Name

NURSA Protein Complexes Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

proteins identified in complexes isolated from cultured cells

NURSA Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

protein-protein interactions inferred from membership in complexes

IFNGR2 Gene

interferon gamma receptor 2 (interferon gamma transducer 1)

This gene (IFNGR2) encodes the non-ligand-binding beta chain of the gamma interferon receptor. Human interferon-gamma receptor is a heterodimer of IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. Defects in IFNGR2 are a cause of mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD), also known as familial disseminated atypical mycobacterial infection. MSMD is a genetically heterogeneous disease with autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked inheritance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFNAR2 Gene

interferon (alpha, beta and omega) receptor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane protein that forms one of the two chains of a receptor for interferons alpha and beta. Binding and activation of the receptor stimulates Janus protein kinases, which in turn phosphorylate several proteins, including STAT1 and STAT2. Multiple transcript variants encoding at least two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFNAR1 Gene

interferon (alpha, beta and omega) receptor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I membrane protein that forms one of the two chains of a receptor for interferons alpha and beta. Binding and activation of the receptor stimulates Janus protein kinases, which in turn phosphorylate several proteins, including STAT1 and STAT2. The encoded protein also functions as an antiviral factor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SRD5A2 Gene

steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 2 (3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase alpha 2)

This gene encodes a microsomal protein expressed at high levels in androgen-sensitive tissues such as the prostate. The encoded protein is active at acidic pH and is sensitive to the 4-azasteroid inhibitor finasteride. Deficiencies in this gene can result in male pseudohermaphroditism, specifically pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias (PPSH). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SRD5A1 Gene

steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 1 (3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase alpha 1)

Steroid 5-alpha-reductase (EC 1.3.99.5) catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Also see SRD5A2 (MIM 607306).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SRD5A1P1 Gene

steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 1 pseudogene 1 (3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase alpha pseudogene)

IFNA21 Gene

interferon, alpha 21

This gene is a member of the alpha interferon gene cluster on the short arm of chromosome 9. Interferons are cytokines produced in response to viral infection that mediate the immune response and interfere with viral replication. The encoded protein is a type I interferon and may play a specific role in the antiviral response to rubella virus. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

IFNA20P Gene

interferon, alpha 20, pseudogene

IFI27 Gene

interferon, alpha-inducible protein 27

IFNA6 Gene

interferon, alpha 6

IFI6 Gene

interferon, alpha-inducible protein 6

This gene was first identified as one of the many genes induced by interferon. The encoded protein may play a critical role in the regulation of apoptosis. A minisatellite that consists of 26 repeats of a 12 nucleotide repeating element resembling the mammalian splice donor consensus sequence begins near the end of the second exon. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms by using the two downstream repeat units as splice donor sites have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFNA12P Gene

interferon, alpha 12, pseudogene

IFNA22P Gene

interferon, alpha 22, pseudogene

IFNA11P Gene

interferon, alpha 11, pseudogene

IFNA8 Gene

interferon, alpha 8

IFNA2 Gene

interferon, alpha 2

This gene is a member of the alpha interferon gene cluster on chromosome 9. The encoded protein is a cytokine produced in response to viral infection. Use of the recombinant form of this protein has been shown to be effective in reducing the symptoms and duration of the common cold. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

IFNA1 Gene

interferon, alpha 1

The protein encoded by this gene is produced by macrophages and has antiviral activity. This gene is intronless and the encoded protein is secreted. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

IFNA7 Gene

interferon, alpha 7

IFNA5 Gene

interferon, alpha 5

IFNA4 Gene

interferon, alpha 4

IFI27L1 Gene

interferon, alpha-inducible protein 27-like 1

IFI27L2 Gene

interferon, alpha-inducible protein 27-like 2

IFNA13 Gene

interferon, alpha 13

IFNA10 Gene

interferon, alpha 10

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the type I interferon family of proteins, and is located in a cluster of alpha interferon genes on chromosome 9. Interferons are small regulatory molecules that function in cell signaling in response to viruses and other pathogens or tumor cells. This gene is intronless and the encoded protein is secreted. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

IFNA17 Gene

interferon, alpha 17

IFNA16 Gene

interferon, alpha 16

IFNA14 Gene

interferon, alpha 14

IFNB1 Gene

interferon, beta 1, fibroblast

IFNLR1 Gene

interferon, lambda receptor 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the class II cytokine receptor family. This protein forms a receptor complex with interleukine 10 receptor, beta (IL10RB). The receptor complex has been shown to interact with three closely related cytokines, including interleukin 28A (IL28A), interleukin 28B (IL28B), and interleukin 29 (IL29). The expression of all three cytokines can be induced by viral infection. The cells overexpressing this protein have been found to have enhanced responses to IL28A and IL29, but decreased response to IL28B. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFNGR1 Gene

interferon gamma receptor 1

This gene (IFNGR1) encodes the ligand-binding chain (alpha) of the gamma interferon receptor. Human interferon-gamma receptor is a heterodimer of IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. A genetic variation in IFNGR1 is associated with susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection. In addition, defects in IFNGR1 are a cause of mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, also known as familial disseminated atypical mycobacterial infection. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST6GALNAC4P1 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 4 pseudogene 1

ST6GALNAC2P1 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 2 pseudogene 1

ST6GALNAC6 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 6

ST6GALNAC6 belongs to a family of sialyltransferases that modify proteins and ceramides on the cell surface to alter cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix interactions (Tsuchida et al., 2003 [PubMed 12668675]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ST6GALNAC5 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 5

ST6GALNAC5 belongs to a family of sialyltransferases that modify proteins and ceramides on the cell surface to alter cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix interactions (Tsuchida et al., 2003 [PubMed 12668675]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ST6GALNAC4 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to galactose-containing substrates. The encoded protein prefers glycoproteins rather than glycolipids as substrates and shows restricted substrate specificity, utilizing only the trisaccharide sequence Neu5Ac-alpha-2,3-Gal-beta-1,3-GalNAc. In addition, it is involved in the synthesis of ganglioside GD1A from GM1B. The encoded protein is normally found in the Golgi apparatus but can be proteolytically processed to a soluble form. This protein is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST6GALNAC3 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 3

ST6GALNAC3 belongs to a family of sialyltransferases that transfer sialic acids from CMP-sialic acid to terminal positions of carbohydrate groups in glycoproteins and glycolipids (Lee et al., 1999 [PubMed 10207017]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ST6GALNAC2 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 2

ST6GALNAC2 belongs to a family of sialyltransferases that add sialic acids to the nonreducing ends of glycoconjugates. At the cell surface, these modifications have roles in cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions, bacterial adhesion, and protein targeting (Samyn-Petit et al., 2000 [PubMed 10742600]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ST6GALNAC1 Gene

ST6 (alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminyl-2,3-beta-galactosyl-1,3)-N-acetylgalactosaminide alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1

Glycosylation of proteins affects cell-cell interaction, interactions with the matrix, and the functions of intracellular molecules. ST6GALNAC1 transfers a sialic acid, N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), in an alpha-2,6 linkage to O-linked GalNAc residues. The cancer-associated sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen is formed by ST6GALNAC1-catalyzed sialylation of GalNAc residues on mucins (Ikehara et al., 1999 [PubMed 10536037]; Sewell et al., 2006 [PubMed 16319059]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ITGA2 Gene

integrin, alpha 2 (CD49B, alpha 2 subunit of VLA-2 receptor)

This gene encodes the alpha subunit of a transmembrane receptor for collagens and related proteins. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a beta subunit and mediates the adhesion of platelets and other cell types to the extracellular matrix. Loss of the encoded protein is associated with bleeding disorder platelet-type 9. Antibodies against this protein are found in several immune disorders, including neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. This gene is located adjacent to a related alpha subunit gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

ITGA3 Gene

integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of integrins. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain, and function as cell surface adhesion molecules. This gene encodes alpha 3 subunit, which undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 1 subunit to form an integrin that interacts with many extracellular-matrix proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

ITGA4 Gene

integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)

The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family of proteins. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes an alpha 4 chain. Unlike other integrin alpha chains, alpha 4 neither contains an I-domain, nor undergoes disulfide-linked cleavage. Alpha 4 chain associates with either beta 1 chain or beta 7 chain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGA5 Gene

integrin, alpha 5 (fibronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide)

The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes the integrin alpha 5 chain. Alpha chain 5 undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 1 to form a fibronectin receptor. In addition to adhesion, integrins are known to participate in cell-surface mediated signalling. Integrin alpha 5 and integrin alpha V chains are produced by distinct genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

IFNWP9 Gene

interferon, omega 1 pseudogene 9

IFNWP2 Gene

interferon, omega 1 pseudogene 2

IFNWP5 Gene

interferon, omega 1 pseudogene 5

LOC391020 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 pseudogene

IFITM8P Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 8 pseudogene

IFI35 Gene

interferon-induced protein 35

IFI30 Gene

interferon, gamma-inducible protein 30

The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal thiol reductase that at low pH can reduce protein disulfide bonds. The enzyme is expressed constitutively in antigen-presenting cells and induced by gamma-interferon in other cell types. This enzyme has an important role in MHC class II-restricted antigen processing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFIT1P1 Gene

interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1 pseudogene 1

IFNW1 Gene

interferon, omega 1

IFNNP1 Gene

interferon, nu 1, pseudogene

GBP1P1 Gene

guanylate binding protein 1, interferon-inducible pseudogene 1

IFRD1 Gene

interferon-related developmental regulator 1

This gene is an immediate early gene that encodes a protein related to interferon-gamma. This protein may function as a transcriptional co-activator/repressor that controls the growth and differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic development and tissue regeneration. Mutations in this gene are associated with sensory/motor neuropathy with ataxia. This gene may also be involved in modulating the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

BISPR Gene

BST2 interferon stimulated positive regulator (non-protein coding)

LOC442017 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 pseudogene

IFITM5 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 5

This gene encodes a membrane protein thought to play a role in bone mineralization. This gene is located on chromosome 11 in a cluster of related genes which are induced by interferon, however, this gene has not been shown to be interferon inducible. A similar gene, located in a gene cluster on mouse chromosome 7, is a member of the interferon-inducible fragilis gene family. The mouse gene encodes a transmembrane protein described as participating in germ cell competence. A mutation in the 5' UTR of this gene has been associated with osteogenesis imperfecta type V (PMID: 22863190, 22863195). [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

IFNL4 Gene

interferon, lambda 4 (gene/pseudogene)

LOC400026 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene

PRKRAP1 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene 1

IFI44 Gene

interferon-induced protein 44

LOC100418693 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene

LOC100418694 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene

PRKRIR Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor)

IFIH1 Gene

interferon induced with helicase C domain 1

DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. This gene encodes a DEAD box protein that is upregulated in response to treatment with beta-interferon and a protein kinase C-activating compound, mezerein. Irreversible reprogramming of melanomas can be achieved by treatment with both these agents; treatment with either agent alone only achieves reversible differentiation. Genetic variation in this gene is associated with diabetes mellitus insulin-dependent type 19. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

IFI16 Gene

interferon, gamma-inducible protein 16

This gene encodes a member of the HIN-200 (hematopoietic interferon-inducible nuclear antigens with 200 amino acid repeats) family of cytokines. The encoded protein contains domains involved in DNA binding, transcriptional regulation, and protein-protein interactions. The protein localizes to the nucleoplasm and nucleoli, and interacts with p53 and retinoblastoma-1. It modulates p53 function, and inhibits cell growth in the Ras/Raf signaling pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

PRKRA Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator

This gene encodes a protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA which mediates the effects of interferon in response to viral infection. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

IRF2BP2 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2

This gene encodes an interferon regulatory factor-2 (IRF2) binding protein that interacts with the C-terminal transcriptional repression domain of IRF2. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IRF2BP1 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 1

IRF2BPL Gene

interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein-like

This gene encodes a transcription factor that may play a role in regulating female reproductive function. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

IFNK Gene

interferon, kappa

This gene encodes a member of the type I interferon family. Type I interferons are a group of related glycoproteins that play an important role in host defenses against viral infections. This protein is expressed in keratinocytes and the gene is found on chromosome 9, adjacent to the type I interferon cluster. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFNG Gene

interferon, gamma

This gene encodes a member of the type II interferon family. The protein encoded is a soluble cytokine with antiviral, immunoregulatory and anti-tumor properties and is a potent activator of macrophages. Mutations in this gene are associated with aplastic anemia.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

IFNE Gene

interferon, epsilon

IFNR Gene

interferon production regulator

LOC100101247 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein pseudogene

LOC100101246 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 pseudogene

IFITM10 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 10

LOC442389 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein pseudogene

IFITM9P Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 9 pseudogene

LOC442309 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 pseudogene

LOC728048 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein pseudogene

IFNWP15 Gene

interferon, omega 1 pseudogene 15

IFNWP18 Gene

interferon, omega 1 pseudogene 18

IFNWP19 Gene

interferon, omega 1 pseudogene 19

PRKRIRP8 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 8

PRKRIRP9 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 9

PRKRIRP1 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 1

PRKRIRP2 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 2

PRKRIRP3 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 3

PRKRIRP4 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 4

PRKRIRP5 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 5

PRKRIRP6 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 6

PRKRIRP7 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 7

IRF5P1 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 5 pseudogene 1

IFITM4P Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 4 pseudogene

IFIT6P Gene

interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 6, pseudogene

DSPA2D Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 pseudogene

NRIR Gene

negative regulator of interferon response (non-protein coding)

This gene is thought to produce a functional long non-coding RNA. This transcript may be a negative regulator of interferon response. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

LOC100421976 Gene

interferon stimulated exonuclease gene 20kDa-like 2 pseudogene

IFI44L Gene

interferon-induced protein 44-like

LOC100128365 Gene

interferon stimulated exonuclease gene 20kDa-like 2 pseudogene

IFN1@ Gene

interferon, type 1, cluster

ISG20L2 Gene

interferon stimulated exonuclease gene 20kDa-like 2

This gene encodes a 3'-5' exoribonuclease that may be involved in the processing of the 12S pre-rRNA. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 6 and 11. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

ISG20 Gene

interferon stimulated exonuclease gene 20kDa

IFITM3 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene is an interferon-induced membrane protein that helps confer immunity to influenza A H1N1 virus, West Nile virus, and dengue virus. Two transcript variants, only one of them protein-coding, have been found for this gene. Another variant encoding an N-terminally truncated isoform has been reported, but the full-length nature of this variant has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

IFITM1 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 1

IFNL3P1 Gene

interferon, lambda 3 pseudogene 1

IFNL4P1 Gene

interferon, lambda 4 pseudogene 1

LOC123862 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein pseudogene

IFITM2 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 2

IFIT5 Gene

interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 5

IFIT3 Gene

interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3

IFIT2 Gene

interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 2

IFIT1 Gene

interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1

This gene encodes a protein containing tetratricopeptide repeats that was originally identified as induced upon treatment with interferon. The encoded protein may inhibit viral replication and translational initiation. This gene is located in a cluster on chromosome 10 with five other closely related genes. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 13. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

IRF3 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 3

This gene encodes a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. The encoded protein is found in an inactive cytoplasmic form that upon serine/threonine phosphorylation forms a complex with CREBBP. This complex translocates to the nucleus and activates the transcription of interferons alpha and beta, as well as other interferon-induced genes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

IRF2 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 2

IRF2 encodes interferon regulatory factor 2, a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. IRF2 competitively inhibits the IRF1-mediated transcriptional activation of interferons alpha and beta, and presumably other genes that employ IRF1 for transcription activation. However, IRF2 also functions as a transcriptional activator of histone H4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IRF1 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 1

IRF1 encodes interferon regulatory factor 1, a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. IRF1 serves as an activator of interferons alpha and beta transcription, and in mouse it has been shown to be required for double-stranded RNA induction of these genes. IRF1 also functions as a transcription activator of genes induced by interferons alpha, beta, and gamma. Further, IRF1 has been shown to play roles in regulating apoptosis and tumor-suppressoion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IRF7 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 7

IRF7 encodes interferon regulatory factor 7, a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. IRF7 has been shown to play a role in the transcriptional activation of virus-inducible cellular genes, including interferon beta chain genes. Inducible expression of IRF7 is largely restricted to lymphoid tissue. Multiple IRF7 transcript variants have been identified, although the functional consequences of these have not yet been established. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IRF6 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 6

This gene encodes a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. Family members share a highly-conserved N-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and a less conserved C-terminal protein-binding domain. The encoded protein may be a transcriptional activator. Mutations in this gene can cause van der Woude syndrome and popliteal pterygium syndrome. Mutations in this gene are also associated with non-syndromic orofacial cleft type 6. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

IRF5 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 5

This gene encodes a member of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family, a group of transcription factors with diverse roles, including virus-mediated activation of interferon, and modulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune system activity. Members of the IRF family are characterized by a conserved N-terminal DNA-binding domain containing tryptophan (W) repeats. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, and a 30-nt indel polymorphism (SNP rs60344245) can result in loss of a 10-aa segment. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

IRF4 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 4

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the IRF (interferon regulatory factor) family of transcription factors, characterized by an unique tryptophan pentad repeat DNA-binding domain. The IRFs are important in the regulation of interferons in response to infection by virus, and in the regulation of interferon-inducible genes. This family member is lymphocyte specific and negatively regulates Toll-like-receptor (TLR) signaling that is central to the activation of innate and adaptive immune systems. A chromosomal translocation involving this gene and the IgH locus, t(6;14)(p25;q32), may be a cause of multiple myeloma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

IRF9 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 9

IRF8 Gene

interferon regulatory factor 8

Interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP) is a transcription factor of the interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF) family. Proteins of this family are composed of a conserved DNA-binding domain in the N-terminal region and a divergent C-terminal region that serves as the regulatory domain. The IRF family proteins bind to the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) and regulate expression of genes stimulated by type I IFNs, namely IFN-alpha and IFN-beta. IRF family proteins also control expression of IFN-alpha and IFN-beta-regulated genes that are induced by viral infection. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC643058 Gene

interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 pseudogene

IFRD2 Gene

interferon-related developmental regulator 2

LOC100533853 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene

IFNL1 Gene

interferon, lambda 1

This gene encodes a cytokine distantly related to type I interferons and the IL-10 family. This gene, interleukin 28A (IL28A), and interleukin 28B (IL28B) are three closely related cytokine genes that form a cytokine gene cluster on a chromosomal region mapped to 19q13. Expression of the cytokines encoded by the three genes can be induced by viral infection. All three cytokines have been shown to interact with a heterodimeric class II cytokine receptor that consists of interleukin 10 receptor, beta (IL10RB) and interleukin 28 receptor, alpha (IL28RA). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFNL2 Gene

interferon, lambda 2

This gene encodes a cytokine distantly related to type I interferons and the IL-10 family. This gene, interleukin 28B (IL28B), and interleukin 29 (IL29) are three closely related cytokine genes that form a cytokine gene cluster on a chromosomal region mapped to 19q13. Expression of the cytokines encoded by the three genes can be induced by viral infection. All three cytokines have been shown to interact with a heterodimeric class II cytokine receptor that consists of interleukin 10 receptor, beta (IL10RB) and interleukin 28 receptor, alpha (IL28RA). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFNL3 Gene

interferon, lambda 3

This gene encodes a cytokine distantly related to type I interferons and the IL-10 family. This gene, interleukin 28A (IL28A), and interleukin 29 (IL29) are three closely related cytokine genes that form a cytokine gene cluster on a chromosomal region mapped to 19q13. Expression of the cytokines encoded by the three genes can be induced by viral infection. All three cytokines have been shown to interact with a heterodimeric class II cytokine receptor that consists of interleukin 10 receptor, beta (IL10RB) and interleukin 28 receptor, alpha (IL28RA). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GVINP1 Gene

GTPase, very large interferon inducible pseudogene 1

GVINP2 Gene

GTPase, very large interferon inducible pseudogene 2

IFIT1B Gene

interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1B

PRKRIRP10 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 10

GBP2 Gene

guanylate binding protein 2, interferon-inducible

This gene belongs to the guanine-binding protein (GBP) family, which includes interferon-induced proteins that can bind to guanine nucleotides (GMP, GDP and GTP). The encoded protein is a GTPase which hydrolyzes GTP, predominantly to GDP. The protein may play a role as a marker of squamous cell carcinomas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GBP1 Gene

guanylate binding protein 1, interferon-inducible

Guanylate binding protein expression is induced by interferon. Guanylate binding proteins are characterized by their ability to specifically bind guanine nucleotides (GMP, GDP, and GTP) and are distinguished from the GTP-binding proteins by the presence of 2 binding motifs rather than 3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MC1R Gene

melanocortin 1 receptor (alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor)

This intronless gene encodes the receptor protein for melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). The encoded protein, a seven pass transmembrane G protein coupled receptor, controls melanogenesis. Two types of melanin exist: red pheomelanin and black eumelanin. Gene mutations that lead to a loss in function are associated with increased pheomelanin production, which leads to lighter skin and hair color. Eumelanin is photoprotective but pheomelanin may contribute to UV-induced skin damage by generating free radicals upon UV radiation. Binding of MSH to its receptor activates the receptor and stimulates eumelanin synthesis. This receptor is a major determining factor in sun sensitivity and is a genetic risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Over 30 variant alleles have been identified which correlate with skin and hair color, providing evidence that this gene is an important component in determining normal human pigment variation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGB1 Gene

integrin, beta 1 (fibronectin receptor, beta polypeptide, antigen CD29 includes MDF2, MSK12)

Integrins are heterodimeric proteins made up of alpha and beta subunits. At least 18 alpha and 8 beta subunits have been described in mammals. Integrin family members are membrane receptors involved in cell adhesion and recognition in a variety of processes including embryogenesis, hemostasis, tissue repair, immune response and metastatic diffusion of tumor cells. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants which encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SSR2 Gene

signal sequence receptor, beta (translocon-associated protein beta)

