/threonine protein kinases. The proteins in this family contain a domain that gives the kinase the ability to determine its own scaffold to control the effects of their kinase activities. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

STK19B Gene

serine/threonine kinase 19B, pseudogene

STK31 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 31

This gene is similar to a mouse gene that encodes a putative protein kinase with a tudor domain, and shows testis-specific expression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK33 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 33

STK35 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 35

The protein encoded by this gene is a kinase that is predominantly found in the nucleus. However, it can interact with PDLIM1/CLP-36 in the cytoplasm and localize to actin stress fibers. The encoded protein may be a regulator of actin stress fibers in nonmuscle cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK36 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 36

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine kinase family of enzymes. This family member is similar to a Drosophila protein that plays a key role in the Hedgehog signaling pathway. This human protein is a positive regulator of the GLI zinc-finger transcription factors. Knockout studies of the homologous mouse gene suggest that defects in this human gene may lead to congenital hydrocephalus, possibly due to a functional defect in motile cilia. Because Hedgehog signaling is frequently activated in certain kinds of gastrointestinal cancers, it has been suggested that this gene is a target for the treatment of these cancers. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

STK38 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 38

This gene encodes a member of the AGC serine/threonine kinase family of proteins. The kinase activity of this protein is regulated by autophosphorylation and phosphorylation by other upstream kinases. This protein has been shown to function in the cell cycle and apoptosis. This protein has also been found to regulate the protein stability and transcriptional activity of the MYC oncogene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

ILKAP Gene

integrin-linked kinase-associated serine/threonine phosphatase

The protein encoded by this gene is a protein serine/threonine phosphatase of the PP2C family. This protein can interact with integrin-linked kinase (ILK/ILK1), a regulator of integrin mediated signaling, and regulate the kinase activity of ILK. Through the interaction with ILK, this protein may selectively affect the signaling process of ILK-mediated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3beta), and thus participate in Wnt signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK16P1 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 16 pseudogene 1

CIT Gene

citron rho-interacting serine/threonine kinase

This gene encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase that functions in cell division. Together with the kinesin KIF14, this protein localizes to the central spindle and midbody, and functions to promote efficient cytokinesis. This protein is involved in central nervous system development. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with bipolar disorder and risk for schizophrenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

STK3 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 3

This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase activated by proapoptotic molecules indicating the encoded protein functions as a growth suppressor. Cleavage of the protein product by caspase removes the inhibitory C-terminal portion. The N-terminal portion is transported to the nucleus where it homodimerizes to form the active kinase which promotes the condensation of chromatin during apoptosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

STK4 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a cytoplasmic kinase that is structurally similar to the yeast Ste20p kinase, which acts upstream of the stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. The encoded protein can phosphorylate myelin basic protein and undergoes autophosphorylation. A caspase-cleaved fragment of the encoded protein has been shown to be capable of phosphorylating histone H2B. The particular phosphorylation catalyzed by this protein has been correlated with apoptosis, and it's possible that this protein induces the chromatin condensation observed in this process. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAF1 Gene

Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase

This gene is the cellular homolog of viral raf gene (v-raf). The encoded protein is a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), which functions downstream of the Ras family of membrane associated GTPases to which it binds directly. Once activated, the cellular RAF1 protein can phosphorylate to activate the dual specificity protein kinases MEK1 and MEK2, which in turn phosphorylate to activate the serine/threonine specific protein kinases, ERK1 and ERK2. Activated ERKs are pleiotropic effectors of cell physiology and play an important role in the control of gene expression involved in the cell division cycle, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are associated with Noonan syndrome 5 and LEOPARD syndrome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK24P1 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 24 pseudogene 1

PASK Gene

PAS domain containing serine/threonine kinase

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine kinase family that contains two PAS domains. Expression of this gene is regulated by glucose, and the encoded protein plays a role in the regulation of insulin gene expression. Downregulation of this gene may play a role in type 2 diabetes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

STK17B Gene

serine/threonine kinase 17b

STK17A Gene

serine/threonine kinase 17a

This gene is a member of the DAP kinase-related apoptosis-inducing protein kinase family and encodes an autophosphorylated nuclear protein with a protein kinase domain. The protein has apoptosis-inducing activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STKLD1 Gene

serine/threonine kinase-like domain containing 1

STK40 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 40

ATM Gene

ATM serine/threonine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. This protein is an important cell cycle checkpoint kinase that phosphorylates; thus, it functions as a regulator of a wide variety of downstream proteins, including tumor suppressor proteins p53 and BRCA1, checkpoint kinase CHK2, checkpoint proteins RAD17 and RAD9, and DNA repair protein NBS1. This protein and the closely related kinase ATR are thought to be master controllers of cell cycle checkpoint signaling pathways that are required for cell response to DNA damage and for genome stability. Mutations in this gene are associated with ataxia telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

ATR Gene

ATR serine/threonine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia. This protein and ATM share similarity with Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3, a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This kinase has been shown to phosphorylate checkpoint kinase CHK1, checkpoint proteins RAD17, and RAD9, as well as tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. Mutations of this gene are associated with Seckel syndrome. An alternatively spliced transcript variant of this gene has been reported, however, its full length nature is not known. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA sites exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STYK1 Gene

serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1

Receptor protein tyrosine kinases, like STYK1, play important roles in diverse cellular and developmental processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival (Liu et al., 2004 [PubMed 15150103]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

BRSK2 Gene

BR serine/threonine kinase 2

BRSK1 Gene

BR serine/threonine kinase 1

STK25 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 25

This gene encodes a member of the germinal centre kinase III (GCK III) subfamily of the sterile 20 superfamily of kinases. The encoded enzyme plays a role in serine-threonine liver kinase B1 (LKB1) signaling pathway to regulate neuronal polarization and morphology of the Golgi apparatus. The protein is translocated from the Golgi apparatus to the nucleus in response to chemical anoxia and plays a role in regulation of cell death. A pseudogene associated with this gene is located on chromosome 18. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

STK24 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 24

This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that functions upstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. The encoded protein is cleaved into two chains by caspases; the N-terminal fragment (MST3/N) translocates to the nucleus and promotes programmed cells death. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome X. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

PIM2 Gene

Pim-2 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase

This gene encodes a protooncogene that acts as a serine/threonine protein kinase. Studies determined the encoded protein functions to prevent apoptosis and to promote cell survival.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

STK33P1 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 33 pseudogene 1

ARAF Gene

A-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase

This proto-oncogene belongs to the RAF subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and maybe involved in cell growth and development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

STK39 Gene

serine threonine kinase 39

This gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase that is thought to function in the cellular stress response pathway. The kinase is activated in response to hypotonic stress, leading to phosphorylation of several cation-chloride-coupled cotransporters. The catalytically active kinase specifically activates the p38 MAP kinase pathway, and its interaction with p38 decreases upon cellular stress, suggesting that this kinase may serve as an intermediate in the response to cellular stress. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RIPK4 Gene

receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase that interacts with protein kinase C-delta. The encoded protein can also activate NFkappaB and is required for keratinocyte differentiation. This kinase undergoes autophosphorylation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIM3 Gene

Pim-3 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and PIM subfamily. This gene is overexpressed in hematological and epithelial tumors and is associated with MYC coexpression. It plays a role in the regulation of signal transduction cascades, contributing to both cell proliferation and survival, and provides a selective advantage in tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

PIM1 Gene

Pim-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and PIM subfamily. This gene is expressed primarily in B-lymphoid and myeloid cell lines, and is overexpressed in hematopoietic malignancies and in prostate cancer. It plays a role in signal transduction in blood cells, contributing to both cell proliferation and survival, and thus provides a selective advantage in tumorigenesis. Both the human and orthologous mouse genes have been reported to encode two isoforms (with preferential cellular localization) resulting from the use of alternative in-frame translation initiation codons, the upstream non-AUG (CUG) and downstream AUG codons (PMIDs:16186805, 1825810).[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC102725016 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B'' subunit beta

LOC100133326 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

LOC100132773 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

PSTPIP2 Gene

proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 2

PSTPIP1 Gene

proline-serine-threonine phosphatase interacting protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene binds to the cytoplasmic tail of CD2, an effector of T cell activation and adhesion, negatively affecting CD2-triggered T cell activation. The encoded protein appears to be a scaffold protein and a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. It has also been shown to bind ABL1, PTPN18, WAS, CD2AP, and PTPN12. Mutations in this gene are a cause of PAPA syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100131868 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

LOC100131360 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

LOC100288016 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

LOC102724991 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B'' subunit beta

STYX Gene

serine/threonine/tyrosine interacting protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a pseudophosphatase, able to bind potential substrates but lacking an active catalytic loop. The encoded protein may be involved in spermiogenesis. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for these genes. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

LOC101059962 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 10-like

MAP4K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 1

MAP4K3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase family. The encoded protein activates key effectors in cell signalling, among them c-Jun. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

MAP4K2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. Although this kinase is found in many tissues, its expression in lymphoid follicles is restricted to the cells of germinal centre, where it may participate in B-cell differentiation. This kinase can be activated by TNF-alpha, and has been shown to specifically activate MAP kinases. This kinase is also found to interact with TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), which is involved in the activation of MAP3K1/MEKK1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

MAP4K5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 5

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family, that is highly similar to yeast SPS1/STE20 kinase. Yeast SPS1/STE20 functions near the beginning of the MAP kinase signal cascades that is essential for yeast pheromone response. This kinase was shown to activate Jun kinase in mammalian cells, which suggested a role in stress response. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP4K4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase has been shown to specifically activate MAPK8/JNK. The activation of MAPK8 by this kinase is found to be inhibited by the dominant-negative mutants of MAP3K7/TAK1, MAP2K4/MKK4, and MAP2K7/MKK7, which suggests that this kinase may function through the MAP3K7-MAP2K4-MAP2K7 kinase cascade, and mediate the TNF-alpha signaling pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHEK2P2 Gene

checkpoint kinase 2 pseudogene 2

CHEK2P1 Gene

checkpoint kinase 2 pseudogene 1

WEE1 Gene

WEE1 G2 checkpoint kinase

This gene encodes a nuclear protein, which is a tyrosine kinase belonging to the Ser/Thr family of protein kinases. This protein catalyzes the inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of CDC2/cyclin B kinase, and appears to coordinate the transition between DNA replication and mitosis by protecting the nucleus from cytoplasmically activated CDC2 kinase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHEK2 Gene

checkpoint kinase 2

In response to DNA damage and replication blocks, cell cycle progression is halted through the control of critical cell cycle regulators. The protein encoded by this gene is a cell cycle checkpoint regulator and putative tumor suppressor. It contains a forkhead-associated protein interaction domain essential for activation in response to DNA damage and is rapidly phosphorylated in response to replication blocks and DNA damage. When activated, the encoded protein is known to inhibit CDC25C phosphatase, preventing entry into mitosis, and has been shown to stabilize the tumor suppressor protein p53, leading to cell cycle arrest in G1. In addition, this protein interacts with and phosphorylates BRCA1, allowing BRCA1 to restore survival after DNA damage. Mutations in this gene have been linked with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a highly penetrant familial cancer phenotype usually associated with inherited mutations in TP53. Also, mutations in this gene are thought to confer a predisposition to sarcomas, breast cancer, and brain tumors. This nuclear protein is a member of the CDS1 subfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

CHEK1 Gene

checkpoint kinase 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is required for checkpoint mediated cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage or the presence of unreplicated DNA. This protein acts to integrate signals from ATM and ATR, two cell cycle proteins involved in DNA damage responses, that also associate with chromatin in meiotic prophase I. Phosphorylation of CDC25A protein phosphatase by this protein is required for cells to delay cell cycle progression in response to double-strand DNA breaks. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CHEK2P3 Gene

checkpoint kinase 2 pseudogene 3

STYXL1 Gene

serine/threonine/tyrosine interacting-like 1

SPDL1 Gene

spindle apparatus coiled-coil protein 1

CCSAP Gene

centriole, cilia and spindle-associated protein

CSPP1 Gene

centrosome and spindle pole associated protein 1

This gene encodes a centrosome and spindle pole associated protein. The encoded protein plays a role in cell-cycle progression and spindle organization, regulates cytokinesis, interacts with Nephrocystin 8 and is required for cilia formation. Mutations in this gene result in primary cilia abnormalities and classical Joubert syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

SPICE1 Gene

spindle and centriole associated protein 1

NUSAP1 Gene

nucleolar and spindle associated protein 1

NUSAP1 is a nucleolar-spindle-associated protein that plays a role in spindle microtubule organization (Raemaekers et al., 2003 [PubMed 12963707]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

SKA1 Gene

spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 1

SKA3 Gene

spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 3

This gene encodes a component of the spindle and kinetochore-associated protein complex that regulates microtubule attachment to the kinetochores during mitosis. The encoded protein localizes to the outer kinetechore and may be required for normal chromosome segregation and cell division. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SKA2 Gene

spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 2

SKA2P1 Gene

spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 2 pseudogene 1

SFI1 Gene

Sfi1 homolog, spindle assembly associated (yeast)

SASS6 Gene

spindle assembly 6 homolog (C. elegans)

SAS6 is necessary for centrosome duplication and functions during procentriole formation; SAS6 functions to ensure that each centriole seeds the formation of a single procentriole per cell cycle Strnad et al., (2007) [PubMed 17681132].[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ASPM Gene

asp (abnormal spindle) homolog, microcephaly associated (Drosophila)

This gene is the human ortholog of the Drosophila melanogaster 'abnormal spindle' gene (asp), which is essential for normal mitotic spindle function in embryonic neuroblasts. Studies in mouse also suggest a role of this gene in mitotic spindle regulation, with a preferential role in regulating neurogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with microcephaly primary type 5. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

ESPL1 Gene

extra spindle pole bodies homolog 1 (S. cerevisiae)

Stable cohesion between sister chromatids before anaphase and their timely separation during anaphase are critical for chromosome inheritance. In vertebrates, sister chromatid cohesion is released in 2 steps via distinct mechanisms. The first step involves phosphorylation of STAG1 (MIM 604358) or STAG2 (MIM 300826) in the cohesin complex. The second step involves cleavage of the cohesin subunit SCC1 (RAD21; MIM 606462) by ESPL1, or separase, which initiates the final separation of sister chromatids (Sun et al., 2009 [PubMed 19345191]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

MASP1 Gene

mannan-binding lectin serine peptidase 1 (C4/C2 activating component of Ra-reactive factor)

This gene encodes a serine protease that functions as a component of the lectin pathway of complement activation. The complement pathway plays an essential role in the innate and adaptive immune response. The encoded protein is synthesized as a zymogen and is activated when it complexes with the pathogen recognition molecules of lectin pathway, the mannose-binding lectin and the ficolins. This protein is not directly involved in complement activation but may play a role as an amplifier of complement activation by cleaving complement C2 or by activating another complement serine protease, MASP-2. The encoded protein is also able to cleave fibrinogen and factor XIII and may may be involved in coagulation. A splice variant of this gene which lacks the serine protease domain functions as an inhibitor of the complement pathway. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PKMYT1 Gene

protein kinase, membrane associated tyrosine/threonine 1

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein is a membrane-associated kinase that negatively regulates the G2/M transition of the cell cycle by phosphorylating and inactivating cyclin-dependent kinase 1. The activity of the encoded protein is regulated by polo-like kinase 1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

NUMA1 Gene

nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1

This gene encodes a large protein that forms a structural component of the nuclear matrix. The encoded protein interacts with microtubules and plays a role in the formation and organization of the mitotic spindle during cell division. Chromosomal translocation of this gene with the RARA (retinoic acid receptor, alpha) gene on chromosome 17 have been detected in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

MAP3K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase and is part of some signal transduction cascades, including the ERK and JNK kinase pathways as well as the NF-kappa-B pathway. The encoded protein is activated by autophosphorylation and requires magnesium as a cofactor in phosphorylating other proteins. This protein has E3 ligase activity conferred by a plant homeodomain (PHD) in its N-terminus and phospho-kinase activity conferred by a kinase domain in its C-terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

CHFR Gene

checkpoint with forkhead and ring finger domains, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase required for the maintenance of the antephase checkpoint that regulates cell cycle entry into mitosis and, therefore, may play a key role in cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis. The encoded protein has an N-terminal forkhead-associated domain, a central RING-finger domain, and a cysteine-rich C-terminal region. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

MAD2L2 Gene

MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 2 (yeast)

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint that prevents the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. The encoded protein, which is similar to MAD2L1, is capable of interacting with ADAM9, ADAM15, REV1, and REV3 proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAD2L1 Gene

MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (yeast)

MAD2L1 is a component of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint that prevents the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. MAD2L1 is related to the MAD2L2 gene located on chromosome 1. A MAD2 pseudogene has been mapped to chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAD2L1P1 Gene

MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (yeast) pseudogene 1

MAD1L1 Gene

MAD1 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (yeast)

MAD1L1 is a component of the mitotic spindle-assembly checkpoint that prevents the onset of anaphase until all chromosome are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. MAD1L1 functions as a homodimer and interacts with MAD2L1. MAD1L1 may play a role in cell cycle control and tumor suppression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

AMN1 Gene

antagonist of mitotic exit network 1 homolog (S. cerevisiae)

LOC100421518 Gene

MAD2 mitotic arrest deficient-like 1 (yeast) pseudogene

MAP3K10 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 10

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase has been shown to activate MAPK8/JNK and MKK4/SEK1, and this kinase itself can be phoshorylated, and thus activated by JNK kinases. This kinase functions preferentially on the JNK signaling pathway, and is reported to be involved in nerve growth factor (NGF) induced neuronal apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K13 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 13

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase contains a dual leucine-zipper motif, and has been shown to form dimers/oligomers through its leucine-zipper motif. This kinase can phosphorylate and activate MAPK8/JNK, MAP2K7/MKK7, which suggests a role in the JNK signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K19 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 19

MAP3K11 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 11

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase contains a SH3 domain and a leucine zipper-basic motif. This kinase preferentially activates MAPK8/JNK kinase, and functions as a positive regulator of JNK signaling pathway. This kinase can directly phosphorylate, and activates IkappaB kinase alpha and beta, and is found to be involved in the transcription activity of NF-kappaB mediated by Rho family GTPases and CDC42. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K12 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 12

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase contains a leucine-zipper domain and is predominately expressed in neuronal cells. The phosphorylation state of this kinase in synaptic terminals was shown to be regulated by membrane depolarization via calcineurin. This kinase forms heterodimers with leucine zipper containing transcription factors, such as cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and MYC, and thus may play a regulatory role in PKA or retinoic acid induced neuronal differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different proteins have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

MAP3K15 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 15

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. These family members function in a protein kinase signal transduction cascade, where an activated MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) phosphorylates and activates a specific MAPK kinase (MAP2K), which then activates a specific MAPK. This MAP3K protein plays an essential role in apoptotic cell death triggered by cellular stresses. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

