Name

Hub Proteins Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Hub Proteins

sets of proteins interacting with hub proteins

NURSA Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

protein-protein interactions inferred from membership in complexes

Pathway Commons Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Pathway Commons

protein-protein interactions from low-throughput or high-throughput studies aggregated by Pathway Commons from the following databases: Reactome, NCI Pathways, PhosphoSite, HumanCyc, HPRD, PANTHER, DIP, BioGRID, IntAct, BIND, Transfac, MiRTarBase, Drugbank, Recon X, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, and KEGG

Virus MINT Protein-Viral Protein Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viral and human proteins manually curated from literature

COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by manual literature curation

COMPARTMENTS Experimental Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

protein subcellular localization evidence scores by integrating experimental data

COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores Dataset

From COMPARTMENTS

gene-cellular compartment co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

CORUM Protein Complexes Dataset

From CORUM

proteins participating in complexes by manual literature curation

Guide to Pharmacology Protein Ligands of Receptors Dataset

From Guide to Pharmacology

ligand-receptor interactions curated by experts

HPA Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

semiquantitative protein expression profiles for tissues

HPM Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Proteome Map

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types

InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations Dataset

From InterPro

protein domains predicted for gene products based on sequence similarity to known domain signatures

LOCATE Curated Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins from low-throughput or high-throughput protein localization assays

NURSA Protein Complexes Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

proteins identified in complexes isolated from cultured cells

ProteomicsDB Cell Type and Tissue Protein Expression Profiles Dataset

From Proteomics Database

protein expression profiles for tissues and cell types reprocessed from many proteomics datasets

SILAC Phosphoproteomics Signatures of Differentially Phosphorylated Proteins for Protein Ligands Dataset

From SILAC Phosphoproteomics

phosphorylation levels of proteins in cell lines following ligand treatment

TISSUES Curated Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by manual literature curation

TISSUES Experimental Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

protein tissue expression evidence scores by integrating experimental data

TISSUES Text-mining Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

From TISSUES

gene-tissue co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts

Virus MINT Protein-Virus Interactions Dataset

From Virus MINT

interactions between viruses and human proteins manually curated from literature

LOCATE Predicted Protein Localization Annotations Dataset

From LOCATE

subcellular localization of proteins by sequence similarity to localization sequences

HPA Cell Line Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for cell lines

HPA Tissue Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissues

HPA Tissue Sample Gene Expression Profiles Dataset

From Human Protein Atlas

mRNA expression profiles for tissue samples

HOOK2 Gene

hook microtubule-tethering protein 2

Hook proteins are cytosolic coiled-coil proteins that contain conserved N-terminal domains, which attach to microtubules, and more divergent C-terminal domains, which mediate binding to organelles. The Drosophila Hook protein is a component of the endocytic compartment.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

HOOK3 Gene

hook microtubule-tethering protein 3

Hook proteins are cytosolic coiled-coil proteins that contain conserved N-terminal domains, which attach to microtubules, and more divergent C-terminal domains, which mediate binding to organelles. The Drosophila Hook protein is a component of the endocytic compartment.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

HOOK1 Gene

hook microtubule-tethering protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the hook family of coiled-coil proteins, which bind to microtubules and organelles through their N- and C-terminal domains, respectively. The encoded protein localizes to discrete punctuate subcellular structures, and interacts with several members of the Rab GTPase family involved in endocytosis. It is thought to link endocytic membrane trafficking to the microtubule cytoskeleton. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AHCTF1 Gene

AT hook containing transcription factor 1

AHDC1 Gene

AT hook, DNA binding motif, containing 1

This gene encodes a protein containing two AT-hooks, which likely function in DNA binding. Mutations in this gene were found in individuals with Xia-Gibbs syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

AHCTF1P1 Gene

AT hook containing transcription factor 1 pseudogene 1

HMGA2 Gene

high mobility group AT-hook 2

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the non-histone chromosomal high mobility group (HMG) protein family. HMG proteins function as architectural factors and are essential components of the enhancesome. This protein contains structural DNA-binding domains and may act as a transcriptional regulating factor. Identification of the deletion, amplification, and rearrangement of this gene that are associated with myxoid liposarcoma suggests a role in adipogenesis and mesenchymal differentiation. A gene knock out study of the mouse counterpart demonstrated that this gene is involved in diet-induced obesity. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HMGA1P4 Gene

high mobility group AT-hook 1 pseudogene 4

HMGA1P6 Gene

high mobility group AT-hook 1 pseudogene 6

ZFAT Gene

zinc finger and AT hook domain containing

This gene encodes a protein that likely binds DNA and functions as a transcriptional regulator involved in apoptosis and cell survival. This gene resides in a susceptibility locus for autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) on chromosome 8q24. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

HMGA1P8 Gene

high mobility group AT-hook 1 pseudogene 8 (functional)

HMGA1P5 Gene

high mobility group AT-hook 1 pseudogene 5

HMGA1P7 Gene

high mobility group AT-hook 1 pseudogene 7

HMGA1P1 Gene

high mobility group AT-hook 1 pseudogene 1

HMGA1P3 Gene

high mobility group AT-hook 1 pseudogene 3

HMGA1P2 Gene

high mobility group AT-hook 1 pseudogene 2

HMGA1 Gene

high mobility group AT-hook 1

This gene encodes a non-histone protein involved in many cellular processes, including regulation of inducible gene transcription, integration of retroviruses into chromosomes, and the metastatic progression of cancer cells. The encoded protein preferentially binds to the minor groove of A+T-rich regions in double-stranded DNA. It has little secondary structure in solution but assumes distinct conformations when bound to substrates such as DNA or other proteins. The encoded protein is frequently acetylated and is found in the nucleus. At least seven transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PATZ1 Gene

POZ (BTB) and AT hook containing zinc finger 1

The protein encoded by this gene contains an A-T hook DNA binding motif which usually binds to other DNA binding structures to play an important role in chromatin modeling and transcription regulation. Its Poz domain is thought to function as a site for protein-protein interaction and is required for transcriptional repression, and the zinc-fingers comprise the DNA binding domain. Since the encoded protein has typical features of a transcription factor, it is postulated to be a repressor of gene expression. In small round cell sarcoma, this gene is fused to EWS by a small inversion of 22q, then the hybrid is thought to be translocated (t(1;22)(p36.1;q12). The rearrangement of chromosome 22 involves intron 8 of EWS and exon 1 of this gene creating a chimeric sequence containing the transactivation domain of EWS fused to zinc finger domain of this protein. This is a distinct example of an intra-chromosomal rearrangement of chromosome 22. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants are described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AKNA Gene

AT-hook transcription factor

RUNX1T1 Gene

runt-related transcription factor 1; translocated to, 1 (cyclin D-related)

This gene encodes a member of the myeloid translocation gene family which interact with DNA-bound transcription factors and recruit a range of corepressors to facilitate transcriptional repression. The t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is one of the most frequent karyotypic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia. The translocation produces a chimeric gene made up of the 5'-region of the runt-related transcription factor 1 gene fused to the 3'-region of this gene. The chimeric protein is thought to associate with the nuclear corepressor/histone deacetylase complex to block hematopoietic differentiation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

LRPAP1 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein associated protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein and facilitates its proper folding and localization by preventing the binding of ligands. Mutations in this gene have been identified in individuals with myopia 23. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

AP1AR Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1 associated regulatory protein

BCL2A1 Gene

BCL2-related protein A1

This gene encodes a member of the BCL-2 protein family. The proteins of this family form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- and pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities such as embryonic development, homeostasis and tumorigenesis. The protein encoded by this gene is able to reduce the release of pro-apoptotic cytochrome c from mitochondria and block caspase activation. This gene is a direct transcription target of NF-kappa B in response to inflammatory mediators, and is up-regulated by different extracellular signals, such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), CD40, phorbol ester and inflammatory cytokine TNF and IL-1, which suggests a cytoprotective function that is essential for lymphocyte activation as well as cell survival. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421559 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 5, mu 1 subunit pseudogene

LOC100271907 Gene

myotubularin related protein 7 pseudogene

LOC100133102 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac2) pseudogene

ACTR3B Gene

ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog B (yeast)

This gene encodes a member of the actin-related proteins (ARP), which form multiprotein complexes and share 35-55% amino acid identity with conventional actin. The protein encoded by this gene may have a regulatory role in the actin cytoskeleton and induce cell-shape change and motility. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 2, 4, 10, 16, 22 and Y. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

AP1S1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is part of the clathrin coat assembly complex which links clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. These vesicles are involved in endocytosis and Golgi processing. This protein, as well as beta-prime-adaptin, gamma-adaptin, and the medium (mu) chain AP47, form the AP-1 assembly protein complex located at the Golgi vesicle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIH2 Gene

pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome-related protein

TSRM Gene

zinc finger domain-related protein TSRM

AP5B1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 5, beta 1 subunit

LOC284441 Gene

actin-related protein 2 pseudogene

LRP2 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene, low density lipoprotein-related protein 2 (LRP2) or megalin, is a multi-ligand endocytic receptor that is expressed in many different tissues but primarily in absorptive epithilial tissues such as the kidney. This glycoprotein has a large amino-terminal extracellular domain, a single transmembrane domain, and a short carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic tail. The extracellular ligand-binding-domains bind diverse macromolecules including albumin, apolipoproteins B and E, and lipoprotein lipase. The LRP2 protein is critical for the reuptake of numerous ligands, including lipoproteins, sterols, vitamin-binding proteins, and hormones. This protein also has a role in cell-signaling; extracellular ligands include parathyroid horomones and the morphogen sonic hedgehog while cytosolic ligands include MAP kinase scaffold proteins and JNK interacting proteins. Recycling of this membrane receptor is regulated by phosphorylation of its cytoplasmic domain. Mutations in this gene cause Donnai-Barrow syndrome (DBS) and facio-oculoacoustico-renal syndrome (FOAR).[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

LRP3 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 3

LRP1 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is an endocytic receptor involved in several cellular processes, including intracellular signaling, lipid homeostasis, and clearance of apoptotic cells. In addition, the encoded protein is necessary for the A2M-mediated clearance of secreted amyloid precursor protein and beta-amyloid, the main component of amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer patients. Expression of this gene decreases with age and has been found to be lower than controls in brain tissue from Alzheimer patients. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

LRP6 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6

This gene encodes a member of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family. LDL receptors are transmembrane cell surface proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoprotein and protein ligands. The protein encoded by this gene functions as a receptor or, with Frizzled, a co-receptor for Wnt and thereby transmits the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling cascade. Through its interaction with the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling cascade this gene plays a role in the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and migration and the development of many cancer types. This protein undergoes gamma-secretase dependent RIP- (regulated intramembrane proteolysis) processing but the precise locations of the cleavage sites have not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

LRP4 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4

This gene encodes a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein family. The encoded protein may be a regulator of Wnt signaling. Mutations in this gene are associated with Cenani-Lenz syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LRP5 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5

This gene encodes a transmembrane low-density lipoprotein receptor that binds and internalizes ligands in the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis. This protein also acts as a co-receptor with Frizzled protein family members for transducing signals by Wnt proteins and was originally cloned on the basis of its association with type 1 diabetes mellitus in humans. This protein plays a key role in skeletal homeostasis and many bone density related diseases are caused by mutations in this gene. Mutations in this gene also cause familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

LRP8 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8, apolipoprotein e receptor

This gene encodes a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Low density lipoprotein receptors are cell surface proteins that play roles in both signal transduction and receptor-mediated endocytosis of specific ligands for lysosomal degradation. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the migration of neurons during development by mediating Reelin signaling, and also functions as a receptor for the cholesterol transport protein apolipoprotein E. Expression of this gene may be a marker for major depressive disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

SVOP Gene

SV2 related protein homolog (rat)

AP5Z1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 5, zeta 1 subunit

This gene was identified by genome-wide screen for genes involved in homologous recombination DNA double-strand break repair (HR-DSBR). The encoded protein was found in a complex with other proteins that have a role in HR-DSBR. Knockdown of this gene reduced homologous recombination, and mutations in this gene were found in patients with spastic paraplegia. It was concluded that this gene likely encodes a helicase (PMID:20613862). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

ARFRP1 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor related protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane-associated GTP-ase which localizes to the plasma membrane and is related to the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and ARF-like (ARL) proteins. This gene plays a role in membrane trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

SFRP2 Gene

secreted frizzled-related protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the SFRP family that contains a cysteine-rich domain homologous to the putative Wnt-binding site of Frizzled proteins. SFRPs act as soluble modulators of Wnt signaling. Methylation of this gene is a potential marker for the presence of colorectal cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SFRP1 Gene

secreted frizzled-related protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the SFRP family that contains a cysteine-rich domain homologous to the putative Wnt-binding site of Frizzled proteins. Members of this family act as soluble modulators of Wnt signaling; epigenetic silencing of SFRP genes leads to deregulated activation of the Wnt-pathway which is associated with cancer. This gene may also be involved in determining the polarity of photoreceptor cells in the retina. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

SFRP4 Gene

secreted frizzled-related protein 4

Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is a member of the SFRP family that contains a cysteine-rich domain homologous to the putative Wnt-binding site of Frizzled proteins. SFRPs act as soluble modulators of Wnt signaling. The expression of SFRP4 in ventricular myocardium correlates with apoptosis related gene expression. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SFRP5 Gene

secreted frizzled-related protein 5

Secreted frizzled-related protein 5 (SFRP5) is a member of the SFRP family that contains a cysteine-rich domain homologous to the putative Wnt-binding site of Frizzled proteins. SFRPs act as soluble modulators of Wnt signaling. SFRP5 and SFRP1 may be involved in determining the polarity of photoreceptor cells in the retina. SFRP5 is highly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium, and moderately expressed in the pancreas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AP2B1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the assembly protein complex 2, which serves to link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. The encoded protein is found on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles in the plasma membrane. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC102723689 Gene

actin-related protein 3B-like

LOC100420510 Gene

myotubularin related protein 12 pseudogene

NREP Gene

neuronal regeneration related protein

ARPC5L Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5-like

LOC653653 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit pseudogene

LOC643454 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit pseudogene

AP3M1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is the medium subunit of AP-3, which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the Golgi region as well as more peripheral intracellular structures. AP-3 facilitates the budding of vesicles from the Golgi membrane and may be directly involved in protein sorting to the endosomal/lysosomal system. AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta3), a medium subunit (mu3), and a small subunit (sigma 3). Mutations in one of the large subunits of AP-3 have been associated with the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by defective lysosome-related organelles. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AP3M2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 2 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric adaptor-related protein comlex 3 (AP-3), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. The AP-3 complex plays a role in protein trafficking to lysosomes and specialized organelles. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

LOC100289381 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit pseudogene

LOC101060399 Gene

cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2

SRCAP Gene

Snf2-related CREBBP activator protein

This gene encodes the core catalytic component of the multiprotein chromatin-remodeling SRCAP complex. The encoded protein is an ATPase that is necessary for the incorporation of the histone variant H2A.Z into nucleosomes. It can function as a transcriptional activator in Notch-mediated, CREB-mediated and steroid receptor-mediated transcription. Mutations in this gene cause Floating-Harbor syndrome, a rare disorder characterized by short stature, language deficits and dysmorphic facial features. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

LOC260421 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A pseudogene

LOC260422 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A pseudogene

AP4B1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of a heterotetrameric adapter-like complex 4 that is involved in targeting proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the endosomal-lysosomal system. Mutations in this gene are associated with cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegic type 5 (CPSQ5) disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

AP2A1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit

This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer consisting of two large adaptins (alpha or beta), a medium adaptin (mu), and a small adaptin (sigma). The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles which links clathrin to receptors in vesicles. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms. A third transcript variant has been described, but its full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AP2A2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit

CDR2L Gene

cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2-like

OCR1 Gene

ovarian cancer-related protein 1

FRZB Gene

frizzled-related protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted protein that is involved in the regulation of bone development. Defects in this gene are a cause of female-specific osteoarthritis (OA) susceptibility. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

LOC100131348 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit pseudogene

LOC100422044 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa pseudogene

LRP5L Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5-like

HSPB9 Gene

heat shock protein, alpha-crystallin-related, B9

ACTR10 Gene

actin-related protein 10 homolog (S. cerevisiae)

ACTR1B Gene

ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog B, centractin beta (yeast)

This gene encodes a 42.3 kD subunit of dynactin, a macromolecular complex consisting of 10 subunits ranging in size from 22 to 150 kD. Dynactin binds to both microtubules and cytoplasmic dynein and is involved in a diverse array of cellular functions, including ER-to-Golgi transport, the centripetal movement of lysosomes and endosomes, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear positioning, and axonogenesis. This subunit, like ACTR1A, is an actin-related protein. These two proteins, which are of equal length and share 90% amino acid identity, are present in a constant ratio of approximately 1:15 in the dynactin complex. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

ACTR1A Gene

ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog A, centractin alpha (yeast)

This gene encodes a 42.6 kD subunit of dynactin, a macromolecular complex consisting of 10-11 subunits ranging in size from 22 to 150 kD. Dynactin binds to both microtubules and cytoplasmic dynein. It is involved in a diverse array of cellular functions, including ER-to-Golgi transport, the centripetal movement of lysosomes and endosomes, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear positioning, and axonogenesis. This subunit is present in 8-13 copies per dynactin molecule, and is the most abundant molecule in the dynactin complex. It is an actin-related protein, and is approximately 60% identical at the amino acid level to conventional actin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARPC4 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 4, 20kDa

This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. This complex controls actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution. This gene encodes the p20 subunit, which is necessary for actin nucleation and high-affinity binding to F-actin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Naturally occurring read-through transcription exists between this gene and the downstream tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family, member 3 (TTLL3), which results in the production of a fusion protein. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

ARPC3P4 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3 pseudogene 4

ACTR3C Gene

ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog C (yeast)

AP1S2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit

Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates both the recruitment of clathrin to the membrane and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane receptors. This complex is a heterotetramer composed of two large, one medium, and one small adaptin subunit. The protein encoded by this gene serves as the small subunit of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

AP1S3 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 3 subunit

This gene encodes a member of the adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma subunit genes. The encoded protein is a component of adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1), one of the AP complexes involved in claathrin-mediated vesicular transport from the Golgi or endosomes. Disruption of the pathway for display of HIV-1 antigens, which prevents recognition of the virus by cytotoxic T cells, has been shown to involve the AP-1 complex (PMID: 15569716). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