The signal sequence receptor (SSR) is a glycosylated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane receptor associated with protein translocation across the ER membrane. The SSR consists of 2 subunits, a 34-kD glycoprotein (alpha-SSR or SSR1) and a 22-kD glycoprotein (beta-SSR or SSR2). The human beta-signal sequence receptor gene (SSR2) maps to chromosome bands 1q21-q23. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGAL Gene

integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)

ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGAE Gene

integrin, alpha E (antigen CD103, human mucosal lymphocyte antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)

Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes an I-domain-containing alpha integrin that undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain, yielding disulfide-linked heavy and light chains. In combination with the beta 7 integrin, this protein forms the E-cadherin binding integrin known as the human mucosal lymphocyte-1 antigen. This protein is preferentially expressed in human intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), and in addition to a role in adhesion, it may serve as an accessory molecule for IEL activation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421093 Gene

karyopherin alpha 3 (importin alpha 4) pseudogene

LOC401913 Gene

ABO blood group (transferase A, alpha 1-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; transferase B, alpha 1-3-galactosyltransferase) pseudogene

LOC100422717 Gene

pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (TCF1) 2 pseudogene

TFAP2A Gene

transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that binds the consensus sequence 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3'. The encoded protein functions as either a homodimer or as a heterodimer with similar family members. This protein activates the transcription of some genes while inhibiting the transcription of others. Defects in this gene are a cause of branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS). Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

KPNA7 Gene

karyopherin alpha 7 (importin alpha 8)

KPNA6 Gene

karyopherin alpha 6 (importin alpha 7)

Nucleocytoplasmic transport, a signal- and energy-dependent process, takes place through nuclear pore complexes embedded in the nuclear envelope. The import of proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) requires the NLS import receptor, a heterodimer of importin alpha and beta subunits also known as karyopherins. Importin alpha binds the NLS-containing cargo in the cytoplasm and importin beta docks the complex at the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex. In the presence of nucleoside triphosphates and the small GTP binding protein Ran, the complex moves into the nuclear pore complex and the importin subunits dissociate. Importin alpha enters the nucleoplasm with its passenger protein and importin beta remains at the pore. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the importin alpha family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KPNA5 Gene

karyopherin alpha 5 (importin alpha 6)

The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC) which consists of 60-100 proteins and is probably 120 million daltons in molecular size. Small molecules (up to 70 kD) can pass through the nuclear pore by nonselective diffusion; larger molecules are transported by an active process. Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA5 protein belongs to the importin alpha protein family and is thought to be involved in NLS-dependent protein import into the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KPNA4 Gene

karyopherin alpha 4 (importin alpha 3)

The nuclear import of karyophilic proteins is directed by short amino acid sequences termed nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Karyopherins, or importins, are cytoplasmic proteins that recognize NLSs and dock NLS-containing proteins to the nuclear pore complex. The protein encoded by this gene shares the sequence similarity with Xenopus importin-alpha and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Srp1. This protein is found to interact with the NLSs of DNA helicase Q1 and SV40 T antigen. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KPNA3 Gene

karyopherin alpha 3 (importin alpha 4)

The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which consists of 60-100 proteins. Small molecules (up to 70 kD) can pass through the nuclear pore by nonselective diffusion while larger molecules are transported by an active process. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the importin alpha family, and is involved in nuclear protein import. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

KPNA2 Gene

karyopherin alpha 2 (RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1)

The import of proteins into the nucleus is a process that involves at least 2 steps. The first is an energy-independent docking of the protein to the nuclear envelope and the second is an energy-dependent translocation through the nuclear pore complex. Imported proteins require a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) which generally consists of a short region of basic amino acids or 2 such regions spaced about 10 amino acids apart. Proteins involved in the first step of nuclear import have been identified in different systems. These include the Xenopus protein importin and its yeast homolog, SRP1 (a suppressor of certain temperature-sensitive mutations of RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae), which bind to the NLS. KPNA2 protein interacts with the NLSs of DNA helicase Q1 and SV40 T antigen and may be involved in the nuclear transport of proteins. KPNA2 also may play a role in V(D)J recombination [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KPNA1 Gene

karyopherin alpha 1 (importin alpha 5)

The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which consists of 60-100 proteins. Small molecules (up to 70 kD) can pass through the nuclear pore by nonselective diffusion while larger molecules are transported by an active process. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the importin alpha family, and is involved in nuclear protein import. This protein interacts with the recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1) protein and is a putative substrate of the RAG1 ubiquitin ligase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

LOC100533843 Gene

karyopherin alpha 2 (RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1) pseudogene

LOC402715 Gene

karyopherin alpha 2 (RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1) pseudogene

PCBD2 Gene

pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (TCF1) 2

ST8SIA6 Gene

ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 6

Sialic acid is a key determinate of oligosaccharide structures involved in cell-cell communication, cell-substrate interaction, adhesion, and protein targeting. ST8SIA6 belongs to a family of sialyltransferases (EC 2.4.99.8) that synthesize sialylglycoconjugates (Takashima et al., 2002 [PubMed 11980897]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ST8SIA5 Gene

ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that may be present in the Golgi apparatus. The encoded protein, which is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29, may be involved in the synthesis of gangliosides GD1c, GT1a, GQ1b, and GT3 from GD1a, GT1b, GM1b, and GD3, respectively. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST8SIA4 Gene

ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 4

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the polycondensation of alpha-2,8-linked sialic acid required for the synthesis of polysialic acid, a modulator of the adhesive properties of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1). The encoded protein, which is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29, is a type II membrane protein that may be present in the Golgi apparatus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST8SIA2 Gene

ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that is thought to catalyze the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to N-linked oligosaccharides and glycoproteins. The encoded protein may be found in the Golgi apparatus and may be involved in the production of polysialic acid, a modulator of the adhesive properties of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM1). This protein is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST8SIA1 Gene

ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 1

Gangliosides are membrane-bound glycosphingolipids containing sialic acid. Ganglioside GD3 is known to be important for cell adhesion and growth of cultured malignant cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to GM3 to produce gangliosides GD3 and GT3. The encoded protein may be found in the Golgi apparatus and is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

LOC643513 Gene

karyopherin alpha 2 (RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1) pseudogene

LOC391798 Gene

karyopherin alpha 7 (importin alpha 8) pseudogene

PCBD1 Gene

pterin-4 alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase/dimerization cofactor of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha

This gene encodes a member of the pterin-4-alpha-carbinolamine dehydratase family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. The encoded protein functions as both a dehydratase involved in tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis, and as a cofactor for HNF1A-dependent transcription. A deficiency of this enzyme leads to hyperphenylalaninemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

DEFA1A3 Gene

defensin, alpha 1 and alpha 3, variable copy number locus

ST8SIA3 Gene

ST8 alpha-N-acetyl-neuraminide alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 3

ST8SIA3 belongs to a family of sialyltransferases that form sialyl-alpha-2,8-sialyl-R linkages at the nonreducing termini of glycoconjugates (Lee et al., 1998 [PubMed 9826427]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

AGL Gene

amylo-alpha-1, 6-glucosidase, 4-alpha-glucanotransferase

This gene encodes the glycogen debrancher enzyme which is involved in glycogen degradation. This enzyme has two independent catalytic activities which occur at different sites on the protein: a 4-alpha-glucotransferase activity and a amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity. Mutations in this gene are associated with glycogen storage disease although a wide range of enzymatic and clinical variability occurs which may be due to tissue-specific alternative splicing. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421109 Gene

karyopherin alpha 4 (importin alpha 3) pseudogene

ABO Gene

ABO blood group (transferase A, alpha 1-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; transferase B, alpha 1-3-galactosyltransferase)

This gene encodes proteins related to the first discovered blood group system, ABO. Which allele is present in an individual determines the blood group. The 'O' blood group is caused by a deletion of guanine-258 near the N-terminus of the protein which results in a frameshift and translation of an almost entirely different protein. Individuals with the A, B, and AB alleles express glycosyltransferase activities that convert the H antigen into the A or B antigen. Other minor alleles have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TPSAB1 Gene

tryptase alpha/beta 1

Tryptases comprise a family of trypsin-like serine proteases, the peptidase family S1. Tryptases are enzymatically active only as heparin-stabilized tetramers, and they are resistant to all known endogenous proteinase inhibitors. Several tryptase genes are clustered on chromosome 16p13.3. These genes are characterized by several distinct features. They have a highly conserved 3' UTR and contain tandem repeat sequences at the 5' flank and 3' UTR which are thought to play a role in regulation of the mRNA stability. These genes have an intron immediately upstream of the initiator Met codon, which separates the site of transcription initiation from protein coding sequence. This feature is characteristic of tryptases but is unusual in other genes. The alleles of this gene exhibit an unusual amount of sequence variation, such that the alleles were once thought to represent two separate genes, alpha and beta 1. Beta tryptases appear to be the main isoenzymes expressed in mast cells; whereas in basophils, alpha tryptases predominate. Tryptases have been implicated as mediators in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic and inflammatory disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST6GAL2 Gene

ST6 beta-galactosamide alpha-2,6-sialyltranferase 2

This locus encodes a sialyltransferase. The encoded type II transmembrane protein catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP to an oligosaccharide substrate. Polymorphisms at this locus may be associated with variations in risperidone response in schizophrenic patients. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

ST6GAL1 Gene

ST6 beta-galactosamide alpha-2,6-sialyltranferase 1

This gene encodes a member of glycosyltransferase family 29. The encoded protein is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to galactose-containing substrates. The protein, which is normally found in the Golgi but can be proteolytically processed to a soluble form, is involved in the generation of the cell-surface carbohydrate determinants and differentiation antigens HB-6, CD75, and CD76. This gene has been incorrectly referred to as CD75. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

LOC101059997 Gene

alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 17A-like

MGAT5B Gene

mannosyl (alpha-1,6-)-glycoprotein beta-1,6-N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase, isozyme B

The MGAT5B gene encodes a beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.155) that functions in the synthesis of complex cell surface N-glycans (Kaneko et al., 2003 [PubMed 14623122]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2008]

MGAT1 Gene

mannosyl (alpha-1,3-)-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase

There are believed to be over 100 different glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of protein-bound and lipid-bound oligosaccharides. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:alpha-3-D-mannoside beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I is a medial-Golgi enzyme essential for the synthesis of hybrid and complex N-glycans. The protein, encoded by a single exon, shows typical features of a type II transmembrane protein. The protein is believed to be essential for normal embryogenesis. Several variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MGAT2 Gene

mannosyl (alpha-1,6-)-glycoprotein beta-1,2-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase

The product of this gene is a Golgi enzyme catalyzing an essential step in the conversion of oligomannose to complex N-glycans. The enzyme has the typical glycosyltransferase domains: a short N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a hydrophobic non-cleavable signal-anchor domain, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Mutations in this gene may lead to carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, type II. The coding region of this gene is intronless. Transcript variants with a spliced 5' UTR may exist, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MGAT5 Gene

mannosyl (alpha-1,6-)-glycoprotein beta-1,6-N-acetyl-glucosaminyltransferase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the glycosyltransferase family. It catalyzes the addition of beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine to the alpha-linked mannose of biantennary N-linked oligosaccharides present on the newly synthesized glycoproteins. It is one of the most important enzymes involved in the regulation of the biosynthesis of glycoprotein oligosaccharides. Alterations of the oligosaccharides on cell surface glycoproteins cause significant changes in the adhesive or migratory behavior of a cell. Increase in the activity of this enzyme has been correlated with the progression of invasive malignancies. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GNPTAB Gene

N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase, alpha and beta subunits

This gene encodes two of three subunit types of the membrane-bound enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase, a heterohexameric complex composed of two alpha, two beta, and two gamma subunits. The encoded protein is proteolytically cleaved at the Lys928-Asp929 bond to yield mature alpha and beta polypeptides while the gamma subunits are the product of a distinct gene (GeneID 84572). In the Golgi apparatus, the heterohexameric complex catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of mannose 6-phosphate recognition markers on certain oligosaccharides of newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes. These recognition markers are essential for appropriate trafficking of lysosomal enzymes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with both mucolipidosis II and mucolipidosis IIIA.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LOC102723964 Gene

alpha/beta hydrolase domain-containing protein 17A-like

LOC100506747 Gene

alpha-1,3-mannosyl-glycoprotein 4-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-like protein LOC641515 homolog

NDUFAB1 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1, alpha/beta subcomplex, 1, 8kDa

ST3GAL1P1 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 1 pseudogene 1

ST3GAL3 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to galactose-containing substrates. The encoded protein is normally found in the Golgi apparatus but can be proteolytically processed to a soluble form. This protein is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal recessive nonsymdromic mental retardation-12 (MRT12). Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

ST3GAL2 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to galactose-containing substrates. The encoded protein is normally found in the Golgi but can be proteolytically processed to a soluble form. This protein, which is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29, can use the same acceptor substrates as does sialyltransferase 4A. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST3GAL1 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein that catalyzes the transfer of sialic acid from CMP-sialic acid to galactose-containing substrates. The encoded protein is normally found in the Golgi but can be proteolytically processed to a soluble form. Correct glycosylation of the encoded protein may be critical to its sialyltransferase activity. This protein, which is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29, can use the same acceptor substrates as does sialyltransferase 4B. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. Other transcript variants may exist, but have not been fully characterized yet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST3GAL6 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the sialyltransferase family. Members of this family are enzymes that transfer sialic acid from the activated cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid to terminal positions on sialylated glycolipids (gangliosides) or to the N- or O-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins. This protein has high specificity for neolactotetraosylceramide and neolactohexaosylceramide as glycolipid substrates and may contribute to the formation of selectin ligands and sialyl Lewis X, a carbohydrate important for cell-to-cell recognition and a blood group antigen. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

ST3GAL5 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 5

Ganglioside GM3 is known to participate in the induction of cell differentiation, modulation of cell proliferation, maintenance of fibroblast morphology, signal transduction, and integrin-mediated cell adhesion. The protein encoded by this gene is a type II membrane protein which catalyzes the formation of GM3 using lactosylceramide as the substrate. The encoded protein is a member of glycosyltransferase family 29 and may be localized to the Golgi apparatus. Mutation in this gene has been associated with Amish infantile epilepsy syndrome. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ST3GAL4 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 4

This gene encodes a member of the glycosyltransferase 29 family, a group of enzymes involved in protein glycosylation. The encoded protein is targeted to Golgi membranes but may be proteolytically processed and secreted. The gene product may also be involved in the increased expression of sialyl Lewis X antigen seen in inflammatory responses. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

ST3GAL5P1 Gene

ST3 beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 5 pseudogene 1

MGAT4A Gene

mannosyl (alpha-1,3-)-glycoprotein beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, isozyme A

This gene encodes a key glycosyltransferase that regulates the formation of tri- and multiantennary branching structures in the Golgi apparatus. The encoded protein, in addition to the related isoenzyme B, catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) from UDP-GlcNAc in a beta-1,4 linkage to the Man-alpha-1,3-Man-beta-1,4-GlcNAc arm of R-Man-alpha-1,6(GlcNAc-beta-1,2-Man-alpha-1,3)Man-beta-1,4-GlcNAc-beta-1,4-GlcNAc-beta-1-Asn. The encoded protein may play a role in regulating the availability of serum glycoproteins, oncogenesis, and differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MGAT4B Gene

mannosyl (alpha-1,3-)-glycoprotein beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, isozyme B

This gene encodes a key glycosyltransferase that regulates the formation of tri- and multiantennary branching structures in the Golgi apparatus. The encoded protein, in addition to the related isoenzyme A, catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) from UDP-GlcNAc in a beta-1,4 linkage to the Man-alpha-1,3-Man-beta-1,4-GlcNAc arm of R-Man-alpha-1,6(GlcNAc-beta-1,2-Man-alpha-1,3)Man-beta-1,4-GlcNAc-beta-1,4-GlcNAc-beta-1-Asn. The encoded protein may play a role in regulating the availability of serum glycoproteins, oncogenesis, and differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGAX Gene

integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit)

This gene encodes the integrin alpha X chain protein. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This protein combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form a leukocyte-specific integrin referred to as inactivated-C3b (iC3b) receptor 4 (CR4). The alpha X beta 2 complex seems to overlap the properties of the alpha M beta 2 integrin in the adherence of neutrophils and monocytes to stimulated endothelium cells, and in the phagocytosis of complement coated particles. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

ITGAM Gene

integrin, alpha M (complement component 3 receptor 3 subunit)

This gene encodes the integrin alpha M chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form a leukocyte-specific integrin referred to as macrophage receptor 1 ('Mac-1'), or inactivated-C3b (iC3b) receptor 3 ('CR3'). The alpha M beta 2 integrin is important in the adherence of neutrophils and monocytes to stimulated endothelium, and also in the phagocytosis of complement coated particles. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

FCER1A Gene

Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; alpha polypeptide

The immunoglobulin epsilon receptor (IgE receptor) is the initiator of the allergic response. When two or more high-affinity IgE receptors are brought together by allergen-bound IgE molecules, mediators such as histamine that are responsible for allergy symptoms are released. This receptor is comprised of an alpha subunit, a beta subunit, and two gamma subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

TRAV23DV6 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 23/delta variable 6

TRAJ32 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 32

PPFIA4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 4

PPFIA4, or liprin-alpha-4, belongs to the liprin-alpha gene family. See liprin-alpha-1 (LIP1, or PPFIA1; MIM 611054) for background on liprins.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ESRRAP2 Gene

estrogen-related receptor alpha pseudogene 2

ESRRAP1 Gene

estrogen-related receptor alpha pseudogene 1

THRA Gene

thyroid hormone receptor, alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear hormone receptor for triiodothyronine. It is one of the several receptors for thyroid hormone, and has been shown to mediate the biological activities of thyroid hormone. Knockout studies in mice suggest that the different receptors, while having certain extent of redundancy, may mediate different functions of thyroid hormone. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GFRAL Gene

GDNF family receptor alpha like

LOC100422479 Gene

integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit) pseudogene

CHRNA4 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 4 (neuronal)

This gene encodes a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which belongs to a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that play a role in fast signal transmission at synapses. These pentameric receptors can bind acetylcholine, which causes an extensive change in conformation that leads to the opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. This protein is an integral membrane receptor subunit that can interact with either nAChR beta-2 or nAChR beta-4 to form a functional receptor. Mutations in this gene cause nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy type 1. Polymorphisms in this gene that provide protection against nicotine addiction have been described. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

CHRNA5 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 5 (neuronal)

The protein encoded by this gene is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit and a member of a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast signal transmission at synapses. These receptors are thought to be heteropentamers composed of separate but similar subunits. Defects in this gene have been linked to susceptibility to lung cancer type 2 (LNCR2).[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

CHRNA6 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 6 (neuronal)

This gene encodes an alpha subunit of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These receptors consist of five subunits and function as ion channels involved in neurotransmission. The encoded protein is a subunit of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that mediate dopaminergic neurotransmission and are activated by acetylcholine and exogenous nicotine. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with both nicotine and alcohol dependence. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CHRNA7 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 7 (neuronal)

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast signal transmission at synapses. The nAChRs are thought to be hetero-pentamers composed of homologous subunits. The proposed structure for each subunit is a conserved N-terminal extracellular domain followed by three conserved transmembrane domains, a variable cytoplasmic loop, a fourth conserved transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal extracellular region. The protein encoded by this gene forms a homo-oligomeric channel, displays marked permeability to calcium ions and is a major component of brain nicotinic receptors that are blocked by, and highly sensitive to, alpha-bungarotoxin. Once this receptor binds acetylcholine, it undergoes an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. This gene is located in a region identified as a major susceptibility locus for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and a chromosomal location involved in the genetic transmission of schizophrenia. An evolutionarily recent partial duplication event in this region results in a hybrid containing sequence from this gene and a novel FAM7A gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

CHRNA1 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 1 (muscle)

The muscle acetylcholine receptor consiststs of 5 subunits of 4 different types: 2 alpha subunits and 1 each of the beta, gamma, and delta subunits. This gene encodes an alpha subunit that plays a role in acetlycholine binding/channel gating. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

CHRNA2 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 2 (neuronal)

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels formed by a pentameric arrangement of alpha and beta subunits to create distinct muscle and neuronal receptors. Neuronal receptors are found throughout the peripheral and central nervous system where they are involved in fast synaptic transmission. This gene encodes an alpha subunit that is widely expressed in the brain. The proposed structure for nAChR subunits is a conserved N-terminal extracellular domain followed by three conserved transmembrane domains, a variable cytoplasmic loop, a fourth conserved transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal extracellular region. Mutations in this gene cause autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy type 4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene have been associated with nicotine dependence. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

CHRNA3 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 3 (neuronal)

This locus encodes a member of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor family of proteins. Members of this family of proteins form pentameric complexes comprised of both alpha and beta subunits. This locus encodes an alpha-type subunit, as it contains characteristic adjacent cysteine residues. The encoded protein is a ligand-gated ion channel that likely plays a role in neurotransmission. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with an increased risk of smoking initiation and an increased susceptibility to lung cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

CHRNA9 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 9 (neuronal)

This gene is a member of the ligand-gated ionic channel family and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene superfamily. It encodes a plasma membrane protein that forms homo- or hetero-oligomeric divalent cation channels. This protein is involved in cochlea hair cell development and is also expressed in the outer hair cells (OHCs) of the adult cochlea. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

IL3RA Gene

interleukin 3 receptor, alpha (low affinity)

The protein encoded by this gene is an interleukin 3 specific subunit of a heterodimeric cytokine receptor. The receptor is comprised of a ligand specific alpha subunit and a signal transducing beta subunit shared by the receptors for interleukin 3 (IL3), colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2/GM-CSF), and interleukin 5 (IL5). The binding of this protein to IL3 depends on the beta subunit. The beta subunit is activated by the ligand binding, and is required for the biological activities of IL3. This gene and the gene encoding the colony stimulating factor 2 receptor alpha chain (CSF2RA) form a cytokine receptor gene cluster in a X-Y pseudoautosomal region on chromosomes X or Y. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

COL1AR Gene

collagen, type I, alpha, receptor

TRAJ29 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 29

TRAJ28 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 28

TRAJ27 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 27

TRAJ26 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 26

TRAJ25 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 25 (non-functional)