MAP3K8 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8

This gene is an oncogene that encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein localizes to the cytoplasm and can activate both the MAP kinase and JNK kinase pathways. This protein was shown to activate IkappaB kinases, and thus induce the nuclear production of NF-kappaB. This protein was also found to promote the production of TNF-alpha and IL-2 during T lymphocyte activation. This gene may also utilize a downstream in-frame translation start codon, and thus produce an isoform containing a shorter N-terminus. The shorter isoform has been shown to display weaker transforming activity. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

MAP3K9 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 9

MAP3K2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase preferentially activates other kinases involved in the MAP kinase signaling pathway. This kinase has been shown to directly phosphorylate and activate Ikappa B kinases, and thus plays a role in NF-kappa B signaling pathway. This kinase has also been found to bind and activate protein kinase C-related kinase 2, which suggests its involvement in a regulated signaling process. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3

This gene product is a 626-amino acid polypeptide that is 96.5% identical to mouse Mekk3. Its catalytic domain is closely related to those of several other kinases, including mouse Mekk2, tobacco NPK, and yeast Ste11. Northern blot analysis revealed a 4.6-kb transcript that appears to be ubiquitously expressed. This protein directly regulates the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathways by activating SEK and MEK1/2 respectively; it does not regulate the p38 pathway. In cotransfection assays, it enhanced transcription from a nuclear factor kappa-B (NFKB)-dependent reporter gene, consistent with a role in the SAPK pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K7 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase mediates the signaling transduction induced by TGF beta and morphogenetic protein (BMP), and controls a variety of cell functions including transcription regulation and apoptosis. In response to IL-1, this protein forms a kinase complex including TRAF6, MAP3K7P1/TAB1 and MAP3K7P2/TAB2; this complex is required for the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. This kinase can also activate MAPK8/JNK, MAP2K4/MKK4, and thus plays a role in the cell response to environmental stresses. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4

The central core of each mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a conserved cascade of 3 protein kinases: an activated MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) phosphorylates and activates a specific MAPK kinase (MAPKK), which then activates a specific MAPK. While the ERK MAPKs are activated by mitogenic stimulation, the CSBP2 and JNK MAPKs are activated by environmental stresses such as osmotic shock, UV irradiation, wound stress, and inflammatory factors. This gene encodes a MAPKKK, the MEKK4 protein, also called MTK1. This protein contains a protein kinase catalytic domain at the C terminus. The N-terminal nonkinase domain may contain a regulatory domain. Expression of MEKK4 in mammalian cells activated the CSBP2 and JNK MAPK pathways, but not the ERK pathway. In vitro kinase studies indicated that recombinant MEKK4 can specifically phosphorylate and activate PRKMK6 and SERK1, MAPKKs that activate CSBP2 and JNK, respectively but cannot phosphorylate PRKMK1, an MAPKK that activates ERKs. MEKK4 is a major mediator of environmental stresses that activate the CSBP2 MAPK pathway, and a minor mediator of the JNK pathway. Several alternatively spliced transcripts encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

MAP3K5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades include MAPK or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), MAPK kinase (MKK or MEK), and MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MEKK). MAPKK kinase/MEKK phosphorylates and activates its downstream protein kinase, MAPK kinase/MEK, which in turn activates MAPK. The kinases of these signaling cascades are highly conserved, and homologs exist in yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells. MAPKKK5 contains 1,374 amino acids with all 11 kinase subdomains. Northern blot analysis shows that MAPKKK5 transcript is abundantly expressed in human heart and pancreas. The MAPKKK5 protein phosphorylates and activates MKK4 (aliases SERK1, MAPKK4) in vitro, and activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) during transient expression in COS and 293 cells; MAPKKK5 does not activate MAPK/ERK. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K6 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 6

This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that forms a component of protein kinase-mediated signal transduction cascades. The encoded kinase participates in the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

MAP3K14 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14

This gene encodes mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14, which is a serine/threonine protein-kinase. This kinase binds to TRAF2 and stimulates NF-kappaB activity. It shares sequence similarity with several other MAPKK kinases. It participates in an NF-kappaB-inducing signalling cascade common to receptors of the tumour-necrosis/nerve-growth factor (TNF/NGF) family and to the interleukin-1 type-I receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TICRR Gene

TOPBP1-interacting checkpoint and replication regulator

Treslin is involved in the initiation of DNA replication (Kumagai et al., 2010 [PubMed 20116089]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

HUS1B Gene

HUS1 checkpoint homolog b (S. pombe)

The protein encoded by this gene is most closely related to HUS1, a component of a cell cycle checkpoint protein complex involved in cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. This protein can interact with the check point protein RAD1 but not with RAD9. Overexpression of this protein has been shown to induce cell death, which suggests a related but distinct role of this protein, as compared to the HUS1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAD1 Gene

RAD1 checkpoint DNA exonuclease

This gene encodes a component of a heterotrimeric cell cycle checkpoint complex, known as the 9-1-1 complex, that is activated to stop cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication. The 9-1-1 complex is recruited by RAD17 to affected sites where it may attract specialized DNA polymerases and other DNA repair effectors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

CHES1L1 Gene

checkpoint suppressor 1-like 1

HUS1 Gene

HUS1 checkpoint homolog (S. pombe)

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of an evolutionarily conserved, genotoxin-activated checkpoint complex that is involved in the cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage. This protein forms a heterotrimeric complex with checkpoint proteins RAD9 and RAD1. In response to DNA damage, the trimeric complex interacts with another protein complex consisting of checkpoint protein RAD17 and four small subunits of the replication factor C (RFC), which loads the combined complex onto the chromatin. The DNA damage induced chromatin binding has been shown to depend on the activation of the checkpoint kinase ATM, and is thought to be an early checkpoint signaling event. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

MDC1 Gene

mediator of DNA-damage checkpoint 1

The protein encoded by this gene contains an N-terminal forkhead domain, two BRCA1 C-terminal (BRCT) motifs and a central domain with 13 repetitions of an approximately 41-amino acid sequence. The encoded protein is required to activate the intra-S phase and G2/M phase cell cycle checkpoints in response to DNA damage. This nuclear protein interacts with phosphorylated histone H2AX near sites of DNA double-strand breaks through its BRCT motifs, and facilitates recruitment of the ATM kinase and meiotic recombination 11 protein complex to DNA damage foci. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSKH2 Gene

protein serine kinase H2

PSKH1 Gene

protein serine kinase H1

CASK Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)

This gene encodes a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase. The encoded protein is a MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) protein family member. These proteins are scaffold proteins and the encoded protein is located at synapses in the brain. Mutations in this gene are associated with FG syndrome 4, mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia, and a form of X-linked mental retardation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC100419851 Gene

protein serine kinase H1 pseudogene

CASKP1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family) pseudogene 1

TSKS Gene

testis-specific serine kinase substrate

This gene may play a role in testicular physiology, spermatogenesis or spermiogenesis. Expression of the encoded protein is highest in the testis and down-regulated in testicular cancer. The gene is localized to the region 19q13.3 among the related RAS viral oncogene homolog (RRAS) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) genes, which are both involved in tumorigenesis pathways and progression. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TSSK1A Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 1A pseudogene

TSSK1B Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 1B

TSSK1 belongs to a family of serine/threonine kinases highly expressed in testis (Hao et al., 2004 [PubMed 15044604]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TSSK2 Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 2

TSSK2 belongs to a family of serine/threonine kinases highly expressed in testis (Hao et al., 2004 [PubMed 15044604]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TSSK6 Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 6

This intronless gene encodes a member of the CAMK (calcium/calmodulin-dependent) serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded kinase has a broad expression pattern but is described as testis-specific due to effects on fertility. Male mice which lack the gene encoding a highly similar protein are sterile and have morphologically abnormal sperm. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

TSSK4 Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 4

This gene encodes a member of the testis-specific serine/threonine kinase family. The encoded protein is thought to be involved in spermatogenesis via stimulation of the CREB/CRE responsive pathway through phosphorylation of the cAMP responsive element binding protein transcription factor. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

TSSK3 Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 3

This gene encodes a kinase expressed exclusively in the testis that is thought to play a role in either germ cell differentiation or mature sperm function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TSSK5P Gene

testis-specific serine kinase 5, pseudogene

TDH Gene

L-threonine dehydrogenase (pseudogene)

This gene appears to be an evolving pseudogene of L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase (TDH). In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, TDH catalyzes the first of two steps in one of two L-threonine degradation pathways. However, in human, the single gene with sequence similarity to TDH is not capable of encoding a functional TDH protein; the predicted protein lacks most of the C-terminus and parts of the NAD+ binding motif when compared to other species' TDH proteins. This suggests that the human gene is therefore a pseudogene. Transcripts of this gene are found in all tissues and alternatively spliced transcripts have been described. It is not known if these transcripts are translated, or if the possible protein product provides any functional role. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

THNSL2 Gene

threonine synthase-like 2 (S. cerevisiae)

This gene encodes a threonine synthase-like protein. A similar enzyme in mouse can catalyze the degradation of O-phospho-homoserine to a-ketobutyrate, phosphate, and ammonia. This protein also has phospho-lyase activity on both gamma and beta phosphorylated substrates. In mouse an alternatively spliced form of this protein has been shown to act as a cytokine and can induce the production of the inflammatory cytokine IL6 in osteoblasts. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

THNSL1 Gene

threonine synthase-like 1 (S. cerevisiae)

TASP1 Gene

taspase, threonine aspartase, 1

This gene encodes an endopeptidase that cleaves specific substrates following aspartate residues. The encoded protein undergoes posttranslational autoproteolytic processing to generate alpha and beta subunits, which reassemble into the active alpha2-beta2 heterotetramer. It is required to cleave MLL, a protein required for the maintenance of HOX gene expression, and TFIIA, a basal transcription factor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

THA1P Gene

threonine aldolase 1, pseudogene

TRNAT-AGU Gene

transfer RNA threonine (anticodon AGU)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

TRNAT-CGU Gene

transfer RNA threonine (anticodon CGU)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

LOC105375604 Gene

uncharacterized threonine-rich GPI-anchored glycoprotein PJ4664.02-like

TRNAT-UGU Gene

transfer RNA threonine (anticodon UGU)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

MAPKAPK5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a tumor suppressor and member of the serine/threonine kinase family. In response to cellular stress and proinflammatory cytokines, this kinase is activated through its phosphorylation by MAP kinases including MAPK1/ERK, MAPK14/p38-alpha, and MAPK11/p38-beta. The encoded protein is found in the nucleus but translocates to the cytoplasm upon phosphorylation and activation. This kinase phosphorylates heat shock protein HSP27 at its physiologically relevant sites. Two alternately spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

MAPKAPK3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase functions as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase)- activated protein kinase. MAP kinases are also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This kinase was shown to be activated by growth inducers and stress stimulation of cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that ERK, p38 MAP kinase and Jun N-terminal kinase were all able to phosphorylate and activate this kinase, which suggested the role of this kinase as an integrative element of signaling in both mitogen and stress responses. This kinase was reported to interact with, phosphorylate and repress the activity of E47, which is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor known to be involved in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression and cell differentiation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

MAPKAPK2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase is regulated through direct phosphorylation by p38 MAP kinase. In conjunction with p38 MAP kinase, this kinase is known to be involved in many cellular processes including stress and inflammatory responses, nuclear export, gene expression regulation and cell proliferation. Heat shock protein HSP27 was shown to be one of the substrates of this kinase in vivo. Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422438 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 pseudogene

MAPKAPK5P1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 pseudogene 1

C1QBP Gene

complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein

The human complement subcomponent C1q associates with C1r and C1s in order to yield the first component of the serum complement system. The protein encoded by this gene is known to bind to the globular heads of C1q molecules and inhibit C1 activation. This protein has also been identified as the p32 subunit of pre-mRNA splicing factor SF2, as well as a hyaluronic acid-binding protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C1QBPP1 Gene

complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein, pseudogene 1

C1QBPP2 Gene

complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein, pseudogene 2

C1QBPP3 Gene

complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein, pseudogene 3

C4BPAP3 Gene

complement component 4 binding protein, alpha pseudogene 3

C4BPAP2 Gene

complement component 4 binding protein, alpha pseudogene 2

C4BPA Gene

complement component 4 binding protein, alpha

This gene encodes a member of a superfamily of proteins composed predominantly of tandemly arrayed short consensus repeats of approximately 60 amino acids. Along with a single, unique beta-chain, seven identical alpha-chains encoded by this gene assemble into the predominant isoform of C4b-binding protein, a multimeric protein that controls activation of the complement cascade through the classical pathway. The genes encoding both alpha and beta chains are located adjacent to each other on human chromosome 1 in the regulator of complement activation gene cluster. Two pseudogenes of this gene are also found in the cluster. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C4BPB Gene

complement component 4 binding protein, beta

This gene encodes a member of a superfamily of proteins composed predominantly of tandemly arrayed short consensus repeats of approximately 60 amino acids. A single, unique beta-chain encoded by this gene assembles with seven identical alpha-chains into the predominant isoform of C4b-binding protein, a multimeric protein that controls activation of the complement cascade through the classical pathway. C4b-binding protein has a regulatory role in the coagulation system also, mediated through the beta-chain binding of protein S, a vitamin K-dependent protein that serves as a cofactor of activated protein C. The genes encoding both alpha and beta chains are located adjacent to each other on human chromosome 1 in the regulator of complement activation gene cluster. Alternative splicing gives rise to multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBR3 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 3 (putative)

UBR2 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 2

This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase of the N-end rule proteolytic pathway that targets proteins with destabilizing N-terminal residues for polyubiquitylation and proteasome-mediated degradation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

UBR1 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 1

The N-end rule pathway is one proteolytic pathway of the ubiquitin system. The recognition component of this pathway, encoded by this gene, binds to a destabilizing N-terminal residue of a substrate protein and participates in the formation of a substrate-linked multiubiquitin chain. This leads to the eventual degradation of the substrate protein. The protein described in this record has a RING-type zinc finger and a UBR-type zinc finger. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Johanson-Blizzard syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBR7 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 7 (putative)

UBR5 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 5

This gene encodes a progestin-induced protein, which belongs to the HECT (homology to E6-AP carboxyl terminus) family. The HECT family proteins function as E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases, targeting specific proteins for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. This gene is localized to chromosome 8q22 which is disrupted in a variety of cancers. This gene potentially has a role in regulation of cell proliferation or differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UBR4 Gene

ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 4

The protein encoded by this gene is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that interacts with the retinoblastoma-associated protein in the nucleus and with calcium-bound calmodulin in the cytoplasm. The encoded protein appears to be a cytoskeletal component in the cytoplasm and part of the chromatin scaffold in the nucleus. In addition, this protein is a target of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

SNTB2 Gene

syntrophin, beta 2 (dystrophin-associated protein A1, 59kDa, basic component 2)

Dystrophin is a large, rod-like cytoskeletal protein found at the inner surface of muscle fibers. Dystrophin is missing in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients and is present in reduced amounts in Becker Muscular Dystrophy patients. The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein found associated with dystrophin and dystrophin-related proteins. This gene is a member of the syntrophin gene family, which contains at least two other structurally-related genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SNTB1 Gene

syntrophin, beta 1 (dystrophin-associated protein A1, 59kDa, basic component 1)

Dystrophin is a large, rod-like cytoskeletal protein found at the inner surface of muscle fibers. Dystrophin is missing in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients and is present in reduced amounts in Becker Muscular Dystrophy patients. The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein found associated with dystrophin and dystrophin-related proteins. This gene is a member of the syntrophin gene family, which contains at least two other structurally-related genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C4BPAP1 Gene

complement component 4 binding protein, alpha pseudogene 1

GC Gene

group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the albumin gene family. It is a multifunctional protein found in plasma, ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid and on the surface of many cell types. It binds to vitamin D and its plasma metabolites and transports them to target tissues. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

MCM3AP Gene

minichromosome maintenance complex component 3 associated protein

The minichromosome maintenance protein 3 (MCM3) is one of the MCM proteins essential for the initiation of DNA replication. The protein encoded by this gene is a MCM3 binding protein. It was reported to have phosphorylation-dependent DNA-primase activity, which was up-regulated in antigen immunization induced germinal center. This protein was demonstrated to be an acetyltransferase that acetylates MCM3 and plays a role in DNA replication. The mutagenesis of a nuclear localization signal of MCM3 affects the binding of this protein with MCM3, suggesting that this protein may also facilitate MCM3 nuclear localization. This gene is expressed in the brain or in neuronal tissue. An allelic variant encoding amino acid Lys at 915, instead of conserved Glu, has been identified in patients with mild intellectual disability. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

CAMKK2 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. The major isoform of this gene plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade by phosphorylating the downstream kinases CaMK1 and CaMK4. Protein products of this gene also phosphorylate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This gene has its strongest expression in the brain and influences signalling cascades involved with learning and memory, neuronal differentiation and migration, neurite outgrowth, and synapse formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. The identified isoforms differ in their ability to undergo autophosphorylation and to phosphorylate downstream kinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CAMKK1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade. Three transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100996792 Gene

dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3

MAP2K4P1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 pseudogene 1

MAP2K3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is activated by mitogenic and environmental stress, and participates in the MAP kinase-mediated signaling cascade. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK14/p38-MAPK. This kinase can be activated by insulin, and is necessary for the expression of glucose transporter. Expression of RAS oncogene is found to result in the accumulation of the active form of this kinase, which thus leads to the constitutive activation of MAPK14, and confers oncogenic transformation of primary cells. The inhibition of this kinase is involved in the pathogenesis of Yersina pseudotuberculosis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode distinct isoforms have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK2/ERK3. The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. Mutations in this gene cause cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC syndrome), a disease characterized by heart defects, mental retardation, and distinctive facial features similar to those found in Noonan syndrome. The inhibition or degradation of this kinase is also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of Yersinia and anthrax. A pseudogene, which is located on chromosome 7, has been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon wide variety of extra- and intracellular signals. As an essential component of MAP kinase signal transduction pathway, this kinase is involved in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K7 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase specifically activates MAPK8/JNK1 and MAPK9/JNK2, and this kinase itself is phosphorylated and activated by MAP kinase kinase kinases including MAP3K1/MEKK1, MAP3K2/MEKK2,MAP3K3/MEKK5, and MAP4K2/GCK. This kinase is involved in the signal transduction mediating the cell responses to proinflammatory cytokines, and environmental stresses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

MAP2K6 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6

This gene encodes a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which functions as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein phosphorylates and activates p38 MAP kinase in response to inflammatory cytokines or environmental stress. As an essential component of p38 MAP kinase mediated signal transduction pathway, this gene is involved in many cellular processes such as stress induced cell cycle arrest, transcription activation and apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase specifically interacts with and activates MAPK7/ERK5. This kinase itself can be phosphorylated and activated by MAP3K3/MEKK3, as well as by atypical protein kinase C isoforms (aPKCs). The signal cascade mediated by this kinase is involved in growth factor stimulated cell proliferation and muscle cell differentiation. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