AP4E1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 4, epsilon 1 subunit

This gene encodes a member of the adaptor complexes large subunit protein family. These proteins are components of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes, which play important roles in the secretory and endocytic pathways by mediating vesicle formation and sorting of integral membrane proteins. The encoded protein is a large subunit of adaptor protein complex-4, which is associated with both clathrin- and nonclathrin-coated vesicles. Disruption of this gene may be associated with cerebral palsy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

TMX4 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 4

TMX1 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 1

TXNDC1 is a thioredoxin (TXN; see MIM 187700)-related protein with disulfide reductase activity (Matsuo et al., 2001 [PubMed 11152479]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TMX3 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 3

TMX2 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 2

GRAP2 Gene

GRB2-related adaptor protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the GRB2/Sem5/Drk family. This member is an adaptor-like protein involved in leukocyte-specific protein-tyrosine kinase signaling. Like its related family member, GRB2-related adaptor protein (GRAP), this protein contains an SH2 domain flanked by two SH3 domains. This protein interacts with other proteins, such as GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1) and the SLP-76 leukocyte protein (LCP2), through its SH3 domains. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

GRAPL Gene

GRB2-related adaptor protein-like

AP4M1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric AP-4 complex. The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition and sorting of cargo proteins with tyrosine-based motifs from the trans-golgi network to the endosomal-lysosomal system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC317727 Gene

ataxin 2 related protein pseudogene

LOC100288663 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa pseudogene

NFRKB Gene

nuclear factor related to kappaB binding protein

TDRP Gene

testis development related protein

AP3S2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 2 subunit

AP3S1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit

LOC100421614 Gene

ARP2 actin-related protein 2 homolog (yeast) pseudogene

GRIFIN Gene

galectin-related inter-fiber protein

LOC645965 Gene

adipose differentiation-related protein pseudogene

LOC100289004 Gene

actin-related protein 3B-like

CDR2 Gene

cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2, 62kDa

CDR1 Gene

cerebellar degeneration-related protein 1, 34kDa

Autoantibodies directed against the protein encoded by this intronless gene have been found in some patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. The encoded protein contains several hexapeptide repeats. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

LOC100131011 Gene

myotubularin related protein 14 pseudogene

RAC2 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac2)

This gene encodes a member of the Ras superfamily of small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-metabolizing proteins. The encoded protein localizes to the plasma membrane, where it regulates diverse processes, such as secretion, phagocytosis, and cell polarization. Activity of this protein is also involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Mutations in this gene are associated with neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

RAC3 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3)

The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase which belongs to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAC1 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1)

The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase which belongs to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

ACTR8 Gene

ARP8 actin-related protein 8 homolog (yeast)

ACTR6 Gene

ARP6 actin-related protein 6 homolog (yeast)

ACTR5 Gene

ARP5 actin-related protein 5 homolog (yeast)

ACTR3 Gene

ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog (yeast)

The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, the protein it encodes is known to be a major constituent of the ARP2/3 complex. This complex is located at the cell surface and is essential to cell shape and motility through lamellipodial actin assembly and protrusion. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

ACTR2 Gene

ARP2 actin-related protein 2 homolog (yeast)

The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, the protein it encodes is known to be a major constituent of the ARP2/3 complex. This complex is located at the cell surface and is essential to cell shape and motility through lamellipodial actin assembly and protrusion. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100996886 Gene

complement factor H-related protein 3-like

CRP Gene

C-reactive protein, pentraxin-related

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the pentaxin family. It is involved in several host defense related functions based on its ability to recognize foreign pathogens and damaged cells of the host and to initiate their elimination by interacting with humoral and cellular effector systems in the blood. Consequently, the level of this protein in plasma increases greatly during acute phase response to tissue injury, infection, or other inflammatory stimuli. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

LPPR3 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 3

The proteins in the lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) family, including PRG2, are integral membrane proteins that modulate bioactive lipid phosphates including phosphatidate, lysophosphatidate, and sphingosine-1-phosphate in the context of cell migration, neurite retraction, and mitogenesis (Brauer et al., 2003 [PubMed 12730698]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

DRP2 Gene

dystrophin related protein 2

Members of the dystrophin family of proteins perform a critical role in the maintenance of membrane-associated complexes at points of intercellular contact in vertebrate cells. The protein encoded by this gene is predicted to resemble certain short C-terminal isoforms of dystrophin and dystrophin-related protein 1 (DRP1 or utrophin). DRP2 is expressed principally in the brain and spinal cord. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

AP2S1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit

One of two major clathrin-associated adaptor complexes, AP-2, is a heterotetramer which is associated with the plasma membrane. This complex is composed of two large chains, a medium chain, and a small chain. This gene encodes the small chain of this complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

ARPIN Gene

actin-related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor

TMX2P1 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 2 pseudogene 1

AP3D1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor-like complex, which is not clathrin-associated, but is associated with the golgi region, as well as more peripheral structures. The AP-3 complex facilitates the budding of vesicles from the golgi membrane, and may be directly involved in trafficking to lysosomes. This subunit is implicated in intracellular biogenesis and trafficking of pigment granules, and possibly platelet dense granules and neurotransmitter vesicles. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

TYRP1 Gene

tyrosinase-related protein 1

This gene encodes a melanosomal enzyme that belongs to the tyrosinase family and plays an important role in the melanin biosynthetic pathway. Defects in this gene are the cause of rufous oculocutaneous albinism and oculocutaneous albinism type III. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

AP1M2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 2 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric adaptor-related protein comlex 1 (AP-1), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This protein is capable of interacting with tyrosine-based sorting signals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

AP1M1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is the medium chain of the trans-Golgi network clathrin-associated protein complex AP-1. The other components of this complex are beta-prime-adaptin, gamma-adaptin, and the small chain AP1S1. This complex is located at the Golgi vesicle and links clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. These vesicles are involved in endocytosis and Golgi processing. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FN3KRP Gene

fructosamine 3 kinase related protein

A high concentration of glucose can result in non-enzymatic oxidation of proteins by reaction of glucose and lysine residues (glycation). Proteins modified in this way are less active or functional. This gene encodes an enzyme which catalyzes the phosphorylation of psicosamines and ribulosamines compared to the neighboring gene which encodes a highly similar enzyme, fructosamine-3-kinase, which has different substrate specificity. The activity of both enzymes may result in deglycation of proteins to restore their function. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

FREM2 Gene

FRAS1 related extracellular matrix protein 2

This gene encodes an integral membrane protein containing numerous CSPG (chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan element) repeats and Calx-beta domains. The encoded protein localizes to the basement membrane, forming a ternary complex that plays a role in epidermal-dermal interactions. This protein is important for the integrity of skin and renal epithelia. Mutations in this gene are associated with Fraser syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

NRAP Gene

nebulin-related anchoring protein

AP4S1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 4, sigma 1 subunit

This gene encodes a member of the adaptor complexes small subunit protein family. These proteins are components of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes, which play important roles in the secretory and endocytic pathways by mediating vesicle formation and sorting of integral membrane proteins. The encoded protein is the small subunit of adaptor protein complex-4, which is associated with both clathrin- and nonclathrin-coated vesicles. Mutations in this gene are associated with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy-6. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

ARPC1B Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1B, 41kDa

This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1A. The similarity between these two proteins suggests that they both may function as p41 subunit of the human Arp2/3 complex that has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. It is possible that the p41 subunit is involved in assembling and maintaining the structure of the Arp2/3 complex. Multiple versions of the p41 subunit may adapt the functions of the complex to different cell types or developmental stages. This protein also has a role in centrosomal homeostasis by being an activator and substrate of the Aurora A kinase. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

ARPC1A Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa

This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1B. The similarity between these two proteins suggests that they both may function as p41 subunit of the human Arp2/3 complex that has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. It is possible that the p41 subunit is involved in assembling and maintaining the structure of the Arp2/3 complex. Multiple versions of the p41 subunit may adapt the functions of the complex to different cell types or developmental stages. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

LOC100288160 Gene

esophagus cancer-related gene-2 interaction susceptibility protein

AP5S1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 5, sigma 1 subunit

LRLE1 Gene

liver-related low express protein 1

FAM58BP Gene

cyclin-related protein FAM58B

AP1B1P1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit pseudogene 1

AP1B1P2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit pseudogene 2

LPPR5 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a type 2 member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. All type 2 members of this protein family contain 6 transmembrane regions, and a consensus N-glycosylation site. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in de novo synthesis of glycerolipids as well as in receptor-activated signal transduction mediated by phospholipase D. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LPPR4 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 4

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) family. LPPs catalyze the dephosphorylation of a number of bioactive lipid mediators that regulate a variety of cell functions. This protein is specifically expressed in neurons. It is located in the membranes of outgrowing axons and has been shown to be important for axonal outgrowth during development and regenerative sprouting. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

LPPR2 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 2

LPPR1 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 1

This gene encodes a member of the plasticity-related gene (PRG) family. Members of the PRG family mediate lipid phosphate phosphatase activity in neurons and are known to be involved in neuronal plasticity. The protein encoded by this gene does not perform its function through enzymatic phospholipid degradation. This gene is strongly expressed in brain. It shows dynamic expression regulation during brain development and neuronal excitation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ACTRT1 Gene

actin-related protein T1

This gene encodes a protein related to the cytoskeletal protein beta-actin. This protein is a major component of the calyx in the perinuclear theca of mammalian sperm heads, and it therefore likely functions in spermatid formation. This gene is intronless and is similar to a related gene located on chromosome 1. A related pseudogene has also been identified approximately 75 kb downstream of this gene on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

ACTRT2 Gene

actin-related protein T2

The protein encoded by this intronless gene belongs to the actin family. Studies have shown that this protein may be involved in cytoskeletal organization similar to other cytoplasmic actin-related protein (ARP) subfamily members. Antibody raised against the human protein has been used to detect the protein by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence microscopy, demonstrating its specific synthesis in the testis, late in spermatid differentiation, and its localization in the calyx. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ACTRT3 Gene

actin-related protein T3

AP1B1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit

Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates both the recruitment of clathrin to the membrane and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane receptors. This complex is a heterotetramer composed of two large, one medium, and one small adaptin subunit. The protein encoded by this gene serves as one of the large subunits of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. This gene is a candidate meningioma gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

LOC100652908 Gene

GRB2-related adaptor protein pseudogene

AP2M1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. The encoded protein is required for the activity of a vacuolar ATPase, which is responsible for proton pumping occurring in the acidification of endosomes and lysosomes. The encoded protein may also play an important role in regulating the intracellular trafficking and function of CTLA-4 protein. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LRP1B Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B

LRP1B belongs to the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene family. These receptors play a wide variety of roles in normal cell function and development due to their interactions with multiple ligands (Liu et al., 2001 [PubMed 11384978]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LRP10 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10

LRP11 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 11

LRP12 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 12

This gene encodes a member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein family. The product of this gene is a transmembrane protein that is differentially expressed in many cancer cells. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

HPR Gene

haptoglobin-related protein

This gene encodes a haptoglobin-related protein that binds hemoglobin as efficiently as haptoglobin. Unlike haptoglobin, plasma concentration of this protein is unaffected in patients with sickle cell anemia and extensive intravascular hemolysis, suggesting a difference in binding between haptoglobin-hemoglobin and haptoglobin-related protein-hemoglobin complexes to CD163, the hemoglobin scavenger receptor. This protein may also be a clinically important predictor of recurrence of breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

LOC100101126 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100101127 Gene

thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 1 pseudogene

MTMR9 Gene

myotubularin related protein 9

This gene encodes a myotubularin-related protein that is atypical to most other members of the myotubularin-related protein family because it has no dual-specificity phosphatase domain. The encoded protein contains a double-helical motif similar to the SET interaction domain, which is thought to have a role in the control of cell proliferation. In mouse, a protein similar to the encoded protein binds with MTMR7, and together they dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and inositol 1,3-bisphosphate. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTMR8 Gene

myotubularin related protein 8

This gene encodes a member of the myotubularin-related family and is part of the MTMR6 subgroup. Family members are dual-specificity phosphatases and the encoded protein contains a phosphoinositide-binding domain (PID) and a SET-interacting domain (SID). Defects in other family members have been found in myotubular myopathic diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

MTMR7 Gene

myotubularin related protein 7

This gene encodes a member of the myotubularin family of tyrosine/dual-specificity phosphatases. The encoded protein is characterized by four distinct domains that are conserved among all members of the myotubularin family: the glucosyltransferase, Rab-like GTPase activator and myotubularins domain, the Rac-induced recruitment domain, the protein tyrosine phosphatases and dual-specificity phosphatases domain and the suppressor of variegation 3-9, enhancer-of-zeste, and trithorax interaction domain. This protein dephosphorylates the target substrates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and inositol 1,3-bisphosphate. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

MTMR6 Gene

myotubularin related protein 6

MTMR4 Gene

myotubularin related protein 4

MTMR3 Gene

myotubularin related protein 3

This gene encodes a member of the myotubularin dual specificity protein phosphatase gene family. The encoded protein is structurally similar to myotubularin but in addition contains a FYVE domain and an N-terminal PH-GRAM domain. The protein can self-associate and also form heteromers with another myotubularin related protein. The protein binds to phosphoinositide lipids through the PH-GRAM domain, and can hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol(3)-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol(3,5)-biphosphate in vitro. The encoded protein has been observed to have a perinuclear, possibly membrane-bound, distribution in cells, but it has also been found free in the cytoplasm. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTMR2 Gene

myotubularin related protein 2

This gene is a member of the myotubularin family of phosphoinositide lipid phosphatases. The encoded protein possesses phosphatase activity towards phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B, an autosomal recessive demyelinating neuropathy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

MTMR1 Gene

myotubularin related protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the myotubularin related family of proteins. Members of this family contain the consensus sequence for the active site of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Alternatively spliced variants have been described but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HSPB6 Gene

heat shock protein, alpha-crystallin-related, B6

This locus encodes a heat shock protein. The encoded protein likely plays a role in smooth muscle relaxation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

FKRP Gene

fukutin related protein

This gene encodes a protein which is targeted to the medial Golgi apparatus and is necessary for posttranslational modification of dystroglycan. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital muscular dystrophy, mental retardation, and cerebellar cysts. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

HDGFRP2 Gene

hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) family. The protein includes an N-terminal PWWP domain that binds to methyl-lysine-containing histones, with specific binding of this protein to tri-methylated lysines 36 and 79 of histone H3, and di- and tri-methylated lysine 20 of histone H4. The protein functions in LEDGF/p75-independent HIV-1 replication by determining HIV-1 integration site selection. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

HDGFRP3 Gene

hepatoma-derived growth factor, related protein 3

ESRG Gene

embryonic stem cell related (non-protein coding)

C1QTNF8 Gene

C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 8

C1QTNF9 Gene

C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 9

C1QTNF2 Gene

C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 2

C1QTNF3 Gene

C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 3

C1QTNF1 Gene

C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 1

C1QTNF6 Gene

C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 6

C1QTNF7 Gene

C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 7

C1QTNF4 Gene

C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 4

C1QTNF5 Gene

C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 5

This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins that function as components of basement membranes and may play a role in cell adhesion. Mutations in this gene have been associated with late-onset retinal degeneration. The protein may be encoded by either a bicistronic transcript including sequence from the upstream membrane frizzled-related protein gene (MFRP), or by a monocistronic transcript expressed from an internal promoter. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

MTMR9LP Gene

myotubularin related protein 9-like, pseudogene

MTMR14 Gene

myotubularin related protein 14

This gene encodes a myotubularin-related protein. The encoded protein is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that specifically dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 3,5-biphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Mutations in this gene are correlated with autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 18.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

MTMR12 Gene

myotubularin related protein 12

Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase-derived membrane-anchored phosphatidylinositides, such as phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P), regulate diverse cellular processes. The protein encoded by this gene functions as an adaptor subunit in a complex with an active PtdIns(3)P 3-phosphatase. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

MTMR11 Gene

myotubularin related protein 11

MTMR10 Gene

myotubularin related protein 10

LOC100287074 Gene

ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog A, centractin alpha (yeast) pseudogene

AP3B1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit

This gene encodes a protein that may play a role in organelle biogenesis associated with melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin. Mutations in this gene are associated with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

AP3B2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit

Adaptor protein-3 (AP3) is a heterotetrameric vesicle-coat protein complex. Some AP3 subunits are ubiquitously expressed, whereas others are expressed exclusively in neurons. The neuron-specific AP3 complex, which includes AP3B2, is thought to serve neuron-specific functions such as neurotransmitter release (Grabner et al., 2006 [PubMed 16788073]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ARPC3 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3, 21kDa

This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. The Arp2/3 protein complex has been conserved through evolution and is implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

ARPC2 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2, 34kDa

This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through evolution. The exact role of the protein encoded by this gene, the p34 subunit, has yet to be determined. Two alternatively spliced variants have been characterized to date. Additional alternatively spliced variants have been described but their full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARPC5 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa

This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through evolution. The exact role of the protein encoded by this gene, the p16 subunit, has yet to be determined. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

LOC100128268 Gene

actin-related protein T1 pseudogene

MFRP Gene

membrane frizzled-related protein

This gene encodes a member of the frizzled-related protein family. The encoded protein plays an important role in eye development and mutations in this gene have been associated with nanophthalmos, posterior microphthalmia, retinitis pigmentosa, foveoschisis, and optic disc drusen. The protein is encoded by a bicistronic transcript which also encodes C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 5 (C1QTNF5). [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

AP5M1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 5, mu 1 subunit

ARPC3P2 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3 pseudogene 2

ARPC3P3 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3 pseudogene 3

ARPC3P1 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3 pseudogene 1

ARPC3P5 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3 pseudogene 5

LOC105369238 Gene

synaptic vesicle 2-related protein

LOC100131124 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 4, sigma 1 subunit pseudogene

LOC204800 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa pseudogene

AP1G1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit

Adaptins are important components of clathrin-coated vesicles transporting ligand-receptor complexes from the plasma membrane or from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes. The adaptin family of proteins is composed of four classes of molecules named alpha, beta-, beta prime- and gamma- adaptins. Adaptins, together with medium and small subunits, form a heterotetrameric complex called an adaptor, whose role is to promote the formation of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AP1G2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit

Adaptins are important components of clathrin-coated vesicles transporting ligand-receptor complexes from the plasma membrane or from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes. The adaptin family of proteins is compsed of four classes of molecules named alpha, beta-, beta prime- and gamma- adaptins. Adaptins, together with medium and small subunits, form a heterotetrameric complex called an adaptor, whose role is to promote the formation of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This protein along with the complex is thought to function at some trafficking step in the complex pathways between the trans-Golgi network and the cell surface. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene exist, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