TRAJ24 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 24

TRAJ23 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 23

TRAJ22 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 22

TRAJ21 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 21

TRAJ20 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 20

TRAV5 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 5

TRAV29DV5 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 29/delta variable 5 (gene/pseudogene)

SSR1 Gene

signal sequence receptor, alpha

The signal sequence receptor (SSR) is a glycosylated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane receptor associated with protein translocation across the ER membrane. The SSR consists of 2 subunits, a 34-kD glycoprotein encoded by this gene and a 22-kD glycoprotein. This gene generates several mRNA species as a result of complex alternative polyadenylation. This gene is unusual in that it utilizes arrays of polyA signal sequences that are mostly non-canonical. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

LOC100422713 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

LOC100422710 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

IL20RA Gene

interleukin 20 receptor, alpha

This gene encodes a member of the type II cytokine receptor family. The encoded protein is a subunit of the receptor for interleukin 20, a cytokine that may be involved in epidermal function. The interleukin 20 receptor is a heterodimeric complex consisting of the encoded protein and interleukin 20 receptor beta. This gene and interleukin 20 receptor beta are highly expressed in skin, and are upregulated in psoriasis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

RARA Gene

retinoic acid receptor, alpha

This gene represents a nuclear retinoic acid receptor. The encoded protein, retinoic acid receptor alpha, regulates transcription in a ligand-dependent manner. This gene has been implicated in regulation of development, differentiation, apoptosis, granulopoeisis, and transcription of clock genes. Translocations between this locus and several other loci have been associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this locus.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

TRAV14DV4 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 14/delta variable 4

OXGR1 Gene

oxoglutarate (alpha-ketoglutarate) receptor 1

TRAJ16 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 16

TRAJ17 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 17

TRAJ14 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 14

TRAJ15 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 15

TRAJ12 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 12

TRAJ13 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 13

TRAJ10 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 10

TRAJ11 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 11

TRAJ18 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 18

TRAJ19 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 19 (non-functional)

CSF2RA Gene

colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, alpha, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage)

The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha subunit of the heterodimeric receptor for colony stimulating factor 2, a cytokine which controls the production, differentiation, and function of granulocytes and macrophages. The encoded protein is a member of the cytokine family of receptors. This gene is found in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of the X and Y chromosomes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, with some of the isoforms being membrane-bound and others being soluble. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRAV20 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 20

IL13RA2 Gene

interleukin 13 receptor, alpha 2

The protein encoded by this gene is closely related to Il13RA1, a subuint of the interleukin 13 receptor complex. This protein binds IL13 with high affinity, but lacks cytoplasmic domain, and does not appear to function as a signal mediator. It is reported to play a role in the internalization of IL13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IL13RA1 Gene

interleukin 13 receptor, alpha 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the interleukin 13 receptor. This subunit forms a receptor complex with IL4 receptor alpha, a subunit shared by IL13 and IL4 receptors. This subunit serves as a primary IL13-binding subunit of the IL13 receptor, and may also be a component of IL4 receptors. This protein has been shown to bind tyrosine kinase TYK2, and thus may mediate the signaling processes that lead to the activation of JAK1, STAT3 and STAT6 induced by IL13 and IL4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHRFAM7A Gene

CHRNA7 (cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 7, exons 5-10) and FAM7A (family with sequence similarity 7A, exons A-E) fusion

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast signal transmission at synapses. The family member CHRNA7, which is located on chromosome 15 in a region associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders, is partially duplicated and forms a hybrid with a novel gene from the family with sequence similarity 7 (FAM7A). Alternative splicing has been observed, and two variants exist, for this hybrid gene. The N-terminally truncated products predicted by the largest open reading frames for each variant would lack the majority of the neurotransmitter-gated ion-channel ligand binding domain but retain the transmembrane region that forms the ion channel. Although current evidence supports transcription of this hybrid gene, translation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-like protein-encoding open reading frames has not been confirmed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PDGFRA Gene

platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide

This gene encodes a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor for members of the platelet-derived growth factor family. These growth factors are mitogens for cells of mesenchymal origin. The identity of the growth factor bound to a receptor monomer determines whether the functional receptor is a homodimer or a heterodimer, composed of both platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta polypeptides. Studies suggest that this gene plays a role in organ development, wound healing, and tumor progression. Mutations in this gene have been associated with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, somatic and familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and a variety of other cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

PTCRA Gene

pre T-cell antigen receptor alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a single-pass type I membrane protein that is found in immmature but not mature T-cells. Along with TCRB and CD3 complex, the encoded protein forms the pre-T-cell receptor complex, which regulates early T-cell development. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

TRAV36DV7 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 36/delta variable 7

IL10RA Gene

interleukin 10 receptor, alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for interleukin 10. This protein is structurally related to interferon receptors. It has been shown to mediate the immunosuppressive signal of interleukin 10, and thus inhibits the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. This receptor is reported to promote survival of progenitor myeloid cells through the insulin receptor substrate-2/PI 3-kinase/AKT pathway. Activation of this receptor leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK1 and TYK2 kinases. Two transcript variants, one protein-coding and the other not protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

TRAJ49 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 49

TRAJ48 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 48

TRAJ41 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 41

TRAJ40 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 40

TRAJ43 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 43

TRAJ42 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 42

TRAJ45 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 45

TRAJ44 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 44

TRAJ47 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 47

TRAJ46 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 46

GLRA1 Gene

glycine receptor, alpha 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of a pentameric inhibitory glycine receptor. The receptor mediates postsynaptic inhibition in the central nervous system. Defects in this gene are a cause of startle disease (STHE), also known as hereditary hyperekplexia or congenital stiff-person syndrome. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

TRAV38-2DV8 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 38-2/delta variable 8

SSR1P1 Gene

signal sequence receptor, alpha pseudogene 1

CHRNA10 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 10 (neuronal)

RXRA Gene

retinoid X receptor, alpha

Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are nuclear receptors that mediate the biological effects of retinoids by their involvement in retinoic acid-mediated gene activation. These receptors function as transcription factors by binding as homodimers or heterodimers to specific sequences in the promoters of target genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily of transcriptional regulators. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

TRAV31 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 31 (pseudogene)

TRAJ30 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 30

TRAJ31 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 31

TRAJ33 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 33

TRAJ34 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 34

TRAJ35 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 35 (non-functional)

TRAJ36 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 36

TRAJ37 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 37

TRAJ38 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 38

TRAJ39 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 39

IL2RA Gene

interleukin 2 receptor, alpha

The interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor alpha (IL2RA) and beta (IL2RB) chains, together with the common gamma chain (IL2RG), constitute the high-affinity IL2 receptor. Homodimeric alpha chains (IL2RA) result in low-affinity receptor, while homodimeric beta (IL2RB) chains produce a medium-affinity receptor. Normally an integral-membrane protein, soluble IL2RA has been isolated and determined to result from extracellular proteolyisis. Alternately-spliced IL2RA mRNAs have been isolated, but the significance of each is presently unknown. Mutations in this gene are associated with interleukin 2 receptor alpha deficiency.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

TRAV2 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 2

TRAV3 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 3 (gene/pseudogene)

TRAV4 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 4

TRAV6 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 6

TRAV7 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 7

TRAV22 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 22

TRAV21 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 21

TRAV27 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 27

TRAV25 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 25

TRAV24 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 24

TRAV28 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 28 (pseudogene)

GLRA3 Gene

glycine receptor, alpha 3

This gene encodes a member of the ligand-gated ion channel protein family. The encoded protein is a member of the glycine receptor subfamily. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

GLRA2 Gene

glycine receptor, alpha 2

The glycine receptor consists of two subunits, alpha and beta, and acts as a pentamer. The protein encoded by this gene is an alpha subunit and can bind strychnine. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

GLRA4 Gene

glycine receptor, alpha 4

This gene encodes a protein which has a neurotransmitter-gated ion-channel ligand binding domain. The encoded protein is very similar to a mouse protein which is a subunit of the retinal glycine receptor. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

FCGRT Gene

Fc fragment of IgG, receptor, transporter, alpha

This gene encodes a receptor that binds the Fc region of monomeric immunoglobulin G. The encoded protein transfers immunoglobulin G antibodies from mother to fetus across the placenta. This protein also binds immunoglobulin G to protect the antibody from degradation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

TRAJ58 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 58 (non-functional)

TRAJ56 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 56

TRAJ57 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 57

TRAJ54 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 54

TRAV26-1 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 26-1

TRAV26-2 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 26-2

TRAV9-1 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 9-1

TRAV9-2 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 9-2

GABRA5 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 5

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. Transcript variants utilizing three different alternative non-coding first exons have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA4 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 4

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. This gene encodes subunit alpha-4, which is involved in the etiology of autism and eventually increases autism risk through interaction with another subunit, gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor beta-1 (GABRB1). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

GABRA6 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 6

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 1

This gene encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. GABA-A receptors are pentameric, consisting of proteins from several subunit classes: alpha, beta, gamma, delta and rho. Mutations in this gene cause juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and childhood absence epilepsy type 4. Multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 3

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 2

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

ESRRA Gene

estrogen-related receptor alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear receptor that is closely related to the estrogen receptor. This protein acts as a site-specific transcription regulator and has been also shown to interact with estrogen and the transcripton factor TFIIB by direct protein-protein contact. The binding and regulatory activities of this protein have been demonstrated in the regulation of a variety of genes including lactoferrin, osteopontin, medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) and thyroid hormone receptor genes. A processed pseudogene of ESRRA is located on chromosome 13q12.1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

TRAJ61 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 61 (non-functional)

TRAJ60 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 60 (pseudogene)

IL5RA Gene

interleukin 5 receptor, alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is an interleukin 5 specific subunit of a heterodimeric cytokine receptor. The receptor is comprised of a ligand specific alpha subunit and a signal transducing beta subunit shared by the receptors for interleukin 3 (IL3), colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2/GM-CSF), and interleukin 5 (IL5). The binding of this protein to IL5 depends on the beta subunit. The beta subunit is activated by the ligand binding, and is required for the biological activities of IL5. This protein has been found to interact with syndecan binding protein (syntenin), which is required for IL5 mediated activation of the transcription factor SOX4. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding four distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

TRAV18 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 18

TRAV19 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 19

TRAV10 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 10

TRAV11 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 11 (pseudogene)

TRAV16 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 16

TRAV17 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 17

TRAV15 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 15 (pseudogene)

TRAV8-1 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 8-1

TRAV8-3 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 8-3

TRAV8-2 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 8-2

TRAV8-5 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 8-5 (pseudogene)

TRAV8-4 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 8-4

TRAV8-7 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 8-7 (non-functional)

TRAV8-6 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 8-6

TRAC Gene

T cell receptor alpha constant

SSR1P2 Gene

signal sequence receptor, alpha pseudogene 2

PPFIA2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. It has been proposed that liprins are multivalent proteins that form complex structures and act as scaffolds for the recruitment and anchoring of LAR family of tyrosine phosphatases. This protein has been shown to bind the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family) protein (also known as CASK) and proposed to regulate higher-order brain functions in mammals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PPFIA3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. Liprin family protein has been shown to localize phosphatase LAR to cell focal adhesions and may be involved in the molecular organization of presynaptic active zones. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPFIA1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. This protein binds to the intracellular membrane-distal phosphatase domain of tyrosine phosphatase LAR, and appears to localize LAR to cell focal adhesions. This interaction may regulate the disassembly of focal adhesion and thus help orchestrate cell-matrix interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GFRA4 Gene

GDNF family receptor alpha 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the GDNF receptor family. It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-linked cell surface receptor for persephin, and mediates activation of the RET tyrosine kinase receptor. This gene is a candidate gene for RET-associated diseases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GFRA1 Gene

GDNF family receptor alpha 1

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) are two structurally related, potent neurotrophic factors that play key roles in the control of neuron survival and differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the GDNF receptor family. It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-linked cell surface receptor for both GDNF and NTN, and mediates activation of the RET tyrosine kinase receptor. This gene is a candidate gene for Hirschsprung disease. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

GFRA3 Gene

GDNF family receptor alpha 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-linked cell surface receptor and a member of the GDNF receptor family. It forms a signaling receptor complex with RET tyrosine kinase receptor and binds the ligand, artemin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GFRA2 Gene

GDNF family receptor alpha 2

Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neurturin (NTN) are two structurally related, potent neurotrophic factors that play key roles in the control of neuron survival and differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the GDNF receptor family. It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol(GPI)-linked cell surface receptor for both GDNF and NTN, and mediates activation of the RET tyrosine kinase receptor. This encoded protein acts preferentially as a receptor for NTN compared to its other family member, GDNF family receptor alpha 1. This gene is a candidate gene for RET-associated diseases. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

PPARGC1A Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism. This protein interacts with PPARgamma, which permits the interaction of this protein with multiple transcription factors. This protein can interact with, and regulate the activities of, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear respiratory factors (NRFs). It provides a direct link between external physiological stimuli and the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and is a major factor that regulates muscle fiber type determination. This protein may be also involved in controlling blood pressure, regulating cellular cholesterol homoeostasis, and the development of obesity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IL22RA2 Gene

interleukin 22 receptor, alpha 2

This gene encodes a member of the class II cytokine receptor family. The encoded soluble protein specifically binds to and inhibits interleukin 22 activity by blocking the interaction of interleukin 22 with its cell surface receptor. The encoded protein may be important in the regulation of inflammatory response, and has been implicated in the regulation of tumorigenesis in the colon. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

IL22RA1 Gene

interleukin 22 receptor, alpha 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the class II cytokine receptor family, and has been shown to be a receptor for interleukin 22 (IL22). IL22 receptor is a protein complex that consists of this protein and interleukin 10 receptor, beta (IL10BR/CRFB4), a subunit also shared by the receptor complex for interleukin 10 (IL10). This gene and interleukin 28 receptor, alpha (IL28RA) form a cytokine receptor gene cluster in the chromosomal region 1p36. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPARA Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

Peroxisome proliferators include hypolipidemic drugs, herbicides, leukotriene antagonists, and plasticizers; this term arises because they induce an increase in the size and number of peroxisomes. Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles found in plants and animals that contain enzymes for respiration and for cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The action of peroxisome proliferators is thought to be mediated via specific receptors, called PPARs, which belong to the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. PPARs affect the expression of target genes involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation and in immune and inflammation responses. Three closely related subtypes (alpha, beta/delta, and gamma) have been identified. This gene encodes the subtype PPAR-alpha, which is a nuclear transcription factor. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene, although the full-length nature of only two has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRA Gene

T cell receptor alpha locus

IL11RA Gene

interleukin 11 receptor, alpha

Interleukin 11 is a stromal cell-derived cytokine that belongs to a family of pleiotropic and redundant cytokines that use the gp130 transducing subunit in their high affinity receptors. This gene encodes the IL-11 receptor, which is a member of the hematopoietic cytokine receptor family. This particular receptor is very similar to ciliary neurotrophic factor, since both contain an extracellular region with a 2-domain structure composed of an immunoglobulin-like domain and a cytokine receptor-like domain. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

TRAJ59 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 59 (non-functional)

TRAJ52 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 52

TRAJ53 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 53

TRAJ50 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 50

TRAJ51 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 51 (pseudogene)

TRAJ55 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 55 (pseudogene)

TRAV41 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 41

TRAV40 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 40

IL15RA Gene

interleukin 15 receptor, alpha

This gene encodes a cytokine receptor that specifically binds interleukin 15 (IL15) with high affinity. The receptors of IL15 and IL2 share two subunits, IL2R beta and IL2R gamma. This forms the basis of many overlapping biological activities of IL15 and IL2. The protein encoded by this gene is structurally related to IL2R alpha, an additional IL2-specific alpha subunit necessary for high affinity IL2 binding. Unlike IL2RA, IL15RA is capable of binding IL15 with high affinity independent of other subunits, which suggests distinct roles between IL15 and IL2. This receptor is reported to enhance cell proliferation and expression of apoptosis inhibitor BCL2L1/BCL2-XL and BCL2. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

TRAV1-1 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 1-1

TRAV1-2 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 1-2

IL27RA Gene

interleukin 27 receptor, alpha

In mice, CD4+ helper T-cells differentiate into type 1 (Th1) cells, which are critical for cell-mediated immunity, predominantly under the influence of IL12. Also, IL4 influences their differentiation into type 2 (Th2) cells, which are critical for most antibody responses. Mice deficient in these cytokines, their receptors, or associated transcription factors have impaired, but are not absent of, Th1 or Th2 immune responses. This gene encodes a protein which is similar to the mouse T-cell cytokine receptor Tccr at the amino acid level, and is predicted to be a glycosylated transmembrane protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRAV38-1 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 38-1

TRAV34 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 34

TRAV35 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 35

TRAV37 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 37 (pseudogene)

TRAV30 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 30

TRAV32 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 32 (pseudogene)

TRAV33 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 33 (pseudogene)

TRAV39 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 39

PILRA Gene

paired immunoglobin-like type 2 receptor alpha

Cell signaling pathways rely on a dynamic interaction between activating and inhibiting processes. SHP-1-mediated dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues is central to the regulation of several cell signaling pathways. Two types of inhibitory receptor superfamily members are immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-bearing receptors and their non-ITIM-bearing, activating counterparts. Control of cell signaling via SHP-1 is thought to occur through a balance between PILRalpha-mediated inhibition and PILRbeta-mediated activation. These paired immunoglobulin-like receptor genes are located in a tandem head-to-tail orientation on chromosome 7. This particular gene encodes the ITIM-bearing member of the receptor pair, which functions in the inhibitory role. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and three variants, each encoding a distinct isoform, are described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LIFR Gene

leukemia inhibitory factor receptor alpha

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the type I cytokine receptor family. This protein combines with a high-affinity converter subunit, gp130, to form a receptor complex that mediates the action of the leukemia inhibitory factor, a polyfunctional cytokine that is involved in cellular differentiation, proliferation and survival in the adult and the embryo. Mutations in this gene cause Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 2, a disease belonging to the group of the bent-bone dysplasias. A translocation that involves the promoter of this gene, t(5;8)(p13;q12) with the pleiomorphic adenoma gene 1, is associated with salivary gland pleiomorphic adenoma, a common type of benign epithelial tumor of the salivary gland. Multiple splice variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRAV12-1 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 12-1

TRAV12-3 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 12-3

TRAV12-2 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 12-2

TRAV13-1 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 13-1

TRAV13-2 Gene

T cell receptor alpha variable 13-2

TRAJ4 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 4

TRAJ5 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 5

TRAJ6 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 6

TRAJ7 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 7

TRAJ1 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 1 (non-functional)

TRAJ2 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 2 (non-functional)

TRAJ3 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 3

TRAJ8 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 8

TRAJ9 Gene

T cell receptor alpha joining 9

TFAP2B Gene

transcription factor AP-2 beta (activating enhancer binding protein 2 beta)

This gene encodes a member of the AP-2 family of transcription factors. AP-2 proteins form homo- or hetero-dimers with other AP-2 family members and bind specific DNA sequences. They are thought to stimulate cell proliferation and suppress terminal differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic development. Specific AP-2 family members differ in their expression patterns and binding affinity for different promoters. This protein functions as both a transcriptional activator and repressor. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant Char syndrome, suggesting that this gene functions in the differentiation of neural crest cell derivatives. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MGAT3 Gene

mannosyl (beta-1,4-)-glycoprotein beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase

There are believed to be over 100 different glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of protein-bound and lipid-bound oligosaccharides. The enzyme encoded by this gene transfers a GlcNAc residue to the beta-linked mannose of the trimannosyl core of N-linked oligosaccharides and produces a bisecting GlcNAc. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COPB2 Gene

coatomer protein complex, subunit beta 2 (beta prime)

The Golgi coatomer complex (see MIM 601924) constitutes the coat of nonclathrin-coated vesicles and is essential for Golgi budding and vesicular trafficking. It consists of 7 protein subunits, including COPB2.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

DBH Gene

dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dopamine beta-monooxygenase)

The protein encoded by this gene is an oxidoreductase belonging to the copper type II, ascorbate-dependent monooxygenase family. It is present in the synaptic vesicles of postganglionic sympathetic neurons and converts dopamine to norepinephrine. It exists in both soluble and membrane-bound forms, depending on the absence or presence, respectively, of a signal peptide. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBJ2-4 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-4

TRBJ2-5 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-5

TRBJ2-6 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-6

TRBJ2-7 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-7

TRBJ2-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-1

TRBJ2-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-2

TRBJ2-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-3

TRBV20-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 20-1

TRBV6-8 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-8

TRBV6-9 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-9

TRBV6-5 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-5

TRBV6-6 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-6

TRBV6-7 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-7 (non-functional)

TRBV6-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-2 (gene/pseudogene)

TRBV6-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-3

THRB Gene

thyroid hormone receptor, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear hormone receptor for triiodothyronine. It is one of the several receptors for thyroid hormone, and has been shown to mediate the biological activities of thyroid hormone. Knockout studies in mice suggest that the different receptors, while having certain extent of redundancy, may mediate different functions of thyroid hormone. Mutations in this gene are known to be a cause of generalized thyroid hormone resistance (GTHR), a syndrome characterized by goiter and high levels of circulating thyroid hormone (T3-T4), with normal or slightly elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBC1 Gene

T cell receptor beta constant 1

TRBC2 Gene

T cell receptor beta constant 2

TRBV21-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 21-1 (pseudogene)

TRBV23OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 23/OR9-2 (non-functional)

TRBV30 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 30 (gene/pseudogene)

GLRB Gene

glycine receptor, beta

This gene encodes the beta subunit of the glycine receptor, which is a pentamer composed of alpha and beta subunits. The receptor functions as a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel, which produces hyperpolarization via increased chloride conductance due to the binding of glycine to the receptor. Mutations in this gene cause startle disease, also known as hereditary hyperekplexia or congenital stiff-person syndrome, a disease characterized by muscular rigidity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

ITGB2 Gene

integrin, beta 2 (complement component 3 receptor 3 and 4 subunit)