MAP2K4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4

This gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. Members of this family act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation, and development. They form a three-tiered signaling module composed of MAPKKKs, MAPKKs, and MAPKs. This protein is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues by MAPKKKs and subsequently phosphorylates downstream MAPK targets at threonine and tyrosine residues. A similar protein in mouse has been reported to play a role in liver organogenesis. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome X. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PACSIN1 Gene

protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 1

PACSIN3 Gene

protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3

This gene is a member of the protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons family. The encoded protein is involved in linking the actin cytoskeleton with vesicle formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PACSIN2 Gene

protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2

This gene is a member of the protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons family. The encoded protein is involved in linking the actin cytoskeleton with vesicle formation by regulating tubulin polymerization. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

MAP2K1P1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 pseudogene 1

LOC407835 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 pseudogene

ITGAX Gene

integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit)

This gene encodes the integrin alpha X chain protein. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This protein combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form a leukocyte-specific integrin referred to as inactivated-C3b (iC3b) receptor 4 (CR4). The alpha X beta 2 complex seems to overlap the properties of the alpha M beta 2 integrin in the adherence of neutrophils and monocytes to stimulated endothelium cells, and in the phagocytosis of complement coated particles. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

ITGAM Gene

integrin, alpha M (complement component 3 receptor 3 subunit)

This gene encodes the integrin alpha M chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form a leukocyte-specific integrin referred to as macrophage receptor 1 ('Mac-1'), or inactivated-C3b (iC3b) receptor 3 ('CR3'). The alpha M beta 2 integrin is important in the adherence of neutrophils and monocytes to stimulated endothelium, and also in the phagocytosis of complement coated particles. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

KRR1 Gene

KRR1, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast)

MARC1 Gene

mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 1

MARC2 Gene

mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 2

C4B Gene

complement component 4B (Chido blood group)

This gene encodes the basic form of complement factor 4, part of the classical activation pathway. The protein is expressed as a single chain precursor which is proteolytically cleaved into a trimer of alpha, beta, and gamma chains prior to secretion. The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha chain may be cleaved to release C4 anaphylatoxin, a mediator of local inflammation. Deficiency of this protein is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Varying haplotypes of this gene cluster exist, such that individuals may have 1, 2, or 3 copies of this gene. In addition, this gene exists as a long form and a short form due to the presence or absence of a 6.4 kb endogenous HERV-K retrovirus in intron 9. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CRCP Gene

CGRP receptor component

This gene encodes a membrane protein that functions as part of a receptor complex for a small neuropeptide that increases intracellular cAMP levels. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EXOSC10 Gene

exosome component 10

LOC105379840 Gene

bcl-2-binding component 3-like

RRP9 Gene

ribosomal RNA processing 9, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast)

This gene encodes a member of the WD-repeat protein family. The encoded protein is a component of the nucleolar small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snoRNP) and is essential for 18s rRNA processing during ribosome synthesis. It contains seven WD domains required for nucleolar localization and specific interaction with the U3 small nucleolar RNA (U3 snoRNA). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

LOC100422479 Gene

integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit) pseudogene

ITGB2 Gene

integrin, beta 2 (complement component 3 receptor 3 and 4 subunit)

This gene encodes an integrin beta chain, which combines with multiple different alpha chains to form different integrin heterodimers. Integrins are integral cell-surface proteins that participate in cell adhesion as well as cell-surface mediated signalling. The encoded protein plays an important role in immune response and defects in this gene cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

C8A Gene

complement component 8, alpha polypeptide

C8 is a component of the complement system and contains three polypeptides, alpha, beta and gamma. This gene encodes the alpha subunit of C8. C8 participates in the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). The MAC assembles on bacterial membranes to form a pore, permitting disruption of bacterial membrane organization. Mutations in this gene cause complement C8 alpha-gamma deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

C8B Gene

complement component 8, beta polypeptide

This gene encodes one of the three subunits of the complement component 8 (C8) protein. C8 is composed of equimolar amounts of alpha, beta and gamma subunits, which are encoded by three separate genes. C8 is one component of the membrane attack complex, which mediates cell lysis, and it initiates membrane penetration of the complex. This protein mediates the interaction of C8 with the C5b-7 membrane attack complex precursor. In humans deficiency of this protein is associated with increased risk of meningococcal infections. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

C8G Gene

complement component 8, gamma polypeptide

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the lipocalin family. It is one of the three subunits that constitutes complement component 8 (C8), which is composed of a disulfide-linked C8 alpha-gamma heterodimer and a non-covalently associated C8 beta chain. C8 participates in the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC) on bacterial cell membranes. While subunits alpha and beta play a role in complement-mediated bacterial killing, the gamma subunit is not required for the bactericidal activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

PDHX Gene

pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, component X

The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex is located in the mitochondrial matrix and catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A. The PDH complex thereby links glycolysis to Krebs cycle. The PDH complex contains three catalytic subunits, E1, E2, and E3, two regulatory subunits, E1 kinase and E1 phosphatase, and a non-catalytic subunit, E3 binding protein (E3BP). This gene encodes the E3 binding protein subunit; also known as component X of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This protein tethers E3 dimers to the E2 core of the PDH complex. Defects in this gene are a cause of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency which results in neurological dysfunction and lactic acidosis in infancy and early childhood. This protein is also a minor antigen for antimitochondrial antibodies. These autoantibodies are present in nearly 95% of patients with the autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In PBC, activated T lymphocytes attack and destroy epithelial cells in the bile duct where this protein is abnormally distributed and overexpressed. PBC eventually leads to cirrhosis and liver failure. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

CR1L Gene

complement component (3b/4b) receptor 1-like

CTC1 Gene

CTS telomere maintenance complex component 1

This gene encodes a component of the CST complex. This complex plays an essential role in protecting telomeres from degradation. This protein also forms a heterodimer with the CST complex subunit STN1 to form the enzyme alpha accessory factor. This enzyme regulates DNA replication. Mutations in this gene are the cause of cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts. Alternate splicing results in both coding and non-coding variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

MCM8 Gene

minichromosome maintenance complex component 8

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by the mini-chromosome maintenance proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. This protein contains the central domain that is conserved among the mini-chromosome maintenance proteins. The encoded protein may interact with other mini-chromosome maintenance proteins and play a role in DNA replication. This gene may be associated with length of reproductive lifespan and menopause. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

DSN1 Gene

DSN1, MIS12 kinetochore complex component

This gene encodes a kinetochore protein that functions as part of the minichromosome instability-12 centromere complex. The encoded protein is required for proper kinetochore assembly and progression through the cell cycle. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

UTP3 Gene

UTP3, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (S. cerevisiae)

NSL1 Gene

NSL1, MIS12 kinetochore complex component

This gene encodes a protein with two coiled-coil domains that localizes to kinetochores, which are chromosome-associated structures that attach to microtubules and mediate chromosome movements during cell division. The encoded protein is part of a conserved protein complex that includes two chromodomain-containing proteins and a component of the outer plate of the kinetochore. This protein complex is proposed to bridge centromeric heterochromatin with the outer kinetochore structure. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. There is a pseudogene of the 3' UTR region of this gene on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

LEO1 Gene

Leo1, Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex component, homolog (S. cerevisiae)

LEO1, parafibromin (CDC73; MIM 607393), CTR9 (MIM 609366), and PAF1 (MIM 610506) form the PAF protein complex that associates with the RNA polymerase II subunit POLR2A (MIM 180660) and with a histone methyltransferase complex (Rozenblatt-Rosen et al., 2005 [PubMed 15632063]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SAMM50P1 Gene

SAMM50 sorting and assembly machinery component pseudogene 1

RMRP Gene

RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease

This gene encodes the RNA component of mitochondrial RNA processing endoribonuclease, which cleaves mitochondrial RNA at a priming site of mitochondrial DNA replication. This RNA also interacts with the telomerase reverse transcriptase catalytic subunit to form a distinct ribonucleoprotein complex that has RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity and produces double-stranded RNAs that can be processed into small interfering RNA. Mutations in this gene are associated with cartilage-hair hypoplasia.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC727681 Gene

NSL1, MIND kinetochore complex component, homolog (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene

AGO4 Gene

argonaute RISC catalytic component 4

This gene encodes a member of the Argonaute family of proteins which play a role in RNA interference. The encoded protein is highly basic containing PAZ and PIWI domains, and it may play a role in short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing. This gene is located on chromosome 1 in a cluster of closely related family members including argonaute 3, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C, 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AGO1 Gene

argonaute RISC catalytic component 1

This gene encodes a member of the Argonaute family of proteins which play a role in RNA interference. The encoded protein is highly basic, and contains a PAZ domain and a PIWI domain. It may interact with dicer1 and play a role in short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing. This gene is located on chromosome 1 in a cluster of closely related family members including argonaute 3, and argonaute 4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AGO3 Gene

argonaute RISC catalytic component 3

This gene encodes a member of the Argonaute family of proteins which play a role in RNA interference. The encoded protein is highly basic, contains a PAZ domain and a PIWI domain, and may play a role in short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing. This gene is located on chromosome 1 in a tandem cluster of closely related family members including argonaute 4 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C, 1. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AGO2 Gene

argonaute RISC catalytic component 2

This gene encodes a member of the Argonaute family of proteins which play a role in RNA interference. The encoded protein is highly basic, and contains a PAZ domain and a PIWI domain. It may interact with dicer1 and play a role in short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

LOC100422490 Gene

UTP6, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast) pseudogene

LOC100422497 Gene

UTP18, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast) pseudogene

PSPC1 Gene

paraspeckle component 1

This gene encodes a nucleolar protein that localizes to punctate subnuclear structures that occur close to splicing speckles, known as paraspeckles. These paraspeckles are composed of RNA-protein structures that include a non-coding RNA, NEAT1/Men epsilon/beta, and the Drosophila Behavior Human Splicing family of proteins, which include the product of this gene and the P54NRB/NONO and PSF/SFPQ proteins. Paraspeckles may function in the control of gene expression via an RNA nuclear retention mechanism. The protein encoded by this gene is found in paraspeckles in transcriptionally active cells, but it localizes to unique cap structures at the nucleolar periphery when RNA polymerase II transcription is inhibited, or during telophase. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene, which is also located on chromosome 13, has been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

C1RL Gene

complement component 1, r subcomponent-like

PIEZO1P1 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1 pseudogene 1

PIEZO1P2 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1 pseudogene 2

EXOSC8 Gene

exosome component 8

This gene encodes a 3'-5' exoribonuclease that specifically interacts with mRNAs containing AU-rich elements. The encoded protein is part of the exosome complex that is important for the degradation of numerous RNA species. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

EXOSC9 Gene

exosome component 9

This gene encodes a component of the human exosome, a exoribonuclease complex which processes and degrades RNA in the nucleus and cytoplasm. This component may play a role in mRNA degradation and the polymyositis/scleroderma autoantigen complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

EXOSC2 Gene

exosome component 2

EXOSC3 Gene

exosome component 3

This gene encodes a non-catalytic component of the human exosome, a complex with 3'-5' exoribonuclease activity that plays a role in numerous RNA processing and degradation activities. Related pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosome 19 and 21. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

EXOSC1 Gene

exosome component 1

This gene encodes a core component of the exosome. The mammalian exosome is required for rapid degradation of AU rich element-containing RNAs but not for poly(A) shortening. The association of this protein with the exosome is mediated by protein-protein interactions with ribosomal RNA-processing protein 42 and ribosomal RNA-processing protein 46. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EXOSC6 Gene

exosome component 6

This gene product constitutes one of the subunits of the multisubunit particle called exosome, which mediates mRNA degradation. The composition of human exosome is similar to its yeast counterpart. This protein is homologous to the yeast Mtr3 protein. Its exact function is not known, however, it has been shown using a cell-free RNA decay system that the exosome is required for rapid degradation of unstable mRNAs containing AU-rich elements (AREs), but not for poly(A) shortening. The exosome does not recognize ARE-containing mRNAs on its own, but requires ARE-binding proteins that could interact with the exosome and recruit it to unstable mRNAs, thereby promoting their rapid degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EXOSC7 Gene

exosome component 7

EXOSC4 Gene

exosome component 4

EXOSC5 Gene

exosome component 5

C5AR2 Gene

complement component 5a receptor 2

This gene encodes a G-protein coupled receptor 1 family member involved in the complement system of the innate immune response. Unlike classical G-protein coupled receptors, the encoded protein does not associate with intracellular G-proteins. It may instead modulate signal transduction through the beta-arrestin pathway, and may alternatively act as a decoy receptor. This gene may be involved in coronary artery disease and in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

C5AR1 Gene

complement component 5a receptor 1

NUF2 Gene

NUF2, NDC80 kinetochore complex component

This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to yeast Nuf2, a component of a conserved protein complex associated with the centromere. Yeast Nuf2 disappears from the centromere during meiotic prophase when centromeres lose their connection to the spindle pole body, and plays a regulatory role in chromosome segregation. The encoded protein is found to be associated with centromeres of mitotic HeLa cells, which suggests that this protein is a functional homolog of yeast Nuf2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EXOC6B Gene

exocyst complex component 6B

In yeast and rat, Sec15 is part of a multiprotein complex that is required for targeted exocytosis.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

CIAO1 Gene

cytosolic iron-sulfur assembly component 1

PSPC1P2 Gene

paraspeckle component 1 pseudogene 2

PSPC1P1 Gene

paraspeckle component 1 pseudogene 1

MIS12 Gene

MIS12 kinetochore complex component

LIN54 Gene

lin-54 DREAM MuvB core complex component

LIN54 is a component of the LIN, or DREAM, complex, an essential regulator of cell cycle genes (Schmit et al., 2009 [PubMed 19725879]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2010]

LIN52 Gene

lin-52 DREAM MuvB core complex component

LANCL2 Gene

LanC lantibiotic synthetase component C-like 2 (bacterial)

LANCL3 Gene

LanC lantibiotic synthetase component C-like 3 (bacterial)

LANCL1 Gene

LanC lantibiotic synthetase component C-like 1 (bacterial)

This gene encodes a loosely associated peripheral membrane protein related to the LanC family of bacterial membrane-associated proteins involved in the biosynthesis of antimicrobial peptides. This protein may play a role as a peptide-modifying enzyme component in eukaryotic cells. Previously considered a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily, this protein is now in the LanC family. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

UTP18 Gene

UTP18 small subunit (SSU) processome component homolog (yeast)

LOC100132242 Gene

exosome component 8 pseudogene

PIEZO2 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2

The protein encoded by this gene contains more than thirty transmembrane domains and likely functions as part of mechanically-activated (MA) cation channels. These channels serve to connect mechanical forces to biological signals. The encoded protein quickly adapts MA currents in somatosensory neurons. Defects in this gene are a cause of type 5 distal arthrogryposis. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PIEZO1 Gene

piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 1

Piezos are large transmembrane proteins conserved among various species, all having between 24 and 36 predicted transmembrane domains. 'Piezo' comes from the Greek 'piesi,' meaning 'pressure.' The FAM38A gene encodes PIEZO1, a protein that induces mechanically activated (MA) currents in various cell types (Coste et al., 2010 [PubMed 20813920]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

C3P1 Gene

complement component 3 precursor pseudogene

EXOC2 Gene

exocyst complex component 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multi-protein complex essential for the polarized targeting of exocytic vesicles to specific docking sites on the plasma membrane. Though best characterized in yeast, the component proteins and the functions of the exocyst complex have been demonstrated to be highly conserved in higher eukaryotes. At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal remodeling and vesicle transport machinery. This interaction has been shown to mediate filopodia formation in fibroblasts. This protein has been shown to interact with the Ral subfamily of GTPases and thereby mediate exocytosis by tethering vesicles to the plasma membrane. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

EXOC3 Gene

exocyst complex component 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multiple protein complex essential for targeting exocytic vesicles to specific docking sites on the plasma membrane. Though best characterized in yeast, the component proteins and functions of exocyst complex have been demonstrated to be highly conserved in higher eukaryotes. At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal remodeling and vesicle transport machinery. The complex is also essential for the biogenesis of epithelial cell surface polarity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EXOC1 Gene

exocyst complex component 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multiple protein complex essential for targeting exocytic vesicles to specific docking sites on the plasma membrane. Though best characterized in yeast, the component proteins and functions of the exocyst complex have been demonstrated to be highly conserved in higher eukaryotes. At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal remodeling and vesicle transport machinery. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EXOC6 Gene

exocyst complex component 6

The product of this gene belongs to the SEC15 family. It is highly similar to the protein encoded by Saccharomyces cerevisiae SEC15 gene. This protein is essential for vesicular traffic from the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface in yeast. It is one of the components of a multiprotein complex required for exocytosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EXOC7 Gene

exocyst complex component 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex. The exocyst complex plays a critical role in vesicular trafficking and the secretory pathway by targeting post-Golgi vesicles to the plasma membrane. The encoded protein is required for assembly of the exocyst complex and docking of the complex to the plasma membrane. The encoded protein may also play a role in pre-mRNA splicing through interactions with pre-mRNA-processing factor 19. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

EXOC4 Gene

exocyst complex component 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multiple protein complex essential for targeting exocytic vesicles to specific docking sites on the plasma membrane. Though best characterized in yeast, the component proteins and functions of exocyst complex have been demonstrated to be highly conserved in higher eukaryotes. At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal remodeling and vesicle transport machinery. The complex is also essential for the biogenesis of epithelial cell surface polarity. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EXOC5 Gene

exocyst complex component 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the exocyst complex, a multiple protein complex essential for targeting exocytic vesicles to specific docking sites on the plasma membrane. Though best characterized in yeast, the component proteins and functions of exocyst complex have been demonstrated to be highly conserved in higher eukaryotes. At least eight components of the exocyst complex, including this protein, are found to interact with the actin cytoskeletal remodeling and vesicle transport machinery. The complex is also essential for the biogenesis of epithelial cell surface polarity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EXOC8 Gene

exocyst complex component 8

UTP6 Gene

UTP6, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast)

C1S Gene

complement component 1, s subcomponent

This gene encodes a serine protease, which is a major constituent of the human complement subcomponent C1. C1s associates with two other complement components C1r and C1q in order to yield the first component of the serum complement system. Defects in this gene are the cause of selective C1s deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

C1R Gene

complement component 1, r subcomponent

CR2 Gene

complement component (3d/Epstein Barr virus) receptor 2

This gene encodes a membrane protein, which functions as a receptor for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) binding on B and T lymphocytes. Genetic variations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus type 9 (SLEB9). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

CR1 Gene

complement component (3b/4b) receptor 1 (Knops blood group)

This gene is a member of the receptors of complement activation (RCA) family and is located in the 'cluster RCA' region of chromosome 1. The gene encodes a monomeric single-pass type I membrane glycoprotein found on erythrocytes, leukocytes, glomerular podocytes, and splenic follicular dendritic cells. The Knops blood group system is a system of antigens located on this protein. The protein mediates cellular binding to particles and immune complexes that have activated complement. Decreases in expression of this protein and/or mutations in its gene have been associated with gallbladder carcinomas, mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and sarcoidosis. Mutations in this gene have also been associated with a reduction in Plasmodium falciparum rosetting, conferring protection against severe malaria. Alternate allele-specific splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. Additional allele specific isoforms, including a secreted form, have been described but have not been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RPPH1 Gene

ribonuclease P RNA component H1

H1RNA is the RNA component of the RNase P ribonucleoprotein, an endoribonuclease that cleaves tRNA precursor molecules to form the mature 5-prime termini of their tRNA sequences (Baer et al., 1989 [PubMed 2308839]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

