Name

GPR158-AS1 Gene

GPR158 antisense RNA 1

GPRC6A Gene

G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 6, member A

Members of family C of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, such as GPRC6A, are characterized by an evolutionarily conserved amino acid-sensing motif linked to an intramembranous 7-transmembrane loop region. Several members of GPCR family C, including GPRC6A, also have a long N-terminal domain (summary by Pi et al., 2005 [PubMed 16199532]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

GPR146 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 146

GPR142 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 142

GPR142 is a member of the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) (Fredriksson et al., 2003 [PubMed 14623098]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GPR143 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 143

This gene encodes a protein that binds to heterotrimeric G proteins and is targeted to melanosomes in pigment cells. This protein is thought to be involved in intracellular signal transduction mechanisms. Mutations in this gene cause ocular albinism type 1, also referred to as Nettleship-Falls type ocular albinism, a severe visual disorder. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome Y. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

GPR148 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 148

GPR149 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 149

GPR165P Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 165 pseudogene

GPR152 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 152

GPR150 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 150

GPR157 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 157

GPR89B Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 89B

GPR89A Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 89A

GPR89A is a nearly identical copy of the GPR89B gene (MIM 612806).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

GPR65 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 65

GPR62 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 62

GPR63 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 63

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

GPR61 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 61

This gene belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. G protein-coupled receptors contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is most closely related to biogenic amine receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR68 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 68

GPR119 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 119

This gene encodes a member of the rhodopsin subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors that is expressed in the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. The encoded protein is activated by lipid amides including lysophosphatidylcholine and oleoylethanolamide and may be involved in glucose homeostasis. This protein is a potential drug target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

GPRIN2 Gene

G protein regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 2

GPR15 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 15

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor that acts as a chemokine receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2. The encoded protein localizes to the cell membrane. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GPR12 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 12

GPR19 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 19

GPR18 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 18

GPR50 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 50

This gene product belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. Even though this protein shares similarity with the melatonin receptors, it does not bind melatonin, however, it inhibits melatonin receptor 1A function through heterodimerization. Polymorphic variants of this gene have been associated with bipolar affective disorder in women. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

GPR45 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 45

This intronless gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Members of this protein family contain seven putative transmembrane domains and may mediate signaling processes to the interior of the cell via activation of heterotrimeric G proteins. This protein may function in the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR42 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 42 (gene/pseudogene)

GPR141 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 141

GPR141 is a member of the rhodopsin family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) (Fredriksson et al., 2003 [PubMed 14623098]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GPRC5D Gene

G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 5, member D

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family; however, the specific function of this gene has not yet been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPRC5A Gene

G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 5, member A

This gene encodes a member of the type 3 G protein-coupling receptor family, characterized by the signature 7-transmembrane domain motif. The encoded protein may be involved in interaction between retinoid acid and G protein signalling pathways. Retinoic acid plays a critical role in development, cellular growth, and differentiation. This gene may play a role in embryonic development and epithelial cell differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPRC5C Gene

G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 5, member C

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the type 3 G protein-coupled receptor family. Members of this superfamily are characterized by a signature 7-transmembrane domain motif. The specific function of this protein is unknown; however, this protein may mediate the cellular effects of retinoic acid on the G protein signal transduction cascade. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR17 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 17

GPR179 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 179

This gene encodes a member of the glutamate receptor subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. The encoded protein has an EGF-like calcium binding domain and a seven transmembrane domain in the N-terminal region of the protein. Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital stationary night blindness type 1E. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

GPR171 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 171

GPR173 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 173

This gene encodes a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. This protein contains 7 transmembrane domains and conserved cysteine residues. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

GPR174 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 174

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. These proteins are characterized by the presence of seven alpha-helical transmembrane domains, and they activate or interact with various endogenous or exogenous ligands, including neurotransmitters, hormones, and odorant and taste substances. This family member is classified as an orphan receptor because the cognate ligand has not been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

GPR176 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 176

Members of the G protein-coupled receptor family, such as GPR176, are cell surface receptors involved in responses to hormones, growth factors, and neurotransmitters (Hata et al., 1995 [PubMed 7893747]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2008]

GPRASP2 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family that regulates the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The encoded protein has been shown to be capable of interacting with several GPCRs, including the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor and the calcitonin receptor. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GPRASP1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the GPRASP (G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein) family. The protein may modulate lysosomal sorting and functional down-regulation of a variety of G-protein coupled receptors. It targets receptors for degradation in lysosomes. The receptors interacting with this sorting protein include D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2), delta opioid receptor (OPRD1), beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2), D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) and cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R). Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GPRC5B Gene