This gene encodes an integrin beta chain, which combines with multiple different alpha chains to form different integrin heterodimers. Integrins are integral cell-surface proteins that participate in cell adhesion as well as cell-surface mediated signalling. The encoded protein plays an important role in immune response and defects in this gene cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

TRBV3-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 3-1

TRBV7-9 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-9

TRBV7-8 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-8

TRBV7-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-1 (non-functional)

TRBV7-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-3

TRBV7-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-2

TRBV7-5 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-5 (pseudogene)

TRBV7-4 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-4 (gene/pseudogene)

TRBV7-7 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-7

TRBV7-6 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 7-6

IL20RB Gene

interleukin 20 receptor beta

IL20RB and IL20RA (MIM 605620) form a heterodimeric receptor for interleukin-20 (IL20; MIM 605619) (Blumberg et al., 2001 [PubMed 11163236]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2009]

TRBV21OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 21/OR9-2 (pseudogene)

RARB Gene

retinoic acid receptor, beta

This gene encodes retinoic acid receptor beta, a member of the thyroid-steroid hormone receptor superfamily of nuclear transcriptional regulators. This receptor localizes to the cytoplasm and to subnuclear compartments. It binds retinoic acid, the biologically active form of vitamin A which mediates cellular signalling in embryonic morphogenesis, cell growth and differentiation. It is thought that this protein limits growth of many cell types by regulating gene expression. The gene was first identified in a hepatocellular carcinoma where it flanks a hepatitis B virus integration site. Alternate promoter usage and differential splicing result in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

TRBD1 Gene

T cell receptor beta diversity 1

GABRB1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 1

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes GABA A receptor, beta 1 subunit. It is mapped to chromosome 4p12 in a cluster comprised of genes encoding alpha 4, alpha 2 and gamma 1 subunits of the GABA A receptor. Alteration of this gene is implicated in the pathogenetics of schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRB3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 3

This gene encodes a member of the ligand-gated ionic channel family. The encoded protein is one the subunits of a multi-subunit chloride channel that serves as the receptor for gamma-aminobutyric acid, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian nervous system. This gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 15 in a cluster with two other genes encoding related subunits of the family. This gene may be associated with the pathogenesis of several disorders including Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, nonsyndromic orofacial clefts, epilepsy and autism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

CSF2RB Gene

colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, beta, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage)

The protein encoded by this gene is the common beta chain of the high affinity receptor for IL-3, IL-5 and CSF. Defects in this gene have been reported to be associated with protein alveolar proteinosis (PAP). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBJ2-2P Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 2-2P (non-functional)

TRBV11-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 11-3

TRBV11-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 11-1

ADRBK1 Gene

adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 1

The product of this gene phosphorylates the beta-2-adrenergic receptor and appears to mediate agonist-specific desensitization observed at high agonist concentrations. This protein is an ubiquitous cytosolic enzyme that specifically phosphorylates the activated form of the beta-adrenergic and related G-protein-coupled receptors. Abnormal coupling of beta-adrenergic receptor to G protein is involved in the pathogenesis of the failing heart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADRBK2 Gene

adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 2

The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G protein-coupled receptors. Overall, the beta adrenergic receptor kinase 2 has 85% amino acid similarity with beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1, with the protein kinase catalytic domain having 95% similarity. These data suggest the existence of a family of receptor kinases which may serve broadly to regulate receptor function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV24-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 24-1

PDGFRB Gene

platelet-derived growth factor receptor, beta polypeptide

This gene encodes a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor for members of the platelet-derived growth factor family. These growth factors are mitogens for cells of mesenchymal origin. The identity of the growth factor bound to a receptor monomer determines whether the functional receptor is a homodimer or a heterodimer, composed of both platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta polypeptides. This gene is flanked on chromosome 5 by the genes for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor receptor; all three genes may be implicated in the 5-q syndrome. A translocation between chromosomes 5 and 12, that fuses this gene to that of the translocation, ETV6, leukemia gene, results in chronic myeloproliferative disorder with eosinophilia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV10-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 10-2

TRBV10-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 10-3

TRBV10-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 10-1(gene/pseudogene)

TRBV25-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 25-1

TRBV17 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 17 (non-functional)

TRBV16 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 16 (gene/pseudogene)

TRBV15 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 15

TRBV14 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 14

TRBV13 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 13

TRBV19 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 19

TRBV18 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 18

TRBVAOR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable A/OR9-2 (pseudogene)

IL10RB Gene

interleukin 10 receptor, beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cytokine receptor family. It is an accessory chain essential for the active interleukin 10 receptor complex. Coexpression of this and IL10RA proteins has been shown to be required for IL10-induced signal transduction. This gene and three other interferon receptor genes, IFAR2, IFNAR1, and IFNGR2, form a class II cytokine receptor gene cluster located in a small region on chromosome 21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421483 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor 1 pseudogene

TRBV6-4 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-4

TRBV6-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 6-1

LTBR Gene

lymphotoxin beta receptor (TNFR superfamily, member 3)

This gene encodes a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The major ligands of this receptor include lymphotoxin alpha/beta and tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 14. The encoded protein plays a role in signalling during the development of lymphoid and other organs, lipid metabolism, immune response, and programmed cell death. Activity of this receptor has also been linked to carcinogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

TRBV28 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 28

TRBV26 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 26 (pseudogene)

RXRB Gene

retinoid X receptor, beta

This gene encodes a member of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors which are involved in mediating the effects of retinoic acid (RA). The encoded protein forms homodimers with the retinoic acid, thyroid hormone, and vitamin D receptors, increasing both DNA binding and transcriptional function on their respective response elements. This gene lies within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II region on chromosome 6. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CHRNB1 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 1 (muscle)

The muscle acetylcholine receptor is composed of five subunits: two alpha subunits and one beta, one gamma, and one delta subunit. This gene encodes the beta subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. The acetylcholine receptor changes conformation upon acetylcholine binding leading to the opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. Mutations in this gene are associated with slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHRNB3 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 3 (neuronal)

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast signal transmission at synapses. The nAChRs are (hetero)pentamers composed of homologous subunits. The subunits that make up the muscle and neuronal forms of nAChRs are encoded by separate genes and have different primary structure. There are several subtypes of neuronal nAChRs that vary based on which homologous subunits are arranged around the central channel. They are classified as alpha-subunits if, like muscle alpha-1 (MIM 100690), they have a pair of adjacent cysteines as part of the presumed acetylcholine binding site. Subunits lacking these cysteine residues are classified as beta-subunits (Groot Kormelink and Luyten, 1997 [PubMed 9009220]). Elliott et al. (1996) [PubMed 8906617] stated that the proposed structure for each subunit is a conserved N-terminal extracellular domain followed by 3 conserved transmembrane domains, a variable cytoplasmic loop, a fourth conserved transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal extracellular region.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

CHRNB2 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 2 (neuronal)

Neuronal acetylcholine receptors are homo- or heteropentameric complexes composed of homologous alpha and beta subunits. They belong to a superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels which allow the flow of sodium and potassium across the plasma membrane in response to ligands such as acetylcholine and nicotine. This gene encodes one of several beta subunits. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHRNB4 Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 4 (neuronal)

IL2RB Gene

interleukin 2 receptor, beta

The interleukin 2 receptor, which is involved in T cell-mediated immune responses, is present in 3 forms with respect to ability to bind interleukin 2. The low affinity form is a monomer of the alpha subunit and is not involved in signal transduction. The intermediate affinity form consists of an alpha/beta subunit heterodimer, while the high affinity form consists of an alpha/beta/gamma subunit heterotrimer. Both the intermediate and high affinity forms of the receptor are involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis and transduction of mitogenic signals from interleukin 2. The protein encoded by this gene represents the beta subunit and is a type I membrane protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV20OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 20/OR9-2 (non-functional)

TRBV25OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 25/OR9-2 (pseudogene)

TGFBR2 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor II (70/80kDa)

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family and the TGFB receptor subfamily. The encoded protein is a transmembrane protein that has a protein kinase domain, forms a heterodimeric complex with another receptor protein, and binds TGF-beta. This receptor/ligand complex phosphorylates proteins, which then enter the nucleus and regulate the transcription of a subset of genes related to cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Marfan Syndrome, Loeys-Deitz Aortic Aneurysm Syndrome, and the development of various types of tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TGFBR1 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor 1

The protein encoded by this gene forms a heteromeric complex with type II TGF-beta receptors when bound to TGF-beta, transducing the TGF-beta signal from the cell surface to the cytoplasm. The encoded protein is a serine/threonine protein kinase. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Loeys-Dietz aortic aneurysm syndrome (LDAS). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

TGFBRAP1 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor associated protein 1

TRBV22OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 22/OR9-2 (pseudogene)

TRBV22-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 22-1 (pseudogene)

ESRRB Gene

estrogen-related receptor beta

This gene encodes a protein with similarity to the estrogen receptor. Its function is unknown; however, a similar protein in mouse plays an essential role in placental development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV11-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 11-2

TRBV4-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 4-2

TRBV4-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 4-3

TRBV4-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 4-1

TRBV5-7 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-7 (non-functional)

TRBV5-6 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-6

TRBV5-5 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-5

TRBV5-4 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-4

TRBV5-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-3 (non-functional)

TRBV5-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-2 (pseudogene)

TRBV5-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-1

TRBV5-8 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 5-8

PPARGC1B Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta

The protein encoded by this gene stimulates the activity of several transcription factors and nuclear receptors, including estrogen receptor alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and glucocorticoid receptor. The encoded protein may be involved in fat oxidation, non-oxidative glucose metabolism, and the regulation of energy expenditure. This protein is downregulated in prediabetic and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Certain allelic variations in this gene increase the risk of the development of obesity. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

TRBD2 Gene

T cell receptor beta diversity 2

TRBV8-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 8-2 (pseudogene)

TRBV8-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 8-1 (pseudogene)

TRBV26OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 26/OR9-2 (pseudogene)

TRB Gene

T cell receptor beta locus

T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens which have been processed as small peptides and bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules at the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). Each T cell receptor is a dimer consisting of one alpha and one beta chain or one delta and one gamma chain. In a single cell, the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed in the order delta, gamma, beta, and alpha. If both delta and gamma rearrangements produce functional chains, the cell expresses delta and gamma. If not, the cell proceeds to rearrange the beta and alpha loci. This region represents the germline organization of the T cell receptor beta locus. The beta locus includes V (variable), J (joining), diversity (D), and C (constant) segments. During T cell development, the beta chain is synthesized by a recombination event at the DNA level joining a D segment with a J segment; a V segment is then joined to the D-J gene. The C segment is later joined by splicing at the RNA level. Recombination of many different V segments with several J segments provides a wide range of antigen recognition. Additional diversity is attained by junctional diversity, resulting from the random additional of nucleotides by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase. Several V segments and one J segment of the beta locus are known to be incapable of encoding a protein and are considered pseudogenes. The beta locus also includes eight trypsinogen genes, three of which encode functional proteins and five of which are pseudogenes. Chromosomal abnormalities involving the T-cell receptor beta locus have been associated with T-cell lymphomas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TGFBR3 Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor III

This locus encodes the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta type III receptor. The encoded receptor is a membrane proteoglycan that often functions as a co-receptor with other TGF-beta receptor superfamily members. Ectodomain shedding produces soluble TGFBR3, which may inhibit TGFB signaling. Decreased expression of this receptor has been observed in various cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

TRBJ1-6 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 1-6

TRBJ1-5 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 1-5

TRBJ1-4 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 1-4

TRBJ1-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 1-3

TRBJ1-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 1-2

TRBJ1-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta joining 1-1

CSF2RBP1 Gene

colony stimulating factor 2 receptor, beta, low-affinity (granulocyte-macrophage) pseudogene 1

TRBV23-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 23-1 (non-functional)

IL12RB1 Gene

interleukin 12 receptor, beta 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane protein that belongs to the hemopoietin receptor superfamily. This protein binds to interleukine 12 (IL12) with a low affinity, and is thought to be a part of IL12 receptor complex. This protein forms a disulfide-linked oligomer, which is required for its IL12 binding activity. The coexpression of this and IL12RB2 proteins was shown to lead to the formation of high-affinity IL12 binding sites and reconstitution of IL12 dependent signaling. Mutations in this gene impair the development of interleukin-17-producing T lymphocytes and result in increased susceptibility to mycobacterial and Salmonella infections. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

IL12RB2 Gene

interleukin 12 receptor, beta 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane protein identified as a subunit of the interleukin 12 receptor complex. The coexpression of this and IL12RB1 proteins was shown to lead to the formation of high-affinity IL12 binding sites and reconstitution of IL12 dependent signaling. The expression of this gene is up-regulated by interferon gamma in Th1 cells, and plays a role in Th1 cell differentiation. The up-regulation of this gene is found to be associated with a number of infectious diseases, such as Crohn's disease and leprosy, which is thought to contribute to the inflammatory response and host defense. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms and non-protein coding transcripts have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

GABRB2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 2

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes GABA A receptor, beta 2 subunit. It is mapped to chromosome 5q34 in a cluster comprised of genes encoding alpha 1 and gamma 2 subunits of the GABA A receptor. Alternative splicing of this gene generates 2 transcript variants, differing by a 114 bp insertion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TGFBR3L Gene

transforming growth factor, beta receptor III-like

TBL1XR1 Gene

transducin (beta)-like 1 X-linked receptor 1

The protein encoded by this gene has sequence similarity with members of the WD40 repeat-containing protein family. The WD40 group is a large family of proteins, which appear to have a regulatory function. It is believed that the WD40 repeats mediate protein-protein interactions and members of the family are involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, gene regulation, vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal assembly and may play a role in the control of cytotypic differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV27 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 27

TRBV3-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 3-2 (pseudogene)

ESR2 Gene

estrogen receptor 2 (ER beta)

This gene encodes a member of the family of estrogen receptors and superfamily of nuclear receptor transcription factors. The gene product contains an N-terminal DNA binding domain and C-terminal ligand binding domain and is localized to the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Upon binding to 17beta-estradiol or related ligands, the encoded protein forms homo- or hetero-dimers that interact with specific DNA sequences to activate transcription. Some isoforms dominantly inhibit the activity of other estrogen receptor family members. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRBV12-4 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 12-4

TRBV12-5 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 12-5

TRBV12-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 12-1 (pseudogene)

TRBV12-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 12-2 (pseudogene)

TRBV12-3 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 12-3

TRBV9 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 9

TRBV2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 2

TRBV1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 1 (pseudogene)

TRBVC Gene

T cell receptor beta variable C

TRBVB Gene

T cell receptor beta variable B (pseudogene)

TRBVA Gene

T cell receptor beta variable A (pseudogene)

PILRB Gene

paired immunoglobin-like type 2 receptor beta

The paired immunoglobin-like type 2 receptors consist of highly related activating and inhibitory receptors that are involved in the regulation of many aspects of the immune system. The paired immunoglobulin-like receptor genes are located in a tandem head-to-tail orientation on chromosome 7. This gene encodes the activating member of the receptor pair and contains a truncated cytoplasmic tail relative to its inhibitory counterpart (PILRA), that has a long cytoplasmic tail with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory (ITIM) motifs. This gene is thought to have arisen from a duplication of the inhibitory PILRA gene and evolved to acquire its activating function. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

TRBV29OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 29/OR9-2 (non-functional)

TRBV24OR9-2 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 24/OR9-2 (pseudogene)

TRBV29-1 Gene

T cell receptor beta variable 29-1

LOC100421513 Gene

transducin (beta)-like 1 X-linked receptor 1 pseudogene

LRP8 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8, apolipoprotein e receptor

This gene encodes a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Low density lipoprotein receptors are cell surface proteins that play roles in both signal transduction and receptor-mediated endocytosis of specific ligands for lysosomal degradation. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the migration of neurons during development by mediating Reelin signaling, and also functions as a receptor for the cholesterol transport protein apolipoprotein E. Expression of this gene may be a marker for major depressive disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

ROR2 Gene

receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase and type I transmembrane protein that belongs to the ROR subfamily of cell surface receptors. The protein may be involved in the early formation of the chondrocytes and may be required for cartilage and growth plate development. Mutations in this gene can cause brachydactyly type B, a skeletal disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of distal phalanges and nails. In addition, mutations in this gene can cause the autosomal recessive form of Robinow syndrome, which is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with generalized limb bone shortening, segmental defects of the spine, brachydactyly, and a dysmorphic facial appearance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ROR1 Gene

receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1

This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor that modulates neurite growth in the central nervous system. The encoded protein is a glycosylated type I membrane protein that belongs to the ROR subfamily of cell surface receptors. It is a pseudokinase that lacks catalytic activity and may interact with the non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway. This gene is highly expressed during early embryonic development but expressed at very low levels in adult tissues. Increased expression of this gene is associated with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

NR3C1 Gene

nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor)

This gene encodes glucocorticoid receptor, which can function both as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements in the promoters of glucocorticoid responsive genes to activate their transcription, and as a regulator of other transcription factors. This receptor is typically found in the cytoplasm, but upon ligand binding, is transported into the nucleus. It is involved in inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation, and differentiation in target tissues. Mutations in this gene are associated with generalized glucocorticoid resistance. Alternative splicing of this gene results in transcript variants encoding either the same or different isoforms. Additional isoforms resulting from the use of alternate in-frame translation initiation sites have also been described, and shown to be functional, displaying diverse cytoplasm-to-nucleus trafficking patterns and distinct transcriptional activities (PMID:15866175). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

INSRR Gene

insulin receptor-related receptor

GPR37 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 37 (endothelin receptor type B-like)

This gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. The encoded protein contains seven transmembrane domains and is found in cell and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. G protein-coupled receptors are involved in translating outside signals into G protein mediated intracellular effects. This gene product interacts with Parkin and is involved in juvenile Parkinson disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

LOC643634 Gene

tropomyosin 1 (alpha) pseudogene

ITGA8 Gene

integrin, alpha 8

Integrins are heterodimeric transmembrane receptor proteins that mediate numerous cellular processes including cell adhesion, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and activation of cell signaling pathways. Integrins are composed of alpha and beta subunits. This gene encodes the alpha 8 subunit of the heterodimeric integrin alpha8beta1 protein. The encoded protein is a single-pass type 1 membrane protein that contains multiple FG-GAP repeats. This repeat is predicted to fold into a beta propeller structure. This gene regulates the recruitment of mesenchymal cells into epithelial structures, mediates cell-cell interactions, and regulates neurite outgrowth of sensory and motor neurons. The integrin alpha8beta1 protein thus plays an important role in wound-healing and organogenesis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with renal hypodysplasia/aplasia-1 (RHDA1) and with several animal models of chronic kidney disease. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

ITGA9 Gene

integrin, alpha 9

This gene encodes an alpha integrin. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane glycoproteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. The protein encoded by this gene, when bound to the beta 1 chain, forms an integrin that is a receptor for VCAM1, cytotactin and osteopontin. Expression of this gene has been found to be upregulated in small cell lung cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGA1 Gene

integrin, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha 1 subunit of integrin receptors. This protein heterodimerizes with the beta 1 subunit to form a cell-surface receptor for collagen and laminin. The heterodimeric receptor is involved in cell-cell adhesion and may play a role in inflammation and fibrosis. The alpha 1 subunit contains an inserted (I) von Willebrand factor type I domain which is thought to be involved in collagen binding. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGA6 Gene

integrin, alpha 6

The ITGA6 protein product is the integrin alpha chain alpha 6. Integrins are integral cell-surface proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. A given chain may combine with multiple partners resulting in different integrins. For example, alpha 6 may combine with beta 4 in the integrin referred to as TSP180, or with beta 1 in the integrin VLA-6. Integrins are known to participate in cell adhesion as well as cell-surface mediated signalling. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGA7 Gene

integrin, alpha 7

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. They mediate a wide spectrum of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and thus play a role in cell migration, morphologic development, differentiation, and metastasis. This protein functions as a receptor for the basement membrane protein laminin-1. It is mainly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles and may be involved in differentiation and migration processes during myogenesis. Defects in this gene are associated with congenital myopathy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

ITGAV Gene

integrin, alpha V

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the integrin superfamily. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This protein undergoes post-translational cleavage to yield disulfide-linked heavy and light chains that combine with multiple integrin beta chains to form different integrins. This protein has been shown to heterodimerize with beta 1, beta 3, beta 5, beta 6, and beta 8; the heterodimer of alpha v and beta 3 is the Vitronectin receptor. This protein interacts with several extracellular matrix proteins to mediate cell adhesion and may play a role in cell migration. It is proposed that this protein may regulate angiogenesis and cancer progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. Note that the integrin alpha 5 and integrin alpha V chains are produced by distinct genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

ITGAD Gene

integrin, alpha D

AAGAB Gene

alpha- and gamma-adaptin binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the gamma-adaptin and alpha-adaptin subunits of complexes involved in clathrin-coated vesicle trafficking. Mutations in this gene are associated with type I punctate palmoplantar keratoderma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

PRKAR2A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGA2B Gene

integrin, alpha 2b (platelet glycoprotein IIb of IIb/IIIa complex, antigen CD41)

ITGA2B encodes integrin alpha chain 2b. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. Alpha chain 2b undergoes post-translational cleavage to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 3 to form a fibronectin receptor expressed in platelets that plays a crucial role in coagulation. Mutations that interfere with this role result in thrombasthenia. In addition to adhesion, integrins are known to participate in cell-surface mediated signalling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105378951 Gene

collagen alpha-1(III) chain-like

LOC101930347 Gene

collagen alpha-2(I) chain-like

NDUFA3P3 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 3 pseudogene 3

CAMKK1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade. Three transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SEC61A1 Gene

Sec61 alpha 1 subunit (S. cerevisiae)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SECY/SEC61- alpha family. It appears to play a crucial role in the insertion of secretory and membrane polypeptides into the endoplasmic reticulum. This protein found to be tightly associated with membrane-bound ribosomes, either directly or through adaptor proteins. This gene encodes an alpha subunit of the heteromeric SEC61 complex, which also contains beta and gamma subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SEC61A2 Gene

Sec61 alpha 2 subunit (S. cerevisiae)