C1QB Gene

complement component 1, q subcomponent, B chain

This gene encodes a major constituent of the human complement subcomponent C1q. C1q associates with C1r and C1s in order to yield the first component of the serum complement system. Deficiency of C1q has been associated with lupus erythematosus and glomerulonephritis. C1q is composed of 18 polypeptide chains: six A-chains, six B-chains, and six C-chains. Each chain contains a collagen-like region located near the N terminus and a C-terminal globular region. The A-, B-, and C-chains are arranged in the order A-C-B on chromosome 1. This gene encodes the B-chain polypeptide of human complement subcomponent C1q [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EXOC7P1 Gene

exocyst complex component 7 pseudogene 1

SAMM50 Gene

SAMM50 sorting and assembly machinery component

This gene encodes a component of the Sorting and Assembly Machinery (SAM) of the mitochondrial outer membrane. The Sam complex functions in the assembly of beta-barrel proteins into the outer mitochondrial membrane.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

LOC100419615 Gene

complement component 7 pseudogene

LOC100422434 Gene

complement component (3b/4b) receptor 1 (Knops blood group) pseudogene

EXOSC3P2 Gene

exosome component 3 pseudogene 2

EXOSC3P1 Gene

exosome component 3 pseudogene 1

LIN37 Gene

lin-37 DREAM MuvB core complex component

This gene encodes a protein expressed in the eye. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MCM7 Gene

minichromosome maintenance complex component 7

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by the MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. The MCM complex consisting of this protein and MCM2, 4 and 6 proteins possesses DNA helicase activity, and may act as a DNA unwinding enzyme. Cyclin D1-dependent kinase, CDK4, is found to associate with this protein, and may regulate the binding of this protein with the tumorsuppressor protein RB1/RB. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MCM6 Gene

minichromosome maintenance complex component 6

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by the MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. The MCM complex consisting of this protein and MCM2, 4 and 7 proteins possesses DNA helicase activity, and may act as a DNA unwinding enzyme. The phosphorylation of the complex by CDC2 kinase reduces the helicase activity, suggesting a role in the regulation of DNA replication. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the intron regions of this gene are associated with differential transcriptional activation of the promoter of the neighboring lactase gene and, thereby, influence lactose intolerance in early adulthood. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

MCM5 Gene

minichromosome maintenance complex component 5

The protein encoded by this gene is structurally very similar to the CDC46 protein from S. cerevisiae, a protein involved in the initiation of DNA replication. The encoded protein is a member of the MCM family of chromatin-binding proteins and can interact with at least two other members of this family. The encoded protein is upregulated in the transition from the G0 to G1/S phase of the cell cycle and may actively participate in cell cycle regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MCM4 Gene

minichromosome maintenance complex component 4

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. The MCM complex consisting of this protein and MCM2, 6 and 7 proteins possesses DNA helicase activity, and may act as a DNA unwinding enzyme. The phosphorylation of this protein by CDC2 kinase reduces the DNA helicase activity and chromatin binding of the MCM complex. This gene is mapped to a region on the chromosome 8 head-to-head next to the PRKDC/DNA-PK, a DNA-activated protein kinase involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MCM2 Gene

minichromosome maintenance complex component 2

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. This protein forms a complex with MCM4, 6, and 7, and has been shown to regulate the helicase activity of the complex. This protein is phosphorylated, and thus regulated by, protein kinases CDC2 and CDC7. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been defined. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

MCM9 Gene

minichromosome maintenance complex component 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) protein family that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. Binding of this protein to chromatin has been shown to be a pre-requisite for recruiting the MCM2-7 helicase to DNA replication origins. This protein also binds, and is a positive regulator of, the chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1, CDT1. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

KRR1P1 Gene

KRR1, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast) pseudogene 1

C4B_2 Gene

complement component 4B (Chido blood group), copy 2

This gene encodes the basic form of complement factor 4, part of the classical activation pathway. The protein is expressed as a single chain precursor which is proteolytically cleaved into a trimer of alpha, beta, and gamma chains prior to secretion. The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha chain may be cleaved to release C4 anaphylatoxin, a mediator of local inflammation. Deficiency of this protein is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Varying haplotypes of this gene cluster exist, such that individuals may have 1, 2, or 3 copies of this gene. In addition, this gene exists as a long form and a short form due to the presence or absence of a 6.4 kb endogenous HERV-K retrovirus in intron 9. This GeneID and its associated RefSeq record represent a second copy of C4B found on ALT_REF_LOCI_7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

TERC Gene

telomerase RNA component

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein polymerase that maintains telomere ends by addition of the telomere repeat TTAGGG. The enzyme consists of a protein component with reverse transcriptase activity, and an RNA component, encoded by this gene, that serves as a template for the telomere repeat. Telomerase expression plays a role in cellular senescence, as it is normally repressed in postnatal somatic cells resulting in progressive shortening of telomeres. Deregulation of telomerase expression in somatic cells may be involved in oncogenesis. Studies in mouse suggest that telomerase also participates in chromosomal repair, since de novo synthesis of telomere repeats may occur at double-stranded breaks. Mutations in this gene cause autosomal dominant dyskeratosis congenita, and may also be associated with some cases of aplastic anemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C4A Gene

complement component 4A (Rodgers blood group)

This gene encodes the acidic form of complement factor 4, part of the classical activation pathway. The protein is expressed as a single chain precursor which is proteolytically cleaved into a trimer of alpha, beta, and gamma chains prior to secretion. The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha chain is cleaved to release C4 anaphylatoxin, an antimicrobial peptide and a mediator of local inflammation. Deficiency of this protein is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and type I diabetes mellitus. This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Varying haplotypes of this gene cluster exist, such that individuals may have 1, 2, or 3 copies of this gene. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

LOC100420902 Gene

exocyst complex component 3-like 4 pseudogene

CTR9 Gene

CTR9, Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex component

CTR9, parafibromin (CDC73; MIM 607393), LEO1 (MIM 610507), and PAF1 (MIM 610506) form the PAF protein complex, which associates with the RNA polymerase II subunit POLR2A (MIM 180660) and with a histone methyltransferase complex (Rozenblatt-Rosen et al., 2005 [PubMed 15632063]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

BBC3 Gene

BCL2 binding component 3

This gene encodes a member of the BCL-2 family of proteins. This family member belongs to the BH3-only pro-apoptotic subclass. The protein cooperates with direct activator proteins to induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and apoptosis. It can bind to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase activation. Because of its pro-apoptotic role, this gene is a potential drug target for cancer therapy and for tissue injury. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

MCM10 Gene

minichromosome maintenance complex component 10

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and it may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. This protein can interact with MCM2 and MCM6, as well as with the origin recognition protein ORC2. It is regulated by proteolysis and phosphorylation in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Studies of a similar protein in Xenopus suggest that the chromatin binding of this protein at the onset of DNA replication is after pre-RC assembly and before origin unwinding. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100419772 Gene

CGRP receptor component pseudogene

APCS Gene

amyloid P component, serum

The protein encoded by this gene is a glycoprotein, belonging to the pentraxin family of proteins, which has a characteristic pentameric organization. These family members have considerable sequence homology which is thought to be the result of gene duplication. The binding of the encoded protein to proteins in the pathological amyloid cross-beta fold suggests its possible role as a chaperone. This protein is also thought to control the degradation of chromatin. It has been demonstrated that this protein binds to apoptotic cells at an early stage, which raises the possibility that it is involved in dealing with apoptotic cells in vivo. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

LOC646430 Gene

amyloid P component, serum pseudogene

UTP23 Gene

UTP23, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast)

UTP20 Gene

UTP20, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast)

UTP20 is a component of the U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) (SNORD3A; MIM 180710) protein complex (U3 snoRNP) and is involved in 18S rRNA processing (Wang et al., 2007 [PubMed 17498821]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

LOC100422556 Gene

Leo1, Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex component, homolog (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene

RTF1 Gene

Rtf1, Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex component, homolog (S. cerevisiae)

This locus may represent a gene involved in regulation of transcription elongation and chromatin remodeling, based on studies of similar proteins in other organisms. The encoded protein may bind single-stranded DNA. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SNCA Gene

synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor)

Alpha-synuclein is a member of the synuclein family, which also includes beta- and gamma-synuclein. Synucleins are abundantly expressed in the brain and alpha- and beta-synuclein inhibit phospholipase D2 selectively. SNCA may serve to integrate presynaptic signaling and membrane trafficking. Defects in SNCA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. SNCA peptides are a major component of amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Four alternatively spliced transcripts encoding two different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

COG8 Gene

component of oligomeric golgi complex 8

This gene encodes a protein that is a component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, a multiprotein complex that plays a structural role in the Golgi apparatus, and is involved in intracellular membrane trafficking and glycoprotein modification. Mutations in this gene cause congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIh, a disease that is characterized by under-glycosylated serum proteins, and whose symptoms include severe psychomotor retardation, failure to thrive, seizures, and dairy and wheat product intolerance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COG3 Gene

component of oligomeric golgi complex 3

This gene encodes a component of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex which is composed of eight different subunits and is required for normal Golgi morphology and localization. Defects in the COG complex result in multiple deficiencies in protein glycosylation. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in ER-Golgi transport.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

COG2 Gene

component of oligomeric golgi complex 2

This gene encodes a subunit of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex that is required for maintaining normal structure and activity of the Golgi complex. The encoded protein specifically interacts with the USO1 vesicle docking protein and may be necessary for normal Golgi ribbon formation and trafficking of Golgi enzymes. Mutations of this gene are associated with abnormal glycosylation within the Golgi apparatus. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

COG1 Gene

component of oligomeric golgi complex 1

The protein encoded by this gene is one of eight proteins (Cog1-8) which form a Golgi-localized complex (COG) required for normal Golgi morphology and function. It is thought that this protein is required for steps in the normal medial and trans Golgi-associated processing of glycoconjugates and plays a role in the organization of the Golgi-localized complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COG7 Gene

component of oligomeric golgi complex 7

The protein encoded by this gene resides in the golgi, and constitutes one of the 8 subunits of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex, which is required for normal golgi morphology and localization. Mutations in this gene are associated with the congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIe.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

COG6 Gene

component of oligomeric golgi complex 6

This gene encodes a subunit of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex that is required for maintaining normal structure and activity of the Golgi apparatus. The encoded protein is organized with conserved oligomeric Golgi complex components 5, 7 and 8 into a sub-complex referred to as lobe B. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

COG5 Gene

component of oligomeric golgi complex 5

The protein encoded by this gene is one of eight proteins (Cog1-8) which form a Golgi-localized complex (COG) required for normal Golgi morphology and function. The encoded protein is organized with conserved oligomeric Golgi complex components 6, 7 and 8 into a sub-complex referred to as lobe B. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Mutations in this gene result in congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2I.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

COG4 Gene

component of oligomeric golgi complex 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of an oligomeric protein complex involved in the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus. Defects in this gene may be a cause of congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIj. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

C1QL1 Gene

complement component 1, q subcomponent-like 1

C1QL2 Gene

complement component 1, q subcomponent-like 2

C1QL3 Gene

complement component 1, q subcomponent-like 3

C1QL4 Gene

complement component 1, q subcomponent-like 4

EXOC3L4 Gene

exocyst complex component 3-like 4

EXOC3L2 Gene

exocyst complex component 3-like 2

EXOC3L1 Gene

exocyst complex component 3-like 1

EXOC5P1 Gene

exocyst complex component 5 pseudogene 1

C9 Gene

complement component 9

This gene encodes the final component of the complement system. It participates in the formation of the Membrane Attack Complex (MAC). The MAC assembles on bacterial membranes to form a pore, permitting disruption of bacterial membrane organization. Mutations in this gene cause component C9 deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

C3 Gene

complement component 3

Complement component C3 plays a central role in the activation of complement system. Its activation is required for both classical and alternative complement activation pathways. A peptide (C3a) derived from the encoded protein has antimicrobial activity, so people with C3 deficiency are susceptible to bacterial infection. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

C2 Gene

complement component 2

Component C2 is a serum glycoprotein that functions as part of the classical pathway of the complement system. Activated C1 cleaves C2 into C2a and C2b. The serine proteinase C2a then combines with complement factor 4b to create the C3 or C5 convertase. Deficiency of C2 has been reported to associated with certain autoimmune diseases and SNPs in this gene have been associated with altered susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration. This gene localizes within the class III region of the MHC on the short arm of chromosome 6. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Additional transcript variants have been described in publications but their full-length sequence has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

C7 Gene

complement component 7

C7 is a component of the complement system. It participates in the formation of Membrane Attack Complex (MAC). People with C7 deficiency are prone to bacterial infection. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C6 Gene

complement component 6

This gene encodes a component of the complement cascade. The encoded protein is part of the membrane attack complex that can be incorporated into the cell membrane and cause cell lysis. Mutations in this gene are associated with complement component-6 deficiency. Transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

C5 Gene

complement component 5

The protein encoded by this gene is the fifth component of complement, which plays an important role in inflammatory and cell killing processes. This protein is comprised of alpha and beta polypeptide chains that are linked by a disulfide bridge. An activation peptide, C5a, which is an anaphylatoxin that possesses potent spasmogenic and chemotactic activity, is derived from the alpha polypeptide via cleavage with a convertase. The C5b macromolecular cleavage product can form a complex with the C6 complement component, and this complex is the basis for formation of the membrane attack complex, which includes additional complement components. Mutations in this gene cause complement component 5 deficiency, a disease where patients show a propensity for severe recurrent infections. Defects in this gene have also been linked to a susceptibility to liver fibrosis and to rheumatoid arthritis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PGRMC2 Gene

progesterone receptor membrane component 2

PGRMC1 Gene

progesterone receptor membrane component 1

This gene encodes a putative membrane-associated progesterone steroid receptor. The protein is expressed predominantly in the liver and kidney. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

MCM3 Gene

minichromosome maintenance complex component 3

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. This protein is a subunit of the protein complex that consists of MCM2-7. It has been shown to interact directly with MCM5/CDC46. This protein also interacts with and is acetylated by MCM3AP, a chromatin-associated acetyltransferase. The acetylation of this protein inhibits the initiation of DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

SPC25 Gene

SPC25, NDC80 kinetochore complex component

This gene encodes a protein that may be involved in kinetochore-microtubule interaction and spindle checkpoint activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPC24 Gene

SPC24, NDC80 kinetochore complex component

F8 Gene

coagulation factor VIII, procoagulant component

This gene encodes coagulation factor VIII, which participates in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation; factor VIII is a cofactor for factor IXa which, in the presence of Ca+2 and phospholipids, converts factor X to the activated form Xa. This gene produces two alternatively spliced transcripts. Transcript variant 1 encodes a large glycoprotein, isoform a, which circulates in plasma and associates with von Willebrand factor in a noncovalent complex. This protein undergoes multiple cleavage events. Transcript variant 2 encodes a putative small protein, isoform b, which consists primarily of the phospholipid binding domain of factor VIIIc. This binding domain is essential for coagulant activity. Defects in this gene results in hemophilia A, a common recessive X-linked coagulation disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C1QC Gene

complement component 1, q subcomponent, C chain

This gene encodes a major constituent of the human complement subcomponent C1q. C1q associates with C1r and C1s in order to yield the first component of the serum complement system. A deficiency in C1q has been associated with lupus erythematosus and glomerulonephritis. C1q is composed of 18 polypeptide chains: six A-chains, six B-chains, and six C-chains. Each chain contains a collagen-like region located near the N-terminus, and a C-terminal globular region. The A-, B-, and C-chains are arranged in the order A-C-B on chromosome 1. This gene encodes the C-chain polypeptide of human complement subcomponent C1q. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C1QA Gene

complement component 1, q subcomponent, A chain

This gene encodes a major constituent of the human complement subcomponent C1q. C1q associates with C1r and C1s in order to yield the first component of the serum complement system. Deficiency of C1q has been associated with lupus erythematosus and glomerulonephritis. C1q is composed of 18 polypeptide chains: six A-chains, six B-chains, and six C-chains. Each chain contains a collagen-like region located near the N terminus and a C-terminal globular region. The A-, B-, and C-chains are arranged in the order A-C-B on chromosome 1. This gene encodes the A-chain polypeptide of human complement subcomponent C1q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC392145 Gene

exosome component 6 pseudogene

NDC80 Gene

NDC80 kinetochore complex component

This gene encodes a component of the NDC80 kinetochore complex. The encoded protein consists of an N-terminal microtubule binding domain and a C-terminal coiled-coiled domain that interacts with other components of the complex. This protein functions to organize and stabilize microtubule-kinetochore interactions and is required for proper chromosome segregation. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

DLST Gene

dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (E2 component of 2-oxo-glutarate complex)

This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein that belongs to the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase family. This protein is one of the three components (the E2 component) of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex that catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

LOC644145 Gene

exocyst complex component 1 pseudogene

LOC100421179 Gene

component of oligomeric golgi complex 1 pseudogene

LOC100422671 Gene

cell division cycle 73, Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex component, homolog (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene

LIN9 Gene

lin-9 DREAM MuvB core complex component

This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein that inhibits DNA synthesis and oncogenic transformation through association with the retinoblastoma 1 protein. The encoded protein also interacts with a complex of other cell cycle regulators to repress cell cycle-dependent gene expression in non-dividing cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

C3AR1 Gene

complement component 3a receptor 1

LOC100422408 Gene

LanC lantibiotic synthetase component C-like 3 (bacterial) pseudogene

NUCKS1 Gene

nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1

This gene encodes a nuclear protein that is highly conserved in vertebrates. The conserved regions of the protein contain several consensus phosphorylation sites for casein kinase II and cyclin-dependent kinases, two putative nuclear localization signals, and a basic DNA-binding domain. It is phosphorylated in vivo by Cdk1 during mitosis of the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

SMG1 Gene

SMG1 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase

This gene encodes a protein involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) as part of the mRNA surveillance complex. The protein has kinase activity and is thought to function in NMD by phosphorylating the regulator of nonsense transcripts 1 protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

LOC100422558 Gene

SMG1 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase pseudogene

DTYMK Gene

deoxythymidylate kinase (thymidylate kinase)

CDKL1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 1 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

CDKL2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the cytoplasm, with lower levels in the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105370815 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 3-like

LOC100293704 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 3-like

LOC105373989 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

LOC105379472 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 3-like

LOC105378579 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

CSRNP1 Gene

cysteine-serine-rich nuclear protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that localizes to the nucleus and expression of this gene is induced in response to elevated levels of axin. The Wnt signalling pathway, which is negatively regulated by axin, is important in axis formation in early development and impaired regulation of this signalling pathway is often involved in tumors. A decreased level of expression of this gene in tumors compared to the level of expression in their corresponding normal tissues suggests that this gene product has a tumor suppressor function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CSRNP2 Gene

cysteine-serine-rich nuclear protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CSRNP family of nuclear proteins that share conserved regions, including cysteine- and serine- rich regions, a basic domain, a transcriptional activation domain, and bind the sequence 'AGAGTG', thus have the hallmark of transcription factors. Studies in mice suggest that these genes may have redundant functions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