G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 5, member B

This gene encodes a member of the type 3 G protein-coupled receptor family. Members of this superfamily are characterized by a signature 7-transmembrane domain motif. The encoded protein may modulate insulin secretion and increased protein expression is associated with type 2 diabetes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

GPR79 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 79, pseudogene

GPR78 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 78

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor family, which contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins. This is an orphan receptor, which displays significant level of constitutive activity. Association analysis shows preliminary evidence for the involvement of this gene in susceptibility to bipolar affective disorder and schizophrenia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

GPR153 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 153

GPRIN3 Gene

GPRIN family member 3

GPRIN1 Gene

G protein regulated inducer of neurite outgrowth 1

GPR101 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 101

The protein encoded by this gene is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor of unknown function. The encoded protein is a member of a family of proteins that contain seven transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

GPR107 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 107

GPR108 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 108

GPR75-ASB3 Gene

GPR75-ASB3 readthrough

This locus represents naturally occurring read-through transcription between the neighboring GPR75 (G protein-coupled receptor 75) and ASB3 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 3) on chromosome 2. The transcript includes exons from both GPR75 and ASB3 and translation initiates in the 5' non-coding exon of GPR75. The resulting protein has a novel N-terminus but is otherwise identical to that encoded by ASB3.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

GPR182 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 182

Adrenomedullin is a potent vasodilator peptide that exerts major effects on cardiovascular function. This gene encodes a seven-transmembrane protein that belongs to the family 1 of G-protein coupled receptors. Studies of the rat counterpart suggest that the encoded protein may function as a receptor for adrenomedullin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR183 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 183

This gene was identified by the up-regulation of its expression upon Epstein-Barr virus infection of primary B lymphocytes. This gene is predicted to encode a G protein-coupled receptor that is most closely related to the thrombin receptor. Expression of this gene was detected in B-lymphocyte cell lines and lymphoid tissues but not in T-lymphocyte cell lines or peripheral blood T lymphocytes. The function of this gene is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR89P Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 89 pseudogene

GPR22 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 22

This gene is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family and encodes a multi-pass membrane protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR20 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 20

GPR21 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 21

This gene encodes a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor 1 family. G-protein coupled receptors are membrane proteins which activate signaling cascades as a response to extracellular stress. The encoded protein activates a Gq signal transduction pathway which mobilizes calcium. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GPR26 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 26

GPR27 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 27

GPR27 is a member of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), a large family of receptors that have a similar structure characterized by 7 transmembrane domains. Activation of GPCRs by extracellular stimuli such as neurotransmitters, hormones, or light induces an intracellular signaling cascade mediated by heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins, or G proteins.[supplied by OMIM, May 2010]

GPR25 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 25

This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. G-protein coupled receptors are membrane proteins which activate signaling cascades as a response to extracellular stress. This gene has been linked to arterial stiffness. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GPR137C Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 137C

GPR137B Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 137B

GPR32P1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 32, pseudogene 1

GPR151 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 151

GPR156 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 156

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large superfamily of cell surface receptors characterized by 7 helical transmembrane domains, together with N-terminal extracellular and C-terminal intracellular domains.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GPR155 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 155

GPR158 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 158

GPR166P Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 166 pseudogene

GPR1-AS Gene

GPR1 antisense RNA

GPR52 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 52

Members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) family play important roles in signal transduction from the external environment to the inside of the cell.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

GPR55 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 55

This gene belongs to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. The encoded integral membrane protein is a likely cannabinoid receptor. It may be involved in several physiological and pathological processes by activating a variety of signal transduction pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

GPR162 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 162

This gene was identified upon genomic analysis of a gene-dense region at human chromosome 12p13. It appears to be mainly expressed in the brain; however, its function is not known. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR75 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 75

GPR75 is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. GPRs are cell surface receptors that activate guanine-nucleotide binding proteins upon the binding of a ligand.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

GPR3 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 3

This gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and is found in the cell membrane. G protein-coupled receptors, characterized by a seven transmembrane domain motif, are involved in translating outside signals into G protein mediated intracellular effects. The encoded protein activates adenylate cyclase and modulates amyloid-beta production in a mouse model, suggesting that it may play a role in Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