GRAP Gene

GRB2-related adaptor protein

This gene encodes a member of the GRB2/Sem5/Drk family and functions as a cytoplasmic signaling protein which contains an SH2 domain flanked by two SH3 domains. The SH2 domain interacts with ligand-activated receptors for stem cell factor and erythropoietin, and facilitates the formation of a stable complex with the BCR-ABL oncoprotein. This protein also associates with the Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS1 (son of sevenless homolog 1) through its N-terminal SH3 domain. In general, it couples signals from receptor and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases to the Ras signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

LOC401602 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit pseudogene

LOC645388 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 2 subunit pseudogene

TDRG1 Gene

testis development related 1 (non-protein coding)

HIP1R Gene

huntingtin interacting protein 1 related

C1QTNF9B Gene

C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 9B

PNLIPRP1 Gene

pancreatic lipase-related protein 1

PNLIPRP3 Gene

pancreatic lipase-related protein 3

PNLIPRP2 Gene

pancreatic lipase-related protein 2

LOC100421655 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 2 subunit pseudogene

MURC Gene

muscle-related coiled-coil protein

This gene encodes a protein containing two coiled-coil regions. The encoded protein promotes Rho/ROCK (Rho-kinase) signaling in cardiac muscles cells, and may facilitate myofibrillar organization. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

SEZ6L Gene

seizure related 6 homolog (mouse)-like

LOC643733 Gene

caspase 4, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase pseudogene

AASTH40 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 40

CASP3P1 Gene

caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase pseudogene 1

AASTH45 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 45

LOC105369146 Gene

cadherin-related family member 4-like

BOK Gene

BCL2-related ovarian killer

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL2 family, members of which form homo- or heterodimers, and act as anti- or proapoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes. Studies in rat show that this protein has restricted expression in reproductive tissues, interacts strongly with some antiapoptotic BCL2 proteins, not at all with proapoptotic BCL2 proteins, and induces apoptosis in transfected cells. Thus, this protein represents a proapoptotic member of the BCL2 family. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

LOC100418603 Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B pseudogene

LOC100418606 Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B pseudogene

DIAPH2 Gene

diaphanous-related formin 2

The product of this gene belongs to the diaphanous subfamily of the formin homology family of proteins. This gene may play a role in the development and normal function of the ovaries. Defects in this gene have been linked to premature ovarian failure 2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNA7 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 7

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. The gene is expressed preferentially in skeletal muscle, heart and kidney. It is a candidate gene for inherited cardiac disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNA4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 4

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the A-type potassium current class, the members of which may be important in the regulation of the fast repolarizing phase of action potentials in heart and thus may influence the duration of cardiac action potential.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

KCNA5 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 5

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ino channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the delayed rectifier class, the function of which could restore the resting membrane potential of beta cells after depolarization and thereby contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion. This gene is intronless, and the gene is clustered with genes KCNA1 and KCNA6 on chromosome 12. Defects in this gene are a cause of familial atrial fibrillation type 7 (ATFB7). [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

KCNA2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 2

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the delayed rectifier class, members of which allow nerve cells to efficiently repolarize following an action potential. The coding region of this gene is intronless, and the gene is clustered with genes KCNA3 and KCNA10 on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNA3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 3

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the delayed rectifier class, members of which allow nerve cells to efficiently repolarize following an action potential. It plays an essential role in T-cell proliferation and activation. This gene appears to be intronless and it is clustered together with KCNA2 and KCNA10 genes on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNA1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 1

This gene encodes a voltage-gated delayed potassium channel that is phylogenetically related to the Drosophila Shaker channel. The encoded protein has six putative transmembrane segments (S1-S6), and the loop between S5 and S6 forms the pore and contains the conserved selectivity filter motif (GYGD). The functional channel is a homotetramer. The N-terminus of the channel is associated with beta subunits that can modify the inactivation properties of the channel as well as affect expression levels. The C-terminus of the channel is complexed to a PDZ domain protein that is responsible for channel targeting. Mutations in this gene have been associated with myokymia with periodic ataxia (AEMK). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MRGPRD Gene

MAS-related GPR, member D

OSR1 Gene

odd-skipped related transciption factor 1

MRGPRF Gene

MAS-related GPR, member F

MRGPRG Gene

MAS-related GPR, member G

SMARCE1P5 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 5

GLIPR2 Gene

GLI pathogenesis-related 2

GLIPR1 Gene

GLI pathogenesis-related 1

This gene encodes a protein with similarity to both the pathogenesis-related protein (PR) superfamily and the cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family. Increased expression of this gene is associated with myelomocytic differentiation in macrophage and decreased expression of this gene through gene methylation is associated with prostate cancer. The protein has proapoptotic activities in prostate and bladder cancer cells. This gene is a member of a cluster on chromosome 12 containing two other similar genes. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NAT9 Gene

N-acetyltransferase 9 (GCN5-related, putative)

NAT8 Gene

N-acetyltransferase 8 (GCN5-related, putative)

This gene, isolated using the differential display method to detect tissue-specific genes, is specifically expressed in kidney and liver. The encoded protein shows amino acid sequence similarity to N-acetyltransferases. A similar protein in Xenopus affects cell adhesion and gastrulation movements, and may be localized in the secretory pathway. A highly similar paralog is found in a cluster with this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

NAT6 Gene

N-acetyltransferase 6 (GCN5-related)

This gene encodes a member of the N-acetyltransferase family. N-acetyltransferases modify proteins by transferring acetyl groups from acetyl CoA to the N-termini of protein substrates. The encoded protein is a cytoplasmic N-acetyltransferase with a substrate specificity for proteins with an N-terminal methionine. This gene is located in the tumor suppressor gene region on chromosome 3p21.3 and the encoded protein may play a role in cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. This gene overlaps and is on the same strand as hyaluronoglucosaminidase 3, and some transcripts of each gene share a portion of the first exon. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

ESRRAP2 Gene

estrogen-related receptor alpha pseudogene 2

ESRRAP1 Gene

estrogen-related receptor alpha pseudogene 1

MLRL Gene

Myeloid leukemia-related gene (myeloid tumor suppressor)

LOC284048 Gene

FLJ11800 related gene

CDH23 Gene

cadherin-related 23

This gene is a member of the cadherin superfamily, whose genes encode calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoproteins. The encoded protein is thought to be involved in stereocilia organization and hair bundle formation. The gene is located in a region containing the human deafness loci DFNB12 and USH1D. Usher syndrome 1D and nonsyndromic autosomal recessive deafness DFNB12 are caused by allelic mutations of this cadherin-like gene. Upregulation of this gene may also be associated with breast cancer. Alternative splice variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

SMARCC2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and contains a predicted leucine zipper motif typical of many transcription factors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCC1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and contains a predicted leucine zipper motif typical of many transcription factors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GCRG224 Gene

gastric cancer-related gene GCRG224

DMRT1 Gene

doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 1

This gene is found in a cluster with two other members of the gene family, having in common a zinc finger-like DNA-binding motif (DM domain). The DM domain is an ancient, conserved component of the vertebrate sex-determining pathway that is also a key regulator of male development in flies and nematodes. This gene exhibits a gonad-specific and sexually dimorphic expression pattern. Defective testicular development and XY feminization occur when this gene is hemizygous. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DMRT2 Gene

doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the DMRT gene family, sharing a DM DNA-binding domain with Drosophila 'doublesex' (dsx) and C. elegans mab3, genes involved in sex determination in these organisms. Also, this gene is located in a region of the human genome (chromosome 9p24.3) associated with gonadal dysgenesis and XY sex reversal. Hence this gene is one of the candidates for sex-determining gene(s) on chr 9. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

DMRT3 Gene

doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3

LOC646120 Gene

Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related) pseudogene

TNKS2 Gene

tankyrase, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase 2

PVRL1 Gene

poliovirus receptor-related 1 (herpesvirus entry mediator C)

This gene encodes an adhesion protein that plays a role in the organization of adherens junctions and tight junctions in epithelial and endothelial cells. The protein is a calcium(2+)-independent cell-cell adhesion molecule that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and has 3 extracellular immunoglobulin-like loops, a single transmembrane domain (in some isoforms), and a cytoplasmic region. This protein acts as a receptor for glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2), and pseudorabies virus (PRV) and mediates viral entry into epithelial and neuronal cells. Mutations in this gene cause cleft lip and palate/ectodermal dysplasia 1 syndrome (CLPED1) as well as non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding proteins with distinct C-termini. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

PVRL3 Gene

poliovirus receptor-related 3

This gene encodes a member of the nectin family of proteins, which function as adhesion molecules at adherens junctions. This family member interacts with other nectin-like proteins and with afadin, a filamentous actin-binding protein involved in the regulation of directional motility, cell proliferation and survival. This gene plays a role in ocular development involving the ciliary body. Mutations in this gene are believed to result in congenital ocular defects. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC554223 Gene

histocompatibility antigen-related

KCNA10 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 10

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It is specifically regulated by cGMP and postulated to mediate the effects of substances that increase intracellular cGMP. This gene is intronless, and the gene is clustered with genes KCNA2 and KCNA3 on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422623 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (biliary glycoprotein) pseudogene

AASTH18 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 18

AASTH13 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 13

AASTH15 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 15

AASTH14 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 14

AASTH16 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 16

SPRED1 Gene

sprouty-related, EVH1 domain containing 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Sprouty family of proteins and is phosphorylated by tyrosine kinase in response to several growth factors. The encoded protein can act as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with SPRED2 to regulate activation of the MAP kinase cascade. Defects in this gene are a cause of neurofibromatosis type 1-like syndrome (NFLS). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPRED2 Gene

sprouty-related, EVH1 domain containing 2

SPRED2 is a member of the Sprouty (see SPRY1; MIM 602465)/SPRED family of proteins that regulate growth factor-induced activation of the MAP kinase cascade (see MAPK1; MIM 176948) (Nonami et al., 2004 [PubMed 15465815]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SPRED3 Gene

sprouty-related, EVH1 domain containing 3

This gene encodes a protein with a C-terminal Sprouty-like cysteine-rich domain (SRY) and an N-terminal Ena/Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) homology-1 (EVH-1) domain. The encoded protein is a member of a family of proteins that negatively regulates mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling, particularly during organogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

KLK2 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 2

This gene encodes a member of the grandular kallikrein protein family. Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases that are clustered on chromosome 19. Members of this family are involved in a diverse array of biological functions. The protein encoded by this gene is a highly active trypsin-like serine protease that selectively cleaves at arginine residues. This protein is primarily expressed in prostatic tissue and is responsible for cleaving pro-prostate-specific antigen into its enzymatically active form. This gene is highly expressed in prostate tumor cells and may be a prognostic maker for prostate cancer risk. Alternate splicing results in both coding and non-coding transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

KLK3 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 3

Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. Its protein product is a protease present in seminal plasma. It is thought to function normally in the liquefaction of seminal coagulum, presumably by hydrolysis of the high molecular mass seminal vesicle protein. Serum level of this protein, called PSA in the clinical setting, is useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostatic carcinoma. Alternate splicing of this gene generates several transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KLK4 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 4

Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. In some tissues its expression is hormonally regulated. The expression pattern of a similar mouse protein in murine developing teeth supports a role for the protein in the degradation of enamel proteins. Several transcript variants encoding different proteins have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

KLK5 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 5

Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. Its expression is up-regulated by estrogens and progestins. The encoded protein is secreted and may be involved in desquamation in the epidermis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KLK6 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 6

Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. The encoded enzyme is regulated by steroid hormones. In tissue culture, the enzyme has been found to generate amyloidogenic fragments from the amyloid precursor protein, suggesting a potential for involvement in Alzheimer's disease. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KLK7 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 7

This gene encodes a member of the kallikrein subfamily of serine proteases. These enzymes have diverse physiological functions and many kallikrein genes are biomarkers for cancer. The encoded protein has chymotrypsin-like activity and plays a role in the proteolysis of intercellular cohesive structures that precedes desquamation, the shedding of the outermost layer of the epidermis. The encoded protein may play a role in cancer invasion and metastasis, and increased expression of this gene is associated with unfavorable prognosis and progression of several types of cancer. Polymorphisms in this gene may play a role in the development of atopic dermatitis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, which is one of fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a gene cluster on chromosome 19. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

KLK8 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 8

Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in tandem in a gene cluster on chromosome 19. The encoded protein may be involved in proteolytic cascade in the skin and may serve as a biomarker for ovarian cancer. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KLK9 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a kallikrein-related serine protease. This gene is activated by steroid hormones in a human breast cancer cell line, making it a good marker for cancer detection. The encoded protein is found primarily in the cytoplasm.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

KLK12 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 12

Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. Alternate splicing of this gene results in three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KLK13 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 13

Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. Expression of this gene is regulated by steroid hormones and may be useful as a marker for breast cancer. An additional transcript variant has been identified, but its full length sequence has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KLK10 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 10

Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. Its encoded protein is secreted and may play a role in suppression of tumorigenesis in breast and prostate cancers. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KLK11 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 11

Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms which are differentially expressed.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

KLK14 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 14

Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. An additional transcript variant has been described but its full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KLK15 Gene

kallikrein-related peptidase 15

Kallikreins are a subgroup of serine proteases having diverse physiological functions. Growing evidence suggests that many kallikreins are implicated in carcinogenesis and some have potential as novel cancer and other disease biomarkers. This gene is one of the fifteen kallikrein subfamily members located in a cluster on chromosome 19. In prostate cancer, this gene has increased expression, which indicates its possible use as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for prostate cancer. The gene contains multiple polyadenylation sites and alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RRAGAP1 Gene

Ras-related GTP binding A pseudogene 1

IFRD1 Gene

interferon-related developmental regulator 1

This gene is an immediate early gene that encodes a protein related to interferon-gamma. This protein may function as a transcriptional co-activator/repressor that controls the growth and differentiation of specific cell types during embryonic development and tissue regeneration. Mutations in this gene are associated with sensory/motor neuropathy with ataxia. This gene may also be involved in modulating the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

PCDH15 Gene

protocadherin-related 15

This gene is a member of the cadherin superfamily. Family members encode integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. It plays an essential role in maintenance of normal retinal and cochlear function. Mutations in this gene result in hearing loss and Usher Syndrome Type IF (USH1F). Extensive alternative splicing resulting in multiple isoforms has been observed in the mouse ortholog. Similar alternatively spliced transcripts are inferred to occur in human, and additional variants are likely to occur. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

SORCS1 Gene

sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 1

This gene encodes one family member of vacuolar protein sorting 10 (VPS10) domain-containing receptor proteins. The VPS10 domain name comes from the yeast carboxypeptidase Y sorting receptor Vps10 protein. Members of this gene family are large with many exons but the CDS lengths are usually less than 3700 nt. Very large introns typically separate the exons encoding the VPS10 domain; the remaining exons are separated by much smaller-sized introns. These genes are strongly expressed in the central nervous system. Two of the five family members (sortilin and sortilin-related receptor) are synthesized as preproproteins; it is not yet known if this encoded protein is also a preproprotein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SORCS2 Gene

sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2

This gene encodes one family member of vacuolar protein sorting 10 (VPS10) domain-containing receptor proteins. The VPS10 domain name comes from the yeast carboxypeptidase Y sorting receptor Vps10 protein. Members of this gene family are large with many exons but the CDS lengths are usually less than 3700 nt. Very large introns typically separate the exons encoding the VPS10 domain; the remaining exons are separated by much smaller-sized introns. These genes are strongly expressed in the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SORCS3 Gene

sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 3

This gene encodes a type-I receptor transmembrane protein that is a member of the vacuolar protein sorting 10 receptor family. Proteins of this family are defined by a vacuolar protein sorting 10 domain at the N-terminus. The N-terminal segment of this domain has a consensus motif for proprotein convertase processing, and the C-terminal segment of this domain is characterized by ten conserved cysteine residues. The vacuolar protein sorting 10 domain is followed by a leucine-rich segment, a transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic domain that interacts with adaptor molecules. The transcript is expressed at high levels in the brain, and candidate gene studies suggest that genetic variation in this gene is associated with Alzheimer's disease. Consistent with this observation, knockdown of the gene in cell culture results in an increase in amyloid precursor protein processing. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

RAC1P5 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 pseudogene 5

This locus encodes one of the pseudogenes of the functional ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 gene (RAC1, GeneID:5879) located on chr 7. It is intronless, shares overall 93% sequence identity with the RAC1 gene, and has enough differences in the coding region so as not to be able to code for a functional protein. There is no evidence of transcription at this pseudogene locus on chr 4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAC1P4 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 pseudogene 4

RAC1P1 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 pseudogene 1

RAC1P3 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 pseudogene 3

RAC1P2 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 pseudogene 2

LOC101059986 Gene

cancer-related nucleoside-triphosphatase pseudogene

AASTH38 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 38

AASTH37 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 37

FERP1 Gene

fer (fps/fes related) tyrosine kinase (phosphoprotein NCP94) pseudogene 1

DIAPH1 Gene

diaphanous-related formin 1

This gene is a homolog of the Drosophila diaphanous gene, and has been linked to autosomal dominant, fully penetrant, nonsyndromic sensorineural progressive low-frequency hearing loss. Actin polymerization involves proteins known to interact with diaphanous protein in Drosophila and mouse. It has therefore been speculated that this gene may have a role in the regulation of actin polymerization in hair cells of the inner ear. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DIAPH3 Gene

diaphanous-related formin 3

This gene encodes a member of the diaphanous subfamily of the formin family. Members of this family are involved in actin remodeling and regulate cell movement and adhesion. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant auditory neuropathy 1. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

IRGQ Gene

immunity-related GTPase family, Q

IRGC Gene

immunity-related GTPase family, cinema

IRGM Gene

immunity-related GTPase family, M

This gene encodes a member of the p47 immunity-related GTPase family. The encoded protein may play a role in the innate immune response by regulating autophagy formation in response to intracellular pathogens. Polymorphisms that affect the normal expression of this gene are associated with a susceptibility to Crohn's disease and tuberculosis.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

BECN1 Gene

beclin 1, autophagy related

Beclin-1 participates in the regulation of autophagy and has an important role in development, tumorigenesis, and neurodegeneration (Zhong et al., 2009 [PubMed 19270693]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]