CSRNP3 Gene

cysteine-serine-rich nuclear protein 3

CLASRP Gene

CLK4-associating serine/arginine rich protein

LOC105369728 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

RNPS1P1 Gene

RNA binding protein S1, serine-rich domain pseudogene 1

LOC105373800 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

LOC105379416 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

LOC105379046 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

LOC729870 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1

TOPORS Gene

topoisomerase I binding, arginine/serine-rich, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a nuclear protein which is serine and arginine rich, and contains a RING-type zinc finger domain. It is highly expressed in the testis, and functions as an ubiquitin-protein E3 ligase. Mutations in this gene are associated with retinitis pigmentosa type 31. Alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding different isoforms, have been observed for this locus. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

LOC101927764 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

LOC102723618 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

CCSER1 Gene

coiled-coil serine-rich protein 1

PNISR Gene

PNN-interacting serine/arginine-rich protein

SSMEM1 Gene

serine-rich single-pass membrane protein 1

RNPS1 Gene

RNA binding protein S1, serine-rich domain

This gene encodes a protein that is part of a post-splicing multiprotein complex involved in both mRNA nuclear export and mRNA surveillance. mRNA surveillance detects exported mRNAs with truncated open reading frames and initiates nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). When translation ends upstream from the last exon-exon junction, this triggers NMD to degrade mRNAs containing premature stop codons. This protein binds to the mRNA and remains bound after nuclear export, acting as a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. This protein contains many serine residues. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

LOC100129098 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 2-like

CCSER2 Gene

coiled-coil serine-rich protein 2

LOC105377064 Gene

aspartate, glycine, lysine and serine-rich protein-like

LOC105371040 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 2-like

LOC101927859 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 2-like

LOC105375305 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

LOC105378193 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 5-like

LOC100130459 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix protein 1-like

RSRP1 Gene

arginine/serine-rich protein 1

LOC100127962 Gene

coiled-coil serine-rich protein 2 pseudogene

LOC101928952 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase small subunit A pseudogene

SRSF9P1 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 9 pseudogene 1

RSRC1 Gene

arginine/serine-rich coiled-coil 1

This gene encodes a member of the serine and arginine rich-related protein family. The encoded protein is involved in both constitutive and alternative mRNA splicing. This gene may be associated with schizophrenia. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 9. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

RSRC2 Gene

arginine/serine-rich coiled-coil 2

PRSS3P3 Gene

protease, serine, 3 pseudogene 3

SDS Gene

serine dehydratase

This gene encodes one of three enzymes that are involved in metabolizing serine and glycine. L-serine dehydratase converts L-serine to pyruvate and ammonia and requires pyridoxal phosphate as a cofactor. The encoded protein can also metabolize threonine to NH4+ and 2-ketobutyrate. The encoded protein is found predominantly in the liver. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRSS33 Gene

protease, serine, 33

PRSS37 Gene

protease, serine, 37

PRSS38 Gene

protease, serine, 38

LOC100533678 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 1 pseudogene

SPTLC1P1 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 1

SPTLC1P2 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 2

SPTLC1P5 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 5

SPTLC1P4 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 4

PRSS46 Gene

protease, serine, 46

PRSS43 Gene

protease, serine, 43

SRSF11 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 11

This gene encodes 54-kD nuclear protein that contains an arginine/serine-rich region similar to segments found in pre-mRNA splicing factors. Although the function of this protein is not yet known, structure and immunolocalization data suggest that it may play a role in pre-mRNA processing. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different proteins. In addition, a pseudogene of this gene has been found on chromosome 12.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF10 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10

This gene product is a member of the serine-arginine (SR) family of proteins, which are involved in constitutive and regulated RNA splicing. Members of this family are characterized by N-terminal RNP1 and RNP2 motifs, which are required for binding to RNA, and multiple C-terminal SR/RS repeats, which are important in mediating association with other cellular proteins. This protein interacts with the oncoprotein TLS, and abrogates the influence of TLS on adenovirus E1A pre-mRNA splicing. This gene has pseudogenes on chromosomes 4, 9, 14, 18, and 20. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

SRSF12 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 12

PRSS3P1 Gene

protease, serine, 3 pseudogene 1

LOC100631255 Gene

arginine/serine-rich coiled-coil 2 pseudogene

PROSER1 Gene

proline and serine rich 1

This gene encodes a conserved protein containing proline and serine rich regions. These regions may be important in protein-protein interactions. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

PROSER2 Gene

proline and serine rich 2

PROSER3 Gene

proline and serine rich 3

SPINK9 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 9

SPINK8 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 8 (putative)

SERINC5 Gene

serine incorporator 5

SERINC4 Gene

serine incorporator 4

SERINC1 Gene

serine incorporator 1

SERINC3 Gene

serine incorporator 3

SERINC2 Gene

serine incorporator 2

KAZALD1 Gene

Kazal-type serine peptidase inhibitor domain 1

This gene encodes a secreted member of the insulin growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) superfamily. It contains an N-terminal insulin growth factor-binding domain, a central Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor and follistatin-like domain, and a C-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain. Studies of the mouse ortholog suggest that this gene product may have a function in bone development and bone regeneration. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

PRSS1 Gene

protease, serine, 1 (trypsin 1)

This gene encodes a trypsinogen, which is a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. This enzyme is secreted by the pancreas and cleaved to its active form in the small intestine. It is active on peptide linkages involving the carboxyl group of lysine or arginine. Mutations in this gene are associated with hereditary pancreatitis. This gene and several other trypsinogen genes are localized to the T cell receptor beta locus on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRSS3 Gene

protease, serine, 3

This gene encodes a trypsinogen, which is a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. This enzyme is expressed in the brain and pancreas and is resistant to common trypsin inhibitors. It is active on peptide linkages involving the carboxyl group of lysine or arginine. This gene is localized to the locus of T cell receptor beta variable orphans on chromosome 9. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

PRSS2 Gene

protease, serine, 2 (trypsin 2)

This gene belongs to the trypsin family of serine proteases and encodes anionic trypsinogen. It is part of a cluster of trypsinogen genes that are located within the T cell receptor beta locus. Enzymes of this family cleave peptide bonds that follow lysine or arginine residues. This protein is found at high levels in pancreatic juice and its upregulation is a characteristic feature of pancreatitis. This protein has also been found to activate pro-urokinase in ovarian tumors, suggesting a function in tumor invasion. In addition, this enzyme is able to cleave across the type II collagen triple helix in rheumatoid arthritis synovitis tissue, potentially participating in the degradation of type II collagen-rich cartilage matrix. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

PRSS8 Gene

protease, serine, 8

This gene encodes a trypsinogen, which is a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. This enzyme is highly expressed in prostate epithelia and is one of several proteolytic enzymes found in seminal fluid. The proprotein is cleaved to produce a light chain and a heavy chain which are associated by a disulfide bond. It is active on peptide linkages involving the carboxyl group of lysine or arginine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMPRSS11GP Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11G, pseudogene

LOC392439 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 pseudogene

LOC100129391 Gene

zinc finger (CCCH type), RNA-binding motif and serine/arginine rich 2 pseudogene

SRRM1 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 1

SRRM3 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 3

SRRM2 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 2

SRRM5 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 5

SRRM4 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 4

SRRM4 promotes alternative splicing and inclusion of neural-specific exons in target mRNAs (Calarco et al., 2009 [PubMed 19737518]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

TRNAS-CGA Gene

transfer RNA serine (anticodon CGA)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

SPATS2L Gene

spermatogenesis associated, serine-rich 2-like

PRSS29P Gene

protease, serine, 29, pseudogene

LOC643118 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 pseudogene

PRSS55 Gene

protease, serine, 55

This gene encodes a member of a group of membrane-anchored chymotrypsin (S1)-like serine proteases. The enocoded protein is primarily expressed in the Leydig and Sertoli cells of the testis and may be involved in male fertility. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

PRSS54 Gene

protease, serine, 54

This gene encodes a putative serine-type endopeptidase containing the peptidase S1 domain. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

PRSS57 Gene

protease, serine, 57

PRSS56 Gene

protease, serine, 56

This gene encodes a protein that contains a peptidase S1 domain and possesses trypsin-like serine protease activity. The encoded protein may play a role in eye development, and mutations in this gene are a cause of autosomal recessive posterior microphthalmos. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

PRSS51 Gene

protease, serine, 51

PRSS50 Gene

protease, serine, 50

PRSS53 Gene

protease, serine, 53

PRSS58 Gene

protease, serine, 58

This gene encodes a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. This gene and several related trypsinogen genes are localized to the T cell receptor beta locus on chromosome 7. This gene was previously described as a trypsinogen-like pseudogene, but it is now thought to be a protein-coding gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRNAS-AGA Gene

transfer RNA serine (anticodon AGA)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

SCPEP1 Gene

serine carboxypeptidase 1

SHMT2 Gene

serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (mitochondrial)

This gene encodes the mitochondrial form of a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction of serine and tetrahydrofolate to glycine and 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate. The encoded product is primarily responsible for glycine synthesis. The activity of the encoded protein has been suggested to be the primary source of intracellular glycine. The gene which encodes the cytosolic form of this enzyme is located on chromosome 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SHMT1 Gene

serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (soluble)

This gene encodes the cytosolic form of serine hydroxymethyltransferase, a pyridoxal phosphate-containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of serine and tetrahydrofolate to glycine and 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate. This reaction provides one-carbon units for synthesis of methionine, thymidylate, and purines in the cytoplasm. This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

QSER1 Gene

glutamine and serine rich 1

SRRM1P2 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 1 pseudogene 2

SRRM1P3 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 1 pseudogene 3

SRRM1P1 Gene

serine/arginine repetitive matrix 1 pseudogene 1

SPTLC2 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 2

This gene encodes a long chain base subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase. Serine palmitoyltransferase, which consists of two different subunits, is the key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis. It catalyzes the pyridoxal-5-prime-phosphate-dependent condensation of L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA to 3-oxosphinganine. Mutations in this gene were identified in patients with hereditary sensory neuropathy type I. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

SPTLC3 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 3

The SPTLC3 gene encodes an isoform of the third subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT; EC 2.3.1.50), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the de novo synthesis of sphingolipids (Hornemann et al., 2006 [PubMed 17023427]). SPT contains 2 main subunits: the common SPTLC1 subunit (MIM 605712) and either SPTLC2 (MIM 605713) or its isoform SPTLC2L (SPTLC3), depending on the tissue in which biosynthesis occurs (Hornemann et al., 2006 [PubMed 17023427]). There are also 2 highly related isoforms of a third subunit, SSSPTA (MIM 613540) and SSSPTB (MIM 610412), that confer acyl-CoA preference of the SPT enzyme and are essential for maximal enzyme activity (Han et al., 2009 [PubMed 19416851]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

SPTLC1 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1

This gene encodes a member of the class-II pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family. The encoded protein is the long chain base subunit 1 of serine palmitoyltransferase. Serine palmitoyltransferase converts L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA to 3-oxosphinganine with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and is the key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis. Mutations in this gene were identified in patients with hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1. Alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. Pseudogenes of this gene have been defined on chromosomes 1, 6, 10, and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

TMPRSS12 Gene

transmembrane (C-terminal) protease, serine 12

TMPRSS13 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 13

This gene encodes a member of the type II transmembrane serine protease family. Transmembrane serine proteases are regulated by protease inhibitors and known to function in development, homeostasis, infection, and tumorigenesis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

TMPRSS15 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 15

This gene encodes an enzyme that converts the pancreatic proenzyme trypsinogen to trypsin, which activates other proenzymes including chymotrypsinogen and procarboxypeptidases. The precursor protein is cleaved into two chains that form a heterodimer linked by a disulfide bond. This protein is a member of the trypsin family of peptidases. Mutations in this gene cause enterokinase deficiency, a malabsorption disorder characterized by diarrhea and failure to thrive. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SDSL Gene

serine dehydratase-like

OSER1 Gene

oxidative stress responsive serine-rich 1

TMPRSS11CP Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11C, pseudogene

PRSS52P Gene

protease, serine, 52, pseudogene

CORIN Gene

corin, serine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the type II transmembrane serine protease class of the trypsin superfamily. Members of this family are composed of multiple structurally distinct domains. The encoded protein converts pro-atrial natriuretic peptide to biologically active atrial natriuretic peptide, a cardiac hormone that regulates blood volume and pressure. This protein may also function as a pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide convertase. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

SPINT2 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type, 2

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein with two extracellular Kunitz domains that inhibits a variety of serine proteases. The protein inhibits HGF activator which prevents the formation of active hepatocyte growth factor. This gene is a putative tumor suppressor, and mutations in this gene result in congenital sodium diarrhea. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SPINT1 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors. The protein is a potent inhibitor specific for HGF activator and is thought to be involved in the regulation of the proteolytic activation of HGF in injured tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPINT4 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 4

PSRC1 Gene

proline/serine-rich coiled-coil 1

This gene encodes a proline-rich protein that is a target for regulation by the tumor suppressor protein p53. The encoded protein plays an important role in mitosis by recruiting and regulating microtubule depolymerases that destabalize microtubules. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

PRSS27 Gene

protease, serine 27

Pancreasin is a pancreatic tryptic serine peptidase that cleaves peptides after an arginine residue.[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2003]

PRSS21 Gene

protease, serine, 21 (testisin)

This gene encodes a cell-surface anchored serine protease, which is a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. The encoded protein is predicted to be active on peptide linkages involving the carboxyl group of lysine or arginine. The encoded protein localizes to the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane of premeiotic testicular germ cells and may be involved in progression of testicular tumors of germ cell origin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PRSS22 Gene

protease, serine, 22

This gene encodes a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. The enzyme is expressed in the airways in a developmentally regulated manner. The gene is part of a cluster of serine protease genes on chromosome 16. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRSS23 Gene

protease, serine, 23

This gene encodes a conserved member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. Mouse studies found a decrease of mRNA levels of this gene after ovulation was induced. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

TOPORSLP Gene

topoisomerase I binding, arginine/serine-rich like, pseudogene

SERHL2 Gene

serine hydrolase-like 2

LOC644422 Gene

splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich 6 pseudogene

SRSF10P2 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10 pseudogene 2

SPTSSA Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, small subunit A

Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT; EC 2.3.1.50) catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. SSSPTA is a small SPT subunit that stimulates SPT activity and confers acyl-CoA preference to the SPT catalytic heterodimer of SPTLC1 (MIM 605712) and either SPTLC2 (MIM 605713) or SPTLC3 (MIM 611120) (Han et al., 2009 [PubMed 19416851]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

SPTSSB Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, small subunit B

Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT; EC 2.3.1.50) catalyzes the first committed and rate-limiting step in sphingolipid biosynthesis. SSSPTB is a small SPT subunit that stimulates SPT activity and confers acyl-CoA preference to the SPT catalytic heterodimer of SPTLC1 (MIM 605712) and either SPTLC2 (MIM 605713) or SPTLC3 (MIM 611120) (Han et al., 2009 [PubMed 19416851]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

SERTM1 Gene

serine-rich and transmembrane domain containing 1

ZRSR1 Gene

zinc finger (CCCH type), RNA-binding motif and serine/arginine rich 1

LOC100506569 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 pseudogene

PRSS3P2 Gene

protease, serine, 3 pseudogene 2

Although this locus appears to encode a protein similar to trypsinogen, the locus is thought to be a transcribed pseudogene. ESTs support its transcription, but expression of its predicted protein has not been observed. Its predicted protein sequence differs significantly from the known functional trypsinogens, including a different amino acid at the conserved residue 122 which is important for autolysis. This pseudogene and several other trypsinogen genes are localized to the T cell receptor beta locus on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421293 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10 pseudogene

LOC401777 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10 pseudogene

SPINK14 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 14 (putative)

SPINK13 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 13 (putative)

LOC100422263 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 2 pseudogene

PRSS36 Gene

protease, serine, 36

PRSS35 Gene

protease, serine, 35

LOC100131114 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 pseudogene

SPTLC1P3 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 3

LOC100500773 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 pseudogene

LOC100128442 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 6 pseudogene

SPINT3 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type, 3

TRNAS-UGA Gene

transfer RNA serine (anticodon UGA)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

PRSS47 Gene

protease, serine, 47

PRSS45 Gene

protease, serine, 45

PRSS42 Gene

protease, serine, 42

PRSS41 Gene

protease, serine, 41

PRSS48 Gene

protease, serine, 48

SPINK7 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 7 (putative)

SPINK6 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor that acts on kallikrein-related peptidases in the skin. Two transcript variants the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

SPINK5 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 5

This gene encodes a multidomain serine protease inhibitor that contains 15 potential inhibitory domains. The inhibitor may play a role in skin and hair morphogenesis and anti-inflammatory and/or antimicrobial protection of mucous epithelia. Mutations may result in Netherton syndrome, a disorder characterized by ichthyosis, defective cornification, and atopy. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPINK4 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 4

SPINK2 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 2 (acrosin-trypsin inhibitor)

This gene encodes a member of the family of serine protease inhibitors of the Kazal type (SPINK). The encoded protein acts as a trypsin and acrosin inhibitor in the genital tract and is localized in the spermatozoa. The protein has been associated with the progression of lymphomas. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

SPINK1 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a trypsin inhibitor, which is secreted from pancreatic acinar cells into pancreatic juice. It is thought to function in the prevention of trypsin-catalyzed premature activation of zymogens within the pancreas and the pancreatic duct. Mutations in this gene are associated with hereditary pancreatitis and tropical calcific pancreatitis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

SRSF1P1 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 pseudogene 1

SRSF11P1 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 11 pseudogene 1

ZRSR2 Gene

zinc finger (CCCH type), RNA-binding motif and serine/arginine rich 2

This gene encodes an essential splicing factor. The encoded protein associates with the U2 auxiliary factor heterodimer, which is required for the recognition of a functional 3' splice site in pre-mRNA splicing, and may play a role in network interactions during spliceosome assembly. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMPRSS11A Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11A

TMPRSS11B Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11B

TMPRSS11D Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11D

This gene encodes a trypsin-like serine protease released from the submucosal serous glands onto mucous membrane. It is a type II integral membrane protein and has 29-38% identity in the sequence of the catalytic region with human hepsin, enteropeptidase, acrosin, and mast cell tryptase. The noncatalytic region has little similarity to other known proteins. This protein may play some biological role in the host defense system on the mucous membrane independently of or in cooperation with other substances in airway mucous or bronchial secretions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMPRSS11E Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11E

TMPRSS11F Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 11F

SRSF5 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which constitute part of the spliceosome. Each of these factors contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding RNA and an RS domain for binding other proteins. The RS domain is rich in serine and arginine residues and facilitates interaction between different SR splicing factors. In addition to being critical for mRNA splicing, the SR proteins have also been shown to be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and in translation. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF4 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 4