GPR1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 1

GPR6 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 6

GPR4 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 4

GPR143P Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 143 pseudogene

GPR160 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 160

GPR161 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 161

Upon ligand binding, G protein-coupled receptors, such as GPR161, activate cytoplasmic G proteins (see GNAS, MIM 139320), allowing the receptors to transduce extracellular signals across the plasma membrane into the cell. Phosphorylation of the receptor attenuates signaling (Matteson et al., 2008 [PubMed 18250320]).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008]

GPR53P Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 53, pseudogene

GPR180 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 180

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This protein is produced predominantly in vascular smooth muscle cells and may play an important role in the regulation of vascular remodeling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPR135 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 135

GPR137 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 137

GPR132 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 132

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. The receptors are seven-pass transmembrane proteins that respond to extracellular cues and activate intracellular signal transduction pathways. This protein was reported to be a receptor for lysophosphatidylcholine action, but PubMedID: 15653487 retracts this finding and instead suggests this protein to be an effector of lysophosphatidylcholine action. This protein may have proton-sensing activity and may be a receptor for oxidized free fatty acids. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GPR139 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 139

GPR88 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 88

GPR82 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 82

The protein encoded by this gene is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor of unknown function. The encoded protein is a member of a family of proteins that contain seven transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

GPR83 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 83

GPR84 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 84

GPR85 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 85

Members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, such as GPR85, have a similar structure characterized by 7 transmembrane domains. Activation of GPCRs by extracellular stimuli, such as neurotransmitters, hormones, or light, induces an intracellular signaling cascade mediated by heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins, or G proteins (Matsumoto et al., 2000 [PubMed 10833454]).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008]

GPR87 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 87

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor and is located in a cluster of G protein-couple receptor genes on chromosome 3. The encoded protein has been shown to be overexpressed in lung squamous cell carcinoma (PMID:18057535) and regulated by p53 (PMID:19602589). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

GPR50-AS1 Gene

GPR50 antisense RNA 1

ARMCX5-GPRASP2 Gene

ARMCX5-GPRASP2 readthrough

This locus represents naturally occurring read-through transcription between the neighboring armadillo repeat containing, X-linked 5 and G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 2 genes on chromosome X. The read-through transcript produces a protein identical to protein encoded by the downstream locus, G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 2. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

GPR37L1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 37 like 1

GPR39 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 39

GPR31 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 31

GPR33 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 33 (gene/pseudogene)

This gene has been identified as an orphan chemoattractant G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) pseudogene. Studies have shown that the inactivated gene is present as the predominant allele in the human population. A small fraction of the human population has been found to harbor an intact allele.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

GPR32 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 32

This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. The encoded protein binds to resolvin D1 and lipoxin A4 and has been linked to pulmonary inflammation. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 19. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

GPR35 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 35

GPR34 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 34

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as GPR34, are integral membrane proteins containing 7 putative transmembrane domains (TMs). These proteins mediate signals to the interior of the cell via activation of heterotrimeric G proteins that in turn activate various effector proteins, ultimately resulting in a physiologic response.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2006]

GPR37 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 37 (endothelin receptor type B-like)

This gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. The encoded protein contains seven transmembrane domains and is found in cell and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. G protein-coupled receptors are involved in translating outside signals into G protein mediated intracellular effects. This gene product interacts with Parkin and is involved in juvenile Parkinson disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

GPR36 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 36

GGH Gene

gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (conjugase, folylpolygammaglutamyl hydrolase)

This gene catalyzes the hydrolysis of folylpoly-gamma-glutamates and antifolylpoly-gamma-glutamates by the removal of gamma-linked polyglutamates and glutamate. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGCX Gene

gamma-glutamyl carboxylase

This gene encodes an enzyme which catalyzes the posttranslational modification of vitamin K-dependent protein. Many of these vitamin K-dependent proteins are involved in coagulation so the function of the encoded enzyme is essential for hemostasis. Mutations in this gene are associated with vitamin K-dependent coagulation defect and PXE-like disorder with multiple coagulation factor deficiency. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

EPRS Gene

glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are a class of enzymes that charge tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. The protein encoded by this gene is a multifunctional aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that catalyzes the aminoacylation of glutamic acid and proline tRNA species. Alternative splicing has been observed for this gene, but the full-length nature and biological validity of the variant have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421386 Gene

glutamyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase A) pseudogene

GATB Gene

glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase, subunit B

GATC Gene

glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase, subunit C

LOC646797 Gene

glutamyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase A) pseudogene

ENPEP Gene

glutamyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase A)