LOC390098 Gene

MAS-related GPR, member X1 pseudogene

LOC390099 Gene

MAS-related GPR, member X3 pseudogene

LOC100130345 Gene

cadherin-related family member 3-like

EDF1 Gene

endothelial differentiation-related factor 1

This gene encodes a protein that may regulate endothelial cell differentiation, lipid metabolism, and hormone-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The encoded protein has also been found to act as a transcriptional coactivator by interconnecting the general transcription factor TATA element-binding protein (TBP) and gene-specific activators. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

NRK Gene

Nik related kinase

The mouse ortholog of this gene encodes a protein kinase required for JNK activation. The encoded protein may be involved in the induction of actin polymerization in late embryogenesis.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

CDHR1 Gene

cadherin-related family member 1

This gene belongs to the cadherin superfamily of calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules. The encoded protein is a photoreceptor-specific cadherin that plays a role in outer segment disc morphogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with inherited retinal dystrophies. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

CDHR2 Gene

cadherin-related family member 2

This gene is a member of the protocadherin family, which represents a subset of the larger cadherin superfamily. The members of the protocadherin family encode non-classical cadherins that function as calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules. This protocadherin represents a new candidate for tumor suppression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

CDHR3 Gene

cadherin-related family member 3

CDHR4 Gene

cadherin-related family member 4

CDHR5 Gene

cadherin-related family member 5

This gene is a novel mucin-like gene that is a member of the cadherin superfamily. While encoding nonpolymorphic tandem repeats rich in proline, serine and threonine similar to mucin proteins, the gene also contains sequence encoding calcium-binding motifs found in all cadherins. The role of the hybrid extracellular region and the specific function of this protein have not yet been determined. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

MYPOP Gene

Myb-related transcription factor, partner of profilin

DPRX Gene

divergent-paired related homeobox

Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This gene is a member of the DPRX homeobox gene family. Evidence of mRNA expression has not yet been found for this gene. Multiple, related processed pseudogenes have been found which are thought to reflect expression of this gene in the germ line or embryonic cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPDS1 Gene

glaucoma-related pigment dispersion syndrome 1

CST8 Gene

cystatin 8 (cystatin-related epididymal specific)

The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. Some of the members are active cysteine protease inhibitors, while others have lost or perhaps never acquired this inhibitory activity. There are three inhibitory families in the superfamily, including the type 1 cystatins (stefins), type 2 cystatins and the kininogens. The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. The cystatin locus on chromosome 20 contains the majority of the type 2 cystatin genes and pseudogenes. This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes a protein similar to type 2 cystatins. The encoded protein exhibits highly tissue-specific expression in the reproductive tract, suggesting implicit roles in reproduction. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

KCNA6 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 6

Potassium channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shaker-related subfamily. This member contains six membrane-spanning domains with a shaker-type repeat in the fourth segment. It belongs to the delayed rectifier class. The coding region of this gene is intronless, and the gene is clustered with genes KCNA1 and KCNA5 on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MR1 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class I-related

MRGPRE Gene

MAS-related GPR, member E

SEN2 Gene

senescence (cellular)-related 2

SEN3 Gene

senescence (cellular)-related 3

SEN6 Gene

senescence (cellular)-related 6

LOC246724 Gene

DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J-related gene

LOC246725 Gene

DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide J-related gene

SCAF11 Gene

SR-related CTD-associated factor 11

AASTH48 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 48

AASTH49 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 49

ASRT8 Gene

Asthma-related traits, susceptibility to, 8

LOC402641 Gene

v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene homolog A (ras related) pseudogene

LOC100130035 Gene

biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 subunit 6-like

SPHAR Gene

S-phase response (cyclin related)

NEK6 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a kinase required for progression through the metaphase portion of mitosis. Inhibition of the encoded protein can lead to apoptosis. This protein also can enhance tumorigenesis by suppressing tumor cell senescence. Several transcript variants encoding a few different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

NEK7 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 7

NIMA-related kinases share high amino acid sequence identity with the gene product of the Aspergillus nidulans 'never in mitosis A' gene, which controls initiation of mitosis.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

NEK4 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 4

NEK5 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 5

NEK2 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 2

This gene encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in mitotic regulation. This protein is localized to the centrosome, and undetectable during G1 phase, but accumulates progressively throughout the S phase, reaching maximal levels in late G2 phase. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms with distinct C-termini have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

NEK3 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the NimA (never in mitosis A) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein differs from other NimA family members in that it is not cell cycle regulated and is found primarily in the cytoplasm. The kinase is activated by prolactin stimulation, leading to phosphorylation of VAV2 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, paxillin, and activation of the RAC1 GTPase. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

NEK8 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 8

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threionine protein kinase family related to NIMA (never in mitosis, gene A) of Aspergillus nidulans. The encoded protein may play a role in cell cycle progression from G2 to M phase. Mutations in the related mouse gene are associated with a disease phenotype that closely parallels the juvenile autosomal recessive form of polycystic kidney disease in humans. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NEK9 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 9

KCNC1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shaw related subfamily C, member 1

This gene encodes a member of a family of integral membrane proteins that mediate the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Alternative splicing is thought to result in two transcript variants encoding isoforms that differ at their C-termini. These isoforms have had conflicting names in the literature: the longer isoform has been called both "b" and "alpha", while the shorter isoform has been called both "a" and "beta" (PMIDs 1432046, 12091563). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

KCNC2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shaw related subfamily C, member 2

The Shaker gene family of Drosophila encodes components of voltage-gated potassium channels and is comprised of four subfamilies. Based on sequence similarity, this gene is similar to one of these subfamilies, namely the Shaw subfamily. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the delayed rectifier class of channel proteins and is an integral membrane protein that mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

KCNC3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shaw related subfamily C, member 3

The Shaker gene family of Drosophila encodes components of voltage-gated potassium channels and is comprised of four subfamilies. Based on sequence similarity, this gene is similar to one of these subfamilies, namely the Shaw subfamily. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the delayed rectifier class of channel proteins and is an integral membrane protein that mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Alternate splicing results in several transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

SMARCE1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. The encoded protein, either alone or when in the SWI/SNF complex, can bind to 4-way junction DNA, which is thought to mimic the topology of DNA as it enters or exits the nucleosome. The protein contains a DNA-binding HMG domain, but disruption of this domain does not abolish the DNA-binding or nucleosome-displacement activities of the SWI/SNF complex. Unlike most of the SWI/SNF complex proteins, this protein has no yeast counterpart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CEACAM19 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 19

CEACAM18 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 18

CEACAM16 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 16

The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted glycoprotein that in mouse interacts with tectorial membrane proteins in the inner ear. The encoded adhesion protein is found in cochlear outer hair cells and appears to be important for proper hearing over an extended frequency range. Defects in this gene likely are a cause of non-syndromic autosomal dominant hearing loss. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

RORC Gene

RAR-related orphan receptor C

The protein encoded by this gene is a DNA-binding transcription factor and is a member of the NR1 subfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. The specific functions of this protein are not known; however, studies of a similar gene in mice have shown that this gene may be essential for lymphoid organogenesis and may play an important regulatory role in thymopoiesis. In addition, studies in mice suggest that the protein encoded by this gene may inhibit the expression of Fas ligand and IL2. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RORB Gene

RAR-related orphan receptor B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the NR1 subfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. It is a DNA-binding protein that can bind as a monomer or as a homodimer to hormone response elements upstream of several genes to enhance the expression of those genes. The encoded protein has been shown to interact with NM23-2, a nucleoside diphosphate kinase involved in organogenesis and differentiation, and to help regulate the expression of some genes involved in circadian rhythm. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

RORA Gene

RAR-related orphan receptor A

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the NR1 subfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. It can bind as a monomer or as a homodimer to hormone response elements upstream of several genes to enhance the expression of those genes. The encoded protein has been shown to interact with NM23-2, a nucleoside diphosphate kinase involved in organogenesis and differentiation, as well as with NM23-1, the product of a tumor metastasis suppressor candidate gene. Also, it has been shown to aid in the transcriptional regulation of some genes involved in circadian rhythm. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

STRADBP1 Gene

STE20-related kinase adaptor beta pseudogene 1

AGRP Gene

agouti related neuropeptide

This gene encodes an antagonist of the melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptor. It appears to regulate hypothalamic control of feeding behavior via melanocortin receptor and/or intracellular calcium regulation, and thus plays a role in weight homeostasis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with late on-set obesity. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

PRRX1 Gene

paired related homeobox 1

The DNA-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the paired family of homeobox proteins localized to the nucleus. The protein functions as a transcription co-activator, enhancing the DNA-binding activity of serum response factor, a protein required for the induction of genes by growth and differentiation factors. The protein regulates muscle creatine kinase, indicating a role in the establishment of diverse mesodermal muscle types. Alternative splicing yields two isoforms that differ in abundance and expression patterns. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRRX2 Gene

paired related homeobox 2

The DNA-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the paired family of homeobox proteins. Expression is localized to proliferating fetal fibroblasts and the developing dermal layer, with downregulated expression in adult skin. Increases in expression of this gene during fetal but not adult wound healing suggest a possible role in mechanisms that control mammalian dermal regeneration and prevent formation of scar response to wounding. The expression patterns provide evidence consistent with a role in fetal skin development and a possible role in cellular proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

XKRYP6 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked pseudogene 6

XKRYP4 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked pseudogene 4

XKRYP5 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked pseudogene 5

XKRYP2 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked pseudogene 2

XKRYP3 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked pseudogene 3

XKRYP1 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked pseudogene 1

EPDR1 Gene

ependymin related 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane protein that is similar to two families of cell adhesion molecules, the protocadherins and ependymins. This protein may play a role in calcium-dependent cell adhesion. This protein is glycosylated, and the orthologous mouse protein is localized to the lysosome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 8. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

STARD10 Gene

StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 10

STARD13 Gene

StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 13

This gene encodes a protein which contains an N-terminal sterile alpha motif (SAM) for protein-protein interactions, followed by an ATP/GTP-binding motif, a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain, and a C-terminal STAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain. It may be involved in regulation of cytoskeletal reorganization, cell proliferation, and cell motility, and acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatoma cells. The gene is located in a region of chromosome 13 that is associated with loss of heterozygosity in hepatocellular carcinomas. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

STARD9 Gene

StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 9

STARD4 Gene

StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 4

Cholesterol homeostasis is regulated, at least in part, by sterol regulatory element (SRE)-binding proteins (e.g., SREBP1; MIM 184756) and by liver X receptors (e.g., LXRA; MIM 602423). Upon sterol depletion, LXRs are inactive and SREBPs are cleaved, after which they bind promoter SREs and activate genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake. Sterol transport is mediated by vesicles or by soluble protein carriers, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR; MIM 600617). STAR is homologous to a family of proteins containing a 200- to 210-amino acid STAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain, including STARD4 (Soccio et al., 2002 [PubMed 12011452]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

STARD5 Gene

StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 5

Cholesterol homeostasis is regulated, at least in part, by sterol regulatory element (SRE)-binding proteins (e.g., SREBP1; MIM 184756) and by liver X receptors (e.g., LXRA; MIM 602423). Upon sterol depletion, LXRs are inactive and SREBPs are cleaved, after which they bind promoter SREs and activate genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake. Sterol transport is mediated by vesicles or by soluble protein carriers, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR; MIM 600617). STAR is homologous to a family of proteins containing a 200- to 210-amino acid STAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain, including STARD5 (Soccio et al., 2002 [PubMed 12011452]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

BECN1P2 Gene

beclin 1, autophagy related, pseudogene 2

SEZ6L2 Gene

seizure related 6 homolog (mouse)-like 2

This gene encodes a seizure-related protein that is localized on the cell surface. The gene is located in a region of chromosome 16p11.2 that is thought to contain candidate genes for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), though there is no evidence directly implicating this gene in ASD. Increased expression of this gene has been found in lung cancers, and the protein is therefore considered to be a novel prognostic marker for lung cancer. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC645415 Gene

MAS-related GPR, member X1 pseudogene

AASTH42 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 42

AASTH43 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 43

AASTH47 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 47

AASTH44 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 44

NAT16 Gene

N-acetyltransferase 16 (GCN5-related, putative)

NAT14 Gene

N-acetyltransferase 14 (GCN5-related, putative)

NAT10 Gene

N-acetyltransferase 10 (GCN5-related)

FER Gene

fer (fps/fes related) tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the FPS/FES family of non-transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases. It regulates cell-cell adhesion and mediates signaling from the cell surface to the cytoskeleton via growth factor receptors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

KCNH5 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 5

This gene encodes a member of voltage-gated potassium channels. Members of this family have diverse functions, including regulating neurotransmitter and hormone release, cardiac function, and cell volume. This protein is an outward-rectifying, noninactivating channel. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KCNH4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 4

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit. The gene is brain-specific, and located in the neocortex and the striatum. It may be involved in cellular excitability of restricted neurons in the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNH7 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 7

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit. There are at least two alternatively spliced transcript variants derived from this gene and encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNH6 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 6

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

KCNH1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit of a voltage-gated non-inactivating delayed rectifier potassium channel. It is activated at the onset of myoblast differentiation. The gene is highly expressed in brain and in myoblasts. Overexpression of the gene may confer a growth advantage to cancer cells and favor tumor cell proliferation. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNH3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 3

KCNH2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 2

This gene encodes a voltage-activated potassium channel belonging to the eag family. It shares sequence similarity with the Drosophila ether-a-go-go (eag) gene. Mutations in this gene can cause long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2). Transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNH8 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated eag related subfamily H, member 8

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, subfamily H. This member is a pore-forming (alpha) subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SAR1A Gene

secretion associated, Ras related GTPase 1A

SAR1B Gene

secretion associated, Ras related GTPase 1B

The protein encoded by this gene is a small GTPase that acts as a homodimer. The encoded protein is activated by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor PREB and is involved in protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. This protein is part of the COPII coat complex. Defects in this gene are a cause of chylomicron retention disease (CMRD), also known as Anderson disease (ANDD). Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

SEN6A Gene

senescence (cellular)-related 6A

SEN6B Gene

senescence (cellular)-related 6B

ASOBS Gene

Asthma and obesity susceptibility, chromosome 16p11 inversion related

RRAS2 Gene

related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2

This gene encodes a member of the R-Ras subfamily of Ras-like small GTPases. The encoded protein associates with the plasma membrane and may function as a signal transducer. This protein may play an important role in activating signal transduction pathways that control cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with the growth of certain tumors. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1 and 2. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

SMG1 Gene

SMG1 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase

This gene encodes a protein involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) as part of the mRNA surveillance complex. The protein has kinase activity and is thought to function in NMD by phosphorylating the regulator of nonsense transcripts 1 protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

RALA Gene

v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene homolog A (ras related)

The product of this gene belongs to the small GTPase superfamily, Ras family of proteins. GTP-binding proteins mediate the transmembrane signaling initiated by the occupancy of certain cell surface receptors. This gene encodes a low molecular mass ras-like GTP-binding protein that shares about 50% similarity with other ras proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100418597 Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B pseudogene

STRADB Gene

STE20-related kinase adaptor beta

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase STE20 subfamily. One of the active site residues in the protein kinase domain of this protein is altered, and it is thus a pseudokinase. This protein is a component of a complex involved in the activation of serine/threonine kinase 11, a master kinase that regulates cell polarity and energy-generating metabolism. This complex regulates the relocation of this kinase from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and it is essential for G1 cell cycle arrest mediated by this kinase. The protein encoded by this gene can also interact with the X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and this interaction enhances the anti-apoptotic activity of this protein via the JNK1 signal transduction pathway. Two pseudogenes, located on chromosomes 1 and 7, have been found for this gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

CEACAM20 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 20

CEACAM21 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 21

SSAV1 Gene

simian sarcoma-associated virus 1/gibbon ape leukemia virus-related endogenous retroviral element 1

MRGPRX4 Gene

MAS-related GPR, member X4

MRGPRX1 Gene

MAS-related GPR, member X1

MRGPRX3 Gene

MAS-related GPR, member X3

This gene encodes a member of the mas-related/sensory neuron specific subfamily of G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein may be involved in sensory neuron regulation and in the modulation of pain. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

MRGPRX2 Gene

MAS-related GPR, member X2

AASTH9 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 9

AASTH8 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 8

AASTH7 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 7

AASTH6 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 6

AASTH1 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 1

AASTH3 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 3

AASTH2 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 2

SMARCB1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily b, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex that relieves repressive chromatin structures, allowing the transcriptional machinery to access its targets more effectively. The encoded nuclear protein may also bind to and enhance the DNA joining activity of HIV-1 integrase. This gene has been found to be a tumor suppressor, and mutations in it have been associated with malignant rhabdoid tumors. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MICG Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence G (pseudogene)

MICF Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence F (pseudogene)

MICE Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence E (pseudogene)

MICD Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence D (pseudogene)

MICC Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence C (pseudogene)

MICB Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B

This gene encodes a heavily glycosylated protein which is a ligand for the NKG2D type II receptor. Binding of the ligand activates the cytolytic response of natural killer (NK) cells, CD8 alphabeta T cells, and gammadelta T cells which express the receptor. This protein is stress-induced and is similar to MHC class I molecules; however, it does not associate with beta-2-microglobulin or bind peptides. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

MICA Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A

This gene encodes the highly polymorphic major histocompatability complex class I chain-related protein A. The protein product is expressed on the cell surface, although unlike canonical class I molecules it does not seem to associate with beta-2-microglobulin. It is a ligand for the NKG2-D type II integral membrane protein receptor. The protein functions as a stress-induced antigen that is broadly recognized by intestinal epithelial gamma delta T cells. Variations in this gene have been associated with susceptibility to psoriasis 1 and psoriatic arthritis, and the shedding of MICA-related antibodies and ligands is involved in the progression from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to multiple myeloma. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

FLT4 Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 4

This gene encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors C and D. The protein is thought to be involved in lymphangiogenesis and maintenance of the lymphatic endothelium. Mutations in this gene cause hereditary lymphedema type IA. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FLT1 Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) family. VEGFR family members are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) which contain an extracellular ligand-binding region with seven immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and a tyrosine kinase (TK) domain within the cytoplasmic domain. This protein binds to VEGFR-A, VEGFR-B and placental growth factor and plays an important role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Expression of this receptor is found in vascular endothelial cells, placental trophoblast cells and peripheral blood monocytes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Isoforms include a full-length transmembrane receptor isoform and shortened, soluble isoforms. The soluble isoforms are associated with the onset of pre-eclampsia.[provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