This gene encodes a member of the arginine/serine-rich splicing factor family. The encoded protein likely functions in mRNA processing. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

SRSF7 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which constitute part of the spliceosome. Each of these factors contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding RNA and an RS domain for binding other proteins. The RS domain is rich in serine and arginine residues and facilitates interaction between different SR splicing factors. In addition to being critical for mRNA splicing, the SR proteins have also been shown to be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and in translation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF6 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 6

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in mRNA splicing and may play a role in the determination of alternative splicing. The encoded nuclear protein belongs to the splicing factor SR family and has been shown to bind with and modulate another member of the family, SFRS12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. In addition, two pseudogenes, one on chromosome 17 and the other on the X chromosome, have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF1 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1

This gene encodes a member of the arginine/serine-rich splicing factor protein family. The encoded protein can either activate or repress splicing, depending on its phosphorylation state and its interaction partners. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. There is a pseudogene of this gene on chromosome 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

SRSF3 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which constitute part of the spliceosome. Each of these factors contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding RNA and an RS domain for binding other proteins. The RS domain is rich in serine and arginine residues and facilitates interaction between different SR splicing factors. In addition to being critical for mRNA splicing, the SR proteins have also been shown to be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and in translation. Two transcript variants, one protein-coding and the other non-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF2 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which constitute part of the spliceosome. Each of these factors contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding RNA and an RS domain for binding other proteins. The RS domain is rich in serine and arginine residues and facilitates interaction between different SR splicing factors. In addition to being critical for mRNA splicing, the SR proteins have also been shown to be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and in translation. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein and one non-coding transcript variant have been found for this gene. In addition, a pseudogene of this gene has been found on chromosome 11. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF9 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/arginine (SR)-rich family of pre-mRNA splicing factors, which constitute part of the spliceosome. Each of these factors contains an RNA recognition motif (RRM) for binding RNA and an RS domain for binding other proteins. The RS domain is rich in serine and arginine residues and facilitates interaction between different SR splicing factors. In addition to being critical for mRNA splicing, the SR proteins have also been shown to be involved in mRNA export from the nucleus and in translation. Two pseudogenes, one on chromosome 15 and the other on chromosome 21, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SRSF8 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 8

This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins containing a ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-type RNA binding motif and a carboxyl-terminal arginine-serine-rich (RS) domain. The encoded protein functions as a pre-mRNA splicing factor. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 7. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

SRR Gene

serine racemase

LOC100421235 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 9 pseudogene

SHMT1P1 Gene

serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (soluble) pseudogene 1

LOC100128297 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10 pseudogene

LOC647145 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 8 pseudogene

SPINT5P Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 5, pseudogene

SERHL Gene

serine hydrolase-like (pseudogene)

PRSS12 Gene

protease, serine, 12 (neurotrypsin, motopsin)

This gene encodes a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. Studies in mouse suggest that the encoded enzyme may be involved in structural reorganizations associated with learning and memory. The enzyme is also expressed in Leydig cells in the testis, but its function in this tissue is unknown. Defects in this gene are a cause of mental retardation autosomal recessive type 1 (MRT1). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

PRSS16 Gene

protease, serine, 16 (thymus)

This gene encodes a serine protease expressed exclusively in the thymus. It is thought to play a role in the alternative antigen presenting pathway used by cortical thymic epithelial cells during the positive selection of T cells. The gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6, near the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region. A second transcript variant has been described, but its full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GZMA Gene

granzyme A (granzyme 1, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase 3)

Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells share the remarkable ability to recognize, bind, and lyse specific target cells. They are thought to protect their host by lysing cells bearing on their surface 'nonself' antigens, usually peptides or proteins resulting from infection by intracellular pathogens. The protein described here is a T cell- and natural killer cell-specific serine protease that may function as a common component necessary for lysis of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GZMB Gene

granzyme B (granzyme 2, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated serine esterase 1)

Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells share the remarkable ability to recognize, bind, and lyse specific target cells. They are thought to protect their host by lysing cells bearing on their surface 'nonself' antigens, usually peptides or proteins resulting from infection by intracellular pathogens. The protein encoded by this gene is crucial for the rapid induction of target cell apoptosis by CTL in cell-mediated immune response. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SRSF10P1 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 10 pseudogene 1

BPHL Gene

biphenyl hydrolase-like (serine hydrolase)

This gene encodes a member of the serine protease family of hydrolytic enzymes which contain a serine in their active site. The encoded protein may play a role in activation of the antiviral prodrug valacyclovir. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

LOC101929527 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 pseudogene

LOC100129202 Gene

arginine/serine-rich coiled-coil 1 pseudogene

LOC101060825 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 11-like

LOC100128964 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 3 pseudogene

PRSS44 Gene

protease, serine, 44

SERAC1 Gene

serine active site containing 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a phosphatidylglycerol remodeling protein found at the interface of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticula, where it mediates phospholipid exchange. The encoded protein plays a major role in mitochondrial function and intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Defects in this gene are a cause of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria with deafness, encephalopathy, and Leigh-like syndrome (MEGDEL). Two transcript variants, one protein-coding and the other non-protein coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

PRSS30P Gene

protease, serine, 30, pseudogene

MASP2 Gene

mannan-binding lectin serine peptidase 2

The Ra-reactive factor (RARF) is a complement-dependent bactericidal factor that binds to the Ra and R2 polysaccharides expressed by certain enterobacteria. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding two RARF components that are involved in the mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement activation. The longer isoform is cleaved into two chains which form a heterodimer linked by a disulfide bond. The encoded proteins are members of the trypsin family of peptidases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMPRSS9 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 9

TMPRSS2 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 2

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine protease family. The encoded protein contains a type II transmembrane domain, a receptor class A domain, a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain and a protease domain. Serine proteases are known to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes. This gene was demonstrated to be up-regulated by androgenic hormones in prostate cancer cells and down-regulated in androgen-independent prostate cancer tissue. The protease domain of this protein is thought to be cleaved and secreted into cell media after autocleavage. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

TMPRSS3 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 3

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine protease family. The encoded protein contains a serine protease domain, a transmembrane domain, an LDL receptor-like domain, and a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain. Serine proteases are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes, whose malfunction often leads to human diseases and disorders. This gene was identified by its association with both congenital and childhood onset autosomal recessive deafness. This gene is expressed in fetal cochlea and many other tissues, and is thought to be involved in the development and maintenance of the inner ear or the contents of the perilymph and endolymph. This gene was also identified as a tumor-associated gene that is overexpressed in ovarian tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

TMPRSS4 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 4

This gene encodes a member of the serine protease family. Serine proteases are known to be involved in a variety of biological processes, whose malfunction often leads to human diseases and disorders. This gene was identified as a gene overexpressed in pancreatic carcinoma. The encoded protein is membrane bound with a N-terminal anchor sequence and a glycosylated extracellular region containing the serine protease domain. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMPRSS5 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 5

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine protease family. Serine proteases are known to be involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

TMPRSS6 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane serine proteinase that is found attached to the cell surface. The encoded protein may be involved in matrix remodeling processes in the liver. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

TMPRSS7 Gene

transmembrane protease, serine 7

HTRA4 Gene

HtrA serine peptidase 4

This gene encodes a member of the HtrA family of proteases. The encoded protein contains a putative signal peptide, an insulin growth factor binding domain, a Kazal protease inhibitor domain, a conserved trypsin domain and a PDZ domain. Based on studies on other related family members, this enzyme may function as a secreted oligomeric chaperone protease to degrade misfolded secretory proteins. Other human HtrA proteins have been implicated in arthritis, tumor suppression, unfolded stress response, apoptosis, and aging. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

HTRA1 Gene

HtrA serine peptidase 1

This gene encodes a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. This protein is a secreted enzyme that is proposed to regulate the availability of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) by cleaving IGF-binding proteins. It has also been suggested to be a regulator of cell growth. Variations in the promoter region of this gene are the cause of susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration type 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HTRA2 Gene

HtrA serine peptidase 2

This gene encodes a serine protease. The protein has been localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and interacts with an alternatively spliced form of mitogen-activated protein kinase 14. The protein has also been localized to the mitochondria with release to the cytosol following apoptotic stimulus. The protein is thought to induce apoptosis by binding the apoptosis inhibitory protein baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 4. Nuclear localization of this protein has also been observed. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additional transcript variants have been described, but their full-length sequences have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HTRA3 Gene

HtrA serine peptidase 3

TRNAS-GCU Gene

transfer RNA serine (anticodon GCU)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

LOC105370297 Gene

serine/arginine-rich splicing factor SR45-like

SPATS1 Gene

spermatogenesis associated, serine-rich 1

SPATS2 Gene

spermatogenesis associated, serine-rich 2

LOC644172 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

MAPK1IP1L Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1-like

MAPKBP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase binding protein 1

MAPK8IPP Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein, pseudogene

PRKCDBP Gene

protein kinase C, delta binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a binding protein of the protein kinase C, delta (PRKCD). The expression of this gene in cultured cell lines is strongly induced by serum starvation. The expression of this protein was found to be down-regulated in various cancer cell lines, suggesting the possible tumor suppressor function of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SKP2 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbls class; in addition to an F-box, this protein contains 10 tandem leucine-rich repeats. This protein is an essential element of the cyclin A-CDK2 S-phase kinase. It specifically recognizes phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B, also referred to as p27 or KIP1) predominantly in S phase and interacts with S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1 or p19). In addition, this gene is established as a protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. Alternative splicing of this gene generates three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

LOC728098 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1-like pseudogene

MAPK8IP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a regulator of the pancreatic beta-cell function. It is highly similar to JIP-1, a mouse protein known to be a regulator of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (Mapk8). This protein has been shown to prevent MAPK8 mediated activation of transcription factors, and to decrease IL-1 beta and MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) induced apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells. This protein also functions as a DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2. RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is reported to repress the expression of this gene in insulin-secreting beta cells. This gene is found to be mutated in a type 2 diabetes family, and thus is thought to be a susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

MAPK8IP2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is closely related to MAPK8IP1/IB1/JIP-1, a scaffold protein that is involved in the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase signaling pathway. This protein is expressed in brain and pancreatic cells. It has been shown to interact with, and regulate the activity of MAPK8/JNK1, and MAP2K7/MKK7 kinases. This protein thus is thought to function as a regulator of signal transduction by protein kinase cascade in brain and pancreatic beta-cells. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

MAPK8IP3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the product of Drosophila syd gene, required for the functional interaction of kinesin I with axonal cargo. Studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that this protein may interact with, and regulate the activity of numerous protein kinases of the JNK signaling pathway, and thus function as a scaffold protein in neuronal cells. The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport possibly by integrating JNK signaling and kinesin-1 transport. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100130500 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

LOC100533949 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418685 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418686 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418687 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

MAPKAP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase associated protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the yeast SIN1 protein, a stress-activated protein kinase. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. Alternate polyadenylation sites as well as alternate 3' UTRs have been identified for transcripts of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100533950 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533951 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

TYROBP Gene

TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein

This gene encodes a transmembrane signaling polypeptide which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in its cytoplasmic domain. The encoded protein may associate with the killer-cell inhibitory receptor (KIR) family of membrane glycoproteins and may act as an activating signal transduction element. This protein may bind zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa (ZAP-70) and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and play a role in signal transduction, bone modeling, brain myelination, and inflammation. Mutations within this gene have been associated with polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL), also known as Nasu-Hakola disease. Its putative receptor, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), also causes PLOSL. Multiple alternative transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CKS1B Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B

CKS1B protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. The CKS1B mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects a specialized role for the encoded protein. At least two transcript variants have been identified for this gene, and it appears that only one of them encodes a protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

PRKAR2A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAR2B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) in activated T cells. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this subunit may play an important role in regulating energy balance and adiposity. The studies also suggest that this subunit may mediate the gene induction and cataleptic behavior induced by haloperidol. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105378950 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 7-like

SH3KBP1 Gene

SH3-domain kinase binding protein 1

This gene encodes an adapter protein that contains three N-terminal Src homology domains, a proline rich region and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. The encoded protein facilitates protein-protein interactions and has been implicated in numerous cellular processes including apoptosis, cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell adhesion and in the regulation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LOC642490 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 pseudogene

LOC646012 Gene

aurora kinase A interacting protein 1 pseudogene

IRAK1BP1 Gene

interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 binding protein 1

LOC105378176 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK2

MOK Gene

MOK protein kinase

This gene belongs to the MAP kinase superfamily. The gene was found to be regulated by caudal type transcription factor 2 (Cdx2) protein. The encoded protein, which is localized to epithelial cells in the intestinal crypt, may play a role in growth arrest and differentiation of cells of upper crypt and lower villus regions. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

CDK2AP1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) -associated protein which is thought to negatively regulate CDK2 activity by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting CDK2 for proteolysis. This protein was found to also interact with DNA polymerase alpha/primase and mediate the phosphorylation of the large p180 subunit, which suggests a regulatory role in DNA replication during the S-phase of the cell cycle. This protein also forms a core subunit of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation (NURD) complex that epigenetically regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation. This gene thus plays a role in both cell-cycle and epigenetic regulation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CDK2AP2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 1. Pseudogenes associated with this gene are located on chromosomes 7 and 9. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

TAB3P1 Gene

TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 3 pseudogene 1

PDPK2P Gene

3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 2, pseudogene

LOC101929421 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 pseudogene

LOC101929483 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 pseudogene

ROCK1 Gene

Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1

This gene encodes a protein serine/threonine kinase that is activated when bound to the GTP-bound form of Rho. The small GTPase Rho regulates formation of focal adhesions and stress fibers of fibroblasts, as well as adhesion and aggregation of platelets and lymphocytes by shuttling between the inactive GDP-bound form and the active GTP-bound form. Rho is also essential in cytokinesis and plays a role in transcriptional activation by serum response factor. This protein, a downstream effector of Rho, phosphorylates and activates LIM kinase, which in turn, phosphorylates cofilin, inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ROCK2 Gene

Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cytokinesis, smooth muscle contraction, the formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions, and the activation of the c-fos serum response element. This protein, which is an isozyme of ROCK1 is a target for the small GTPase Rho. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNK3 Gene

WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 3

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the 'with no lysine' family of serine-threonine protein kinases. These family members lack the catalytic lysine in subdomain II, and instead have a conserved lysine in subdomain I. This family member functions as a positive regulator of the transcellular Ca2+ transport pathway, and it plays a role in the increase of cell survival in a caspase-3-dependent pathway. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PKIG Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor gamma

This gene encodes a member of the protein kinase inhibitor family. Studies of a similar protein in mice suggest that this protein acts as a potent competitive cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, and is a predominant form of inhibitor in various tissues. The encoded protein may be involved in osteogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PKIA Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor family. This protein was demonstrated to interact with and inhibit the activities of both C alpha and C beta catalytic subunits of the PKA. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PKIB Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor beta

This gene encodes a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor family. The encoded protein may play a role in the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway by interacting with the catalytic subunit of PKA, and overexpression of this gene may play a role in prostate cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

MAPK3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act in a signaling cascade that regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals. This kinase is activated by upstream kinases, resulting in its translocation to the nucleus where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The activation of this kinase requires its phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Upon activation, this kinase translocates to the nucleus of the stimulated cells, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. One study also suggests that this protein acts as a transcriptional repressor independent of its kinase activity. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein, but differing in the UTRs, have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

MAPK6 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and is most closely related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases). MAP kinases also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), are activated through protein phosphorylation cascades and act as integration points for multiple biochemical signals. This kinase is localized in the nucleus, and has been reported to be activated in fibroblasts upon treatment with serum or phorbol esters. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 4

Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors activate mitogen-activated protein kinases which then translocate into the nucleus and phosphorylate nuclear targets. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

MAPK8 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various cell stimuli, and targets specific transcription factors, and thus mediates immediate-early gene expression in response to cell stimuli. The activation of this kinase by tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is found to be required for TNF-alpha induced apoptosis. This kinase is also involved in UV radiation induced apoptosis, which is thought to be related to cytochrom c-mediated cell death pathway. Studies of the mouse counterpart of this gene suggested that this kinase play a key role in T cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Five alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

MAPK9 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase targets specific transcription factors, and thus mediates immediate-early gene expression in response to various cell stimuli. It is most closely related to MAPK8, both of which are involved in UV radiation induced apoptosis, thought to be related to the cytochrome c-mediated cell death pathway. This gene and MAPK8 are also known as c-Jun N-terminal kinases. This kinase blocks the ubiquitination of tumor suppressor p53, and thus it increases the stability of p53 in nonstressed cells. Studies of this gene's mouse counterpart suggest a key role in T-cell differentiation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

RPS6KB3 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 3

LOC102723727 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 7-like

LOC100996361 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1 pseudogene

CKS2 Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2

CKS2 protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. The CKS2 mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects specialized role for the encoded protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HIPK2 Gene

homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2

This gene encodes a conserved serine/threonine kinase that is a member of the homeodomain-interacting protein kinase family. The encoded protein interacts with homeodomain transcription factors and many other transcription factors such as p53, and can function as both a corepressor and a coactivator depending on the transcription factor and its subcellular localization. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

LOC400026 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene

RPS6KB1 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1

This gene encodes a member of the ribosomal S6 kinase family of serine/threonine kinases. The encoded protein responds to mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling to promote protein synthesis, cell growth, and cell proliferation. Activity of this gene has been associated with human cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed. The use of alternative translation start sites results in isoforms with longer or shorter N-termini which may differ in their subcellular localizations. There are two pseudogenes for this gene on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

RPS6KB2 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 2

This gene encodes a member of the RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) family of serine/threonine kinases. This kinase contains a kinase catalytic domain and phosphorylates the S6 ribosomal protein and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B). Phosphorylation of S6 leads to an increase in protein synthesis and cell proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

CAMK2D Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a delta chain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Distinct isoforms of this chain have different expression patterns.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

CAMK2G Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma

The product of this gene is one of the four subunits of an enzyme which belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a gamma chain. Many alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described but the full-length nature of all the variants has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

CAMK2A Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinases family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. This calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The alpha chain encoded by this gene is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning. In addition to its calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent activity, this protein can undergo autophosphorylation, resulting in CaM-independent activity. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

CAMK2B Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a beta chain. It is possible that distinct isoforms of this chain have different cellular localizations and interact differently with calmodulin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

PRKDC Gene

protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). It functions with the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer protein in DNA double strand break repair and recombination. The protein encoded is a member of the PI3/PI4-kinase family.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

PRKAR1AP Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha pseudogene

PRKD1 Gene

protein kinase D1

PRKD1 is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates a variety of cellular functions, including membrane receptor signaling, transport at the Golgi, protection from oxidative stress at the mitochondria, gene transcription, and regulation of cell shape, motility, and adhesion (summary by Eiseler et al., 2009 [PubMed 19329994]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