The protein encoded by this gene has similarity to a mouse protein which suggests a role in the insertion of secretory and membrane polypeptides into the endoplasmic reticulum. It may also be required for the assembly of membrane and secretory proteins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

SRD5A3 Gene

steroid 5 alpha-reductase 3

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the steroid 5-alpha reductase family, and polyprenol reductase subfamily. It is involved in the production of androgen 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from testosterone, and maintenance of the androgen-androgen receptor activation pathway. This protein is also necessary for the conversion of polyprenol into dolichol, which is required for the synthesis of dolichol-linked monosaccharides and the oligosaccharide precursor used for N-linked glycosylation of proteins. Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Iq. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

COL14A1 Gene

collagen, type XIV, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XIV collagen, a member of the FACIT (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) collagen family. Type XIV collagen interacts with the fibril surface and is involved in the regulation of fibrillogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

PPP3CA Gene

protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme

ADRA2A Gene

adrenoceptor alpha 2A

Alpha-2-adrenergic receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. They include 3 highly homologous subtypes: alpha2A, alpha2B, and alpha2C. These receptors have a critical role in regulating neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerves and from adrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. Studies in mouse revealed that both the alpha2A and alpha2C subtypes were required for normal presynaptic control of transmitter release from sympathetic nerves in the heart and from central noradrenergic neurons; the alpha2A subtype inhibited transmitter release at high stimulation frequencies, whereas the alpha2C subtype modulated neurotransmission at lower levels of nerve activity. This gene encodes alpha2A subtype and it contains no introns in either its coding or untranslated sequences. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADRA2B Gene

adrenoceptor alpha 2B

This intronless gene encodes a seven-pass transmembrane protein. This protein is a member of a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors that regulate neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerves and from adrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

ADRA2C Gene

adrenoceptor alpha 2C

Alpha-2-adrenergic receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. They include 3 highly homologous subtypes: alpha2A, alpha2B, and alpha2C. These receptors have a critical role in regulating neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerves and from adrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. The mouse studies revealed that both the alpha2A and alpha2C subtypes were required for normal presynaptic control of transmitter release from sympathetic nerves in the heart and from central noradrenergic neurons. The alpha2A subtype inhibited transmitter release at high stimulation frequencies, whereas the alpha2C subtype modulated neurotransmission at lower levels of nerve activity. This gene encodes the alpha2C subtype, which contains no introns in either its coding or untranslated sequences. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ENO1 Gene

enolase 1, (alpha)

This gene encodes alpha-enolase, one of three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. Each isoenzyme is a homodimer composed of 2 alpha, 2 gamma, or 2 beta subunits, and functions as a glycolytic enzyme. Alpha-enolase in addition, functions as a structural lens protein (tau-crystallin) in the monomeric form. Alternative splicing of this gene results in a shorter isoform that has been shown to bind to the c-myc promoter and function as a tumor suppressor. Several pseudogenes have been identified, including one on the long arm of chromosome 1. Alpha-enolase has also been identified as an autoantigen in Hashimoto encephalopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

LMX1A Gene

LIM homeobox transcription factor 1, alpha

This gene encodes a homeodomain and LIM-domain containing protein. The encoded protein is a transcription factor that acts as a positive regulator of insulin gene transcription. This gene also plays a role in the development of dopamine producing neurons during embryogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ANKS1B Gene

ankyrin repeat and sterile alpha motif domain containing 1B

This gene encodes a multi-domain protein that is predominantly expressed in brain and testis. This protein interacts with amyloid beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) and may have a role in normal brain development, and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Expression of this gene has been shown to be elevated in patients with pre-B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia associated with t(1;19) translocation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms (some with different subcellular localization, PMID:15004329) have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ANKS1A Gene

ankyrin repeat and sterile alpha motif domain containing 1A

LOC730222 Gene

tubulin, alpha 3d pseudogene

ATP7A Gene

ATPase, Cu++ transporting, alpha polypeptide

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein that functions in copper transport across membranes. This protein is localized to the trans Golgi network, where it is predicted to supply copper to copper-dependent enzymes in the secretory pathway. It relocalizes to the plasma membrane under conditions of elevated extracellular copper, and functions in the efflux of copper from cells. Mutations in this gene are associated with Menkes disease, X-linked distal spinal muscular atrophy, and occipital horn syndrome. Alternatively-spliced transcript variants have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

SAMD4A Gene

sterile alpha motif domain containing 4A

Sterile alpha motifs (SAMs) in proteins such as SAMD4A are part of an RNA-binding domain that functions as a posttranscriptional regulator by binding to an RNA sequence motif known as the Smaug recognition element, which was named after the Drosophila Smaug protein (Baez and Boccaccio, 2005 [PubMed 16221671]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SAMD4B Gene

sterile alpha motif domain containing 4B

PCDHAC2 Gene

protocadherin alpha subfamily C, 2

This gene is a member of the protocadherin alpha gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five that demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The alpha gene cluster is composed of 15 cadherin superfamily genes related to the mouse CNR genes and consists of 13 highly similar and 2 more distantly related coding sequences. The tandem array of 15 N-terminal exons, or variable exons, are followed by downstream C-terminal exons, or constant exons, which are shared by all genes in the cluster. The large, uninterrupted N-terminal exons each encode six cadherin ectodomains while the C-terminal exons encode the cytoplasmic domain. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins that most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been observed and additional variants have been suggested but their full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHAC1 Gene

protocadherin alpha subfamily C, 1

This gene is a member of the protocadherin alpha gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five that demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The alpha gene cluster is composed of 15 cadherin superfamily genes related to the mouse CNR genes and consists of 13 highly similar and 2 more distantly related coding sequences. The tandem array of 15 N-terminal exons, or variable exons, are followed by downstream C-terminal exons, or constant exons, which are shared by all genes in the cluster. The large, uninterrupted N-terminal exons each encode six cadherin ectodomains while the C-terminal exons encode the cytoplasmic domain. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins that most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been observed and additional variants have been suggested but their full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHACT Gene

protocadherin alpha constant

The genomic organization of the human protocadherin alpha, beta, and gamma gene clusters (PCDHA@, PCDHB@ and PCDHG@) is remarkably similar to that of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes. The extracellular and transmembrane domains of each protocadherin protein are encoded by an unusually large "variable" region exon, while the intracellular domains are encoded by three small "constant" region exons located downstream from a tandem array of variable region exons. This locus represents the three exons comprising the constant region of the protocadherin alpha gene cluster. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MCCC1 Gene

methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (alpha)

This gene encodes the large subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. This enzyme functions as a heterodimer and catalyzes the carboxylation of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA to form 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA. Mutations in this gene are associated with 3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria, an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ACACA Gene

acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a complex multifunctional enzyme system. ACC is a biotin-containing enzyme which catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid synthesis. There are two ACC forms, alpha and beta, encoded by two different genes. ACC-alpha is highly enriched in lipogenic tissues. The enzyme is under long term control at the transcriptional and translational levels and under short term regulation by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of targeted serine residues and by allosteric transformation by citrate or palmitoyl-CoA. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants divergent in the 5' sequence and encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100129096 Gene

tropomyosin 1 (alpha) pseudogene

REG1A Gene

regenerating islet-derived 1 alpha

This gene is a type I subclass member of the Reg gene family. The Reg gene family is a multigene family grouped into four subclasses, types I, II, III and IV, based on the primary structures of the encoded proteins. This gene encodes a protein that is secreted by the exocrine pancreas. It is associated with islet cell regeneration and diabetogenesis and may be involved in pancreatic lithogenesis. Reg family members REG1B, REGL, PAP and this gene are tandemly clustered on chromosome 2p12 and may have arisen from the same ancestral gene by gene duplication. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DAGLA Gene

diacylglycerol lipase, alpha

This gene encodes a diacylglycerol lipase. The encoded enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

CSNK1A1L Gene

casein kinase 1, alpha 1-like

LOC731755 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 1 pseudogene

ACTN3 Gene

actinin, alpha 3 (gene/pseudogene)

This gene encodes a member of the alpha-actin binding protein gene family. The encoded protein is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and functions as a structural component of sarcomeric Z line. This protein is involved in crosslinking actin containing thin filaments. An allelic polymorphism in this gene results in both coding and non-coding variants; the reference genome represents the coding allele. The non-functional allele of this gene is associated with elite athlete status. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

ACTN2 Gene

actinin, alpha 2

Alpha actinins belong to the spectrin gene superfamily which represents a diverse group of cytoskeletal proteins, including the alpha and beta spectrins and dystrophins. Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. In nonmuscle cells, the cytoskeletal isoform is found along microfilament bundles and adherens-type junctions, where it is involved in binding actin to the membrane. In contrast, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle isoforms are localized to the Z-disc and analogous dense bodies, where they help anchor the myofibrillar actin filaments. This gene encodes a muscle-specific, alpha actinin isoform that is expressed in both skeletal and cardiac muscles. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

ACTN1 Gene

actinin, alpha 1

Alpha actinins belong to the spectrin gene superfamily which represents a diverse group of cytoskeletal proteins, including the alpha and beta spectrins and dystrophins. Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. In nonmuscle cells, the cytoskeletal isoform is found along microfilament bundles and adherens-type junctions, where it is involved in binding actin to the membrane. In contrast, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle isoforms are localized to the Z-disc and analogous dense bodies, where they help anchor the myofibrillar actin filaments. This gene encodes a nonmuscle, cytoskeletal, alpha actinin isoform and maps to the same site as the structurally similar erythroid beta spectrin gene. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ACTN4 Gene

actinin, alpha 4

Alpha actinins belong to the spectrin gene superfamily which represents a diverse group of cytoskeletal proteins, including the alpha and beta spectrins and dystrophins. Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. In nonmuscle cells, the cytoskeletal isoform is found along microfilament bundles and adherens-type junctions, where it is involved in binding actin to the membrane. In contrast, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle isoforms are localized to the Z-disc and analogous dense bodies, where they help anchor the myofibrillar actin filaments. This gene encodes a nonmuscle, alpha actinin isoform which is concentrated in the cytoplasm, and thought to be involved in metastatic processes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC340268 Gene

C3 and PZP-like, alpha-2-macroglobulin domain containing 8 pseudogene

SPTA1 Gene

spectrin, alpha, erythrocytic 1

Spectrin is an actin crosslinking and molecular scaffold protein that links the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton, and functions in the determination of cell shape, arrangement of transmembrane proteins, and organization of organelles. It is a tetramer made up of alpha-beta dimers linked in a head-to-head arrangement. This gene is one member of a family of alpha-spectrin genes. The encoded protein is primarily composed of 22 spectrin repeats which are involved in dimer formation. It forms weaker tetramer interactions than non-erythrocytic alpha spectrin, which may increase the plasma membrane elasticity and deformability of red blood cells. Mutations in this gene result in a variety of hereditary red blood cell disorders, including elliptocytosis type 2, pyropoikilocytosis, and spherocytic hemolytic anemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HGSNAT Gene

heparan-alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase

This gene encodes a lysosomal acetyltransferase, which is one of several enzymes involved in the lysosomal degradation of heparin sulfate. Mutations in this gene are associated with Sanfilippo syndrome C, one type of the lysosomal storage disease mucopolysaccaridosis III, which results from impaired degradation of heparan sulfate. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

ALG8 Gene

ALG8, alpha-1,3-glucosyltransferase

This gene encodes a member of the ALG6/ALG8 glucosyltransferase family. The encoded protein catalyzes the addition of the second glucose residue to the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor for N-linked glycosylation of proteins. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ih (CDG-Ih). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ALG2 Gene

ALG2, alpha-1,3/1,6-mannosyltransferase

This gene encodes a member of the glycosyltransferase 1 family. The encoded protein acts as an alpha 1,3 mannosyltransferase, mannosylating Man(2)GlcNAc(2)-dolichol diphosphate and Man(1)GlcNAc(2)-dolichol diphosphate to form Man(3)GlcNAc(2)-dolichol diphosphate. Defects in this gene have been associated with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ih (CDG-Ii). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

ALG3 Gene

ALG3, alpha-1,3- mannosyltransferase

This gene encodes a member of the ALG3 family. The encoded protein catalyses the addition of the first dol-P-Man derived mannose in an alpha 1,3 linkage to Man5GlcNAc2-PP-Dol. Defects in this gene have been associated with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Id (CDG-Id) characterized by abnormal N-glycosylation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

ALG6 Gene

ALG6, alpha-1,3-glucosyltransferase

This gene encodes a member of the ALG6/ALG8 glucosyltransferase family. The encoded protein catalyzes the addition of the first glucose residue to the growing lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor of N-linked glycosylation. Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital disorders of glycosylation type Ic. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421817 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 pseudogene

NDUFA3P1 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 3 pseudogene 1

TUBA1C Gene

tubulin, alpha 1c

TUBA1B Gene

tubulin, alpha 1b

TUBA1A Gene

tubulin, alpha 1a

Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulins. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents belong to the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes, which are highly conserved among species. This gene encodes alpha tubulin and is highly similar to the mouse and rat Tuba1 genes. Northern blotting studies have shown that the gene expression is predominantly found in morphologically differentiated neurologic cells. This gene is one of three alpha-tubulin genes in a cluster on chromosome 12q. Mutations in this gene cause lissencephaly type 3 (LIS3) - a neurological condition characterized by microcephaly, mental retardation, and early-onset epilepsy and caused by defective neuronal migration. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

LOC105369637 Gene

collagen alpha-1(I) chain-like

HSP90AA3P Gene

heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), class A member 3, pseudogene

EEF1A1 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1

This gene encodes an isoform of the alpha subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This isoform (alpha 1) is expressed in brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas, and the other isoform (alpha 2) is expressed in brain, heart and skeletal muscle. This isoform is identified as an autoantigen in 66% of patients with Felty syndrome. This gene has been found to have multiple copies on many chromosomes, some of which, if not all, represent different pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EEF1A2 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2

This gene encodes an isoform of the alpha subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This isoform (alpha 2) is expressed in brain, heart and skeletal muscle, and the other isoform (alpha 1) is expressed in brain, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas. This gene may be critical in the development of ovarian cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

NFYA Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a trimeric complex, forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoter regions in a variety of genes. Subunit A associates with a tight dimer composed of the B and C subunits, resulting in a trimer that binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. The sequence specific interactions of the complex are made by the A subunit, suggesting a role as the regulatory subunit. In addition, there is evidence of post-transcriptional regulation in this gene product, either by protein degradation or control of translation. Further regulation is represented by alternative splicing in the glutamine-rich activation domain, with clear tissue-specific preferences for the two isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPHA2 Gene

glycoprotein hormone alpha 2

GPHA2 is a cystine knot-forming polypeptide and a subunit of the dimeric glycoprotein hormone family (Hsu et al., 2002 [PubMed 12089349]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PAM Gene

peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase

This gene encodes a multifunctional protein. It has two enzymatically active domains with catalytic activities - peptidylglycine alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM) and peptidyl-alpha-hydroxyglycine alpha-amidating lyase (PAL). These catalytic domains work sequentially to catalyze neuroendocrine peptides to active alpha-amidated products. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene but some of their full length sequences are not yet known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PDHA2 Gene

pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 2

PDHA1 Gene

pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 1

The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and provides the primary link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The PDH complex is composed of multiple copies of three enzymatic components: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). The E1 enzyme is a heterotetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. This gene encodes the E1 alpha 1 subunit containing the E1 active site, and plays a key role in the function of the PDH complex. Mutations in this gene are associated with pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-alpha deficiency and X-linked Leigh syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

EEF1A1P19 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 19

EEF1A1P18 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 18

EEF1A1P10 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 10

EEF1A1P15 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 15

LOC105370705 Gene

collagen alpha-2(I) chain-like

COL27A1 Gene

collagen, type XXVII, alpha 1

This gene encodes a member of the fibrillar collagen family, and plays a role during the calcification of cartilage and the transition of cartilage to bone. The encoded protein product is a preproprotein. It includes an N-terminal signal peptide, which is followed by an N-terminal propetide, mature peptide and a C-terminal propeptide. The N-terminal propeptide contains thrombospondin N-terminal-like and laminin G-like domains. The mature peptide is a major triple-helical region. The C-terminal propeptide, also known as COLFI domain, plays crucial roles in tissue growth and repair. Mutations in this gene cause Steel syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

DEFA1B Gene

defensin, alpha 1B

Defensins are a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides thought to be involved in host defense. They are abundant in the granules of neutrophils and also found in the epithelia of mucosal surfaces such as those of the intestine, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and vagina. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence and distinguished by a conserved cysteine motif. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, alpha 1, is found in the microbicidal granules of neutrophils and likely plays a role in phagocyte-mediated host defense. Several alpha defensin genes are clustered on chromosome 8. This gene differs from defensin, alpha 3 by only one amino acid. This gene and the gene encoding defensin, alpha 3 are both subject to copy number variation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

SCN1A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type I alpha subunit

The vertebrate sodium channel is a voltage-gated ion channel essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials, mainly in nerve and muscle. Voltage-sensitive sodium channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of a large central pore-forming glycosylated alpha subunit, and two smaller auxiliary beta subunits. This gene encodes the large alpha subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with several epilepsy, convulsion and migraine disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. The RefSeq Project has decided to create four representative RefSeq records. Three of the transcript variants are supported by experimental evidence and the fourth contains alternate 5' untranslated exons, the exact combination of which have not been experimentally confirmed for the full-length transcript.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

EEF1A1P35 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 35

EEF1A1P31 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 31

EEF1A1P33 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 33

EEF1A1P39 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 39

EEF1A1P38 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 38

LOC644661 Gene

importin subunit alpha-1 pseudogene

LOC101060328 Gene

collagen alpha-1(I) chain-like

NACA Gene

nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha subunit

The protein encoded by this gene associates with basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3) to form the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC). NAC binds to nascent proteins as they emerge from the ribosome, blocking interaction with the signal recognition particle (SRP) and preventing mistranslocation to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, nascent proteins with an exposed signal peptide will not be bound by the encoded protein, enabling them to bind the SRP and enter the secretory pathway. This protein has been determined to be an IgE autoantigen in atopic dermatitis patients. Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

SIRPAP1 Gene

signal-regulatory protein alpha pseudogene 1

SI Gene

sucrase-isomaltase (alpha-glucosidase)

This gene encodes a sucrase-isomaltase enzyme that is expressed in the intestinal brush border. The encoded protein is synthesized as a precursor protein that is cleaved by pancreatic proteases into two enzymatic subunits sucrase and isomaltase. These two subunits heterodimerize to form the sucrose-isomaltase complex. This complex is essential for the digestion of dietary carbohydrates including starch, sucrose and isomaltose. Mutations in this gene are the cause of congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

DEFA6 Gene

defensin, alpha 6, Paneth cell-specific

Defensins are a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides thought to be involved in host defense. They are abundant in the granules of neutrophils and also found in the epithelia of mucosal surfaces such as those of the intestine, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and vagina. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence and distinguished by a conserved cysteine motif. Several alpha defensin genes appear to be clustered on chromosome 8. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, alpha 6, is highly expressed in the secretory granules of Paneth cells of the small intestine, and likely plays a role in host defense of human bowel. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFA5 Gene

defensin, alpha 5, Paneth cell-specific

Defensins are a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides thought to be involved in host defense. They are abundant in the granules of neutrophils and also found in the epithelia of mucosal surfaces such as those of the intestine, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and vagina. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence and distinguished by a conserved cysteine motif. Several of the alpha defensin genes appear to be clustered on chromosome 8. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, alpha 5, is highly expressed in the secretory granules of Paneth cells of the ileum. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFA4 Gene

defensin, alpha 4, corticostatin

Defensins are a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides thought to be involved in host defense. They are abundant in the granules of neutrophils and also found in the epithelia of mucosal surfaces such as those of the intestine, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and vagina. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence and distinguished by a conserved cysteine motif. Several alpha defensin genes are clustered on chromosome 8. This gene differs from other genes of this family by an extra 83-base segment that is apparently the result of a recent duplication within the coding region. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, alpha 4, is found in the neutrophils; it exhibits corticostatic activity and inhibits corticotropin stimulated corticosterone production. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFA3 Gene

defensin, alpha 3, neutrophil-specific

Defensins are a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides thought to be involved in host defense. They are abundant in the granules of neutrophils and also found in the epithelia of mucosal surfaces such as those of the intestine, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and vagina. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence and distinguished by a conserved cysteine motif. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, alpha 3, is found in the microbicidal granules of neutrophils and likely plays a role in phagocyte-mediated host defense. Several alpha defensin genes are clustered on chromosome 8. This gene differs from defensin, alpha 1 by only one amino acid. This gene and the gene encoding defensin, alpha 1 are both subject to copy number variation. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

DEFA1 Gene

defensin, alpha 1

Defensins are a family of antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides thought to be involved in host defense. They are abundant in the granules of neutrophils and also found in the epithelia of mucosal surfaces such as those of the intestine, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and vagina. Members of the defensin family are highly similar in protein sequence and distinguished by a conserved cysteine motif. The protein encoded by this gene, defensin, alpha 1, is found in the microbicidal granules of neutrophils and likely plays a role in phagocyte-mediated host defense. Several alpha defensin genes are clustered on chromosome 8. This gene differs from defensin, alpha 3 by only one amino acid. This gene and the gene encoding defensin, alpha 3 are both subject to copy number variation. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

GSTA4 Gene

glutathione S-transferase alpha 4

Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. These enzymes are involved in cellular defense against toxic, carcinogenic, and pharmacologically active electrophilic compounds. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-tranferase belonging to the alpha class. The alpha class genes, which are located in a cluster on chromosome 6, are highly related and encode enzymes with glutathione peroxidase activity that function in the detoxification of lipid peroxidation products. Reactive electrophiles produced by oxidative metabolism have been linked to a number of degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cataract formation, and atherosclerosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GSTA5 Gene

glutathione S-transferase alpha 5

The glutathione S-transferases (GST; EC 2.5.1.18) catalyze the conjugation of reduced glutathiones and a variety of electrophiles, including many known carcinogens and mutagens. The cytosolic GSTs belong to a large superfamily, with members located on different chromosomes. For additional information on GSTs, see GSTA1 (MIM 138359).[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2008]