DCHS1 Gene

dachsous cadherin-related 1

This gene is a member of the cadherin superfamily whose members encode calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion molecules. The encoded protein has a signal peptide, 27 cadherin repeat domains and a unique cytoplasmic region. This particular cadherin family member is expressed in fibroblasts but not in melanocytes or keratinocytes. The cell-cell adhesion of fibroblasts is thought to be necessary for wound healing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DCHS2 Gene

dachsous cadherin-related 2

AASTH29 Gene

Allergic/Atopic asthma related QTL 29

AASTH24 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 24

AASTH26 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 25

AASTH27 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 27

AASTH20 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 20

AASTH21 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 21

AASTH22 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 22

PPRC1 Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator-related 1

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to PPAR-gamma coactivator 1 (PPARGC1/PGC-1), a protein that can activate mitochondrial biogenesis in part through a direct interaction with nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1). This protein has been shown to interact with NRF1. It is thought to be a functional relative of PPAR-gamma coactivator 1 that activates mitochondrial biogenesis through NRF1 in response to proliferative signals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

CDR3 Gene

Cerebellar degeneration-related autoantigen-3

LOC260404 Gene

DKFZp434F1819 related gene

ATG4C Gene

autophagy related 4C, cysteine peptidase

Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene encodes a member of the autophagin protein family. The encoded protein is also designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding the same protein, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATG4B Gene

autophagy related 4B, cysteine peptidase

Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene encodes a member of the autophagin protein family. The encoded protein is also designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATG4A Gene

autophagy related 4A, cysteine peptidase

Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene encodes a member of the autophagin protein family. The encoded protein is also designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases. Transcript variants that encode distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATG4D Gene

autophagy related 4D, cysteine peptidase

Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene belongs to the autophagy-related protein 4 (Atg4) family of C54 endopeptidases. Members of this family encode proteins that play a role in the biogenesis of autophagosomes, which sequester the cytosol and organelles for degradation by lysosomes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

ATG101 Gene

autophagy related 101

SMARCE1P3 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 3

SMARCE1P2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 2

SMARCE1P6 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 6

SMARCE1P4 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 4

ATG16L1 Gene

autophagy related 16-like 1 (S. cerevisiae)

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a large protein complex that is necessary for autophagy, the major process by which intracellular components are targeted to lysosomes for degradation. Defects in this gene are a cause of susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease type 10 (IBD10). Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

ATG16L2 Gene

autophagy related 16-like 2 (S. cerevisiae)

LOC101927401 Gene

cadherin-related family member 5-like

LOC100420123 Gene

MAS-related GPR, member X2 pseudogene

LOC100420121 Gene

MAS-related GPR, member X3 pseudogene

STRADA Gene

STE20-related kinase adaptor alpha

The protein encoded by this gene contains a STE20-like kinase domain, but lacks several residues that are critical for catalytic activity, so it is termed a 'pseudokinase'. The protein forms a heterotrimeric complex with serine/threonine kinase 11 (STK11, also known as LKB1) and the scaffolding protein calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39, also known as MO25). The protein activates STK11 leading to the phosphorylation of both proteins and excluding STK11 from the nucleus. The protein is necessary for STK11-induced G1 cell cycle arrest. A mutation in this gene has been shown to result in polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, and symptomatic epilepsy (PMSE) syndrome. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Additional transcript variants have been described but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

LOC100421161 Gene

ependymin related 1 pseudogene

LOC347715 Gene

FLJ11800 related gene

SCAF4 Gene

SR-related CTD-associated factor 4

This gene likely encodes a member of the arginine/serine-rich splicing factor family. A similar protein in Rat appears to bind the large subunit of RNA polymerase II and provide a link between transcription and pre-mRNA splicing. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

SCAF1 Gene

SR-related CTD-associated factor 1

SCAF8 Gene

SR-related CTD-associated factor 8

VRK1 Gene

vaccinia related kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the vaccinia-related kinase (VRK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This gene is widely expressed in human tissues and has increased expression in actively dividing cells, such as those in testis, thymus, fetal liver, and carcinomas. Its protein localizes to the nucleus and has been shown to promote the stability and nuclear accumulation of a transcriptionally active p53 molecule and, in vitro, to phosphorylate Thr18 of p53 and reduce p53 ubiquitination. This gene, therefore, may regulate cell proliferation. This protein also phosphorylates histone, casein, and the transcription factors ATF2 (activating transcription factor 2) and c-JUN. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VRK3 Gene

vaccinia related kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the vaccinia-related kinase (VRK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. In both human and mouse, this gene has substitutions at several residues within the ATP binding motifs that in other kinases have been shown to be required for catalysis. In vitro assays indicate the protein lacks phosphorylation activity. The protein, however, likely retains its substrate binding capability. This gene is widely expressed in human tissues and its protein localizes to the nucleus. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcripts encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VRK2 Gene

vaccinia related kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the vaccinia-related kinase (VRK) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein acts as an effector of signaling pathways that regulate apoptosis and tumor cell growth. Variants in this gene have been associated with schizophrenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that differ in their subcellular localization and biological activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

AASTH41 Gene

Allergic/Atopic asthma related QTL 41

AASTH46 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 46

LOC645319 Gene

MAS-related GPR, member X3 pseudogene

LOC100421664 Gene

Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related) pseudogene

ATG3P1 Gene

autophagy related 3 pseudogene 1

ASRT6 Gene

Asthma-related traits, susceptibility to, 6

LOC642550 Gene

v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene homolog A (ras related) pseudogene

ASRT4 Gene

Asthma-related traits, susceptibility to, 4

ARHI1 Gene

Age-related hearing impairment 1

ARHI2 Gene

Age-related hearing impairment 2

AASTH25 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 25

LOC645297 Gene

MAS-related GPR, member X2 pseudogene

XKR9 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 9

XKR8 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 8

ESRRA Gene

estrogen-related receptor alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear receptor that is closely related to the estrogen receptor. This protein acts as a site-specific transcription regulator and has been also shown to interact with estrogen and the transcripton factor TFIIB by direct protein-protein contact. The binding and regulatory activities of this protein have been demonstrated in the regulation of a variety of genes including lactoferrin, osteopontin, medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) and thyroid hormone receptor genes. A processed pseudogene of ESRRA is located on chromosome 13q12.1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

ESRRB Gene

estrogen-related receptor beta

This gene encodes a protein with similarity to the estrogen receptor. Its function is unknown; however, a similar protein in mouse plays an essential role in placental development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AASTH55 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 5

AASTH54 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 54

AASTH56 Gene

Allergic/Atopic asthma related QTL 56

AASTH51 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 51

AASTH53 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 53

AASTH52 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 52

FREM3 Gene

FRAS1 related extracellular matrix 3

FREM1 Gene

FRAS1 related extracellular matrix 1

This gene encodes a basement membrane protein that may play a role in craniofacial and renal development. Mutations in this gene have been associated with bifid nose with or without anorectal and renal anomalies. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. PubMed ID 19940113 describes one such variant that initiates transcription within a distinct, internal exon; the resulting shorter isoform (named Toll-like/interleukin-1 receptor regulator, TILRR) is suggested to be a co-receptor of the interleukin 1 receptor family and may regulate receptor function and Toll-like receptor/interleukin 1 receptor signal transduction, contributing to the control of inflammatory response activation. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

ATG10 Gene

autophagy related 10

Autophagy is a process for the bulk degradation of cytosolic compartments by lysosomes. ATG10 is an E2-like enzyme involved in 2 ubiquitin-like modifications essential for autophagosome formation: ATG12 (MIM 609608)-ATG5 (MIM 604261) conjugation and modification of a soluble form of MAP-LC3 (MAP1LC3A; MIM 601242), a homolog of yeast Apg8, to a membrane-bound form (Nemoto et al., 2003 [PubMed 12890687]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ATG12 Gene

autophagy related 12

Autophagy is a process of bulk protein degradation in which cytoplasmic components, including organelles, are enclosed in double-membrane structures called autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes or vacuoles for degradation. ATG12 is the human homolog of a yeast protein involved in autophagy (Mizushima et al., 1998 [PubMed 9852036]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ATG13 Gene

autophagy related 13

ATG14 Gene

autophagy related 14

LOC441592 Gene

MAS-related GPR, member X1 pseudogene

OSR2 Gene

odd-skipped related transciption factor 2

OSR2 is a mammalian homolog of the Drosophila odd-skipped family of transcription factors (Lan et al., 2004 [PubMed 15175245]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RRAD Gene

Ras-related associated with diabetes

RRAS Gene

related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog

BCPR Gene

Breast cancer-related regulator of TP53

CASP6 Gene

caspase 6, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein is processed by caspases 7, 8 and 10, and is thought to function as a downstream enzyme in the caspase activation cascade. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CASP7 Gene

caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. The precursor of the encoded protein is cleaved by caspase 3 and 10, is activated upon cell death stimuli and induces apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

CASP4 Gene

caspase 4, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes composed of a prodomain and a large and small protease subunit. Activation of caspases requires proteolytic processing at conserved internal aspartic residues to generate a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of the large and small subunits. This caspase is able to cleave and activate its own precursor protein, as well as caspase 1 precursor. When overexpressed, this gene induces cell apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CASP5 Gene

caspase 5, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. Overexpression of the active form of this enzyme induces apoptosis in fibroblasts. Max, a central component of the Myc/Max/Mad transcription regulation network important for cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, is cleaved by this protein; this process requires Fas-mediated dephosphorylation of Max. The expression of this gene is regulated by interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

CASP2 Gene

caspase 2, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Caspases mediate cellular apoptosis through the proteolytic cleavage of specific protein substrates. The encoded protein may function in stress-induced cell death pathways, cell cycle maintenance, and the suppression of tumorigenesis. Increased expression of this gene may play a role in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and temporal lobe epilepsy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

CASP3 Gene

caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein cleaves and activates caspases 6, 7 and 9, and the protein itself is processed by caspases 8, 9 and 10. It is the predominant caspase involved in the cleavage of amyloid-beta 4A precursor protein, which is associated with neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CASP1 Gene

caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce 2 subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This gene was identified by its ability to proteolytically cleave and activate the inactive precursor of interleukin-1, a cytokine involved in the processes such as inflammation, septic shock, and wound healing. This gene has been shown to induce cell apoptosis and may function in various developmental stages. Studies of a similar gene in mouse suggest a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

CASP8 Gene

caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes composed of a prodomain, a large protease subunit, and a small protease subunit. Activation of caspases requires proteolytic processing at conserved internal aspartic residues to generate a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of the large and small subunits. This protein is involved in the programmed cell death induced by Fas and various apoptotic stimuli. The N-terminal FADD-like death effector domain of this protein suggests that it may interact with Fas-interacting protein FADD. This protein was detected in the insoluble fraction of the affected brain region from Huntington disease patients but not in those from normal controls, which implicated the role in neurodegenerative diseases. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described, although not all variants have had their full-length sequences determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CASP9 Gene

caspase 9, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein can undergo autoproteolytic processing and activation by the apoptosome, a protein complex of cytochrome c and the apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1; this step is thought to be one of the earliest in the caspase activation cascade. This protein is thought to play a central role in apoptosis and to be a tumor suppressor. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

KCNB2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shab related subfamily B, member 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shab-related subfamily. This member is a delayed rectifier potassium channel. The gene is expressed in gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNB1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shab related subfamily B, member 1

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shab-related subfamily. This member is a delayed rectifier potassium channel and its activity is modulated by some other family members. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100418600 Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B pseudogene

LOC100418601 Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B pseudogene

LOC100418602 Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B pseudogene

LOC100418604 Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B pseudogene

LOC100418605 Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B pseudogene

LOC100418607 Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B pseudogene

SMARCD3 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCD2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SMARCD1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TNKS Gene

tankyrase, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase

URM1 Gene

ubiquitin related modifier 1

AASTH4 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 4

PVRL2 Gene

poliovirus receptor-related 2 (herpesvirus entry mediator B)

This gene encodes a single-pass type I membrane glycoprotein with two Ig-like C2-type domains and an Ig-like V-type domain. This protein is one of the plasma membrane components of adherens junctions. It also serves as an entry for certain mutant strains of herpes simplex virus and pseudorabies virus, and it is involved in cell to cell spreading of these viruses. Variations in this gene have been associated with differences in the severity of multiple sclerosis. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PVRL4 Gene

poliovirus receptor-related 4

This gene encodes a member of the nectin family. The encoded protein contains two immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) C2-type domains and one Ig-like V-type domain. It is involved in cell adhesion through trans-homophilic and -heterophilic interactions. It is a single-pass type I membrane protein. The soluble form is produced by proteolytic cleavage at the cell surface by the metalloproteinase ADAM17/TACE. The secreted form is found in both breast tumor cell lines and breast tumor patients. Mutations in this gene are the cause of ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome type 1, an autosomal recessive disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found but the full-length nature of the variant has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

ATG9A Gene

autophagy related 9A

ATG9B Gene

autophagy related 9B

This gene functions in the regulation of autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway. This gene also functions as an antisense transcript in the posttranscriptional regulation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 gene, which has 3' overlap with this gene on the opposite strand. Mutations in this gene and disruption of the autophagy process have been associated with multiple cancers. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

LOC449519 Gene

Mas-related gene LOC449519

NEK10 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 10

NEK11 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 11

This gene encodes a member of the never in mitosis gene A family of kinases. The encoded protein localizes to the nucleoli, and may function with NEK2A in the S-phase checkpoint. The encoded protein appears to play roles in DNA replication and response to genotoxic stress. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

SCZD11 Gene

Schizophrenia susceptibility locus, chromosome 10q-related

SEZ6 Gene

seizure related 6 homolog (mouse)

LOC101929087 Gene

small ubiquitin-related modifier 2-like

SMARCAL1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a-like 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein shows sequence similarity to the E. coli RNA polymerase-binding protein HepA. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD), an autosomal recessive disorder with the diagnostic features of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, renal dysfunction, and T-cell immunodeficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AASTH11 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 11

AASTH12 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 12

AASTH17 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 17

XKRY2 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked 2

This gene is located in the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome, and is expressed specifically in testis. It encodes a protein which is similar to XK (X-linked Kell blood group precursor), a putative membrane transport protein. This gene is present as two identical copies within a palindromic region; this record represents the more telomeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NEK1 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase involved in cell cycle regulation. The encoded protein is found in a centrosomal complex with FEZ1, a neuronal protein that plays a role in axonal development. Defects in this gene are a cause of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

ESRRG Gene

estrogen-related receptor gamma

This gene encodes a member of the estrogen receptor-related receptor (ESRR) family, which belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. All members of the ESRR family share an almost identical DNA binding domain, which is composed of two C4-type zinc finger motifs. The ESRR members are orphan nuclear receptors; they bind to the estrogen response element and steroidogenic factor 1 response element, and activate genes controlled by both response elements in the absence of any ligands. The ESRR family is closely related to the estrogen receptor (ER) family. They share target genes, co-regulators and promoters, and by targeting the same set of genes, the ESRRs seem to interfere with the ER-mediated estrogen response in various ways. It has been reported that the family member encoded by this gene functions as a transcriptional activator of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferases 1 (Dnmt1) expression by direct binding to its response elements in the DNMT1 promoters, modulates cell proliferation and estrogen signaling in breast cancer, and negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, which mainly differ at the 5' end and some of which encode protein isoforms differing in the N-terminal region. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC100133211 Gene

related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2 pseudogene

NEK4P1 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 4 pseudogene 1

AASTH19 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 19

AASTH10 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 10

SRMS Gene

src-related kinase lacking C-terminal regulatory tyrosine and N-terminal myristylation sites

THRIL Gene

TNF and HNRNPL related immunoregulatory long non-coding RNA

SMARCAD1 Gene

SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, containing DEAD/H box 1

This gene encodes a member of the SNF subfamily of helicase proteins. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the restoration of heterochromatin organization and propagation of epigenetic patterns following DNA replication by mediating histone H3/H4 deacetylation. Mutations in this gene are associated with adermatoglyphia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

MR1P1 Gene

major histocompatibility complex, class I-related pseudogene

FLT3 Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 3

This gene encodes a class III receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates hematopoiesis. This receptor is activated by binding of the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand to the extracellular domain, which induces homodimer formation in the plasma membrane leading to autophosphorylation of the receptor. The activated receptor kinase subsequently phosphorylates and activates multiple cytoplasmic effector molecules in pathways involved in apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells in bone marrow. Mutations that result in the constitutive activation of this receptor result in acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

CFHR2 Gene

complement factor H-related 2

CFHR3 Gene

complement factor H-related 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted protein, which belongs to the complement factor H-related protein family. It binds to heparin, and may be involved in complement regulation. Mutations in this gene are associated with decreased risk of age-related macular degeneration, and with an increased risk of atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CFHR1 Gene

complement factor H-related 1

This gene encodes a secreted protein belonging to the complement factor H protein family. It binds to Pseudomonas aeruginosa elongation factor Tuf together with plasminogen, which is proteolytically activated. It is proposed that Tuf acts as a virulence factor by acquiring host proteins to the pathogen surface, controlling complement, and facilitating tissue invasion. Mutations in this gene are associated with an increased risk of atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

CFHR4 Gene

complement factor H-related 4

This gene is a member of the complement factor H (CFH) gene family, and encodes one of the 5 CFH-related (CFHR) proteins. These 5 genes are closely linked to the CFH gene on chromosome 1q31-q32. The CFHRs are secreted plasma proteins synthesized primarily by the hepatocytes, and composed of highly-related short consensus repeats (SCRs). This protein enhances the cofactor activity of CFH, and is involved in complement regulation. It can associate with lipoproteins and may play a role in lipid metabolism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms (varying in the number of SCRs) have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

CFHR5 Gene

complement factor H-related 5

This gene is a member of a small complement factor H (CFH) gene cluster on chromosome 1. Each member of this gene family contains multiple short consensus repeats (SCRs) typical of regulators of complement activation. The protein encoded by this gene has nine SCRs with the first two repeats having heparin binding properties, a region within repeats 5-7 having heparin binding and C reactive protein binding properties, and the C-terminal repeats being similar to a complement component 3 b (C3b) binding domain. This protein co-localizes with C3, binds C3b in a dose-dependent manner, and is recruited to tissues damaged by C-reactive protein. Allelic variations in this gene have been associated, but not causally linked, with two different forms of kidney disease: membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type II (MPGNII) and hemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