EARS2 Gene

glutamyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a member of the class I family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This protein is encoded by the nuclear genome but is likely to be imported to the mitochondrion where it is thought to catalyze the ligation of glutamate to tRNA molecules. Mutations in this gene have been associated with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 12 (COXPD12). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

AKR7A2 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 7, member A2 (aflatoxin aldehyde reductase)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the aldo/keto reductase (AKR) superfamily and AKR7 family, which are involved in the detoxification of aldehydes and ketones. The AKR7 family consists of 3 genes that are present in a cluster on the p arm of chromosome 1. This protein, thought to be localized in the golgi, catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of succinic semialdehyde to the endogenous neuromodulator, gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It may also function as a detoxication enzyme in the reduction of aflatoxin B1 and 2-carboxybenzaldehyde. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

AKR7A3 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 7, member A3 (aflatoxin aldehyde reductase)

Aldo-keto reductases, such as AKR7A3, are involved in the detoxification of aldehydes and ketones.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

AKR1B1 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (aldose reductase)

This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. This member catalyzes the reduction of a number of aldehydes, including the aldehyde form of glucose, and is thereby implicated in the development of diabetic complications by catalyzing the reduction of glucose to sorbitol. Multiple pseudogenes have been identified for this gene. The nomenclature system used by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee to define human aldo-keto reductase family members is known to differ from that used by the Mouse Genome Informatics database. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

AKR1B10 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10 (aldose reductase)

This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. This member can efficiently reduce aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, and it is less active on hexoses. It is highly expressed in adrenal gland, small intestine, and colon, and may play an important role in liver carcinogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AKR1A1 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member A1 (aldehyde reductase)

This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. This member, also known as aldehyde reductase, is involved in the reduction of biogenic and xenobiotic aldehydes and is present in virtually every tissue. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene exist, all encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

LOC159007 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 7, member A2 (aflatoxin aldehyde reductase) pseudogene

GRHPR Gene

glyoxylate reductase/hydroxypyruvate reductase

This gene encodes an enzyme with hydroxypyruvate reductase, glyoxylate reductase, and D-glycerate dehydrogenase enzymatic activities. The enzyme has widespread tissue expression and has a role in metabolism. Type II hyperoxaluria is caused by mutations in this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIP4K2C Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, gamma

PIK3C2G Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 gamma

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. This gene may play a role in several diseases, including type II diabetes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GNPTG Gene

N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase, gamma subunit

This gene encodes the gamma sunbunit of the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase complex. This hexameric complex, composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits, catalyzes the first step in synthesis of a mannose 6-phosphate lysosomal recognition marker. This enzyme complex is necessary for targeting of lysosomal hydrolases to the lysosome. Mutations in the gene encoding the gamma subunit have been associated with mucolipidosis IIIC, also known as mucolipidosis III gamma.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

PIP5K1C Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, gamma

This locus encodes a type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase. The encoded protein catalyzes phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, producing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This enzyme is found at synapses and has been found to play roles in endocytosis and cell migration. Mutations at this locus have been associated with lethal congenital contractural syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

LOC100422537 Gene

signal sequence receptor, gamma (translocon-associated protein gamma) pseudogene

BBOX1 Gene

butyrobetaine (gamma), 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase (gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase) 1

This gene encodes gamma butyrobetaine hydroxylase which catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine, the last step in the L-carnitine biosynthetic pathway. Carnitine is essential for the transport of activated fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane during mitochondrial beta-oxidation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SSR3 Gene

signal sequence receptor, gamma (translocon-associated protein gamma)

The signal sequence receptor (SSR) is a glycosylated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane receptor associated with protein translocation across the ER membrane. The SSR is comprised of four membrane proteins/subunits: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The first two are glycosylated subunits and the latter two are non-glycosylated subunits. This gene encodes the gamma subunit, which is predicted to span the membrane four times. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

TFAP2C Gene

transcription factor AP-2 gamma (activating enhancer binding protein 2 gamma)

The protein encoded by this gene is a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor involved in the activation of several developmental genes. The encoded protein can act as either a homodimer or heterodimer with other family members and is induced during retinoic acid-mediated differentiation. It plays a role in the development of the eyes, face, body wall, limbs, and neural tube. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRG3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, gamma 3