GSTA1 Gene

glutathione S-transferase alpha 1

Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. These enzymes function in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding these enzymes are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of some drugs. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-tranferase belonging to the alpha class. The alpha class genes, located in a cluster mapped to chromosome 6, are the most abundantly expressed glutathione S-transferases in liver. In addition to metabolizing bilirubin and certain anti-cancer drugs in the liver, the alpha class of these enzymes exhibit glutathione peroxidase activity thereby protecting the cells from reactive oxygen species and the products of peroxidation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GSTA2 Gene

glutathione S-transferase alpha 2

Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. These enzymes function in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding these enzymes are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of some drugs. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-tranferase belonging to the alpha class. The alpha class genes, located in a cluster mapped to chromosome 6, are the most abundantly expressed glutathione S-transferases in liver. In addition to metabolizing bilirubin and certain anti-cancer drugs in the liver, the alpha class of these enzymes exhibit glutathione peroxidase activity thereby protecting the cells from reactive oxygen species and the products of peroxidation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GSTA3 Gene

glutathione S-transferase alpha 3

Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. These enzymes are involved in cellular defense against toxic, carcinogenic, and pharmacologically active electrophilic compounds. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-tranferase belonging to the alpha class genes that are located in a cluster mapped to chromosome 6. Genes of the alpha class are highly related and encode enzymes with glutathione peroxidase activity. However, during evolution, this alpha class gene diverged accumulating mutations in the active site that resulted in differences in substrate specificity and catalytic activity. The enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes the double bond isomerization of precursors for progesterone and testosterone during the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. An additional transcript variant has been identified, but its full length sequence has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PROS1 Gene

protein S (alpha)

This gene encodes a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that functions as a cofactor for the anticoagulant protease, activated protein C (APC) to inhibit blood coagulation. It is found in plasma in both a free, functionally active form and also in an inactive form complexed with C4b-binding protein. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant hereditary thrombophilia. An inactive pseudogene of this locus is located at an adjacent region on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

LOC644436 Gene

tubulin, alpha 4a pseudogene

LOC100421126 Gene

sucrase-isomaltase (alpha-glucosidase) pseudogene

SCNN1A Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 alpha subunit

Nonvoltage-gated, amiloride-sensitive, sodium channels control fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelia in many organs. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the alpha subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1), a rare salt wasting disease resulting from target organ unresponsiveness to mineralocorticoids. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

NAA50 Gene

N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 50, NatE catalytic subunit

COL9A2 Gene

collagen, type IX, alpha 2

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. Type IX collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. This chain is unusual in that, unlike the other two type IX alpha chains, it contains a covalently attached glycosaminoglycan side chain. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL9A3 Gene

collagen, type IX, alpha 3

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, the major collagen component of hyaline cartilage. Type IX collagen, a heterotrimeric molecule, is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia type 3. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

COL9A1 Gene

collagen, type IX, alpha 1

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type IX collagen, which is a minor (5-20%) collagen component of hyaline cartilage. Type IX collagen is usually found in tissues containing type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen. Studies in knockout mice have shown that synthesis of the alpha 1 chain is essential for assembly of type IX collagen molecules, a heterotrimeric molecule, and that lack of type IX collagen is associated with early onset osteoarthritis. Mutations in this gene are associated with osteoarthritis in humans, with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, 6, a form of chondrodysplasia, and with Stickler syndrome, a disease characterized by ophthalmic, orofacial, articular, and auditory defects. Two transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HBHR Gene

alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome, type 1

LOC100420255 Gene

collagen, type XXII, alpha 1 pseudogene

DEFA9P Gene

defensin, alpha 9 pseudogene

MAT1A Gene

methionine adenosyltransferase I, alpha

This gene catalyzes a two-step reaction that involves the transfer of the adenosyl moiety of ATP to methionine to form S-adenosylmethionine and tripolyphosphate, which is subsequently cleaved to PPi and Pi. S-adenosylmethionine is the source of methyl groups for most biological methylations. The encoded protein is found as a homotetramer (MAT I) or a homodimer (MAT III) whereas a third form, MAT II (gamma), is encoded by the MAT2A gene. Mutations in this gene are associated with methionine adenosyltransferase deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGA Gene

fibrinogen alpha chain

The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha component of fibrinogen, a blood-borne glycoprotein comprised of three pairs of nonidentical polypeptide chains. Following vascular injury, fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form fibrin which is the most abundant component of blood clots. In addition, various cleavage products of fibrinogen and fibrin regulate cell adhesion and spreading, display vasoconstrictor and chemotactic activities, and are mitogens for several cell types. Mutations in this gene lead to several disorders, including dysfibrinogenemia, hypofibrinogenemia, afibrinogenemia and renal amyloidosis. Alternative splicing results in two isoforms which vary in the carboxy-terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ZAK Gene

sterile alpha motif and leucine zipper containing kinase AZK

This gene is a member of the MAPKKK family of signal transduction molecules and encodes a protein with an N-terminal kinase catalytic domain, followed by a leucine zipper motif and a sterile-alpha motif (SAM). This magnesium-binding protein forms homodimers and is located in the cytoplasm. The protein mediates gamma radiation signaling leading to cell cycle arrest and activity of this protein plays a role in cell cycle checkpoint regulation in cells. The protein also has pro-apoptotic activity. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SNCAIP Gene

synuclein, alpha interacting protein

This gene encodes a protein containing several protein-protein interaction domains, including ankyrin-like repeats, a coiled-coil domain, and an ATP/GTP-binding motif. The encoded protein interacts with alpha-synuclein in neuronal tissue and may play a role in the formation of cytoplasmic inclusions and neurodegeneration. A mutation in this gene has been associated with Parkinson's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

SCN9A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type IX alpha subunit

This gene encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel which plays a significant role in nociception signaling. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary erythermalgia, channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain, and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

EEF1A1P9 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 9

EEF1A1P8 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 8

EEF1A1P7 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 7

EEF1A1P6 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 6

EEF1A1P5 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 5

EEF1A1P4 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 4

EEF1A1P3 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 3

EEF1A1P2 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 2

EEF1A1P1 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 1

GADD45A Gene

growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, alpha

This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The protein encoded by this gene responds to environmental stresses by mediating activation of the p38/JNK pathway via MTK1/MEKK4 kinase. The DNA damage-induced transcription of this gene is mediated by both p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

ITGA10 Gene

integrin, alpha 10

Integrins are integral transmembrane glycoproteins composed of noncovalently linked alpha and beta chains. They participate in cell adhesion as well as cell-surface mediated signalling. This gene encodes an integrin alpha chain and is expressed at high levels in chondrocytes, where it is transcriptionally regulated by AP-2epsilon and Ets-1. The protein encoded by this gene binds to collagen. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

ITGA11 Gene

integrin, alpha 11

This gene encodes an alpha integrin. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This protein contains an I domain, is expressed in muscle tissue, dimerizes with beta 1 integrin in vitro, and appears to bind collagen in this form. Therefore, the protein may be involved in attaching muscle tissue to the extracellular matrix. Alternative transcriptional splice variants have been found for this gene, but their biological validity is not determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HLA-DOA Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DO alpha

HLA-DOA belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. HLA-DOA forms a heterodimer with HLA-DOB. The heterodimer, HLA-DO, is found in lysosomes in B cells and regulates HLA-DM-mediated peptide loading on MHC class II molecules. In comparison with classical HLA class II molecules, this gene exhibits very little sequence variation, especially at the protein level. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C8A Gene

complement component 8, alpha polypeptide

C8 is a component of the complement system and contains three polypeptides, alpha, beta and gamma. This gene encodes the alpha subunit of C8. C8 participates in the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). The MAC assembles on bacterial membranes to form a pore, permitting disruption of bacterial membrane organization. Mutations in this gene cause complement C8 alpha-gamma deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

HLA-DQA1 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1

HLA-DQA1 belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. The class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA) and a beta chain (DQB), both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B Lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha chain is approximately 33-35 kDa. It is encoded by 5 exons; exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, and exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DQ molecule both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to four different molecules. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow transplantation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HLA-DQA2 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 2

This gene belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain family. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a class II beta chain. It is located in intracellular vesicles and plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP molecule from the peptide binding site. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages) and are used to present antigenic peptides on the cell surface to be recognized by CD4 T-cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

SAMD5 Gene

sterile alpha motif domain containing 5

SAMD7 Gene

sterile alpha motif domain containing 7

SAMD1 Gene

sterile alpha motif domain containing 1

SAMD3 Gene

sterile alpha motif domain containing 3

SAMD8 Gene

sterile alpha motif domain containing 8

SAMD9 Gene

sterile alpha motif domain containing 9

This gene encodes a sterile alpha motif domain-containing protein. The encoded protein localizes to the cytoplasm and may play a role in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Mutations in this gene are the cause of normophosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

SIRPA Gene

signal-regulatory protein alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the signal-regulatory-protein (SIRP) family, and also belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. SIRP family members are receptor-type transmembrane glycoproteins known to be involved in the negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase-coupled signaling processes. This protein can be phosphorylated by tyrosine kinases. The phospho-tyrosine residues of this PTP have been shown to recruit SH2 domain containing tyrosine phosphatases (PTP), and serve as substrates of PTPs. This protein was found to participate in signal transduction mediated by various growth factor receptors. CD47 has been demonstrated to be a ligand for this receptor protein. This gene and its product share very high similarity with several other members of the SIRP family. These related genes are located in close proximity to each other on chromosome 20p13. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been determined for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ALG3P1 Gene

ALG3, alpha-1,3- mannosyltransferase pseudogene 1

DEFA11P Gene

defensin, alpha 11 pseudogene

LOC105376747 Gene

collagen alpha-3(IX) chain-like

FNTAP2 Gene

farnesyltransferase, CAAX box, alpha pseudogene 2

PSMA2P3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 3

PSMA2P1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 1

LOC642890 Gene

N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 50, NatE catalytic subunit pseudogene

PCDHA10 Gene

protocadherin alpha 10

This gene is a member of the protocadherin alpha gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five that demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The alpha gene cluster is composed of 15 cadherin superfamily genes related to the mouse CNR genes and consists of 13 highly similar and 2 more distantly related coding sequences. The tandem array of 15 N-terminal exons, or variable exons, are followed by downstream C-terminal exons, or constant exons, which are shared by all genes in the cluster. The large, uninterrupted N-terminal exons each encode six cadherin ectodomains while the C-terminal exons encode the cytoplasmic domain. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins that most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been observed and additional variants have been suggested but their full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHA11 Gene

protocadherin alpha 11

This gene is a member of the protocadherin alpha gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five that demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The alpha gene cluster is composed of 15 cadherin superfamily genes related to the mouse CNR genes and consists of 13 highly similar and 2 more distantly related coding sequences. The tandem array of 15 N-terminal exons, or variable exons, are followed by downstream C-terminal exons, or constant exons, which are shared by all genes in the cluster. The large, uninterrupted N-terminal exons each encode six cadherin ectodomains while the C-terminal exons encode the cytoplasmic domain. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins that most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been observed and additional variants have been suggested but their full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHA12 Gene

protocadherin alpha 12

This gene is a member of the protocadherin alpha gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five that demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The alpha gene cluster is composed of 15 cadherin superfamily genes related to the mouse CNR genes and consists of 13 highly similar and 2 more distantly related coding sequences. The tandem array of 15 N-terminal exons, or variable exons, are followed by downstream C-terminal exons, or constant exons, which are shared by all genes in the cluster. The large, uninterrupted N-terminal exons each encode six cadherin ectodomains while the C-terminal exons encode the cytoplasmic domain. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins that most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been observed and additional variants have been suggested but their full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHA13 Gene

protocadherin alpha 13

This gene is a member of the protocadherin alpha gene cluster, one of three related gene clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five that demonstrate an unusual genomic organization similar to that of B-cell and T-cell receptor gene clusters. The alpha gene cluster is composed of 15 cadherin superfamily genes related to the mouse CNR genes and consists of 13 highly similar and 2 more distantly related coding sequences. The tandem array of 15 N-terminal exons, or variable exons, are followed by downstream C-terminal exons, or constant exons, which are shared by all genes in the cluster. The large, uninterrupted N-terminal exons each encode six cadherin ectodomains while the C-terminal exons encode the cytoplasmic domain. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins are integral plasma membrane proteins that most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been observed and additional variants have been suggested but their full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHA14 Gene

protocadherin alpha 14 pseudogene

LOC100884169 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 12 pseudogene

COL1A2 Gene

collagen, type I, alpha 2

This gene encodes the pro-alpha2 chain of type I collagen whose triple helix comprises two alpha1 chains and one alpha2 chain. Type I is a fibril-forming collagen found in most connective tissues and is abundant in bone, cornea, dermis and tendon. Mutations in this gene are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta types I-IV, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIB, recessive Ehlers-Danlos syndrome Classical type, idiopathic osteoporosis, and atypical Marfan syndrome. Symptoms associated with mutations in this gene, however, tend to be less severe than mutations in the gene for the alpha1 chain of type I collagen (COL1A1) reflecting the different role of alpha2 chains in matrix integrity. Three transcripts, resulting from the use of alternate polyadenylation signals, have been identified for this gene. [provided by R. Dalgleish, Feb 2008]

MEP1AP4 Gene

meprin A, alpha pseudogene 4

MEP1AP3 Gene

meprin A, alpha pseudogene 3

MEP1AP2 Gene

meprin A, alpha pseudogene 2

MEP1AP1 Gene

meprin A, alpha pseudogene 1

LOC101929990 Gene

collagen alpha-1(XXVII) chain-like

COL6A1 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 1

The collagens are a superfamily of proteins that play a role in maintaining the integrity of various tissues. Collagens are extracellular matrix proteins and have a triple-helical domain as their common structural element. Collagen VI is a major structural component of microfibrils. The basic structural unit of collagen VI is a heterotrimer of the alpha1(VI), alpha2(VI), and alpha3(VI) chains. The alpha2(VI) and alpha3(VI) chains are encoded by the COL6A2 and COL6A3 genes, respectively. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha 1 subunit of type VI collagen (alpha1(VI) chain). Mutations in the genes that code for the collagen VI subunits result in the autosomal dominant disorder, Bethlem myopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL6A2 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 2

This gene encodes one of the three alpha chains of type VI collagen, a beaded filament collagen found in most connective tissues. The product of this gene contains several domains similar to von Willebrand Factor type A domains. These domains have been shown to bind extracellular matrix proteins, an interaction that explains the importance of this collagen in organizing matrix components. Mutations in this gene are associated with Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich scleroatonic muscular dystrophy. Three transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL6A5 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 5

This gene encodes a member of the collagen superfamily of proteins. The encoded protein contains multiple von Willebrand factor A-like domains and may interact with the alpha 1 and alpha 2 chains of collagen VI to form the complete collagen VI trimer. Polymorphisms in this gene may be linked to dermal phenotypes, such as eczema. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

ANKS4B Gene

ankyrin repeat and sterile alpha motif domain containing 4B

CHKA Gene

choline kinase alpha

The major pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine occurs via the CDP-choline pathway. The protein encoded by this gene is the initial enzyme in the sequence and may play a regulatory role. The encoded protein also catalyzes the phosphorylation of ethanolamine. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105377621 Gene

collagen alpha-2(I) chain-like

CAPZA3 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 3

This gene encodes an actin capping protein, one of the F-actin capping protein alpha subunit family. The encoded protein is predominantly localized to the neck region of ejaculated sperm, other immunohistochemical signals were found in the tail and postacrosomal regions. The encoded protein may also form heterodimers of alpha and beta subunits. This protein may be important in determining sperm architecture and male fertility. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAPZA2 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the F-actin capping protein alpha subunit family. It is the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein Cap Z. By capping the barbed end of actin filaments, Cap Z regulates the growth of the actin filaments at the barbed end. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAPZA1 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 1

CAPZA1 is a member of the F-actin capping protein alpha subunit family. This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein. The protein regulates growth of the actin filament by capping the barbed end of growing actin filaments. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105379509 Gene

fibril-forming collagen alpha chain-like

TNFAIP8L2 Gene

tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 8-like 2

TNFAIP8L1 Gene

tumor necrosis factor, alpha-induced protein 8-like 1

LOC102724652 Gene

alpha-crystallin A chain

COL17A1 Gene

collagen, type XVII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVII collagen. Unlike most collagens, collagen XVII is a transmembrane protein. Collagen XVII is a structural component of hemidesmosomes, multiprotein complexes at the dermal-epidermal basement membrane zone that mediate adhesion of keratinocytes to the underlying membrane. Mutations in this gene are associated with both generalized atrophic benign and junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Two homotrimeric forms of type XVII collagen exist. The full length form is the transmembrane protein. A soluble form, referred to as either ectodomain or LAD-1, is generated by proteolytic processing of the full length form. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105373619 Gene

collagen alpha-1(XI) chain-like

IL1A Gene

interleukin 1, alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. This cytokine is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in various immune responses, inflammatory processes, and hematopoiesis. This cytokine is produced by monocytes and macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed and released in response to cell injury, and thus induces apoptosis. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. It has been suggested that the polymorphism of these genes is associated with rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNN4 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a potentially heterotetrameric voltage-independent potassium channel that is activated by intracellular calcium. Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization, which promotes calcium influx. The encoded protein may be part of the predominant calcium-activated potassium channel in T-lymphocytes. This gene is similar to other KCNN family potassium channel genes, but it differs enough to possibly be considered as part of a new subfamily. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNN3 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 3

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. This gene belongs to the KCNN family of potassium channels. It encodes an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel, which is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. This gene contains two CAG repeat regions in the coding sequence. It was thought that expansion of one or both of these repeats could lead to an increased susceptibility to schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, but studies indicate that this is probably not the case. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

KCNN2 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 2

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. The protein encoded by this gene is activated before membrane hyperpolarization and is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. This gene is a member of the KCNN family of potassium channel genes. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel with three other calmodulin-binding subunits. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

KCNN1 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated intermediate/small conductance subfamily N alpha, member 1

Action potentials in vertebrate neurons are followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that may persist for several seconds and may have profound consequences for the firing pattern of the neuron. Each component of the AHP is kinetically distinct and is mediated by different calcium-activated potassium channels. The protein encoded by this gene is activated before membrane hyperpolarization and is thought to regulate neuronal excitability by contributing to the slow component of synaptic AHP. The encoded protein is an integral membrane protein that forms a voltage-independent calcium-activated channel with three other calmodulin-binding subunits. This gene is a member of the KCNN family of potassium channel genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PKIA Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor family. This protein was demonstrated to interact with and inhibit the activities of both C alpha and C beta catalytic subunits of the PKA. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SERPINA2 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 2 (gene/pseudogene)

This gene encodes a member of the serpin family of proteins, a group of proteins that inhibit serine proteases. The encoded intracellular glycoprotein is localized at the endoplasmic reticulum. This gene is a polymorphic pseudogene, with the non-functional allele being predominant in some populations. Some individuals, as represented by the reference genome allele, contain a 2kb coding region deletion and a start code mutation. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

SERPINA3 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma protease inhibitor and member of the serine protease inhibitor class. Polymorphisms in this protein appear to be tissue specific and influence protease targeting. Variations in this protein's sequence have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, and deficiency of this protein has been associated with liver disease. Mutations have been identified in patients with Parkinson disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SERPINA4 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 4

SERPINA5 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serpin family of proteins, a group of proteins that inhibit serine proteases. This gene is one in a cluster of serpin genes located on the q arm of chromosome 14. This family member is a glycoprotein that can inhibit several serine proteases, including protein C and various plasminogen activators and kallikreins, and it thus plays diverse roles in hemostasis and thrombosis in multiple organs. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

SERPINA6 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 6

This gene encodes an alpha-globulin protein with corticosteroid-binding properties. This is the major transport protein for glucorticoids and progestins in the blood of most vertebrates. The gene localizes to a chromosomal region containing several closely related serine protease inhibitors which may have evolved by duplication events. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SERPINA9 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 9

LOC100129052 Gene

N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 40, NatD catalytic subunit, homolog (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene

PMPCAP1 Gene

peptidase (mitochondrial processing) alpha pseudogene 1

PSMA2P2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 2

ATRX Gene

alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked

The protein encoded by this gene contains an ATPase/helicase domain, and thus it belongs to the SWI/SNF family of chromatin remodeling proteins. This protein is found to undergo cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation, which regulates its nuclear matrix and chromatin association, and suggests its involvement in the gene regulation at interphase and chromosomal segregation in mitosis. Mutations in this gene are associated with an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) syndrome most often accompanied by alpha-thalassemia (ATRX) syndrome. These mutations have been shown to cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation, which may provide a link between chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, and gene expression in developmental processes. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

GSTA12P Gene

glutathione S-transferase alpha 12, pseudogene

AMYP1 Gene

amylase, alpha pseudogene 1

GSTA8P Gene

glutathione S-transferase alpha 8, pseudogene

LOC101059944 Gene

collagen alpha-1(III) chain-like

LOC646197 Gene

heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), class B member 1 pseudogene

SARM1 Gene

sterile alpha and TIR motif containing 1

LOC105373316 Gene

collagen alpha-4(IV) chain-like

LOC441454 Gene

prothymosin, alpha pseudogene

GTF3C1 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 1, alpha 220kDa

GTF3C6 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 6, alpha 35kDa

RNA polymerases are unable to initiate RNA synthesis in the absence of additional proteins called general transcription factors (GTFs). GTFs assemble in a complex on the DNA promoter and recruit the RNA polymerase. GTF3C family proteins (e.g., GTF3C1, MIM 603246) are essential for RNA polymerase III to make a number of small nuclear and cytoplasmic RNAs, including 5S RNA (MIM 180420), tRNA, and adenovirus-associated (VA) RNA of both cellular and viral origin.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