PRKD2 Gene

protein kinase D2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein kinase D (PKD) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This kinase can be activated by phorbol esters as well as by gastrin via the cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR) in gastric cancer cells. It can bind to diacylglycerol (DAG) in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and may regulate basolateral membrane protein exit from TGN. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKD3 Gene

protein kinase D3

This gene belongs to the multigene protein kinase D family of serine/threonine kinases, which bind diacylglycerol and phorbol esters. Members of this family are characterized by an N-terminal regulatory domain comprised of a tandem repeat of cysteine-rich zinc-finger motifs and a pleckstrin domain. The C-terminal region contains the catalytic domain and is distantly related to calcium-regulated kinases. Catalytic activity of this enzyme promotes its nuclear localization. This protein has been implicated in a variety of functions including negative regulation of human airway epithelial barrier formation, growth regulation of breast and prostate cancer cells, and vesicle trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

JAKMIP3 Gene

Janus kinase and microtubule interacting protein 3

JAKMIP2 Gene

janus kinase and microtubule interacting protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is reported to be a component of the Golgi matrix. It may act as a golgin protein by negatively regulating transit of secretory cargo and by acting as a structural scaffold of the Golgi. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

JAKMIP1 Gene

janus kinase and microtubule interacting protein 1

LOC100420990 Gene

aurora kinase A interacting protein 1 pseudogene

CDK2AP2P1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene 1

CDK2AP2P3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene 3

IKBKAP Gene

inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase complex-associated protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a scaffold protein and a regulator for 3 different kinases involved in proinflammatory signaling. This encoded protein can bind NF-kappa-B-inducing kinase (NIK) and IKKs through separate domains and assemble them into an active kinase complex. Mutations in this gene have been associated with familial dysautonomia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKRAP1 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene 1

GRK6 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors thus initiating their deactivation. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRK7 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 7

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is specifically expressed in the retina and the encoded protein has been shown to phosphorylate cone opsins and initiate their deactivation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRK4 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors thus initiating its deactivation. This gene has been linked to both genetic and acquired hypertension. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

GRK5 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors thus initiating their deactivation. It has also been shown to play a role in regulating the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRK1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates rhodopsin and initiates its deactivation. Defects in GRK1 are known to cause Oguchi disease 2 (also known as stationary night blindness Oguchi type-2). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DAPK3 Gene

death-associated protein kinase 3

Death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK3) induces morphological changes in apoptosis when overexpressed in mammalian cells. These results suggest that DAPK3 may play a role in the induction of apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DAPK2 Gene

death-associated protein kinase 2

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This protein contains a N-terminal protein kinase domain followed by a conserved calmodulin-binding domain with significant similarity to that of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), a positive regulator of programmed cell death. Overexpression of this gene was shown to induce cell apoptosis. It uses multiple polyadenylation sites. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DAPK1 Gene

death-associated protein kinase 1

Death-associated protein kinase 1 is a positive mediator of gamma-interferon induced programmed cell death. DAPK1 encodes a structurally unique 160-kD calmodulin dependent serine-threonine kinase that carries 8 ankyrin repeats and 2 putative P-loop consensus sites. It is a tumor suppressor candidate. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

PRKCSH Gene

protein kinase C substrate 80K-H

This gene encodes the beta-subunit of glucosidase II, an N-linked glycan-processing enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum. The encoded protein is an acidic phosphoprotein known to be a substrate for protein kinase C. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

PIK3IP1 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase interacting protein 1

PRKACG Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes the gamma form of its catalytic subunit. The gene is intronless and is thought to be a retrotransposon derived from the gene for the alpha form of the PKA catalytic subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKACA Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha

This gene encodes one of the catalytic subunits of protein kinase A, which exists as a tetrameric holoenzyme with two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits, in its inactive form. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinase A is important to many cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Constitutive activation of this gene caused either by somatic mutations, or genomic duplications of regions that include this gene, have been associated with hyperplasias and adenomas of the adrenal cortex and are linked to corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Tissue-specific isoforms that differ at the N-terminus have been described, and these isoforms may differ in the post-translational modifications that occur at the N-terminus of some isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

PRKACB Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein is a catalytic subunit of cAMP (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, which mediates signalling though cAMP. cAMP signaling is important to a number of processes, including cell proliferaton and differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

LOC100418693 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene

LOC100418694 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene

SKP1P3 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 pseudogene 3

SKP1P2 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 pseudogene 2

LOC101154643 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene

MARCKS Gene

myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate

The protein encoded by this gene is a substrate for protein kinase C. It is localized to the plasma membrane and is an actin filament crosslinking protein. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C or binding to calcium-calmodulin inhibits its association with actin and with the plasma membrane, leading to its presence in the cytoplasm. The protein is thought to be involved in cell motility, phagocytosis, membrane trafficking and mitogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKRIR Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor)

PRKG1 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I

Mammals have three different isoforms of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (Ialpha, Ibeta, and II). These PRKG isoforms act as key mediators of the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway and are important components of many signal transduction processes in diverse cell types. This PRKG1 gene on human chromosome 10 encodes the soluble Ialpha and Ibeta isoforms of PRKG by alternative transcript splicing. A separate gene on human chromosome 4, PRKG2, encodes the membrane-bound PRKG isoform II. The PRKG1 proteins play a central role in regulating cardiovascular and neuronal functions in addition to relaxing smooth muscle tone, preventing platelet aggregation, and modulating cell growth. This gene is most strongly expressed in all types of smooth muscle, platelets, cerebellar Purkinje cells, hippocampal neurons, and the lateral amygdala. Isoforms Ialpha and Ibeta have identical cGMP-binding and catalytic domains but differ in their leucine/isoleucine zipper and autoinhibitory sequences and therefore differ in their dimerization substrates and kinase enzyme activity. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PRKG2 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type II

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family of proteins. The encoded protein plays a role in the regulation of fluid balance in the intestine. A similar protein in mouse is thought to regulate differentiation and proliferation of cells in the colon. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

AKAP11 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 11

The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is expressed at high levels throughout spermatogenesis and in mature sperm. It binds the RI and RII subunits of PKA in testis. It may serve a function in cell cycle control of both somatic cells and germ cells in addition to its putative role in spermatogenesis and sperm function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK14 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 14

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various environmental stresses and proinflammatory cytokines. The activation requires its phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinases (MKKs), or its autophosphorylation triggered by the interaction of MAP3K7IP1/TAB1 protein with this kinase. The substrates of this kinase include transcription regulator ATF2, MEF2C, and MAX, cell cycle regulator CDC25B, and tumor suppressor p53, which suggest the roles of this kinase in stress related transcription and cell cycle regulation, as well as in genotoxic stress response. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK15 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 15

MAPK10 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 10

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This protein is a neuronal-specific form of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs). Through its phosphorylation and nuclear localization, this kinase plays regulatory roles in the signaling pathways during neuronal apoptosis. Beta-arrestin 2, a receptor-regulated MAP kinase scaffold protein, is found to interact with, and stimulate the phosphorylation of this kinase by MAP kinase kinase 4 (MKK4). Cyclin-dependent kianse 5 can phosphorylate, and inhibit the activity of this kinase, which may be important in preventing neuronal apoptosis. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK11 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 11

This gene encodes a member of a family of protein kinases that are involved in the integration of biochemical signals for a wide variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, transcriptional regulation, and development. The encoded protein can be activated by proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses through phosphorylation by mitogen activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

MAPK12 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 12

Activation of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family is a major mechanism for transduction of extracellular signals. Stress-activated protein kinases are one subclass of MAP kinases. The protein encoded by this gene functions as a signal transducer during differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK13 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 13

This gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The encoded protein is a p38 MAP kinase and is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and cellular stress. Substrates of the encoded protein include the transcription factor ATF2 and the microtubule dynamics regulator stathmin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CKS1BP4 Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B pseudogene 4

TYRO3 Gene

TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase

The gene is part of a 3-member transmembrane receptor kinase receptor family with a processed pseudogene distal on chromosome 15. The encoded protein is activated by the products of the growth arrest-specific gene 6 and protein S genes and is involved in controlling cell survival and proliferation, spermatogenesis, immunoregulation and phagocytosis. The encoded protein has also been identified as a cell entry factor for Ebola and Marburg viruses. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

SKP1 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 1

This gene encodes a component of SCF complexes, which are composed of this protein, cullin 1, a ring-box protein, and one member of the F-box family of proteins. This protein binds directly to the F-box motif found in F-box proteins. SCF complexes are involved in the regulated ubiquitination of specific protein substrates, which targets them for degradation by the proteosome. Specific F-box proteins recognize different target protein(s), and many specific SCF substrates have been identified including regulators of cell cycle progression and development. Studies have also characterized the protein as an RNA polymerase II elongation factor. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKRA Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator

This gene encodes a protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA which mediates the effects of interferon in response to viral infection. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

LOC100131680 Gene

52 kDa repressor of the inhibitor of the protein kinase-like

LOC105379534 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK2

LOC158948 Gene

protein kinase C, iota pseudogene

PRKAR1A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. This gene encodes one of the regulatory subunits. This protein was found to be a tissue-specific extinguisher that down-regulates the expression of seven liver genes in hepatoma x fibroblast hybrids. Mutations in this gene cause Carney complex (CNC). This gene can fuse to the RET protooncogene by gene rearrangement and form the thyroid tumor-specific chimeric oncogene known as PTC2. A nonconventional nuclear localization sequence (NLS) has been found for this protein which suggests a role in DNA replication via the protein serving as a nuclear transport protein for the second subunit of the Replication Factor C (RFC40). Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

PRKAR1B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, beta

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is an essential enzyme in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Through phosphorylation of target proteins, PKA controls many biochemical events in the cell including regulation of metabolism, ion transport, and gene transcription. The PKA holoenzyme is composed of 2 regulatory and 2 catalytic subunits and dissociates from the regulatory subunits upon binding of cAMP.[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

SKP1P1 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 pseudogene 1

RPS6KL1 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase-like 1

AKAP8L Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8-like

NAMA Gene

non-protein coding RNA, associated with MAP kinase pathway and growth arrest

CAMK2N2 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 2

This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the rat CaM-KII inhibitory protein, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII). CAMKII regulates numerous physiological functions, including neuronal synaptic plasticity through the phosphorylation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate (AMPA) receptors. Studies of the similar protein in rat suggest that this protein may function as a negative regulator of CaM-KII and may act to inhibit the phosphorylation of AMPA receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAMK2N1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1

MARCKSP1 Gene

myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate pseudogene 1

NRGN Gene

neurogranin (protein kinase C substrate, RC3)

Neurogranin (NRGN) is the human homolog of the neuron-specific rat RC3/neurogranin gene. This gene encodes a postsynaptic protein kinase substrate that binds calmodulin in the absence of calcium. The NRGN gene contains four exons and three introns. The exons 1 and 2 encode the protein and exons 3 and 4 contain untranslated sequences. It is suggested that the NRGN is a direct target for thyroid hormone in human brain, and that control of expression of this gene could underlay many of the consequences of hypothyroidism on mental states during development as well as in adult subjects. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422398 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

GIT1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting ArfGAP 1

GIT2 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting ArfGAP 2

This gene encodes a member of the GIT protein family, which interact with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and possess ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. GIT proteins traffic between cytoplasmic complexes, focal adhesions, and the cell periphery, and interact with Pak interacting exchange factor beta (PIX) to form large oligomeric complexes that transiently recruit other proteins. GIT proteins regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and participate in receptor internalization and membrane trafficking. This gene has been shown to repress lamellipodial extension and focal adhesion turnover, and is thought to regulate cell motility. This gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing to generate multiple isoforms, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. The various isoforms have functional differences, with respect to ARF GAP activity and to G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 binding. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

WNK4 Gene

WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 4

This gene encodes a member of the WNK family of serine-threonine protein kinases. The kinase is part of the tight junction complex in kidney cells, and regulates the balance between NaCl reabsorption and K(+) secretion. The kinase regulates the activities of several types of ion channels, cotransporters, and exchangers involved in electrolyte flux in epithelial cells. Mutations in this gene result in pseudohypoaldosteronism type IIB.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

MAPK6PS6 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 pseudogene 6

MAPK6PS3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 pseudogene 3

PRKY Gene

protein kinase, Y-linked, pseudogene

This gene is similar to the protein kinase, X-linked gene in the pseudoautosomal region of the X chromosome. The gene is classified as a transcribed pseudogene because it has lost a coding exon that results in all transcripts being candidates for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) and unlikely to express a protein. Abnormal recombination between this gene and a related gene on chromosome X is a frequent cause of XX males and XY females. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

PRKX Gene

protein kinase, X-linked

This gene encodes a serine threonine protein kinase that has similarity to the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases. The encoded protein is developmentally regulated and may be involved in renal epithelial morphogenesis. This protein may also be involved in macrophage and granulocyte maturation. Abnormal recombination between this gene and a related pseudogene on chromosome Y is a frequent cause of sex reversal disorder in XX males and XY females. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes X, 15 and Y. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

GRK6P1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 pseudogene 1

CAMK1G Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IG

This gene encodes a protein similar to calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKRIRP8 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 8

PRKRIRP9 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 9

PRKRIRP1 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 1

PRKRIRP2 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 2

PRKRIRP3 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 3

PRKRIRP4 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 4

PRKRIRP5 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 5

PRKRIRP6 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 6

PRKRIRP7 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 7

LOC101929775 Gene

C-Jun-amino-terminal kinase-interacting protein 1-like

ZAP70 Gene

zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa

This gene encodes an enzyme belonging to the protein tyrosine kinase family, and it plays a role in T-cell development and lymphocyte activation. This enzyme, which is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) stimulation, functions in the initial step of TCR-mediated signal transduction in combination with the Src family kinases, Lck and Fyn. This enzyme is also essential for thymocyte development. Mutations in this gene cause selective T-cell defect, a severe combined immunodeficiency disease characterized by a selective absence of CD8-positive T-cells. Two transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKXP1 Gene

protein kinase, X-linked, pseudogene 1

PRKXP2 Gene

protein kinase, X-linked, pseudogene 2

PTK2 Gene

protein tyrosine kinase 2

This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase which is found concentrated in the focal adhesions that form between cells growing in the presence of extracellular matrix constituents. The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases but lacks significant sequence similarity to kinases from other subfamilies. Activation of this gene may be an important early step in cell growth and intracellular signal transduction pathways triggered in response to certain neural peptides or to cell interactions with the extracellular matrix. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, but the full-length natures of only three of them have been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PTK7 Gene

protein tyrosine kinase 7 (inactive)

This gene encodes a member of the receptor protein tyrosine kinase family of proteins that transduce extracellular signals across the cell membrane. The encoded protein lacks detectable catalytic tyrosine kinase activity, is involved in the Wnt signaling pathway and plays a role in multiple cellular processes including polarity and adhesion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PTK6 Gene

protein tyrosine kinase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a cytoplasmic nonreceptor protein kinase which may function as an intracellular signal transducer in epithelial tissues. Overexpression of this gene in mammary epithelial cells leads to sensitization of the cells to epidermal growth factor and results in a partially transformed phenotype. Expression of this gene has been detected at low levels in some breast tumors but not in normal breast tissue. The encoded protein has been shown to undergo autophosphorylation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

PRKAA2 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a catalytic subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this catalytic subunit may control whole-body insulin sensitivity and is necessary for maintaining myocardial energy homeostasis during ischemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAA1 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, alpha 1 catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ser/thr protein kinase family. It is the catalytic subunit of the 5'-prime-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a cellular energy sensor conserved in all eukaryotic cells. The kinase activity of AMPK is activated by the stimuli that increase the cellular AMP/ATP ratio. AMPK regulates the activities of a number of key metabolic enzymes through phosphorylation. It protects cells from stresses that cause ATP depletion by switching off ATP-consuming biosynthetic pathways. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HIPK3 Gene

homeodomain interacting protein kinase 3

HIPK1 Gene

homeodomain interacting protein kinase 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Ser/Thr family of protein kinases and HIPK subfamily. It phosphorylates homeodomain transcription factors and may also function as a co-repressor for homeodomain transcription factors. Alternative splicing results in four transcript variants encoding four distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HIPK4 Gene

homeodomain interacting protein kinase 4

AURKAIP1 Gene

aurora kinase A interacting protein 1

LOC646214 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 2 pseudogene

SRPK2P Gene

SRSF protein kinase 2 pseudogene

PKN1 Gene

protein kinase N1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein kinase C superfamily. This kinase is activated by Rho family of small G proteins and may mediate the Rho-dependent signaling pathway. This kinase can be activated by phospholipids and by limited proteolysis. The 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase-1 (PDPK1/PDK1) is reported to phosphorylate this kinase, which may mediate insulin signals to the actin cytoskeleton. The proteolytic activation of this kinase by caspase-3 or related proteases during apoptosis suggests its role in signal transduction related to apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PKN3 Gene

protein kinase N3

PKN2 Gene

protein kinase N2

RPS6KA1 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 1

This gene encodes a member of the RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) family of serine/threonine kinases. This kinase contains 2 nonidentical kinase catalytic domains and phosphorylates various substrates, including members of the mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. The activity of this protein has been implicated in controlling cell growth and differentiation. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RPS6KA2 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 2

This gene encodes a member of the RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) family of serine/threonine kinases. This kinase contains 2 non-identical kinase catalytic domains and phosphorylates various substrates, including members of the mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. The activity of this protein has been implicated in controlling cell growth and differentiation. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RPS6KA3 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 3

This gene encodes a member of the RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) family of serine/threonine kinases. This kinase contains 2 non-identical kinase catalytic domains and phosphorylates various substrates, including members of the mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. The activity of this protein has been implicated in controlling cell growth and differentiation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RPS6KA4 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 4

This gene encodes a member of the RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) family of serine/threonine kinases. This kinase contains 2 non-identical kinase catalytic domains and phosphorylates various substrates, including CREB1 and c-fos. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RPS6KA5 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 5

RPS6KA6 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 6

This gene encodes a member of ribosomal S6 kinase family, serine-threonine protein kinases which are regulated by growth factors. The encoded protein may be distinct from other members of this family, however, as studies suggest it is not growth factor dependent and may not participate in the same signaling pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

LOC100422399 Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta pseudogene

CAMK1D Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ID

This gene is a member of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 family, a subfamily of the serine/threonine kinases. The encoded protein is a component of the calcium-regulated calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade. It has been associated with multiple processes including regulation of granulocyte function, activation of CREB-dependent gene transcription, aldosterone synthesis, differentiation and activation of neutrophil cells, and apoptosis of erythroleukemia cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms of this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

MAPK6PS4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 pseudogene 4

MAPK6PS5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 pseudogene 5

MAPK6PS2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 pseudogene 2

MAPK6PS1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 pseudogene 1

AKIP1 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a nuclear protein that interacts with protein kinase A catalytic subunit, and regulates the effect of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathway on the NF-kappa-B activation cascade. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

WNK2 Gene

WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a cytoplasmic serine-threonine kinase that belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. The protein plays an important role in the regulation of electrolyte homeostasis, cell signaling survival, and proliferation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