This gene encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. GABA-A receptors are pentameric, consisting of proteins from several subunit classes: alpha, beta, gamma, delta and rho. The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma subunit, which contains the benzodiazepine binding site. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

GABRG2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, gamma 2

This gene encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammlian brain, where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. GABA-A receptors are pentameric, consisting of proteins from several subunit classes: alpha, beta, gamma, delta and rho. Mutations in this gene have been associated with epilepsy and febrile seizures. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRG1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, gamma 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ligand-gated ionic channel family. It is an integral membrane protein and plays an important role in inhibiting neurotransmission by binding to the benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. This gene is clustered with three other family members on chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFNGR2 Gene

interferon gamma receptor 2 (interferon gamma transducer 1)

This gene (IFNGR2) encodes the non-ligand-binding beta chain of the gamma interferon receptor. Human interferon-gamma receptor is a heterodimer of IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. Defects in IFNGR2 are a cause of mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD), also known as familial disseminated atypical mycobacterial infection. MSMD is a genetically heterogeneous disease with autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked inheritance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421321 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

SLC25A3P2 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 3 pseudogene 2

PECR Gene

peroxisomal trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase

SRD5A3 Gene

steroid 5 alpha-reductase 3

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the steroid 5-alpha reductase family, and polyprenol reductase subfamily. It is involved in the production of androgen 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from testosterone, and maintenance of the androgen-androgen receptor activation pathway. This protein is also necessary for the conversion of polyprenol into dolichol, which is required for the synthesis of dolichol-linked monosaccharides and the oligosaccharide precursor used for N-linked glycosylation of proteins. Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Iq. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

SRD5A2 Gene

steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 2 (3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase alpha 2)

This gene encodes a microsomal protein expressed at high levels in androgen-sensitive tissues such as the prostate. The encoded protein is active at acidic pH and is sensitive to the 4-azasteroid inhibitor finasteride. Deficiencies in this gene can result in male pseudohermaphroditism, specifically pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias (PPSH). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SRD5A1 Gene

steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 1 (3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase alpha 1)

Steroid 5-alpha-reductase (EC 1.3.99.5) catalyzes the conversion of testosterone into the more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Also see SRD5A2 (MIM 607306).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100130018 Gene

prostaglandin reductase 1 pseudogene

SDR42E1 Gene

short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 42E, member 1

DNPH1 Gene

2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-phosphate N-hydrolase 1

This gene was identified on the basis of its stimulation by c-Myc protein. The latter is a transcription factor that participates in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The exact function of this gene is not known but studies in rat suggest a role in cellular proliferation and c-Myc-mediated transformation. Two alternative transcripts encoding different proteins have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421253 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

LOC100421244 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

GAPDHP39 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 39

GAPDHP38 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 38

GAPDHP31 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 31

GAPDHP30 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 30

GAPDHP33 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 33

GAPDHP32 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 32

GAPDHP35 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 35

GAPDHP34 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 34

GAPDHP37 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 37

GAPDHP36 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 36

LOC100421247 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

CRYZL1 Gene

crystallin, zeta (quinone reductase)-like 1

This gene encodes a protein that has sequence similarity to zeta crystallin, also known as quinone oxidoreductase. This zeta crystallin-like protein also contains an NAD(P)H binding site. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed but their full-length nature has not been completely determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421243 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

ALG5 Gene

ALG5, dolichyl-phosphate beta-glucosyltransferase

This gene encodes a member of the glycosyltransferase 2 family. The encoded protein participates in glucosylation of the oligomannose core in N-linked glycosylation of proteins. The addition of glucose residues to the oligomannose core is necessary to ensure substrate recognition, and therefore, effectual transfer of the oligomannose core to the nascent glycoproteins. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

RPEP2 Gene

ribulose-5-phosphate-3-epimerase pseudogene 2

RPEP3 Gene

ribulose-5-phosphate-3-epimerase pseudogene 3

RPEP1 Gene

ribulose-5-phosphate-3-epimerase pseudogene 1

RPEP6 Gene

ribulose-5-phosphate-3-epimerase pseudogene 6

RPEP4 Gene

ribulose-5-phosphate-3-epimerase pseudogene 4

DHRS11 Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 11

DHRS12 Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 12

This gene encodes a member of the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) family, which has over 46,000 members. Members in this family are enzymes that metabolize many different compounds, such as steroid hormones, prostaglandins, retinoids, lipids and xenobiotics. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