FUCA1P1 Gene

fucosidase, alpha-L- 1, tissue pseudogene 1

SCN11A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type XI alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are membrane protein complexes that play a fundamental role in the rising phase of the action potential in most excitable cells. Alpha subunits, such as SCN11A, mediate voltage-dependent gating and conductance, while auxiliary beta subunits regulate the kinetic properties of the channel and facilitate membrane localization of the complex. Aberrant expression patterns or mutations of alpha subunits underlie a number of disorders. Each alpha subunit consists of 4 domains connected by 3 intracellular loops; each domain consists of 6 transmembrane segments and intra- and extracellular linkers.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

LOC100289303 Gene

tubulin, alpha 1b pseudogene

LOC105370367 Gene

collagen alpha-2(VIII) chain-like

LOC105370368 Gene

collagen alpha-2(I) chain-like

INHA Gene

inhibin, alpha

This gene encodes the alpha subunit of inhibins A and B protein complexes. These complexes negatively regulate follicle stimulating hormone secretion from the pituitary gland. Inhibins have also been implicated in regulating numerous cellular processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune response and hormone secretion.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CAMK2A Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinases family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. This calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The alpha chain encoded by this gene is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning. In addition to its calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent activity, this protein can undergo autophosphorylation, resulting in CaM-independent activity. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

PRKAR1AP Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha pseudogene

LOC387720 Gene

collagen alpha-1(X) chain

LOC105375661 Gene

collagen alpha-1(I) chain-like

LOC100421802 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, alpha pseudogene

NAA20 Gene

N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 20, NatB catalytic subunit

NAT5 is a component of N-acetyltransferase complex B (NatB). Human NatB performs cotranslational N(alpha)-terminal acetylation of methionine residues when they are followed by asparagine (Starheim et al., 2008 [PubMed 18570629]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2009]

NAA25 Gene

N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 25, NatB auxiliary subunit

This gene encodes the auxiliary subunit of the heteromeric N-terminal acetyltransferase B complex. This complex acetylates methionine residues that are followed by acidic or asparagine residues.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LAPTM4A Gene

lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 alpha

This gene encodes a protein that has four predicted transmembrane domains. The function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, studies in the mouse homolog suggest a role in the transport of small molecules across endosomal and lysosomal membranes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAT2A Gene

methionine adenosyltransferase II, alpha

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the production of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) from methionine and ATP. AdoMet is the key methyl donor in cellular processes. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

NAALADL2 Gene

N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase-like 2

NAALADL1 Gene

N-acetylated alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase-like 1

HADHAP2 Gene

hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), alpha subunit pseudogene 2

ACTC1 Gene

actin, alpha, cardiac muscle 1

Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility. Polymerization of globular actin (G-actin) leads to a structural filament (F-actin) in the form of a two-stranded helix. Each actin can bind to four others. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the actin family which is comprised of three main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta, and gamma. The alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. Defects in this gene have been associated with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) and familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL21A1 Gene

collagen, type XXI, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XXI collagen, a member of the FACIT collagen family (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted helices). Type XXI collagen is localized to tissues containing type I collagen so, like other members of this collagen family, it may serve to maintain the integrity of the extracellular matrix. An alternatively spliced transcript variant has been described, but its full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA2D1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 1

The preproprotein encoded by this gene is cleaved into multiple chains that comprise the alpha-2 and delta subunits of the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. Mutations in this gene can cause cardiac deficiencies, including Brugada syndrome and short QT syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants, some of which may lack the delta subunit portion. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

GABPAP Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, alpha subunit pseudogene

SNTA1 Gene

syntrophin, alpha 1

Syntrophins are cytoplasmic peripheral membrane scaffold proteins that are components of the dystrophin-associated protein complex. This gene is a member of the syntrophin gene family and encodes the most common syntrophin isoform found in cardiac tissues. The N-terminal PDZ domain of this syntrophin protein interacts with the C-terminus of the pore-forming alpha subunit (SCN5A) of the cardiac sodium channel Nav1.5. This protein also associates cardiac sodium channels with the nitric oxide synthase-PMCA4b (plasma membrane Ca-ATPase subtype 4b) complex in cardiomyocytes. This gene is a susceptibility locus for Long-QT syndrome (LQT) - an inherited disorder associated with sudden cardiac death from arrhythmia - and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This protein also associates with dystrophin and dystrophin-related proteins at the neuromuscular junction and alters intracellular calcium ion levels in muscle tissue. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

KCNMA1 Gene

potassium channel, calcium activated large conductance subfamily M alpha, member 1

MaxiK channels are large conductance, voltage and calcium-sensitive potassium channels which are fundamental to the control of smooth muscle tone and neuronal excitability. MaxiK channels can be formed by 2 subunits: the pore-forming alpha subunit, which is the product of this gene, and the modulatory beta subunit. Intracellular calcium regulates the physical association between the alpha and beta subunits. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FLNA Gene

filamin A, alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is an actin-binding protein that crosslinks actin filaments and links actin filaments to membrane glycoproteins. The encoded protein is involved in remodeling the cytoskeleton to effect changes in cell shape and migration. This protein interacts with integrins, transmembrane receptor complexes, and second messengers. Defects in this gene are a cause of several syndromes, including periventricular nodular heterotopias (PVNH1, PVNH4), otopalatodigital syndromes (OPD1, OPD2), frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD), Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS), and X-linked congenital idiopathic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIIPX). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

LOC642791 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 pseudogene

RABGGTA Gene

Rab geranylgeranyltransferase, alpha subunit

PTAR1 Gene

protein prenyltransferase alpha subunit repeat containing 1

GANC Gene

glucosidase, alpha; neutral C

Glycosyl hydrolase enzymes hydrolyse the glycosidic bond between two or more carbohydrates, or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. This gene encodes a member of glycosyl hydrolases family 31. This enzyme hydrolyses terminal, non-reducing 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues and releases alpha-D-glucose. This is a key enzyme in glycogen metabolism and its gene localizes to a chromosomal region (15q15) that is associated with susceptibility to diabetes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

PI4KAP2 Gene

phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, catalytic, alpha pseudogene 2

CEBPA Gene

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), alpha

This intronless gene encodes a transcription factor that contains a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain and recognizes the CCAAT motif in the promoters of target genes. The encoded protein functions in homodimers and also heterodimers with CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins beta and gamma. Activity of this protein can modulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation as well as in body weight homeostasis. Mutation of this gene is associated with acute myeloid leukemia. The use of alternative in-frame non-AUG (GUG) and AUG start codons results in protein isoforms with different lengths. Differential translation initiation is mediated by an out-of-frame, upstream open reading frame which is located between the GUG and the first AUG start codons. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

LOC346329 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class) pseudogene

CTNNA1 Gene

catenin (cadherin-associated protein), alpha 1, 102kDa

CTNNA2 Gene

catenin (cadherin-associated protein), alpha 2

CTNNA3 Gene

catenin (cadherin-associated protein), alpha 3

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the vinculin/alpha-catenin family. The encoded protein plays a role in cell-cell adhesion in muscle cells. Mutations in this gene are associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial 13. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

MAN1A1 Gene

mannosidase, alpha, class 1A, member 1

This gene encodes a class I mammalian Golgi 1,2-mannosidase which is a type II transmembrane protein. This protein catalyzes the hydrolysis of three terminal mannose residues from peptide-bound Man(9)-GlcNAc(2) oligosaccharides and belongs to family 47 of glycosyl hydrolases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

MAN1A2 Gene

mannosidase, alpha, class 1A, member 2

Alpha-mannosidases function at different stages of N-glycan maturation in mammalian cells. See MAN2A1 (MIM 154582) for general information.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

MAN2A2 Gene

mannosidase, alpha, class 2A, member 2

MAN2A1 Gene

mannosidase, alpha, class 2A, member 1

This gene encodes a glycosyl hydrolase that localizes to the Golgi and catalyzes the final hydrolytic step in the asparagine-linked oligosaccharide (N-glycan) maturation pathway. Mutations in the mouse homolog of this gene have been shown to cause a systemic autoimmune disease similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

COL18A1 Gene

collagen, type XVIII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XVIII collagen. This collagen is one of the multiplexins, extracellular matrix proteins that contain multiple triple-helix domains (collagenous domains) interrupted by non-collagenous domains. A long isoform of the protein has an N-terminal domain that is homologous to the extracellular part of frizzled receptors. Proteolytic processing at several endogenous cleavage sites in the C-terminal domain results in production of endostatin, a potent antiangiogenic protein that is able to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth. Mutations in this gene are associated with Knobloch syndrome. The main features of this syndrome involve retinal abnormalities, so type XVIII collagen may play an important role in retinal structure and in neural tube closure. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

TGFA Gene

transforming growth factor, alpha

This gene encodes a growth factor that is a ligand for the epidermal growth factor receptor, which activates a signaling pathway for cell proliferation, differentiation and development. This protein may act as either a transmembrane-bound ligand or a soluble ligand. This gene has been associated with many types of cancers, and it may also be involved in some cases of cleft lip/palate. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

AZGP1P1 Gene

alpha-2-glycoprotein 1, zinc-binding pseudogene 1

TUBA8 Gene

tubulin, alpha 8

This gene encodes a member of the alpha tubulin protein family. Alpha tubulins are one of two core protein families (alpha and beta tubulins) that heterodimerize and assemble to form microtubules. Mutations in this gene are associated with polymicrogyria and optic nerve hypoplasia. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

LOC101929943 Gene

tropomyosin alpha-3 chain-like

TUBAP Gene

tubulin, alpha pseudogene

HIF3A Gene

hypoxia inducible factor 3, alpha subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha-3 subunit of one of several alpha/beta-subunit heterodimeric transcription factors that regulate many adaptive responses to low oxygen tension (hypoxia). The alpha-3 subunit lacks the transactivation domain found in factors containing either the alpha-1 or alpha-2 subunits. It is thought that factors containing the alpha-3 subunit are negative regulators of hypoxia-inducible gene expression. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

HIF1AP1 Gene

hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) pseudogene 1

AP2A1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit

This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer consisting of two large adaptins (alpha or beta), a medium adaptin (mu), and a small adaptin (sigma). The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles which links clathrin to receptors in vesicles. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms. A third transcript variant has been described, but its full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AP2A2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit

ATAT1 Gene

alpha tubulin acetyltransferase 1

PRKACA Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha

This gene encodes one of the catalytic subunits of protein kinase A, which exists as a tetrameric holoenzyme with two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits, in its inactive form. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinase A is important to many cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Constitutive activation of this gene caused either by somatic mutations, or genomic duplications of regions that include this gene, have been associated with hyperplasias and adenomas of the adrenal cortex and are linked to corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Tissue-specific isoforms that differ at the N-terminus have been described, and these isoforms may differ in the post-translational modifications that occur at the N-terminus of some isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

GNA14 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 14

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding, or G protein family. G proteins are heterotrimers consisting of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. The encoded protein is a member of the alpha family of G proteins, more specifically the alpha q subfamily of G proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in pertussis-toxin resistant activation of phospholipase C-beta and its downstream effectors.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

GNA15 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 15 (Gq class)

GNA12 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) alpha 12

GNA13 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 13

GNA11 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which function as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. G proteins are composed of 3 units: alpha, beta and gamma. This gene encodes one of the alpha subunits (subunit alpha-11). Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type II (HHC2) and hypocalcemia dominant 2 (HYPOC2). Patients with HHC2 and HYPOC2 exhibit decreased or increased sensitivity, respectively, to changes in extracellular calcium concentrations. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

OGDH Gene

oxoglutarate (alpha-ketoglutarate) dehydrogenase (lipoamide)

This gene encodes one subunit of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. This complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate (alpha-ketoglutarate) to succinyl-CoA and CO(2) during the Krebs cycle. The protein is located in the mitochondrial matrix and uses thiamine pyrophosphate as a cofactor. A congenital deficiency in 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity is believed to lead to hypotonia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperlactatemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

ALPK1 Gene

alpha-kinase 1

This gene encodes an alpha kinase. Mice which were homozygous for disrupted copies of this gene exhibited coordination defects (PMID: 21208416). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

ALPK3 Gene

alpha-kinase 3

CSNK1A1 Gene

casein kinase 1, alpha 1

LOC100129001 Gene

general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 6, alpha 35kDa pseudogene

ATP5A1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1, cardiac muscle

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, using an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the different isoforms have been identified. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 9, 2, and 16. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

SERPINA7P1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 7 pseudogene 1

A3GALT2 Gene

alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase 2

NACA2 Gene

nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha subunit 2

NACAD Gene

NAC alpha domain containing

PIANP Gene

PILR alpha associated neural protein

This gene encodes a ligand for the paired immunoglobin-like type 2 receptor alpha, and so may be involved in immune regulation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

GP1BA Gene

glycoprotein Ib (platelet), alpha polypeptide

Glycoprotein Ib (GP Ib) is a platelet surface membrane glycoprotein composed of a heterodimer, an alpha chain and a beta chain, that is linked by disulfide bonds. The Gp Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor (VWF). The complete receptor complex includes noncovalent association of the alpha and beta subunits with platelet glycoprotein IX and platelet glycoprotein V. The binding of the GP Ib-IX-V complex to VWF facilitates initial platelet adhesion to vascular subendothelium after vascular injury, and also initiates signaling events within the platelet that lead to enhanced platelet activation, thrombosis, and hemostasis. This gene encodes the alpha subunit. Mutations in this gene result in Bernard-Soulier syndromes and platelet-type von Willebrand disease. The coding region of this gene is known to contain a polymophic variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) domain that is associated with susceptibility to nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]

CSNK1A1P3 Gene

casein kinase 1, alpha 1 pseudogene 3

CSNK1A1P2 Gene

casein kinase 1, alpha 1 pseudogene 2

CSNK1A1P1 Gene

casein kinase 1, alpha 1 pseudogene 1

COL28A1 Gene

collagen, type XXVIII, alpha 1

COL28A1 belongs to a class of collagens containing von Willebrand factor (VWF; MIM 613160) type A (VWFA) domains (Veit et al., 2006 [PubMed 16330543]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

DFFA Gene

DNA fragmentation factor, 45kDa, alpha polypeptide

Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for caspase-3 and triggers DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. DFF becomes activated when DFFA is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFFA dissociate from DFFB, the active component of DFF. DFFB has been found to trigger both DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PITPNA Gene

phosphatidylinositol transfer protein, alpha

This gene encodes a member of a family of lipid-binding proteins that transfer molecules of phosphatidylinositol or phosphatidylcholine between membrane surfaces. The protein is implicated in phospholipase C signaling and in the production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) by phosphoinositide-3-kinase.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

MANEA Gene

mannosidase, endo-alpha

N-glycosylation of proteins is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the transfer of the preassembled oligosaccharide glucose-3-mannose-9-N-acetylglucosamine-2 from dolichyl pyrophosphate to acceptor sites on the target protein by an oligosaccharyltransferase complex. This core oligosaccharide is sequentially processed by several ER glycosidases and by an endomannosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.130), such as MANEA, in the Golgi. MANEA catalyzes the release of mono-, di-, and triglucosylmannose oligosaccharides by cleaving the alpha-1,2-mannosidic bond that links them to high-mannose glycans (Hamilton et al., 2005 [PubMed 15677381]).[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2008]

LALBA Gene

lactalbumin, alpha-

This gene encodes alpha-lactalbumin, a principal protein of milk. Alpha-lactalbumin forms the regulatory subunit of the lactose synthase (LS) heterodimer and beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4Gal-T1) forms the catalytic component. Together, these proteins enable LS to produce lactose by transfering galactose moieties to glucose. As a monomer, alpha-lactalbumin strongly binds calcium and zinc ions and may possess bactericidal or antitumor activity. A folding variant of alpha-lactalbumin, called HAMLET, likely induces apoptosis in tumor and immature cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EEF1A1P24 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 24

DOC2A Gene

double C2-like domains, alpha

There are at least two protein isoforms of the Double C2 protein, namely alpha (DOC2A) and beta (DOC2B), which contain two C2-like domains. DOC2A and DOC2B are encoded by different genes; these genes are at times confused with the unrelated DAB2 gene which was initially named DOC-2. DOC2A is mainly expressed in brain and is suggested to be involved in Ca(2+)-dependent neurotransmitter release. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

LOC401677 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 pseudogene

EEF1A1P21 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 21

EEF1A1P29 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 29

COL11A1 Gene

collagen, type XI, alpha 1

This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. Mutations in this gene are associated with type II Stickler syndrome and with Marshall syndrome. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in this gene is also associated with susceptibility to lumbar disc herniation. Multiple transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

COL11A2 Gene

collagen, type XI, alpha 2

This gene encodes one of the two alpha chains of type XI collagen, a minor fibrillar collagen. It is located on chromosome 6 very close to but separate from the gene for retinoid X receptor beta. Type XI collagen is a heterotrimer but the third alpha chain is a post-translationally modified alpha 1 type II chain. Proteolytic processing of this type XI chain produces PARP, a proline/arginine-rich protein that is an amino terminal domain. Mutations in this gene are associated with type III Stickler syndrome, otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED syndrome), Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome, autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural type 13 deafness (DFNA13), and autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural type 53 deafness (DFNB53). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene is located nearby on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

NDUFA11 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 11, 14.7kDa

This gene encodes a subunit of the membrane-bound mitochondrial complex I. Complex I is composed of numerous subunits and functions as the NADH-ubiquinol reductase of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Mutations in this gene are associated with severe mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

NDUFA12 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 12

This gene encodes a protein which is part of mitochondrial complex 1, part of the oxidative phosphorylation system in mitochondria. Complex 1 transfers electrons to ubiquinone from NADH which establishes a proton gradient for the generation of ATP. Mutations in this gene are associated with Leigh syndrome due to mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 5 and 13. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

NDUFA13 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 13

This gene encodes a subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), which functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The protein is required for complex I assembly and electron transfer activity. The protein binds the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor, and can function as a tumor suppressor. The human protein purified from mitochondria migrates at approximately 16 kDa. Transcripts originating from an upstream promoter and capable of expressing a protein with a longer N-terminus have been found, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

CYBA Gene

cytochrome b-245, alpha polypeptide

Cytochrome b is comprised of a light chain (alpha) and a heavy chain (beta). This gene encodes the light, alpha subunit which has been proposed as a primary component of the microbicidal oxidase system of phagocytes. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), that is characterized by the failure of activated phagocytes to generate superoxide, which is important for the microbicidal activity of these cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105376684 Gene

collagen alpha-2(I) chain-like

HSPB9 Gene

heat shock protein, alpha-crystallin-related, B9

NTF6A Gene

neurotrophin 6 alpha (pseudogene)

A2MP1 Gene

alpha-2-macroglobulin pseudogene 1

LOC100127917 Gene

heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), class B member 1 pseudogene

ALG9 Gene

ALG9, alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase

This gene encodes an alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase enzyme that functions in lipid-linked oligosaccharide assembly. Mutations in this gene result in congenital disorder of glycosylation type Il. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

PSMA3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 3

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105371935 Gene

collagen alpha-4(IV) chain-like

ACTR1A Gene

ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog A, centractin alpha (yeast)

This gene encodes a 42.6 kD subunit of dynactin, a macromolecular complex consisting of 10-11 subunits ranging in size from 22 to 150 kD. Dynactin binds to both microtubules and cytoplasmic dynein. It is involved in a diverse array of cellular functions, including ER-to-Golgi transport, the centripetal movement of lysosomes and endosomes, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear positioning, and axonogenesis. This subunit is present in 8-13 copies per dynactin molecule, and is the most abundant molecule in the dynactin complex. It is an actin-related protein, and is approximately 60% identical at the amino acid level to conventional actin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIP4K2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, alpha

Phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate, the precursor to second messengers of the phosphoinositide signal transduction pathways, is thought to be involved in the regulation of secretion, cell proliferation, differentiation, and motility. The protein encoded by this gene is one of a family of enzymes capable of catalyzing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate on the fourth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring to form phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate. The amino acid sequence of this enzyme does not show homology to other kinases, but the recombinant protein does exhibit kinase activity. This gene is a member of the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105372231 Gene

collagen alpha-1(III) chain-like

C4BPAP3 Gene

complement component 4 binding protein, alpha pseudogene 3

C4BPAP2 Gene

complement component 4 binding protein, alpha pseudogene 2

HSP90AA5P Gene

heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), class A member 5, pseudogene

PTMAP8 Gene

prothymosin, alpha pseudogene 8

HADHAP1 Gene

hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), alpha subunit pseudogene 1

DEFA7P Gene

defensin, alpha 7 pseudogene

PCYT1A Gene

phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, alpha

SCN3A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type III alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit with 24 transmembrane domains and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family, and is found in a cluster of five alpha subunit genes on chromosome 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 alpha

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is not sensitive to nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmanin. This protein was shown to be able to be activated by insulin and may be involved in integrin-dependent signaling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100505788 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 4, 9kDa pseudogene

EEF1A1P13 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 13

EEF1A1P12 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 12

EEF1A1P11 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 11

EEF1A1P17 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 17

EEF1A1P16 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 16

FUT7 Gene

fucosyltransferase 7 (alpha (1,3) fucosyltransferase)

The protein encoded by this gene is a Golgi stack membrane protein that is involved in the creation of sialyl-Lewis X antigens. The encoded protein can direct the synthesis of the E-selectin-binding sialyl-Lewis X moiety. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FUT6 Gene

fucosyltransferase 6 (alpha (1,3) fucosyltransferase)

The protein encoded by this gene is a Golgi stack membrane protein that is involved in the creation of sialyl-Lewis X, an E-selectin ligand. Mutations in this gene are a cause of fucosyltransferase-6 deficiency. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FUT5 Gene

fucosyltransferase 5 (alpha (1,3) fucosyltransferase)

FUT4 Gene

fucosyltransferase 4 (alpha (1,3) fucosyltransferase, myeloid-specific)

The product of this gene transfers fucose to N-acetyllactosamine polysaccharides to generate fucosylated carbohydrate structures. It catalyzes the synthesis of the non-sialylated antigen, Lewis x (CD15). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

FUT1 Gene

fucosyltransferase 1 (galactoside 2-alpha-L-fucosyltransferase, H blood group)