SMOC2 Gene

SPARC related modular calcium binding 2

This gene encodes a member of the SPARC family (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine/osteonectin/BM-40), which are highly expressed during embryogenesis and wound healing. The gene product is a matricellular protein which promotes matrix assembly and can stimulate endothelial cell proliferation and migration, as well as angiogenic activity. Associated with pulmonary function, this secretory gene product contains a Kazal domain, two thymoglobulin type-1 domains, and two EF-hand calcium-binding domains. The encoded protein may serve as a target for controlling angiogenesis in tumor growth and myocardial ischemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SMOC1 Gene

SPARC related modular calcium binding 1

This gene encodes a multi-domain secreted protein that may have a critical role in ocular and limb development. Mutations in this gene are associated with microphthalmia and limb anomalies. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

HCRP1 Gene

hepatocellular carcinoma-related HCRP1

ZER1 Gene

zyg-11 related, cell cycle regulator

This gene encodes a subunit of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that may be involved in meiosis. The encoded protein contains three leucine-rich repeat motifs. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

LOC100128007 Gene

Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related) pseudogene

ATG2A Gene

autophagy related 2A

ATG2B Gene

autophagy related 2B

ZRF1PS Gene

zuotin related factor 1 pseudogene

ATG12P1 Gene

autophagy related 12 pseudogene 1

ATG12P2 Gene

autophagy related 12 pseudogene 2

LOC100384885 Gene

related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2 pseudogene

PVRIG Gene

poliovirus receptor related immunoglobulin domain containing

PTER Gene

phosphotriesterase related

NEK4P2 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 4 pseudogene 2

NEK4P3 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 4 pseudogene 3

ASRT3 Gene

Asthma-related traits, susceptibility to, 3

SMARCE1P1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1 pseudogene 1

RRAGD Gene

Ras-related GTP binding D

RRAGD is a monomeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein, or G protein. By binding GTP or GDP, small G proteins act as molecular switches in numerous cell processes and signaling pathways.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

RRAGA Gene

Ras-related GTP binding A

RRAGC Gene

Ras-related GTP binding C

This gene encodes a member of the GTR/RAG GTP-binding protein family. The encoded protein is a monomeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein which forms a heterodimer with RRAGA and RRAGB and is primarily localized to the cytoplasm. The encoded protein promotes intracellular localization of the mTOR complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

RRAGB Gene

Ras-related GTP binding B

Ras-homologous GTPases constitute a large family of signal transducers that alternate between an activated, GTP-binding state and an inactivated, GDP-binding state. These proteins represent cellular switches that are operated by GTP-exchange factors and factors that stimulate their intrinsic GTPase activity. All GTPases of the Ras superfamily have in common the presence of six conserved motifs involved in GTP/GDP binding, three of which are phosphate-/magnesium-binding sites (PM1-PM3) and three of which are guanine nucleotide-binding sites (G1-G3). Transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCNC4 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shaw related subfamily C, member 4

The Shaker gene family of Drosophila encodes components of voltage-gated potassium channels and is comprised of four subfamilies. Based on sequence similarity, this gene is similar to the Shaw subfamily. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the delayed rectifier class of channel proteins and is an integral membrane protein that mediates the voltage-dependent potassium ion permeability of excitable membranes. It generates atypical voltage-dependent transient current that may be important for neuronal excitability. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

CEACAMP10 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule pseudogene 10

CEACAMP11 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule pseudogene 11

CASP1P1 Gene

caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase pseudogene 1

CASP1P3 Gene

caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase pseudogene 3

CASP1P2 Gene

caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase pseudogene 2

RHOBTB2 Gene

Rho-related BTB domain containing 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a small Rho GTPase and a candidate tumor suppressor. The encoded protein interacts with the cullin-3 protein, a ubiquitin E3 ligase necessary for mitotic cell division. This protein inhibits the growth and spread of some types of breast cancer. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

RHOBTB3 Gene

Rho-related BTB domain containing 3

RHOBTB3 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved RHOBTB subfamily of Rho GTPases. For background information on RHOBTBs, see RHOBTB1 (MIM 607351).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

RHOBTB1 Gene

Rho-related BTB domain containing 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Rho family of the small GTPase superfamily. It contains a GTPase domain, a proline-rich region, a tandem of 2 BTB (broad complex, tramtrack, and bric-a-brac) domains, and a conserved C-terminal region. The protein plays a role in small GTPase-mediated signal transduction and the organization of the actin filament system. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

CEACAMP8 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule pseudogene 8

CEACAMP9 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule pseudogene 9

CEACAMP2 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule pseudogene 2

CEACAMP3 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule pseudogene 3

CEACAMP1 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule pseudogene 1

CEACAMP6 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule pseudogene 6

CEACAMP7 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule pseudogene 7

CEACAMP4 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule pseudogene 4

CEACAMP5 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule pseudogene 5

SMARCA1 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 1

This gene encodes a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins. The encoded protein is an ATPase which is expressed in diverse tissues and contributes to the chromatin remodeling complex that is involved in transcription. The protein may also play a role in DNA damage, growth inhibition and apoptosis of cancer cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

SMARCA2 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is highly similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, which contains a trinucleotide repeat (CAG) length polymorphism. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

SMARCA4 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. In addition, this protein can bind BRCA1, as well as regulate the expression of the tumorigenic protein CD44. Mutations in this gene cause rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

SMARCA5 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the chromatin remodeling and spacing factor RSF, a facilitator of the transcription of class II genes by RNA polymerase II. The encoded protein is similar in sequence to the Drosophila ISWI chromatin remodeling protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CALCA Gene

calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha

This gene encodes the peptide hormones calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide and katacalcin by tissue-specific alternative RNA splicing of the gene transcripts and cleavage of inactive precursor proteins. Calcitonin is involved in calcium regulation and acts to regulate phosphorus metabolism. Calcitonin gene-related peptide functions as a vasodilator and as an antimicrobial peptide while katacalcin is a calcium-lowering peptide. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

CALCB Gene

calcitonin-related polypeptide beta

AASTH50 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 50

CEACAM22P Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 22, pseudogene

CRS1C Gene

Cryptidin-related sequence-1C

LOC390101 Gene

MAS-related GPR, member X1 pseudogene

FLT3LG Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand

Dendritic cells (DCs) provide the key link between innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing pathogens and priming pathogen-specific immune responses. FLT3LG controls the development of DCs and is particularly important for plasmacytoid DCs and CD8 (see MIM 186910)-positive classical DCs and their CD103 (ITGAE; MIM 604682)-positive tissue counterparts (summary by Sathaliyawala et al., 2010 [PubMed 20933441]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

SNRK Gene

SNF related kinase

SNRK is a member of the sucrose nonfermenting (SNF)-related kinase family of serine/threonine kinases (Kertesz et al., 2002 [PubMed 12234663]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2009]

IFRD2 Gene

interferon-related developmental regulator 2

RUNX2 Gene

runt-related transcription factor 2

This gene is a member of the RUNX family of transcription factors and encodes a nuclear protein with an Runt DNA-binding domain. This protein is essential for osteoblastic differentiation and skeletal morphogenesis and acts as a scaffold for nucleic acids and regulatory factors involved in skeletal gene expression. The protein can bind DNA both as a monomer or, with more affinity, as a subunit of a heterodimeric complex. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the bone development disorder cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD). Transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms result from the use of alternate promoters as well as alternate splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RUNX3 Gene

runt-related transcription factor 3

This gene encodes a member of the runt domain-containing family of transcription factors. A heterodimer of this protein and a beta subunit forms a complex that binds to the core DNA sequence 5'-PYGPYGGT-3' found in a number of enhancers and promoters, and can either activate or suppress transcription. It also interacts with other transcription factors. It functions as a tumor suppressor, and the gene is frequently deleted or transcriptionally silenced in cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RUNX1 Gene

runt-related transcription factor 1

Core binding factor (CBF) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that binds to the core element of many enhancers and promoters. The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit of CBF and is thought to be involved in the development of normal hematopoiesis. Chromosomal translocations involving this gene are well-documented and have been associated with several types of leukemia. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422558 Gene

SMG1 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase pseudogene

LOC100422696 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5 pseudogene

LOC100422695 Gene

SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 5 pseudogene

LOC100418598 Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B pseudogene

LOC100418599 Gene

MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B pseudogene

AASTH39 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 39

AASTH36 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 36

AASTH35 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 35

AASTH34 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 34

AASTH33 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 33

AASTH32 Gene

Allergic/Atopic asthma related QTL 32

AASTH31 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 31

AASTH30 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 30

INSRR Gene

insulin receptor-related receptor

AASTH5 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 5

ARMS2 Gene

age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2

This gene encodes a protein that is thought to play a role in diseases in the elderly. Mutations in this gene have been associated with age-related macular degeneration. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

CASP10 Gene

caspase 10, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein cleaves and activates caspases 3 and 7, and the protein itself is processed by caspase 8. Mutations in this gene are associated with type IIA autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and gastric cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

CASP14 Gene

caspase 14, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This caspase has been shown to be processed and activated by caspase 8 and caspase 10 in vitro, and by anti-Fas agonist antibody or TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand in vivo. The expression and processing of this caspase may be involved in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, which is important for the formation of the skin barrier. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CASP16 Gene

caspase 16, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase (putative)

GLIPR1L1 Gene

GLI pathogenesis-related 1 like 1

GLIPR1L2 Gene

GLI pathogenesis-related 1 like 2

This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-rich secretory protein, antigen 5, and pathogenesis-related 1 superfamily. Members of this family have roles in a variety of processes, including cancer and immune defense. This gene is located in a cluster with two related genes on chromosome 12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

SORL1 Gene

sortilin-related receptor, L(DLR class) A repeats containing

This gene encodes a mosaic protein that belongs to at least two families: the vacuolar protein sorting 10 (VPS10) domain-containing receptor family, and the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. The encoded protein also contains fibronectin type III repeats and an epidermal growth factor repeat. The encoded protein is translated as a preproprotein and likely plays roles in endocytosis and sorting. There may be an association between expression of this locus and Alzheimer's Disease.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

LOC100128803 Gene

Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related) pseudogene

HRES2 Gene

HTLV-1 related endogenous sequence 2

HRES1 Gene

HTLV-1 related endogenous sequence

STARD8 Gene

StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 8

This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of Rho GTPase activating proteins that contain a steroidogenic acute regulatory protein related lipid transfer domain. The encoded protein localizes to focal adhesions and may be involved in regulating cell morphology. This protein may also function as a tumor suppressor. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

STARD3 Gene

StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 3

This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of lipid trafficking proteins that are characterized by a C-terminal steroidogenic acute regulatory domain and an N-terminal metastatic lymph node 64 domain. The encoded protein localizes to the membranes of late endosomes and may be involved in exporting cholesterol. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

STARD6 Gene

StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 6

Cholesterol homeostasis is regulated, at least in part, by sterol regulatory element (SRE)-binding proteins (e.g., SREBP1; MIM 184756) and by liver X receptors (e.g., LXRA; MIM 602423). Upon sterol depletion, LXRs are inactive and SREBPs are cleaved, after which they bind promoter SREs and activate genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and uptake. Sterol transport is mediated by vesicles or by soluble protein carriers, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR; MIM 600617). STAR is homologous to a family of proteins containing a 200- to 210-amino acid STAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain, including STARD6 (Soccio et al., 2002 [PubMed 12011452]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

STARD7 Gene

StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain containing 7

Although the function of this gene is not known, its existence is supported by mRNA and EST data. The predicted gene product contains a region similar to the STAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain, which is often present in proteins involved in the cell signaling mediated by lipid binding. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, although some transcripts occur only in cancer cell lines. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NTPCR Gene

nucleoside-triphosphatase, cancer-related

FRK Gene

fyn-related Src family tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the TYR family of protein kinases. This tyrosine kinase is a nuclear protein and may function during G1 and S phase of the cell cycle and suppress growth. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FLT1P1 Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 pseudogene 1

CDKL1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 1 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

CDKL2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the cytoplasm, with lower levels in the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DPRXP4 Gene

divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 4

Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This pseudogene is a member of the DPRX homeobox gene family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DPRXP5 Gene

divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 5

Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This pseudogene is a member of the DPRX homeobox gene family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DPRXP6 Gene

divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 6

Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This pseudogene is a member of the DPRX homeobox gene family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DPRXP7 Gene

divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 7

Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This pseudogene is a member of the DPRX homeobox gene family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DPRXP1 Gene

divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 1

Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This pseudogene is a member of the DPRX homeobox gene family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DPRXP2 Gene

divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 2

Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This pseudogene is a member of the DPRX homeobox gene family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DPRXP3 Gene

divergent-paired related homeobox pseudogene 3

Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This pseudogene is a member of the DPRX homeobox gene family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ABR Gene

active BCR-related

This gene encodes a protein that is similar to the protein encoded by the breakpoint cluster region gene located on chromosome 22. The protein encoded by this gene contains a GTPase-activating protein domain, a domain found in members of the Rho family of GTP-binding proteins. Functional studies in mice determined that this protein plays a role in vestibular morphogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

KCND1 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shal related subfamily D, member 1

This gene encodes a multipass membrane protein that comprises the pore subunit of the voltage-gated A-type potassium channel, which functions in the repolarization of membrane action potentials. Activity of voltage-gated potassium channels is important in a number of physiological processes, among them the regulation of neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, and smooth muscle contraction. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

KCND3 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shal related subfamily D, member 3

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shal-related subfamily, members of which form voltage-activated A-type potassium ion channels and are prominent in the repolarization phase of the action potential. This member includes two isoforms with different sizes, which are encoded by alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KCND2 Gene

potassium channel, voltage gated Shal related subfamily D, member 2

Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels represent the most complex class of voltage-gated ion channels from both functional and structural standpoints. Their diverse functions include regulating neurotransmitter release, heart rate, insulin secretion, neuronal excitability, epithelial electrolyte transport, smooth muscle contraction, and cell volume. Four sequence-related potassium channel genes - shaker, shaw, shab, and shal - have been identified in Drosophila, and each has been shown to have human homolog(s). This gene encodes a member of the potassium channel, voltage-gated, shal-related subfamily, members of which form voltage-activated A-type potassium ion channels and are prominent in the repolarization phase of the action potential. This member mediates a rapidly inactivating, A-type outward potassium current which is not under the control of the N terminus as it is in Shaker channels. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAC1P9 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 pseudogene 9

RAC1P8 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 pseudogene 8

RAC1P6 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 pseudogene 6

XKRY Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked

This gene is located in the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome, and is expressed specifically in testis. It encodes a protein which is similar to XK (X-linked Kell blood group precursor), a putative membrane transport protein. This gene is present as two identical copies within a palindromic region; this record represents the more centromeric copy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

XKRX Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, X-linked

This gene encodes a protein that is related to a component of the XK/Kell complex of the Kell blood group system. The encoded protein includes several transmembrane domains, is known to be exposed to the cell surface, and may function as a membrane transporter. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LOC252862 Gene

CDC26 subunit of anaphase promoting complex-related gene

XKR5 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 5

XKR4 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 4

XKR7 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 7

XKR6 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 6

XKR3 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 3

XKRX (MIM 300684) and XKR3 are homologs of the Kell blood group precursor XK (MIM 314850), which is a putative membrane transporter and a component of the XK/Kell complex of the Kell blood group system (Calenda et al., 2006 [PubMed 16431037]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

AASTH28 Gene

Allergic/Atopic asthma related QTL 28

AASTH23 Gene

Allergic/atopic asthma related QTL 23

ATG3 Gene

autophagy related 3

This gene encodes a ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme and is a component of ubiquitination-like systems involved in autophagy, the process of degradation, turnover and recycling of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells. This protein is known to play a role in regulation of autophagy during cell death. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 20. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

ATG7 Gene

autophagy related 7

This gene was identified based on homology to Pichia pastoris GSA7 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae APG7. In the yeast, the protein appears to be required for fusion of peroxisomal and vacuolar membranes. The protein shows homology to the ATP-binding and catalytic sites of the E1 ubiquitin activating enzymes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

ATG5 Gene

autophagy related 5

CEACAM1 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (biliary glycoprotein)

This gene encodes a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family, which belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. Two subgroups of the CEA family, the CEA cell adhesion molecules and the pregnancy-specific glycoproteins, are located within a 1.2 Mb cluster on the long arm of chromosome 19. Eleven pseudogenes of the CEA cell adhesion molecule subgroup are also found in the cluster. The encoded protein was originally described in bile ducts of liver as biliary glycoprotein. Subsequently, it was found to be a cell-cell adhesion molecule detected on leukocytes, epithelia, and endothelia. The encoded protein mediates cell adhesion via homophilic as well as heterophilic binding to other proteins of the subgroup. Multiple cellular activities have been attributed to the encoded protein, including roles in the differentiation and arrangement of tissue three-dimensional structure, angiogenesis, apoptosis, tumor suppression, metastasis, and the modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been reported, but the full-length nature of all variants has not been defined. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

CEACAM3 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3

This gene encodes a member of the family of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), which are used by several bacterial pathogens to bind and invade host cells. The encoded transmembrane protein directs phagocytosis of several bacterial species that is dependent on the small GTPase Rac. It is thought to serve an important role in controlling human-specific pathogens by the innate immune system. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

CEACAM5 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5

Members of the CEACAM subfamily, including CEACAM5, belong to the CEA gene family. For general information on the CEA gene family, see CEACAM1 (MIM 109770).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

CEACAM4 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 4

CEACAM7 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 7

CEACAM6 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (non-specific cross reacting antigen)

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family whose members are glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchored cell surface glycoproteins. Members of this family play a role in cell adhesion and are widely used as tumor markers in serum immunoassay determinations of carcinoma. This gene affects the sensitivity of tumor cells to adenovirus infection. The protein encoded by this gene acts as a receptor for adherent-invasive E. coli adhesion to the surface of ileal epithelial cells in patients with Crohn's disease. This gene is clustered with genes and pseudogenes of the cell adhesion molecules subgroup of the CEA family on chromosome 19. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

CEACAM8 Gene

carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8

NAT8B Gene

N-acetyltransferase 8B (GCN5-related, putative, gene/pseudogene)

The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to the N-acetyltransferase 8 (NAT8) gene product, which is a kidney and liver protein with homology to bacterial acetyltransferases involved in drug resistance. This gene is localized on chromosome 2 in the vicinity of the NAT8 gene and may represent a pseudogene of NAT8. This gene contains two polymorphic nonsense mutations that disrupt the active site of the protein. The full-length product of this gene contains a complete acetyltransferase domain and is identical in length to NAT8. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NAT8L Gene