DHRS13 Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 13

H6PD Gene

hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (glucose 1-dehydrogenase)

There are 2 forms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. G form is X-linked and H form, encoded by this gene, is autosomally linked. This H form shows activity with other hexose-6-phosphates, especially galactose-6-phosphate, whereas the G form is specific for glucose-6-phosphate. Both forms are present in most tissues, but H form is not found in red cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FAR2P1 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene 1

AGPS Gene

alkylglycerone phosphate synthase

This gene is a member of the FAD-binding oxidoreductase/transferase type 4 family. It encodes a protein that catalyzes the second step of ether lipid biosynthesis in which acyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) is converted to alkyl-DHAP by the addition of a long chain alcohol and the removal of a long-chain acid anion. The protein is localized to the inner aspect of the peroxisomal membrane and requires FAD as a cofactor. Mutations in this gene have been associated with rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, type 3 and Zellweger syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421100 Gene

RNA terminal phosphate cyclase-like 1 pseudogene

DCXR Gene

dicarbonyl/L-xylulose reductase

The protein encoded by this gene acts as a homotetramer to catalyze diacetyl reductase and L-xylulose reductase reactions. The encoded protein may play a role in the uronate cycle of glucose metabolism and in the cellular osmoregulation in the proximal renal tubules. Defects in this gene are a cause of pentosuria. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

AKR7A2P1 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 7, member A2 pseudogene 1

ISYNA1 Gene

inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1

This gene encodes an inositol-3-phosphate synthase enzyme. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway by catalyzing the rate-limiting conversion of glucose 6-phosphate to myoinositol 1-phosphate. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

SDR42E2 Gene

short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 42E, member 2

RRM2 Gene

ribonucleotide reductase M2

This gene encodes one of two non-identical subunits for ribonucleotide reductase. This reductase catalyzes the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides. Synthesis of the encoded protein (M2) is regulated in a cell-cycle dependent fashion. Transcription from this gene can initiate from alternative promoters, which results in two isoforms that differ in the lengths of their N-termini. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1 and X. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

RRM1 Gene

ribonucleotide reductase M1

This gene encodes one of two non-identical subunits that constitute ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase, an enzyme essential for the production of deoxyribonucleotides prior to DNA synthesis in S phase of dividing cells. It is one of several genes located in the imprinted gene domain of 11p15.5, an important tumor-suppressor gene region. Alterations in this region have been associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, adrenocrotical carcinoma, and lung, ovarian, and breast cancer. This gene may play a role in malignancies and disease that involve this region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC37A1 Gene

solute carrier family 37 (glucose-6-phosphate transporter), member 1

SLC37A1, a member of the sugar-phosphate transport family, transports glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) between cellular compartments for its utilization in several compartment-specific biochemical pathways.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2004]

MSRA Gene

methionine sulfoxide reductase A

This gene encodes a ubiquitous and highly conserved protein that carries out the enzymatic reduction of methionine sulfoxide to methionine. Human and animal studies have shown the highest levels of expression in kidney and nervous tissue. The protein functions in the repair of oxidatively damaged proteins to restore biological activity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

KDSR Gene

3-ketodihydrosphingosine reductase

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the reduction of 3-ketodihydrosphingosine to dihydrosphingosine. The putative active site residues of the encoded protein are found on the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. A chromosomal rearrangement involving this gene is a cause of follicular lymphoma, also known as type II chronic lymphatic leukemia. The mutation of a conserved residue in the bovine ortholog causes spinal muscular atrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTGR1 Gene

prostaglandin reductase 1

This gene encodes an enzyme that is involved in the inactivation of the chemotactic factor, leukotriene B4. The encoded protein specifically catalyzes the NADP+ dependent conversion of leukotriene B4 to 12-oxo-leukotriene B4. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

PTGR2 Gene

prostaglandin reductase 2

This gene encodes an enzyme involved in the metabolism of prostaglandins. The encoded protein catalyzes the NADPH-dependent conversion of 15-keto-prostaglandin E2 to 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin E2. This protein may also be involved in regulating activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