WNK1 Gene

WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the WNK subfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein may be a key regulator of blood pressure by controlling the transport of sodium and chloride ions. Mutations in this gene have been associated with pseudohypoaldosteronism type II and hereditary sensory neuropathy type II. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described but the full-length nature of all of them has yet to be determined.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PRKAB2 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, beta 2 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit may be a positive regulator of AMPK activity. It is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and thus may have tissue-specific roles. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PRKAB1 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, beta 1 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit may be a positive regulator of AMPK activity. The myristoylation and phosphorylation of this subunit have been shown to affect the enzyme activity and cellular localization of AMPK. This subunit may also serve as an adaptor molecule mediating the association of the AMPK complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TEC Gene

tec protein tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Tec family of non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases containing a pleckstrin homology domain. Tec family kinases are involved in the intracellular signaling mechanisms of cytokine receptors, lymphocyte surface antigens, heterotrimeric G-protein coupled receptors, and integrin molecules. They are also key players in the regulation of the immune functions. Tec kinase is an integral component of T cell signaling and has a distinct role in T cell activation. This gene may be associated with myelodysplastic syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FN3KRP Gene

fructosamine 3 kinase related protein

A high concentration of glucose can result in non-enzymatic oxidation of proteins by reaction of glucose and lysine residues (glycation). Proteins modified in this way are less active or functional. This gene encodes an enzyme which catalyzes the phosphorylation of psicosamines and ribulosamines compared to the neighboring gene which encodes a highly similar enzyme, fructosamine-3-kinase, which has different substrate specificity. The activity of both enzymes may result in deglycation of proteins to restore their function. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

AKAP14 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 14

The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The protein anchors PKA in ciliary axonemes and, in this way, may play a role in regulating ciliary beat frequency. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AKAP12 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 12

The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is expressed in endothelial cells, cultured fibroblasts, and osteosarcoma cells. It associates with protein kinases A and C and phosphatase, and serves as a scaffold protein in signal transduction. This protein and RII PKA colocalize at the cell periphery. This protein is a cell growth-related protein. Antibodies to this protein can be produced by patients with myasthenia gravis. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AKAP13 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 13

The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms containing c-terminal dbl oncogene homology (DH) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. The DH domain is associated with guanine nucleotide exchange activation for the Rho/Rac family of small GTP binding proteins, resulting in the conversion of the inactive GTPase to the active form capable of transducing signals. The PH domain has multiple functions. Therefore, these isoforms function as scaffolding proteins to coordinate a Rho signaling pathway, function as protein kinase A-anchoring proteins and, in addition, enhance ligand-dependent activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

AKAP10 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 10

This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchor protein family. A-kinase anchor proteins bind to the regulatory subunits of protein kinase A (PKA) and confine the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. The encoded protein is localized to mitochondria and interacts with both the type I and type II regulatory subunits of PKA. Polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

CKS1BP7 Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B pseudogene 7

CKS1BP6 Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B pseudogene 6

CKS1BP5 Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B pseudogene 5

CKS1BP3 Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B pseudogene 3

CKS1BP2 Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B pseudogene 2

CKS1BP1 Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B pseudogene 1

PKDCC Gene

protein kinase domain containing, cytoplasmic

ROCK1P1 Gene

Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 pseudogene 1

CAMK1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I is expressed in many tissues and is a component of a calmodulin-dependent protein kinase cascade. Calcium/calmodulin directly activates calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I by binding to the enzyme and indirectly promotes the phosphorylation and synergistic activation of the enzyme by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I kinase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAMK4 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This enzyme is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase with limited tissue distribution, that has been implicated in transcriptional regulation in lymphocytes, neurons and male germ cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AKAP17A Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 17A

This locus encodes a protein kinase A anchoring protein. The encoded protein is part of the spliceosome complex and is involved in the regulation of alternate splicing in some mRNA precursors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

AKAP4 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 4

The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is localized to the sperm flagellum and may be involved in the regulation of sperm motility. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AKAP5 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 5

The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein binds to the RII-beta regulatory subunit of PKA, and also to protein kinase C and the phosphatase calcineurin. It is predominantly expressed in cerebral cortex and may anchor the PKA protein at postsynaptic densities (PSD) and be involved in the regulation of postsynaptic events. It is also expressed in T lymphocytes and may function to inhibit interleukin-2 transcription by disrupting calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of NFAT. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AKAP6 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6

The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is highly expressed in various brain regions and cardiac and skeletal muscle. It is specifically localized to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membrane, and is involved in anchoring PKA to the nuclear membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AKAP7 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 7

This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) family, a group of functionally related proteins that bind to a regulatory subunit (RII) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and target the enzyme to specific subcellular compartments. AKAPs have a common RII-binding domain, but contain different targeting motifs responsible for directing PKA to distinct intracellular locations. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

AKAP1 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 1

The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein binds to type I and type II regulatory subunits of PKA and anchors them to the mitochondrion. This protein is speculated to be involved in the cAMP-dependent signal transduction pathway and in directing RNA to a specific cellular compartment. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AKAP2 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene binds to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and is found associated with the actin cytoskeleton. The encoded protein mediates signals carried by cAMP and may be involved in creating polarity in certain signaling processes. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

AKAP3 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 3

This gene encodes a member of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), a family of functionally related proteins that target protein kinase A to discrete locations within the cell. The encoded protein is reported to participate in protein-protein interactions with the R-subunit of the protein kinase A as well as sperm-associated proteins. This protein is expressed in spermatozoa and localized to the acrosomal region of the sperm head as well as the length of the principal piece. It may function as a regulator of motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

AKAP8 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8

This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchor protein family. A-kinase anchor proteins are scaffold proteins that contain a binding domain for the RI/RII subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and recruit PKA and other signaling molecules to specific subcellular locations. This gene encodes a nuclear A-kinase anchor protein that binds to the RII alpha subunit of PKA and may play a role in chromosome condensation during mitosis by targeting PKA and the condensin complex to chromatin. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

AKAP9 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 9

The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. Alternate splicing of this gene results in at least two isoforms that localize to the centrosome and the Golgi apparatus, and interact with numerous signaling proteins from multiple signal transduction pathways. These signaling proteins include type II protein kinase A, serine/threonine kinase protein kinase N, protein phosphatase 1, protein phosphatase 2a, protein kinase C-epsilon and phosphodiesterase 4D3. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

PRKAG1 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 1 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit is one of the gamma regulatory subunits of AMPK. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAG3 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 3 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit is one of the gamma regulatory subunits of AMPK. It is dominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. Studies of the pig counterpart suggest that this subunit may play a key role in the regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAG2 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 2 non-catalytic subunit

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric protein composed of a catalytic alpha subunit, a noncatalytic beta subunit, and a noncatalytic regulatory gamma subunit. Various forms of each of these subunits exist, encoded by different genes. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status and functions by inactivating key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This gene is a member of the AMPK gamma subunit family. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and glycogen storage disease of the heart. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

POMK Gene

protein-O-mannose kinase

This gene encodes a protein that may be involved in the presentation of the laminin-binding O-linked carbohydrate chain of alpha-dystroglycan (a-DG), which forms transmembrane linkages between the extracellular matrix and the exoskeleton. Some pathogens use this O-linked carbohydrate unit for host entry. Loss of function compound heterozygous mutations in this gene were found in a human patient affected by the Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) phenotype. Mice lacking this gene contain misplaced neurons (heterotopia) in some regions of the brain, possibly from defects in neuronal migration. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

DMPK Gene

dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine-threonine kinase that is closely related to other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. Substrates for this enzyme include myogenin, the beta-subunit of the L-type calcium channels, and phospholemman. The 3' untranslated region of this gene contains 5-37 copies of a CTG trinucleotide repeat. Expansion of this unstable motif to 50-5,000 copies causes myotonic dystrophy type I, which increases in severity with increasing repeat element copy number. Repeat expansion is associated with condensation of local chromatin structure that disrupts the expression of genes in this region. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AUNIP Gene

aurora kinase A and ninein interacting protein

LOC105371179 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK2

PAK4 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 4

PAK proteins, a family of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, include PAK1, PAK2, PAK3 and PAK4. PAK proteins are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. They serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. PAK4 interacts specifically with the GTP-bound form of Cdc42Hs and weakly activates the JNK family of MAP kinases. PAK4 is a mediator of filopodia formation and may play a role in the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAK6 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 6

This gene encodes a member of a family of p21-stimulated serine/threonine protein kinases, which contain an amino-terminal Cdc42/Rac interactive binding (CRIB) domain and a carboxyl-terminal kinase domain. These kinases function in a number of cellular processes, including cytoskeleton rearrangement, apoptosis, and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway. The protein encoded by this gene interacts with androgen receptor (AR) and translocates to the nucleus, where it is involved in transcriptional regulation. Changes in expression of this gene have been linked to prostate cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

PAK7 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PAK family of Ser/Thr protein kinases. PAK family members are known to be effectors of Rac/Cdc42 GTPases, which have been implicated in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics, proliferation, and cell survival signaling. This kinase contains a CDC42/Rac1 interactive binding (CRIB) motif, and has been shown to bind CDC42 in the presence of GTP. This kinase is predominantly expressed in brain. It is capable of promoting neurite outgrowth, and thus may play a role in neurite development. This kinase is associated with microtubule networks and induces microtubule stabilization. The subcellular localization of this kinase is tightly regulated during cell cycle progression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAK1 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1

This gene encodes a family member of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, known as PAK proteins. These proteins are critical effectors that link RhoGTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling, and they serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac. This specific family member regulates cell motility and morphology. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PAK2 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 2

The p21 activated kinases (PAK) are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. The PAK proteins are a family of serine/threonine kinases that serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins, CDC42 and RAC1, and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. The protein encoded by this gene is activated by proteolytic cleavage during caspase-mediated apoptosis, and may play a role in regulating the apoptotic events in the dying cell. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAK3 Gene

p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 3

PAK proteins are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. PAK proteins, a family of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and RAC and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. The protein encoded by this gene forms an activated complex with GTP-bound RAS-like (P21), CDC2 and RAC1 proteins which then catalyzes a variety of targets. This protein may be necessary for dendritic development and for the rapid cytoskeletal reorganization in dendritic spines associated with synaptic plasticity. Defects in this gene are the cause of non-syndromic mental retardation X-linked type 30 (MRX30), also called X-linked mental retardation type 47 (MRX47). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GKAP1 Gene

G kinase anchoring protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the mouse cGMP-dependent protein kinase anchoring protein 42kDa. The mouse protein has been found to localize with the Golgi and recruit cGMP-dependent protein kinase I alpha to the Golgi in mouse testes. It is thought to play a role in germ cell development. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

RPS6KC1 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 52kDa, polypeptide 1

TYRO3P Gene

TYRO3P protein tyrosine kinase pseudogene

TAB3 Gene

TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 3

The product of this gene functions in the NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway. The encoded protein, and the similar and functionally redundant protein MAP3K7IP2/TAB2, forms a ternary complex with the protein kinase MAP3K7/TAK1 and either TRAF2 or TRAF6 in response to stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF or IL-1. Subsequent MAP3K7/TAK1 kinase activity triggers a signaling cascade leading to activation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor. The human genome contains a related pseudogene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAB2 Gene

TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is an activator of MAP3K7/TAK1, which is required for for the IL-1 induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB and MAPK8/JNK. This protein forms a kinase complex with TRAF6, MAP3K7 and TAB1, and it thus serves as an adaptor that links MAP3K7 and TRAF6. This protein, along with TAB1 and MAP3K7, also participates in the signal transduction induced by TNFSF11/RANKl through the activation of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB (TNFRSF11A/RANK), which may regulate the development and function of osteoclasts. Studies of the related mouse protein indicate that it functions to protect against liver damage caused by chemical stressors. Mutations in this gene cause congenital heart defects, multiple types, 2 (CHTD2). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

TAB1 Gene

TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a regulator of the MAP kinase kinase kinase MAP3K7/TAK1, which is known to mediate various intracellular signaling pathways, such as those induced by TGF beta, interleukin 1, and WNT-1. This protein interacts and thus activates TAK1 kinase. It has been shown that the C-terminal portion of this protein is sufficient for binding and activation of TAK1, while a portion of the N-terminus acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of TGF beta, suggesting that this protein may function as a mediator between TGF beta receptors and TAK1. This protein can also interact with and activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14/p38alpha), and thus represents an alternative activation pathway, in addition to the MAPKK pathways, which contributes to the biological responses of MAPK14 to various stimuli. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421602 Gene

CDC42 binding protein kinase beta (DMPK-like) pseudogene

PRKCI Gene

protein kinase C, iota

This gene encodes a member of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The PKC family comprises at least eight members, which are differentially expressed and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. This protein kinase is calcium-independent and phospholipid-dependent. It is not activated by phorbolesters or diacylglycerol. This kinase can be recruited to vesicle tubular clusters (VTCs) by direct interaction with the small GTPase RAB2, where this kinase phosphorylates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD/GAPDH) and plays a role in microtubule dynamics in the early secretory pathway. This kinase is found to be necessary for BCL-ABL-mediated resistance to drug-induced apoptosis and therefore protects leukemia cells against drug-induced apoptosis. There is a single exon pseudogene mapped on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKCH Gene

protein kinase C, eta

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. It is a calcium-independent and phospholipids-dependent protein kinase. It is predominantly expressed in epithelial tissues and has been shown to reside specifically in the cell nucleus. This protein kinase can regulate keratinocyte differentiation by activating the MAP kinase MAPK13 (p38delta)-activated protein kinase cascade that targets CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA). It is also found to mediate the transcription activation of the transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKCA Gene

protein kinase C, alpha

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This kinase has been reported to play roles in many different cellular processes, such as cell adhesion, cell transformation, cell cycle checkpoint, and cell volume control. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this kinase may be a fundamental regulator of cardiac contractility and Ca(2+) handling in myocytes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKCB Gene

protein kinase C, beta

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This protein kinase has been reported to be involved in many different cellular functions, such as B cell activation, apoptosis induction, endothelial cell proliferation, and intestinal sugar absorption. Studies in mice also suggest that this kinase may also regulate neuronal functions and correlate fear-induced conflict behavior after stress. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKCE Gene

protein kinase C, epsilon

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This kinase has been shown to be involved in many different cellular functions, such as neuron channel activation, apoptosis, cardioprotection from ischemia, heat shock response, as well as insulin exocytosis. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this kinase is important for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated signaling in activated macrophages and may also play a role in controlling anxiety-like behavior. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKCD Gene

protein kinase C, delta

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play distinct roles in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. Studies both in human and mice demonstrate that this kinase is involved in B cell signaling and in the regulation of growth, apoptosis, and differentiation of a variety of cell types. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKCG Gene

protein kinase C, gamma

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play distinct roles in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This protein kinase is expressed solely in the brain and spinal cord and its localization is restricted to neurons. It has been demonstrated that several neuronal functions, including long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), specifically require this kinase. Knockout studies in mice also suggest that this kinase may be involved in neuropathic pain development. Defects in this protein have been associated with neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia-14 (SCA14). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKCZ Gene

protein kinase C, zeta

Protein kinase C (PKC) zeta is a member of the PKC family of serine/threonine kinases which are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and secretion. Unlike the classical PKC isoenzymes which are calcium-dependent, PKC zeta exhibits a kinase activity which is independent of calcium and diacylglycerol but not of phosphatidylserine. Furthermore, it is insensitive to typical PKC inhibitors and cannot be activated by phorbol ester. Unlike the classical PKC isoenzymes, it has only a single zinc finger module. These structural and biochemical properties indicate that the zeta subspecies is related to, but distinct from other isoenzymes of PKC. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKCQ Gene

protein kinase C, theta

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. It is a calcium-independent and phospholipid-dependent protein kinase. This kinase is important for T-cell activation. It is required for the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1, and may link the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling complex to the activation of the transcription factors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC101929242 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 pseudogene

AKAP8P1 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8 pseudogene 1

PIK3AP1 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor protein 1

AKAP17BP Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 17B, pseudogene

LOC100533853 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene

LOC100287072 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1 pseudogene

LOC100288962 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100420576 Gene

death-associated protein kinase 1 pseudogene

PDPK1 Gene

3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1

PTK2B Gene

protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta

This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase which is involved in calcium-induced regulation of ion channels and activation of the map kinase signaling pathway. The encoded protein may represent an important signaling intermediate between neuropeptide-activated receptors or neurotransmitters that increase calcium flux and the downstream signals that regulate neuronal activity. The encoded protein undergoes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation and activation in response to increases in the intracellular calcium concentration, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation, membrane depolarization, or protein kinase C activation. This protein has been shown to bind CRK-associated substrate, nephrocystin, GTPase regulator associated with FAK, and the SH2 domain of GRB2. The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases but lacks significant sequence similarity to kinases from other subfamilies. Four transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDC42BPG Gene

CDC42 binding protein kinase gamma (DMPK-like)

CDC42BPA Gene

CDC42 binding protein kinase alpha (DMPK-like)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family. This kinase contains multiple functional domains. Its kinase domain is highly similar to that of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK). This kinase also contains a Rac interactive binding (CRIB) domain, and has been shown to bind CDC42. It may function as a CDC42 downstream effector mediating CDC42 induced peripheral actin formation, and promoting cytoskeletal reorganization. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, and the full-length nature of two of them has been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDC42BPB Gene

CDC42 binding protein kinase beta (DMPK-like)

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein contains a Cdc42/Rac-binding p21 binding domain resembling that of PAK kinase. The kinase domain of this protein is most closely related to that of myotonic dystrophy kinase-related ROK. Studies of the similar gene in rat suggested that this kinase may act as a downstream effector of Cdc42 in cytoskeletal reorganization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK7 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is specifically activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MAP2K5/MEK5). It is involved in the downstream signaling processes of various receptor molecules including receptor type kinases, and G protein-coupled receptors. In response to extracelluar signals, this kinase translocates to cell nucleus, where it regulates gene expression by phosphorylating, and activating different transcription factors. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding two distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CINP Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 interacting protein

The protein encoded by this gene is reported to be a component of the DNA replication complex as well as a genome-maintenance protein. It may interact with proteins important for replication initiation and has been shown to bind chromatin at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and dissociate from chromatin with replication initiation. It may also serve to regulate checkpoint signaling as part of the DNA damage response. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

DOK1 Gene

docking protein 1, 62kDa (downstream of tyrosine kinase 1)

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a signal transduction pathway downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. The encoded protein is a scaffold protein that helps form a platform for the assembly of multiprotein signaling complexes. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

TTK Gene

TTK protein kinase

This gene encodes a dual specificity protein kinase with the ability to phosphorylate tyrosine, serine and threonine. Associated with cell proliferation, this protein is essential for chromosome alignment at the centromere during mitosis and is required for centrosome duplication. It has been found to be a critical mitotic checkpoint protein for accurate segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. Tumorigenesis may occur when this protein fails to degrade and produces excess centrosomes resulting in aberrant mitotic spindles. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

SRPK1 Gene

SRSF protein kinase 1

This gene encodes a serine/arginine protein kinase specific for the SR (serine/arginine-rich domain) family of splicing factors. The protein localizes to the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It is thought to play a role in regulation of both constitutive and alternative splicing by regulating intracellular localization of splicing factors. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene, but their full length nature have not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

SRPK3 Gene