N-acetyltransferase 8-like (GCN5-related, putative)

This gene encodes a single-pass membrane protein, which contains a conserved sequence of the GCN5 or NAT superfamily of N-acetyltransferases and is a member of the N-acyltransferase (NAT) superfamily. This protein is a neuron-specific protein and is the N-acetylaspartate (NAA) biosynthetic enzyme, catalyzing the NAA synthesis from L-aspartate and acetyl-CoA. NAA is a major storage and transport form of acetyl coenzyme A specific to the nervous system. The gene mutation results in primary NAA deficiency (hypoacetylaspartia). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

HEYL Gene

hes-related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif-like

This gene encodes a member of the hairy and enhancer of split-related (HESR) family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factors. The sequence of the encoded protein contains a conserved bHLH and orange domain, but its YRPW motif has diverged from other HESR family members. It is thought to be an effector of Notch signaling and a regulator of cell fate decisions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HEY2 Gene

hes-related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 2

This gene encodes a member of the hairy and enhancer of split-related (HESR) family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factors. The encoded protein forms homo- or hetero-dimers that localize to the nucleus and interact with a histone deacetylase complex to repress transcription. Expression of this gene is induced by the Notch signal transduction pathway. Two similar and redundant genes in mouse are required for embryonic cardiovascular development, and are also implicated in neurogenesis and somitogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HEY1 Gene

hes-related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 1

This gene encodes a nuclear protein belonging to the hairy and enhancer of split-related (HESR) family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcriptional repressors. Expression of this gene is induced by the Notch and c-Jun signal transduction pathways. Two similar and redundant genes in mouse are required for embryonic cardiovascular development, and are also implicated in neurogenesis and somitogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100130114 Gene

Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related) pseudogene

SPIB Gene

Spi-B transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator that binds to the PU-box (5'-GAGGAA-3') and acts as a lymphoid-specific enhancer. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

SPIC Gene

Spi-C transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related)

RAC1P7 Gene

ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 pseudogene 7

PVRIG2P Gene

poliovirus receptor related immunoglobulin domain containing 2, pseudogene

ARX Gene

aristaless related homeobox

This gene is a homeobox-containing gene expressed during development. The expressed protein contains two conserved domains, a C-peptide (or aristaless domain) and the prd-like class homeobox domain. It is a member of the group-II aristaless-related protein family whose members are expressed primarily in the central and/or peripheral nervous system. This gene is thought to be involved in CNS development. Mutations in this gene cause X-linked mental retardation and epilepsy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FZR1 Gene

fizzy/cell division cycle 20 related 1 (Drosophila)

TP53I3 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to oxidoreductases, which are enzymes involved in cellular responses to oxidative stresses and irradiation. This gene is induced by the tumor suppressor p53 and is thought to be involved in p53-mediated cell death. It contains a p53 consensus binding site in its promoter region and a downstream pentanucleotide microsatellite sequence. P53 has been shown to transcriptionally activate this gene by interacting with the downstream pentanucleotide microsatellite sequence. The microsatellite is polymorphic, with a varying number of pentanucleotide repeats directly correlated with the extent of transcriptional activation by p53. It has been suggested that the microsatellite polymorphism may be associated with differential susceptibility to cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

LOC100533940 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC101927309 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3-like

LOC100288073 Gene

heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa) pseudogene

G3BP1 Gene

GTPase activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 1

This gene encodes one of the DNA-unwinding enzymes which prefers partially unwound 3'-tailed substrates and can also unwind partial RNA/DNA and RNA/RNA duplexes in an ATP-dependent fashion. This enzyme is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins and is also an element of the Ras signal transduction pathway. It binds specifically to the Ras-GTPase-activating protein by associating with its SH3 domain. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RASA1 Gene

RAS p21 protein activator (GTPase activating protein) 1

The protein encoded by this gene is located in the cytoplasm and is part of the GAP1 family of GTPase-activating proteins. The gene product stimulates the GTPase activity of normal RAS p21 but not its oncogenic counterpart. Acting as a suppressor of RAS function, the protein enhances the weak intrinsic GTPase activity of RAS proteins resulting in the inactive GDP-bound form of RAS, thereby allowing control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Mutations leading to changes in the binding sites of either protein are associated with basal cell carcinomas. Mutations also have been associated with hereditary capillary malformations (CM) with or without arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and Parkes Weber syndrome. Alternative splicing results in two isoforms where the shorter isoform, lacking the N-terminal hydrophobic region but retaining the same activity, appears to be abundantly expressed in placental but not adult tissues. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

PPFIA4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 4

PPFIA4, or liprin-alpha-4, belongs to the liprin-alpha gene family. See liprin-alpha-1 (LIP1, or PPFIA1; MIM 611054) for background on liprins.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC101928777 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

LOC644172 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC644909 Gene

ligand of numb-protein X 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

MYCBP2 Gene

MYC binding protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

MAPKAPK5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a tumor suppressor and member of the serine/threonine kinase family. In response to cellular stress and proinflammatory cytokines, this kinase is activated through its phosphorylation by MAP kinases including MAPK1/ERK, MAPK14/p38-alpha, and MAPK11/p38-beta. The encoded protein is found in the nucleus but translocates to the cytoplasm upon phosphorylation and activation. This kinase phosphorylates heat shock protein HSP27 at its physiologically relevant sites. Two alternately spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

MAPKAPK3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase functions as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase)- activated protein kinase. MAP kinases are also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This kinase was shown to be activated by growth inducers and stress stimulation of cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that ERK, p38 MAP kinase and Jun N-terminal kinase were all able to phosphorylate and activate this kinase, which suggested the role of this kinase as an integrative element of signaling in both mitogen and stress responses. This kinase was reported to interact with, phosphorylate and repress the activity of E47, which is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor known to be involved in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression and cell differentiation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

MAPKAPK2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase is regulated through direct phosphorylation by p38 MAP kinase. In conjunction with p38 MAP kinase, this kinase is known to be involved in many cellular processes including stress and inflammatory responses, nuclear export, gene expression regulation and cell proliferation. Heat shock protein HSP27 was shown to be one of the substrates of this kinase in vivo. Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNG5P4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 4

TP53I11 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible protein 11

RNF128 Gene

ring finger protein 128, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane protein that localizes to the endocytic pathway. This protein contains a RING zinc-finger motif and has been shown to possess E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Expression of this gene in retrovirally transduced T cell hybridoma significantly inhibits activation-induced IL2 and IL4 cytokine production. Induced expression of this gene was observed in anergic CD4(+) T cells, which suggested a role in the induction of anergic phenotype. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RNF125 Gene

ring finger protein 125, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase that contains a RING finger domain in the N-terminus and three zinc-binding and one ubiquitin-interacting motif in the C-terminus. As a result of myristoylation, this protein associates with membranes and is primarily localized to intracellular membrane systems. The encoded protein may function as a positive regulator in the T-cell receptor signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

MAPK1IP1L Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1-like

GNG10P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 pseudogene 1

APBB1IP Gene

amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 1 interacting protein

GNG5P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 1

GNG5P3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 3

GNG5P2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 2

GNG5P5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 5

LOC100422713 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

LOC100422710 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

TP53I13 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible protein 13

PTPRCAP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C-associated protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a transmembrane phosphoprotein specifically associated with tyrosine phosphatase PTPRC/CD45, a key regulator of T- and B-lymphocyte activation. The interaction with PTPRC may be required for the stable expression of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC101927789 Gene

putative ubiquitin-like protein FUBI-like protein ENSP00000310146

MAPKBP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase binding protein 1

LOC102724042 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

GNB2L1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like 1

TP53BP1 Gene

tumor protein p53 binding protein 1

TP53BP2 Gene

tumor protein p53 binding protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) family of p53 interacting proteins. The protein contains four ankyrin repeats and an SH3 domain involved in protein-protein interactions. It is localized to the perinuclear region of the cytoplasm, and regulates apoptosis and cell growth through interactions with other regulatory molecules including members of the p53 family. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC102723528 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

MAPK8IPP Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein, pseudogene

LOC346329 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class) pseudogene

RNF138P1 Gene

ring finger protein 138, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene 1

LOC100287794 Gene

double homeobox protein 4-like protein 4

GNA14 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 14

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding, or G protein family. G proteins are heterotrimers consisting of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. The encoded protein is a member of the alpha family of G proteins, more specifically the alpha q subfamily of G proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in pertussis-toxin resistant activation of phospholipase C-beta and its downstream effectors.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

GNA15 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 15 (Gq class)

GNA12 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) alpha 12

GNA13 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 13

GNA11 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which function as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. G proteins are composed of 3 units: alpha, beta and gamma. This gene encodes one of the alpha subunits (subunit alpha-11). Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type II (HHC2) and hypocalcemia dominant 2 (HYPOC2). Patients with HHC2 and HYPOC2 exhibit decreased or increased sensitivity, respectively, to changes in extracellular calcium concentrations. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

PRKCDBP Gene

protein kinase C, delta binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a binding protein of the protein kinase C, delta (PRKCD). The expression of this gene in cultured cell lines is strongly induced by serum starvation. The expression of this protein was found to be down-regulated in various cancer cell lines, suggesting the possible tumor suppressor function of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TP53AIP1 Gene

tumor protein p53 regulated apoptosis inducing protein 1

This gene is specifically expressed in the thymus, and encodes a protein that is localized to the mitochondrion. The expression of this gene is inducible by p53, and it is thought to play an important role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

NUFIP2 Gene

nuclear fragile X mental retardation protein interacting protein 2

NUFIP1 Gene

nuclear fragile X mental retardation protein interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a nuclear RNA binding protein that contains a C2H2 zinc finger motif and a nuclear localization signal. This protein is associated with the nuclear matrix in perichromatin fibrils and, in neurons, localizes to the cytoplasm in association with endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes. This protein interacts with the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), the tumor suppressor protein BRCA1, upregulates RNA polymerase II transcription, and is involved in box C/D snoRNP biogenesis. A pseudogene of this gene resides on chromosome 6q12. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

RNF19A Gene

ring finger protein 19A, RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the ring between ring fingers (RBR) protein family, and the encoded protein contains two RING-finger motifs and an in between RING fingers motif. This protein is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is localized to Lewy bodies, and ubiquitylates synphilin-1, which is an interacting protein of alpha synuclein in neurons. The encoded protein may be involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GNG7 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 7

GNG4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 4

GNG5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5

G proteins are trimeric (alpha-beta-gamma) membrane-associated proteins that regulate flow of information from cell surface receptors to a variety of internal metabolic effectors. Interaction of a G protein with its activated receptor promotes exchange of GTP for GDP that is bound to the alpha subunit. The alpha-GTP complex dissociates from the beta-gamma heterodimer so that the subunits, in turn, may interact with and regulate effector molecules (Gilman, 1987 [PubMed 3113327]; summary by Ahmad et al., 1995) [PubMed 7606925].[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

GNG2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2

This gene encodes one of the gamma subunits of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Such proteins are involved in signaling mechanisms across membranes. Various subunits forms heterodimers which then interact with the different signal molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GNG3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 3

Guanine nucleotide binding proteins are heterotrimeric signal-transducing molecules consisting of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The gamma subunit determines the specificity of which signaling pathways will be affected by this particular complex. The protein encoded by this gene represents the gamma subunit of both inhibitory and stimulatory complexes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

GNG8 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 8

LOC101930078 Gene

double homeobox protein 4-like protein 4

VAPB Gene

VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-associated protein B and C

The protein encoded by this gene is a type IV membrane protein found in plasma and intracellular vesicle membranes. The encoded protein is found as a homodimer and as a heterodimer with VAPA. This protein also can interact with VAMP1 and VAMP2 and may be involved in vesicle trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VAPA Gene

VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-associated protein A, 33kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is a type IV membrane protein. It is present in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles. It may also be associated with the cytoskeleton. This protein may function in vesicle trafficking, membrane fusion, protein complex assembly and cell motility. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SKP2 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbls class; in addition to an F-box, this protein contains 10 tandem leucine-rich repeats. This protein is an essential element of the cyclin A-CDK2 S-phase kinase. It specifically recognizes phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B, also referred to as p27 or KIP1) predominantly in S phase and interacts with S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1 or p19). In addition, this gene is established as a protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. Alternative splicing of this gene generates three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

LOC101060346 Gene

T-complex protein 11 X-linked protein 2-like

LOC101928467 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

PPFIBP1 Gene

PTPRF interacting protein, binding protein 1 (liprin beta 1)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. It has been proposed that liprins are multivalent proteins that form complex structures and act as scaffolds for the recruitment and anchoring of LAR family of tyrosine phosphatases. This protein was found to interact with S100A4, a calcium-binding protein related to tumor invasiveness and metastasis. In vitro experiment demonstrated that the interaction inhibited the phosphorylation of this protein by protein kinase C and protein kinase CK2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPFIBP2 Gene

PTPRF interacting protein, binding protein 2 (liprin beta 2)

This gene encodes a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. The encoded protein is a beta liprin and plays a role in axon guidance and neuronal synapse development by recruiting LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatases to the plasma membrane. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

LOC728098 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1-like pseudogene

LCP2 Gene

lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 (SH2 domain containing leukocyte protein of 76kDa)

SLP-76 was originally identified as a substrate of the ZAP-70 protein tyrosine kinase following T cell receptor (TCR) ligation in the leukemic T cell line Jurkat. The SLP-76 locus has been localized to human chromosome 5q33 and the gene structure has been partially characterized in mice. The human and murine cDNAs both encode 533 amino acid proteins that are 72% identical and comprised of three modular domains. The NH2-terminus contains an acidic region that includes a PEST domain and several tyrosine residues which are phosphorylated following TCR ligation. SLP-76 also contains a central proline-rich domain and a COOH-terminal SH2 domain. A number of additional proteins have been identified that associate with SLP-76 both constitutively and inducibly following receptor ligation, supporting the notion that SLP-76 functions as an adaptor or scaffold protein. Studies using SLP-76 deficient T cell lines or mice have provided strong evidence that SLP-76 plays a positive role in promoting T cell development and activation as well as mast cell and platelet function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNAQP1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), q polypeptide pseudogene 1

MAPK8IP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a regulator of the pancreatic beta-cell function. It is highly similar to JIP-1, a mouse protein known to be a regulator of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (Mapk8). This protein has been shown to prevent MAPK8 mediated activation of transcription factors, and to decrease IL-1 beta and MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) induced apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells. This protein also functions as a DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2. RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is reported to repress the expression of this gene in insulin-secreting beta cells. This gene is found to be mutated in a type 2 diabetes family, and thus is thought to be a susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

MAPK8IP2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is closely related to MAPK8IP1/IB1/JIP-1, a scaffold protein that is involved in the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase signaling pathway. This protein is expressed in brain and pancreatic cells. It has been shown to interact with, and regulate the activity of MAPK8/JNK1, and MAP2K7/MKK7 kinases. This protein thus is thought to function as a regulator of signal transduction by protein kinase cascade in brain and pancreatic beta-cells. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

MAPK8IP3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the product of Drosophila syd gene, required for the functional interaction of kinesin I with axonal cargo. Studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that this protein may interact with, and regulate the activity of numerous protein kinases of the JNK signaling pathway, and thus function as a scaffold protein in neuronal cells. The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport possibly by integrating JNK signaling and kinesin-1 transport. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAIP1P1 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene 1

LOC105373377 Gene

putative paraneoplastic antigen-like protein 6B-like protein LOC649238

GNB5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta 5

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNB4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNB1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

GNB3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 3

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit which belongs to the WD repeat G protein beta family. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (C825T) in this gene is associated with essential hypertension and obesity. This polymorphism is also associated with the occurrence of the splice variant GNB3-s, which appears to have increased activity. GNB3-s is an example of alternative splicing caused by a nucleotide change outside of the splice donor and acceptor sites. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

GNB2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. This gene contains a trinucleotide (CCG) repeat length polymorphism in its 5' UTR. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAIP2 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 2

PAIP1 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with poly(A)-binding protein and with the cap-binding complex eIF4A. It is involved in translational initiation and protein biosynthesis. Overexpression of this gene in COS7 cells stimulates translation. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and three transcript variants encoding three distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NUFIP1P Gene

nuclear fragile X mental retardation protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

GPRASP2 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family that regulates the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The encoded protein has been shown to be capable of interacting with several GPCRs, including the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and the calcitonin receptor. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GPRASP1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the GPRASP (G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein) family. The protein may modulate lysosomal sorting and functional down-regulation of a variety of G-protein coupled receptors. It targets receptors for degradation in lysosomes. The receptors interacting with this sorting protein include D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), delta opioid receptor (OPRD1), beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) and cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R). Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GNAI2P2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 pseudogene 2

GNAI2P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 pseudogene 1

TP53BP2P1 Gene

tumor protein p53 binding protein 2 pseudogene 1

RNF138P2 Gene

ring finger protein 138, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene 2

LOC648044 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12-like

MAP3K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase and is part of some signal transduction cascades, including the ERK and JNK kinase pathways as well as the NF-kappa-B pathway. The encoded protein is activated by autophosphorylation and requires magnesium as a cofactor in phosphorylating other proteins. This protein has E3 ligase activity conferred by a plant homeodomain (PHD) in its N-terminus and phospho-kinase activity conferred by a kinase domain in its C-terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

APPBP2 Gene

amyloid beta precursor protein (cytoplasmic tail) binding protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with microtubules and is functionally associated with beta-amyloid precursor protein transport and/or processing. The beta-amyloid precursor protein is a cell surface protein with signal-transducing properties, and it is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The encoded protein may be involved in regulating cell death. This gene has been found to be highly expressed in breast cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

RAMP1 Gene

receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of the RAMP family are expressed. In the presence of this (RAMP1) protein, CRLR functions as a CGRP receptor. The RAMP1 protein is involved in the terminal glycosylation, maturation, and presentation of the CGRP receptor to the cell surface. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

RAMP3 Gene

receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of the RAMP family are expressed. In the presence of this (RAMP3) protein, CRLR functions as an adrenomedullin receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAMP2 Gene

receptor (G protein-coupled) activity modifying protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAMP family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, called receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying proteins (RAMPs). RAMPs are type I transmembrane proteins with an extracellular N terminus and a cytoplasmic C terminus. RAMPs are required to transport calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR) to the plasma membrane. CRLR, a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, can function as either a calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of the RAMP family are expressed. In the presence of this (RAMP2) protein, CRLR functions as an adrenomedullin receptor. The RAMP2 protein is involved in core glycosylation and transportation of adrenomedullin receptor to the cell surface. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TP53INP1 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 1