MRI1 Gene

methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase 1

MGC34796 Gene

sepiapterin reductase (7,8-dihydrobiopterin:NADP+ oxidoreductase) pseudogene

PNPO Gene

pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase

The enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes the terminal, rate-limiting step in the synthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, also known as vitamin B6. Vitamin B6 is a required co-factor for enzymes involved in both homocysteine metabolism and synthesis of neurotransmitters such as catecholamine. Mutations in this gene result in pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate oxidase (PNPO) deficiency, a form of neonatal epileptic encephalopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

SLC25A3P3 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 3 pseudogene

SLC25A3P1 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 3 pseudogene 1

SGPL1 Gene

sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase 1

DPM3 Gene

dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase polypeptide 3

Dolichol-phosphate mannose (Dol-P-Man) serves as a donor of mannosyl residues on the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Lack of Dol-P-Man results in defective surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins. Dol-P-Man is synthesized from GDP-mannose and dolichol-phosphate on the cytosolic side of the ER by the enzyme dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase and acts as a stabilizer subunit of the dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DPM2 Gene

dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase polypeptide 2, regulatory subunit

Dolichol-phosphate mannose (Dol-P-Man) serves as a donor of mannosyl residues on the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Lack of Dol-P-Man results in defective surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins. Dol-P-Man is synthesized from GDP-mannose and dolichol-phosphate on the cytosolic side of the ER by the enzyme dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase. The protein encoded by this gene is a hydrophobic protein that contains 2 predicted transmembrane domains and a putative ER localization signal near the C terminus. This protein associates with DPM1 in vivo and is required for the ER localization and stable expression of DPM1 and also enhances the binding of dolichol-phosphate to DPM1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DPM1 Gene

dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase polypeptide 1, catalytic subunit

Dolichol-phosphate mannose (Dol-P-Man) serves as a donor of mannosyl residues on the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Lack of Dol-P-Man results in defective surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins. Dol-P-Man is synthesized from GDP-mannose and dolichol-phosphate on the cytosolic side of the ER by the enzyme dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase. Human DPM1 lacks a carboxy-terminal transmembrane domain and signal sequence and is regulated by DPM2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GAPDHP2 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 2

GAPDHP1 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 1

LOC100418560 Gene

dihydrofolate reductase pseudogene

LOC100421256 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

LOC100421251 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

PCYT2 Gene

phosphate cytidylyltransferase 2, ethanolamine

This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of CDP-ethanolamine from CTP and phosphoethanolamine in the Kennedy pathway of phospholipid synthesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

QDPR Gene

quinoid dihydropteridine reductase

This gene encodes the enzyme dihydropteridine reductase, which catalyzes the NADH-mediated reduction of quinonoid dihydrobiopterin. This enzyme is an essential component of the pterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylating systems. Mutations in this gene resulting in QDPR deficiency include aberrant splicing, amino acid substitutions, insertions, or premature terminations. Dihydropteridine reductase deficiency presents as atypical phenylketonuria due to insufficient production of biopterin, a cofactor for phenylalanine hydroxylase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DHFRL1 Gene

dihydrofolate reductase-like 1

ETNPPL Gene

ethanolamine-phosphate phospho-lyase

LOC100421304 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

DHRS4L1 Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 4 like 1

DHRS4L2 Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 4 like 2

This gene encodes a member of the short chain dehydrogenase reductase family. The encoded protein may be an NADPH dependent retinol oxidoreductase. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

AKR1B15 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B15

FRRS1L Gene

ferric-chelate reductase 1-like

LOC644310 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit X pseudogene

SRD5A1P1 Gene

steroid-5-alpha-reductase, alpha polypeptide 1 pseudogene 1 (3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase alpha pseudogene)

GAPDHP55 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 55

GAPDHP54 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 54

GAPDHP53 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 53

GAPDHP52 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 52

GAPDHP51 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 51

GAPDHP50 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 50

LOC100418558 Gene

dihydrofolate reductase pseudogene

RPIA Gene

ribose 5-phosphate isomerase A

The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme, which catalyzes the reversible conversion between ribose-5-phosphate and ribulose-5-phosphate in the pentose-phosphate pathway. This gene is highly conserved in most organisms. The enzyme plays an essential role in the carbohydrate metabolism. Mutations in this gene cause ribose 5-phosphate isomerase deficiency. A pseudogene is found on chromosome 18. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

DHRS7B Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7B

This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. It encodes a protein of unknown function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DHRS7C Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7C