The protein encoded by this gene is a Golgi stack membrane protein that is involved in the creation of a precursor of the H antigen, which is required for the final step in the soluble A and B antigen synthesis pathway. This gene is one of two encoding the galactoside 2-L-fucosyltransferase enzyme. Mutations in this gene are a cause of the H-Bombay blood group. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FUT9 Gene

fucosyltransferase 9 (alpha (1,3) fucosyltransferase)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the glycosyltransferase family. It is localized to the golgi, and catalyzes the last step in the biosynthesis of Lewis X (LeX) antigen, the addition of a fucose to precursor polysaccharides. This protein is one of the few fucosyltransferases that synthesizes the LeX oligosaccharide (CD15) expressed in the organ buds progressing in mesenchyma during embryogenesis. It is also responsible for the expression of CD15 in mature granulocytes. A common haplotype of this gene has also been associated with susceptibility to placental malaria infection. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

FUT8 Gene

fucosyltransferase 8 (alpha (1,6) fucosyltransferase)

This gene encodes an enzyme belonging to the family of fucosyltransferases. The product of this gene catalyzes the transfer of fucose from GDP-fucose to N-linked type complex glycopeptides. This enzyme is distinct from other fucosyltransferases which catalyze alpha1-2, alpha1-3, and alpha1-4 fucose addition. The expression of this gene may contribute to the malignancy of cancer cells and to their invasive and metastatic capabilities. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PEX11A Gene

peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 alpha

This gene is a member of the PEX11 family, which is composed of membrane elongation factors involved in regulation of peroxisome maintenance and proliferation. This gene product interacts with peroxisomal membrane protein 19 and may respond to outside stimuli to increase peroxisome abundance. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

LOC100129456 Gene

heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), class B member 1 pseudogene

CBFA2T3 Gene

core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3

This gene encodes a member of the myeloid translocation gene family which interact with DNA-bound transcription factors and recruit a range of corepressors to facilitate transcriptional repression. The t(16;21)(q24;q22) translocation is one of the less common karyotypic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia. The translocation produces a chimeric gene made up of the 5'-region of the runt-related transcription factor 1 gene fused to the 3'-region of this gene. This gene is also a putative breast tumor suppressor. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

CBFA2T2 Gene

core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 2

In acute myeloid leukemia, especially in the M2 subtype, the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is one of the most frequent karyotypic abnormalities. The translocation produces a chimeric gene made up of the 5'-region of the RUNX1 (AML1) gene fused to the 3'-region of the CBFA2T1 (MTG8) gene. The chimeric protein is thought to associate with the nuclear corepressor/histone deacetylase complex to block hematopoietic differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene binds to the AML1-MTG8 complex and may be important in promoting leukemogenesis. Several transcript variants are thought to exist for this gene, but the full-length natures of only three have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GSTA7P Gene

glutathione S-transferase alpha 7, pseudogene

MAN2B2 Gene

mannosidase, alpha, class 2B, member 2

MAN2B1 Gene

mannosidase, alpha, class 2B, member 1

This gene encodes an enzyme that hydrolyzes terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. Its activity is necessary for the catabolism of N-linked carbohydrates released during glycoprotein turnover and it is member of family 38 of glycosyl hydrolases. The full length protein is processed in two steps. First, a 49 aa leader sequence is cleaved off and the remainder of the protein is processed into 3 peptides of 70 kDa, 42 kDa (D) and 13/15 kDa (E). Next, the 70 kDa peptide is further processed into three peptides (A, B and C). The A, B and C peptides are disulfide-linked. Defects in this gene have been associated with lysosomal alpha-mannosidosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

GSK3A Gene

glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha

This gene encodes a multifunctional Ser/Thr protein kinase that is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins including glycogen synthase, and transcription factors, such as JUN. It also plays a role in the WNT and PI3K signaling pathways, as well as regulates the production of beta-amyloid peptides associated with Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

HSP90AB2P Gene

heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), class B member 2, pseudogene

LOC105372487 Gene

transformer-2 protein homolog alpha-like

COL22A1 Gene

collagen, type XXII, alpha 1

COL22A1, a member of the FACIT (fibrillar-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) subgroup of the collagen protein family, specifically localizes to tissue junctions (Koch et al., 2004 [PubMed 15016833]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100129942 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 2 pseudogene

COL5A2 Gene

collagen, type V, alpha 2

This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. Mutations in this gene are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, types I and II. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL5A3 Gene

collagen, type V, alpha 3

This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. Mutations in this gene are thought to be responsible for the symptoms of a subset of patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III. Messages of several sizes can be detected in northern blots but sequence information cannot confirm the identity of the shorter messages. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL5A1 Gene

collagen, type V, alpha 1

This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen. This gene product is closely related to type XI collagen and it is possible that the collagen chains of types V and XI constitute a single collagen type with tissue-specific chain combinations. The encoded procollagen protein occurs commonly as the heterotrimer pro-alpha1(V)-pro-alpha1(V)-pro-alpha2(V). Mutations in this gene are associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, types I and II. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

LOC100533710 Gene

mannosidase, alpha, class 1B, member 1 pseudogene

CACNA2D2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 2

Calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. This gene encodes the alpha-2/delta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. The complex consists of the main channel-forming subunit alpha-1, and auxiliary subunits alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma. The auxiliary subunits function in the assembly and membrane localization of the complex, and modulate calcium currents and channel activation/inactivation kinetics. The subunit encoded by this gene undergoes post-translational cleavage to yield the extracellular alpha2 peptide and a membrane-anchored delta polypeptide. This subunit is a receptor for the antiepileptic drug, gabapentin. Mutations in this gene are associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are correlated with increased sensitivity to opioid drugs. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CACNA2D3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3

This gene encodes a member of the alpha-2/delta subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. Research on a highly similar protein in rabbit suggests the protein described in this record is cleaved into alpha-2 and delta subunits. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA2D4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 4

This gene encodes a member of the alpha-2/delta subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. Research on a highly similar protein in rabbit suggests the protein described in this record is cleaved into alpha-2 and delta subunits. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3R1 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha)

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase phosphorylates the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol at the 3-prime position. The enzyme comprises a 110 kD catalytic subunit and a regulatory subunit of either 85, 55, or 50 kD. This gene encodes the 85 kD regulatory subunit. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase plays an important role in the metabolic actions of insulin, and a mutation in this gene has been associated with insulin resistance. Alternative splicing of this gene results in four transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

TUBAL3 Gene

tubulin, alpha-like 3

SLC51A Gene

solute carrier family 51, alpha subunit

CGA Gene

glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide

The four human glycoprotein hormones chorionic gonadotropin (CG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are dimers consisting of alpha and beta subunits that are associated noncovalently. The alpha subunits of these hormones are identical, however, their beta chains are unique and confer biological specificity. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha subunit and belongs to the glycoprotein hormones alpha chain family. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

PDGFA Gene

platelet-derived growth factor alpha polypeptide

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor family. The four members of this family are mitogenic factors for cells of mesenchymal origin and are characterized by a motif of eight cysteines. This gene product can exist either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with the platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide, where the dimers are connected by disulfide bonds. Studies using knockout mice have shown cellular defects in oligodendrocytes, alveolar smooth muscle cells, and Leydig cells in the testis; knockout mice die either as embryos or shortly after birth. Two splice variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CSN1S2AP Gene

casein alpha s2-like A, pseudogene

This locus is the equivalent of casein gamma in mouse (GeneID 12993) and is found in a cluster of casein genes, similar to other mammals. In human, the potential open reading frame that matches the homologous protein from other species is prematurely truncated shortly after the signal peptide. Therefore, this locus appears to be a pseudogene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAR1A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. This gene encodes one of the regulatory subunits. This protein was found to be a tissue-specific extinguisher that down-regulates the expression of seven liver genes in hepatoma x fibroblast hybrids. Mutations in this gene cause Carney complex (CNC). This gene can fuse to the RET protooncogene by gene rearrangement and form the thyroid tumor-specific chimeric oncogene known as PTC2. A nonconventional nuclear localization sequence (NLS) has been found for this protein which suggests a role in DNA replication via the protein serving as a nuclear transport protein for the second subunit of the Replication Factor C (RFC40). Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

HLA-DMA Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM alpha

HLA-DMA belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DMA) and a beta chain (DMB), both anchored in the membrane. It is located in intracellular vesicles. DM plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP molecule from the peptide binding site. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha chain is approximately 33-35 kDa and its gene contains 5 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C4BPA Gene

complement component 4 binding protein, alpha

This gene encodes a member of a superfamily of proteins composed predominantly of tandemly arrayed short consensus repeats of approximately 60 amino acids. Along with a single, unique beta-chain, seven identical alpha-chains encoded by this gene assemble into the predominant isoform of C4b-binding protein, a multimeric protein that controls activation of the complement cascade through the classical pathway. The genes encoding both alpha and beta chains are located adjacent to each other on human chromosome 1 in the regulator of complement activation gene cluster. Two pseudogenes of this gene are also found in the cluster. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422375 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha pseudogene

PSMA2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMA1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 1

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

PSMA7 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 7

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family that functions as a 20S core alpha subunit. The encoded protein interacts with the hepatitis B virus X protein and plays a role in regulating hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity, an activity essential for viral replication. The encoded protein also plays a role in the cellular stress response by regulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMA4 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 4

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMA5 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 5

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PSMA8 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 8

LOC100533848 Gene

ATPase, H+/K+ transporting, nongastric, alpha polypeptide pseudogene

ADRA1A Gene

adrenoceptor alpha 1A

Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors (alpha-1-ARs) are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. They activate mitogenic responses and regulate growth and proliferation of many cells. There are 3 alpha-1-AR subtypes: alpha-1A, -1B and -1D, all of which signal through the Gq/11 family of G-proteins and different subtypes show different patterns of activation. This gene encodes alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor. Alternative splicing of this gene generates four transcript variants, which encode four different isoforms with distinct C-termini but having similar ligand binding properties. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADRA1B Gene

adrenoceptor alpha 1B

Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors (alpha-1-ARs) are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. They activate mitogenic responses and regulate growth and proliferation of many cells. There are 3 alpha-1-AR subtypes: alpha-1A, -1B and -1D, all of which signal through the Gq/11 family of G-proteins and different subtypes show different patterns of activation. This gene encodes alpha-1B-adrenergic receptor, which induces neoplastic transformation when transfected into NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and other cell lines. Thus, this normal cellular gene is identified as a protooncogene. This gene comprises 2 exons and a single large intron of at least 20 kb that interrupts the coding region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADRA1D Gene

adrenoceptor alpha 1D

Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors (alpha-1-ARs) are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. They activate mitogenic responses and regulate growth and proliferation of many cells. There are 3 alpha-1-AR subtypes: alpha-1A, -1B and -1D, all of which signal through the Gq/11 family of G-proteins and different subtypes show different patterns of activation. This gene encodes alpha-1D-adrenergic receptor. Similar to alpha-1B-adrenergic receptor gene, this gene comprises 2 exons and a single intron that interrupts the coding region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100506596 Gene

fibril-forming collagen alpha chain

LOC105375938 Gene

collagen alpha-1(I) chain-like

COL12A1 Gene

collagen, type XII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of type XII collagen, a member of the FACIT (fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices) collagen family. Type XII collagen is a homotrimer found in association with type I collagen, an association that is thought to modify the interactions between collagen I fibrils and the surrounding matrix. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL6A4P1 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 4 pseudogene 1

This transcribed pseudogene represents the 5' end of a presumed ortholog to a mouse gene which encodes a collagen VI alpha 4 chain protein (GeneID 68553). No complete ORF of comparable size to the mouse protein is found in this gene. The predicted protein lacks a signal peptide; however, this truncated collagen polypeptide may have achieved a different function as suggested by PubMed ID: 18622395. Evidence of in vivo translation is incomplete. A large chromosome break separates this pseudogene from the 3' end of the presumed ortholog (COL6A4P2, GeneID 646300) which is located downstream at chromosome 3q21.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

LOC645680 Gene

karyopherin alpha 2 pseudogene

ALG10 Gene

ALG10, alpha-1,2-glucosyltransferase

This gene encodes a membrane-associated protein that adds the third glucose residue to the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor for N-linked glycosylation. That is, it transfers the terminal glucose from dolichyl phosphate glucose (Dol-P-Glc) onto the lipid-linked oligosaccharide Glc2Man9GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol. The rat protein homolog was shown to specifically modulate the gating function of the rat neuronal ether-a-go-go (EAG) potassium ion channel. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

ALG11 Gene

ALG11, alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase

This gene encodes a GDP-Man:Man3GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol-alpha1,2-mannosyltransferase which is localized to the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and catalyzes the transfer of the fourth and fifth mannose residue from GDP-mannose (GDP-Man) to Man3GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol and Man4GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol resulting in the production of Man5GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol. Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ip (CDGIP). This gene overlaps but is distinct from the UTP14, U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein, homolog C (yeast) gene. A pseudogene of the GDP-Man:Man3GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol-alpha1,2-mannosyltransferase has been identified on chromosome 19. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

ALG12 Gene

ALG12, alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase

This gene encodes a member of the glycosyltransferase 22 family. The encoded protein catalyzes the addition of the eighth mannose residue in an alpha-1,6 linkage onto the dolichol-PP-oligosaccharide precursor (dolichol-PP-Man(7)GlcNAc(2)) required for protein glycosylation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ig (CDG-Ig)characterized by abnormal N-glycosylation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AHSP Gene

alpha hemoglobin stabilizing protein

AHSG Gene

alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein

Alpha2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG), a glycoprotein present in the serum, is synthesized by hepatocytes. The AHSG molecule consists of two polypeptide chains, which are both cleaved from a proprotein encoded from a single mRNA. It is involved in several functions, such as endocytosis, brain development and the formation of bone tissue. The protein is commonly present in the cortical plate of the immature cerebral cortex and bone marrow hemopoietic matrix, and it has therefore been postulated that it participates in the development of the tissues. However, its exact significance is still obscure. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AMACR Gene

alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase

This gene encodes a racemase. The encoded enzyme interconverts pristanoyl-CoA and C27-bile acylCoAs between their (R)- and (S)-stereoisomers. The conversion to the (S)-stereoisomers is necessary for degradation of these substrates by peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Encoded proteins from this locus localize to both mitochondria and peroxisomes. Mutations in this gene may be associated with adult-onset sensorimotor neuropathy, pigmentary retinopathy, and adrenomyeloneuropathy due to defects in bile acid synthesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the upstream neighboring C1QTNF3 (C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 3) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

LOC105371898 Gene

prothymosin alpha-like

LOC105376068 Gene

collagen alpha-1(I) chain-like

TUBA3FP Gene

tubulin, alpha 3f, pseudogene

COL6A4P2 Gene

collagen, type VI, alpha 4 pseudogene 2

This transcribed pseudogene represents the 3' end of a presumed ortholog to a mouse gene which encodes a collagen VI alpha 4 chain protein (GeneID 68553). The predicted ORF contains multiple premature stop codons. A large chromosome break separates this pseudogene from the 5' end of the presumed ortholog (DVWA, GeneID 344875) which is located upstream at chromosome 3p24.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

NAGLU Gene

N-acetylglucosaminidase, alpha

This gene encodes an enzyme that degrades heparan sulfate by hydrolysis of terminal N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosaminides. Defects in this gene are the cause of mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS-IIIB), also known as Sanfilippo syndrome B. This disease is characterized by the lysosomal accumulation and urinary excretion of heparan sulfate. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422324 Gene

capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 1 pseudogene

HSP90AA2P Gene

heat shock protein 90kDa alpha (cytosolic), class A member 2, pseudogene

HSP90 proteins are highly conserved molecular chaperones that have key roles in signal transduction, protein folding, protein degradation, and morphologic evolution. HSP90 proteins normally associate with other cochaperones and play important roles in folding newly synthesized proteins or stabilizing and refolding denatured proteins after stress. HSP90AA2 is a cytosolic HSP90 protein. Other HSP90 proteins are found in endoplasmic reticulum (HSP90B1; MIM 191175) and mitochondria (TRAP1; MIM 606219) (Chen et al., 2005 [PubMed 16269234]). See HSP90AA1 (MIM 140571) for further information on HSP90 proteins.[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008]

LOC645773 Gene

tubulin, alpha 4a pseudogene

CTNNA1P1 Gene

catenin (cadherin-associated protein), alpha 1 pseudogene 1

AFP Gene

alpha-fetoprotein

This gene encodes alpha-fetoprotein, a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. Alpha-fetoprotein expression in adults is often associated with hepatoma or teratoma. However, hereditary persistance of alpha-fetoprotein may also be found in individuals with no obvious pathology. The protein is thought to be the fetal counterpart of serum albumin, and the alpha-fetoprotein and albumin genes are present in tandem in the same transcriptional orientation on chromosome 4. Alpha-fetoprotein is found in monomeric as well as dimeric and trimeric forms, and binds copper, nickel, fatty acids and bilirubin. The level of alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid is used to measure renal loss of protein to screen for spina bifida and anencephaly. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNAI2P2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 pseudogene 2

GNAI2P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 pseudogene 1

LOC100131280 Gene

integrin alpha FG-GAP repeat containing 2 pseudogene

LOC105373140 Gene

prothymosin alpha-like

EIF2S1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 1 alpha, 35kDa

The translation initiation factor EIF2 catalyzes the first regulated step of protein synthesis initiation, promoting the binding of the initiator tRNA to 40S ribosomal subunits. Binding occurs as a ternary complex of methionyl-tRNA, EIF2, and GTP. EIF2 is composed of 3 nonidentical subunits, the 36-kD EIF2-alpha subunit (EIF2S1), the 38-kD EIF2-beta subunit (EIF2S2; MIM 603908), and the 52-kD EIF2-gamma subunit (EIF2S3; MIM 300161). The rate of formation of the ternary complex is modulated by the phosphorylation state of EIF2-alpha (Ernst et al., 1987 [PubMed 2948954]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

LOC102724035 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 5 pseudogene

EEF1A1P42 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 42

EEF1A1P43 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1 pseudogene 43

LOC280665 Gene

anti-CNG alpha 1 cation channel translation product-like

COL25A1 Gene

collagen, type XXV, alpha 1

This gene encodes a brain-specific membrane associated collagen. A product of proteolytic processing of the encoded protein, CLAC (collagenous Alzheimer amyloid plaque component), binds to amyloid beta-peptides found in Alzheimer amyloid plaques but CLAC inhibits rather than facilitates amyloid fibril elongation (PMID: 16300410). A study of over-expression of this collagen in mice, however, found changes in pathology and behavior suggesting that the encoded protein may promote amyloid plaque formation (PMID: 19548013). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

IGHA2 Gene

immunoglobulin heavy constant alpha 2 (A2m marker)

IGHA1 Gene

immunoglobulin heavy constant alpha 1

FARSA Gene

phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, alpha subunit

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are a class of enzymes that charge tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This gene encodes a product which is similar to the catalytic subunit of prokaryotic and Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases (PheRS). This gene product has been shown to be expressed in a tumor-selective and cell cycle stage- and differentiation-dependent manner, the first member of the tRNA synthetase gene family shown to exhibit this type of regulated expression [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IL23A Gene

interleukin 23, alpha subunit p19

This gene encodes a subunit of the heterodimeric cytokine interleukin 23 (IL23). IL23 is composed of this protein and the p40 subunit of interleukin 12 (IL12B). The receptor of IL23 is formed by the beta 1 subunit of IL12 (IL12RB1) and an IL23 specific subunit, IL23R. Both IL23 and IL12 can activate the transcription activator STAT4, and stimulate the production of interferon-gamma (IFNG). In contrast to IL12, which acts mainly on naive CD4(+) T cells, IL23 preferentially acts on memory CD4(+) T cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100653395 Gene

methionine adenosyltransferase II, alpha pseudogene

TOP2A Gene

topoisomerase (DNA) II alpha 170kDa

This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This nuclear enzyme is involved in processes such as chromosome condensation, chromatid separation, and the relief of torsional stress that occurs during DNA transcription and replication. It catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of two strands of duplex DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus altering the topology of DNA. Two forms of this enzyme exist as likely products of a gene duplication event. The gene encoding this form, alpha, is localized to chromosome 17 and the beta gene is localized to chromosome 3. The gene encoding this enzyme functions as the target for several anticancer agents and a variety of mutations in this gene have been associated with the development of drug resistance. Reduced activity of this enzyme may also play a role in ataxia-telangiectasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

SGCA Gene

sarcoglycan, alpha (50kDa dystrophin-associated glycoprotein)

This gene encodes a component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC), which is critical to the stability of muscle fiber membranes and to the linking of the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Its expression is thought to be restricted to striated muscle. Mutations in this gene result in type 2D autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

DGKA Gene

diacylglycerol kinase, alpha 80kDa

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the eukaryotic diacylglycerol kinase family. It acts as a modulator that competes with protein kinase C for the second messenger diacylglycerol in intracellular signaling pathways. It also plays an important role in the resynthesis of phosphatidylinositols and phosphorylating diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and four transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TECTA Gene

tectorin alpha

The tectorial membrane is an extracellular matrix of the inner ear that contacts the stereocilia bundles of specialized sensory hair cells. Sound induces movement of these hair cells relative to the tectorial membrane, deflects the stereocilia, and leads to fluctuations in hair-cell membrane potential, transducing sound into electrical signals. Alpha-tectorin is one of the major noncollagenous components of the tectorial membrane. Mutations in the TECTA gene have been shown to be responsible for autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing impairment and a recessive form of sensorineural pre-lingual non-syndromic deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COL2A1 Gene

collagen, type II, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha-1 chain of type II collagen, a fibrillar collagen found in cartilage and the vitreous humor of the eye. Mutations in this gene are associated with achondrogenesis, chondrodysplasia, early onset familial osteoarthritis, SED congenita, Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis, Kniest dysplasia, Stickler syndrome type I, and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia Strudwick type. In addition, defects in processing chondrocalcin, a calcium binding protein that is the C-propeptide of this collagen molecule, are also associated with chondrodysplasia. There are two transcripts identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421798 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 2 pseudogene

TTPAL Gene

tocopherol (alpha) transfer protei