TP53INP2 Gene

tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 2

RNF34 Gene

ring finger protein 34, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RINF finger, a motif known to be involved in protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. This protein interacts with DNAJA3/hTid-1, which is a DnaJ protein reported to function as a modulator of apoptosis. Overexpression of this gene in Hela cells was shown to confer the resistance to TNF-alpha induced apoptosis, suggesting an anti-apoptotic function of this protein. This protein can be cleaved by caspase-3 during the induction of apoptosis. This protein also targets p53 and phospho-p53 for degradation. Alternatively splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

TP53COR1 Gene

tumor protein p53 pathway corepressor 1 (non-protein coding)

LOC100130500 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

LOC100533943 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533942 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533941 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533949 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

RNF138 Gene

ring finger protein 138, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger, a motif present in a variety of functionally distinct proteins and known to be involved in protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNAQ Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), q polypeptide

This locus encodes a guanine nucleotide-binding protein. The encoded protein, an alpha subunit in the Gq class, couples a seven-transmembrane domain receptor to activation of phospolipase C-beta. Mutations at this locus have been associated with problems in platelet activation and aggregation. A related pseudogene exists on chromosome 2.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

GNAZ Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha z polypeptide

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a G protein subfamily that mediates signal transduction in pertussis toxin-insensitive systms. This encoded protein may play a role in maintaining the ionic balance of perilymphatic and endolymphatic cochlear fluids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNAL Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide, olfactory type

This gene encodes a stimulatory G protein alpha subunit which mediates odorant signaling in the olfactory epithelium. This protein couples dopamine type 1 receptors and adenosine A2A receptors and is widely expressed in the central nervous system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia 25 and this gene is located in a susceptibility region for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

RNF8 Gene

ring finger protein 8, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger motif and an FHA domain. This protein has been shown to interact with several class II ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2), including UBE2E1/UBCH6, UBE2E2, and UBE2E3, and may act as an ubiquitin ligase (E3) in the ubiquitination of certain nuclear proteins. This protein is also known to play a role in the DNA damage response and depletion of this protein causes cell growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

RNF5 Gene

ring finger protein 5, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger, which is a motif known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. This protein is a membrane-bound ubiquitin ligase. It can regulate cell motility by targeting paxillin ubiquitination and altering the distribution and localization of paxillin in cytoplasm and cell focal adhesions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TMEM129 Gene

transmembrane protein 129, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

RNF5P1 Gene

ring finger protein 5, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene 1

GNG10 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10

GNG11 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 11

This gene is a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) gamma family and encodes a lipid-anchored, cell membrane protein. As a member of the heterotrimeric G protein complex, this protein plays a role in this transmembrane signaling system. This protein is also subject to carboxyl-terminal processing. Decreased expression of this gene is associated with splenic marginal zone lymphomas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNG12 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12

GNG13 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 13

Heterotrimeric G proteins, which consist of alpha (see MIM 139320), beta (see MIM 139380), and gamma subunits, function as signal transducers for the 7-transmembrane-helix G protein-coupled receptors. GNG13 is a gamma subunit that is expressed in taste, retinal, and neuronal tissues and plays a key role in taste transduction (Li et al., 2006 [PubMed 16473877]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

ELK3 Gene

ELK3, ETS-domain protein (SRF accessory protein 2)

This gene encodes a member of the ETS-domain transcription factor family and the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily. Proteins in this subfamily regulate transcription when recruited by serum response factor to bind to serum response elements. This protein is activated by signal-induced phosphorylation; studies in rodents suggest that it is a transcriptional inhibitor in the absence of Ras, but activates transcription when Ras is present. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

ELK4 Gene

ELK4, ETS-domain protein (SRF accessory protein 1)

This gene is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors and of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily. Proteins of the TCF subfamily form a ternary complex by binding to the the serum response factor and the serum reponse element in the promoter of the c-fos proto-oncogene. The protein encoded by this gene is phosphorylated by the kinases, MAPK1 and MAPK8. Several transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNAO1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide O

GNAT1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha transducing activity polypeptide 1

Transducin is a 3-subunit guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) which stimulates the coupling of rhodopsin and cGMP-phoshodiesterase during visual impulses. The transducin alpha subunits in rods and cones are encoded by separate genes. This gene encodes the alpha subunit in rods. This gene is also expressed in other cells, and has been implicated in bitter taste transduction in rat taste cells. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

GNAT2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha transducing activity polypeptide 2

Transducin is a 3-subunit guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) which stimulates the coupling of rhodopsin and cGMP-phoshodiesterase during visual impulses. The transducin alpha subunits in rods and cones are encoded by separate genes. This gene encodes the alpha subunit in cones. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100418622 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418623 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418620 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC101928960 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

PAIP2B Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 2B

Most mRNAs, except for histones, contain a 3-prime poly(A) tail. Poly(A)-binding protein (PABP; see MIM 604679) enhances translation by circularizing mRNA through its interaction with the translation initiation factor EIF4G1 (MIM 600495) and the poly(A) tail. Various PABP-binding proteins regulate PABP activity, including PAIP1 (MIM 605184), a translational stimulator, and PAIP2A (MIM 605604) and PAIP2B, translational inhibitors (Derry et al., 2006 [PubMed 17381337]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC391465 Gene

STIP1 homology and U-box containing protein 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

LOC105372731 Gene

CMT1A duplicated region transcript 15 protein-like protein

LOC100422438 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 pseudogene

HP1BP3 Gene

heterochromatin protein 1, binding protein 3

LOC100418685 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418686 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418687 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

RNF41 Gene

ring finger protein 41, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The encoded protein plays a role in type 1 cytokine receptor signaling by controlling the balance between JAK2-associated cytokine receptor degradation and ectodomain shedding. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

LOC102724961 Gene

double homeobox protein 4-like protein 4

RPS19BP1 Gene

ribosomal protein S19 binding protein 1

LOC100533938 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533939 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

RNF168 Gene

ring finger protein 168, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase protein that contains a RING finger, a motif present in a variety of functionally distinct proteins and known to be involved in protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions. The protein is involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Mutations in this gene result in Riddle syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

ZIK1P1 Gene

zinc finger protein interacting with K protein 1 pseudogene 1

G3BP2 Gene

GTPase activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 2

PPFIA2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. It has been proposed that liprins are multivalent proteins that form complex structures and act as scaffolds for the recruitment and anchoring of LAR family of tyrosine phosphatases. This protein has been shown to bind the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family) protein (also known as CASK) and proposed to regulate higher-order brain functions in mammals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PPFIA3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. Liprin family protein has been shown to localize phosphatase LAR to cell focal adhesions and may be involved in the molecular organization of presynaptic active zones. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPFIA1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. This protein binds to the intracellular membrane-distal phosphatase domain of tyrosine phosphatase LAR, and appears to localize LAR to cell focal adhesions. This interaction may regulate the disassembly of focal adhesion and thus help orchestrate cell-matrix interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RGS7BP Gene

regulator of G-protein signaling 7 binding protein

This gene encodes a protein that binds to all members of the R7 subfamily of regulators of G protein signaling and regulates their translocation between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. The encoded protein could be regulated by reversible palmitoylation, which anchors it to the plasma membrane. Depalmitoylation localizes the protein to the nucleus. Polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with risk of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

LOC101930525 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

LNX1 Gene

ligand of numb-protein X 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a membrane-bound protein that is involved in signal transduction and protein interactions. The encoded product is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, which mediates ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of proteins containing phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains. This protein may play an important role in tumorogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. A pseudogene, which is located on chromosome 17, has been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NAB1 Gene

NGFI-A binding protein 1 (EGR1 binding protein 1)

NAB2 Gene

NGFI-A binding protein 2 (EGR1 binding protein 2)

This gene encodes a member of the family of NGFI-A binding (NAB) proteins, which function in the nucleus to repress transcription induced by some members of the EGR (early growth response) family of transactivators. NAB proteins can homo- or hetero-multimerize with other EGR or NAB proteins through a conserved N-terminal domain, and repress transcription through two partially redundant C-terminal domains. Transcriptional repression by the encoded protein is mediated in part by interactions with the nucleosome remodeling and deactylase (NuRD) complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100289060 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 pseudogene

MAPKAPK5P1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 pseudogene 1

CCNB1IP1 Gene

cyclin B1 interacting protein 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

HEI10 is a member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase family and functions in progression of the cell cycle through G(2)/M.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

CSRP3 Gene

cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (cardiac LIM protein)

This gene encodes a member of the CSRP family of LIM domain proteins, which may be involved in regulatory processes important for development and cellular differentiation. The LIM/double zinc-finger motif found in this protein is found in a group of proteins with critical functions in gene regulation, cell growth, and somatic differentiation. Mutations in this gene are thought to cause heritable forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans. Alternatively spliced transcript variants with different 5' UTR, but encoding the same protein, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SERPINH1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade H (heat shock protein 47), member 1, (collagen binding protein 1)

This gene encodes a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. The encoded protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and plays a role in collagen biosynthesis as a collagen-specific molecular chaperone. Autoantibodies to the encoded protein have been found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Expression of this gene may be a marker for cancer, and nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with preterm birth caused by preterm premature rupture of membranes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

LOC105374753 Gene

class E vacuolar protein-sorting machinery protein hse1-like

RGS9BP Gene

regulator of G protein signaling 9 binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene functions as a regulator of G protein-coupled receptor signaling in phototransduction. Studies in bovine and mouse show that this gene is expressed only in the retina, and is localized in the rod outer segment membranes. This protein is associated with a heterotetrameric complex, specifically interacting with the regulator of G-protein signaling 9, and appears to function as the membrane anchor for the other largely soluble interacting partners. Mutations in this gene are associated with prolonged electroretinal response suppression (PERRS), also known as bradyopsia. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

LOC100287954 Gene

double homeobox protein 4-like protein 4

LOC653503 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 pseudogene

GNAI2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2

The protein encoded by this gene is an alpha subunit of guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins). The encoded protein contains the guanine nucleotide binding site and is involved in the hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

GNAI3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 3

Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling pathways. G proteins are composed of 3 units: alpha, beta and gamma. This gene encodes an alpha subunit and belongs to the G-alpha family. Mutation in this gene, resulting in a gly40-to-arg substitution, is associated with auriculocondylar syndrome, and shown to affect downstream targets in the G protein-coupled endothelin receptor pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

GNAI1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 1

Guanine nucleotide binding proteins are heterotrimeric signal-transducing molecules consisting of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The alpha subunit binds guanine nucleotide, can hydrolyze GTP, and can interact with other proteins. The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit of an inhibitory complex. The encoded protein is part of a complex that responds to beta-adrenergic signals by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

LOC100418619 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

MAPKAP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase associated protein 1

This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the yeast SIN1 protein, a stress-activated protein kinase. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. Alternate polyadenylation sites as well as alternate 3' UTRs have been identified for transcripts of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RNF40 Gene

ring finger protein 40, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a RING finger, a motif known to be involved in protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. This protein was reported to interact with the tumor suppressor protein RB1. Studies of the rat counterpart suggested that this protein may function as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, and facilitate the ubiquitination and degradation of syntaxin 1, which is an essential component of the neurotransmitter release machinery. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

LOC100422559 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like 1 pseudogene

LOC100287823 Gene

double homeobox protein 4-like protein 4

LOC102723438 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

RNF20 Gene

ring finger protein 20, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with BRE1 of S. cerevisiae. The protein encoded by this human gene is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates chromosome structure by monoubiquitinating histone H2B. This protein acts as a putative tumor suppressor and positively regulates the p53 tumor suppressor as well as numerous histone H2A and H2B genes. In contrast, this protein also suppresses the expression of several protooncogenes and growth-related genes, including many genes that are induced by epidermal growth factor. This gene selectively suppresses the expression of some genes by interfering with chromatin recruitment of transcription elongation factor SII (TFIIS). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ZIK1 Gene

zinc finger protein interacting with K protein 1

LOC100422338 Gene

GTPase activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100422337 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 13 pseudogene

LOC100533950 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100533951 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

VCPIP1 Gene

valosin containing protein (p97)/p47 complex interacting protein 1

LOC100533937 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC105374377 Gene

BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 pseudogene

GNB1L Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1-like

This gene encodes a G-protein beta-subunit-like polypeptide which is a member of the WD repeat protein family. WD repeats are minimally conserved regions of approximately 40 amino acids typically bracketed by gly-his and trp-asp (GH-WD), which may facilitate formation of heterotrimeric or multiprotein complexes. Members of this family are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, apoptosis, and gene regulation. This protein contains 6 WD repeats and is highly expressed in the heart. The gene maps to the region on chromosome 22q11, which is deleted in DiGeorge syndrome, trisomic in derivative 22 syndrome and tetrasomic in cat-eye syndrome. Therefore, this gene may contribute to the etiology of those disorders. Transcripts from this gene share exons with some transcripts from the C22orf29 gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100418624 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418625 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC100418621 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

HSPA5 Gene

heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family. It is localized in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and is involved in the folding and assembly of proteins in the ER. As this protein interacts with many ER proteins, it may play a key role in monitoring protein transport through the cell.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

LOC100422561 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like 1 pseudogene

LOC100422562 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2-like 1 pseudogene

LOC400750 Gene

heat shock 70kDa protein 5 (glucose-regulated protein, 78kDa) pseudogene

LOC645139 Gene

poly(A) binding protein interacting protein 1 pseudogene

LOC286456 Gene

NGFI-A binding protein 1 (EGR1 binding protein 1) pseudogene

STUB1 Gene

STIP1 homology and U-box containing protein 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a protein containing tetratricopeptide repeat and a U-box that functions as a ubiquitin ligase/cochaperone. The encoded protein binds to and ubiquitinates shock cognate 71 kDa protein (Hspa8) and DNA polymerase beta (Polb), among other targets. Mutations in this gene cause spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 16. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

TYROBP Gene

TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein

This gene encodes a transmembrane signaling polypeptide which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in its cytoplasmic domain. The encoded protein may associate with the killer-cell inhibitory receptor (KIR) family of membrane glycoproteins and may act as an activating signal transduction element. This protein may bind zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa (ZAP-70) and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and play a role in signal transduction, bone modeling, brain myelination, and inflammation. Mutations within this gene have been associated with polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL), also known as Nasu-Hakola disease. Its putative receptor, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), also causes PLOSL. Multiple alternative transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

GNGT2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2

Phototransduction in rod and cone photoreceptors is regulated by groups of signaling proteins. The encoded protein is thought to play a crucial role in cone phototransduction. It belongs to the G protein gamma family and localized specifically in cones. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

GNGT1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 1

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) transduce extracellular signals received by transmembrane receptors to effector proteins. Transducin is a guanine nucleotide-binding protein found specifically in rod outer segments, where it mediates activation by rhodopsin of a cyclic GTP-specific (guanosine monophosphate) phosphodiesterase. Transducin is also referred to as GMPase. GNGT1 encodes the gamma subunit of transducin (Hurley et al., 1984 [PubMed 6438626]; Scherer et al., 1996 [PubMed 8661128]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC102724602 Gene

COMM domain-containing protein 6-like

CHMP1B Gene

charged multivesicular body protein 1B

CHMP1B belongs to the chromatin-modifying protein/charged multivesicular body protein (CHMP) family. These proteins are components of ESCRT-III (endosomal sorting complex required for transport III), a complex involved in degradation of surface receptor proteins and formation of endocytic multivesicular bodies (MVBs). Some CHMPs have both nuclear and cytoplasmic/vesicular distributions, and one such CHMP, CHMP1A (MIM 164010), is required for both MVB formation and regulation of cell cycle progression (Tsang et al., 2006 [PubMed 16730941]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC643630 Gene

ribosomal protein L7a pseudogene

NSRP1 Gene

nuclear speckle splicing regulatory protein 1

LINC01221 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1221

RPS4XP3 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 3

RPS4XP1 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 1

RPS4XP6 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 6

RPS4XP7 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 7

RPS4XP4 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 4

RPS4XP8 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 8

RPS4XP9 Gene

ribosomal protein S4X pseudogene 9

LOC101928959 Gene

probable ribosome biogenesis protein RLP24 pseudogene

CKS1B Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B

CKS1B protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. The CKS1B mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects a specialized role for the encoded protein. At least two transcript variants have been identified for this gene, and it appears that only one of them encodes a protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

RPL31P13 Gene

ribosomal protein L31 pseudogene 13

CRTAP Gene

cartilage associated protein

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to the chicken and mouse CRTAP genes. The encoded protein is a scaffolding protein that may influence the activity of at least one member of the cytohesin/ARNO family in response to specific cellular stimuli. Defects in this gene are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta, a connective tissue disorder characterized by bone fragility and low bone mass. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HPYR1 Gene

Helicobacter pylori responsive 1 (non-protein coding)

CPEB4 Gene

cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 4

CPEB1 Gene

cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein family. This highly conserved protein binds to a specific RNA sequence, called the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element, found in the 3' untranslated region of some mRNAs. The encoded protein functions in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. It is involved in the regulation of mRNA translation, as well as processing of the 3' untranslated region, and may play a role in cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

CPEB3 Gene

cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 3

CPEB2 Gene

cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB), an mRNA-binding protein that regulates cytoplasmic polyadenylation of mRNA as a trans factor in oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested a possible role of this protein in transcriptionally inactive haploid spermatids. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105379427 Gene

zinc finger protein 717-like

LOC649935 Gene

UPF0607 protein ENSP00000381514-like

LINC01227 Gene

long intergenic non-protein coding RNA 1227

LOC100131241 Gene

SERPINE1 mRNA binding protein 1 pseudogene

PISRT1 Gene

polled intersex syndrome regulated transcript 1 (non-protein coding RNA)

LOC101927006 Gene

40S ribosomal protein SA-like

AAGAB Gene

alpha- and gamma-adaptin binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the gamma-adaptin and alpha-adaptin subunits of complexes involved in clathrin-coated vesicle trafficking. Mutations in this gene are associated with type I punctate palmoplantar keratoderma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

LOC101060569 Gene

golgin subfamily A member 6-like protein 1

LOC442041 Gene

zinc finger protein 532 pseudogene

RFPL4AL1