MSRB1P1 Gene

methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 pseudogene 1

PIP4K2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, alpha

Phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate, the precursor to second messengers of the phosphoinositide signal transduction pathways, is thought to be involved in the regulation of secretion, cell proliferation, differentiation, and motility. The protein encoded by this gene is one of a family of enzymes capable of catalyzing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate on the fourth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring to form phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate. The amino acid sequence of this enzyme does not show homology to other kinases, but the recombinant protein does exhibit kinase activity. This gene is a member of the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIP4K2B Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, beta

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate on the fourth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring to form phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate. This gene is a member of the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase family. The encoded protein sequence does not show similarity to other kinases, but the protein does exhibit kinase activity. Additionally, the encoded protein interacts with p55 TNF receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GPAM Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial enzyme which prefers saturated fatty acids as its substrate for the synthesis of glycerolipids. This metabolic pathway's first step is catalyzed by the encoded enzyme. Two forms for this enzyme exist, one in the mitochondria and one in the endoplasmic reticulum. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

MECR Gene

mitochondrial trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase

LOC100420205 Gene

ribonucleotide reductase M2 pseudogene

PCYT1A Gene

phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, alpha

PCYT1B Gene

phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cytidylyltransferase family. It is involved in the regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

TECRL Gene

trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase-like

PIK3C2B Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is sensitive to low nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmanin. The C2 domain of this protein was shown to bind phospholipids but not Ca2+, which suggests that this enzyme may function in a calcium-independent manner. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 alpha

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is not sensitive to nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmanin. This protein was shown to be able to be activated by insulin and may be involved in integrin-dependent signaling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100132056 Gene

dihydrofolate reductase pseudogene

PIP5K1P1 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, pseudogene 1

PIP5K1P2 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, pseudogene 2

BLVRB Gene

biliverdin reductase B

The final step in heme metabolism in mammals is catalyzed by the cytosolic biliverdin reductase enzymes A and B (EC 1.3.1.24).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2009]

BLVRA Gene

biliverdin reductase A

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the biliverdin reductase family, members of which catalyze the conversion of biliverdin to bilirubin in the presence of NADPH or NADH. Mutations in this gene are associated with hyperbiliverdinemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

GNPTAB Gene

N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase, alpha and beta subunits

This gene encodes two of three subunit types of the membrane-bound enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase, a heterohexameric complex composed of two alpha, two beta, and two gamma subunits. The encoded protein is proteolytically cleaved at the Lys928-Asp929 bond to yield mature alpha and beta polypeptides while the gamma subunits are the product of a distinct gene (GeneID 84572). In the Golgi apparatus, the heterohexameric complex catalyzes the first step in the synthesis of mannose 6-phosphate recognition markers on certain oligosaccharides of newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes. These recognition markers are essential for appropriate trafficking of lysosomal enzymes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with both mucolipidosis II and mucolipidosis IIIA.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

GAPDHP76 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 76

LOC728667 Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 2 pseudogene

FAR2P4 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene 4

GAPDHP57 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 57

UQCR10 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit X

UCRC is a subunit of mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase; EC 1.10.2.2), which forms the middle segment of the respiratory chain of the inner mitochondrial membrane (Schagger et al., 1995 [PubMed 8592474]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

UQCR11 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit XI

This gene encodes the smallest known component of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex, which forms part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The encoded protein may function as a binding factor for the iron-sulfur protein in this complex. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

MTRR Gene

5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase

Methionine is an essential amino acid required for protein synthesis and one-carbon metabolism. Its synthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme methionine synthase. Methionine synthase eventually becomes inactive due to the oxidation of its cob(I)alamin cofactor. The protein encoded by this gene regenerates a functional methionine synthase via reductive methylation. It is a member of the ferredoxin-NADP(+) reductase (FNR) family of electron transferases. Patients of the cbl-E complementation group of disorders of folate/cobalamin metabolism are defective in reductive activation of methionine synthase. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UQCRQ Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit VII, 9.5kDa

This gene encodes a ubiquinone-binding protein of low molecular mass. This protein is a small core-associated protein and a subunit of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex III, which is part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UQCRH Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein

UQCRB Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein

This gene encodes a subunit of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase complex, which consists of one mitochondrial-encoded and 10 nuclear-encoded subunits. The protein encoded by this gene binds ubiquinone and participates in the transfer of electrons when ubiquinone is bound. This protein plays an important role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-mediated signaling. Mutations in this gene are associated with mitochondrial complex III deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1, 5 and X. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

AGPAT6 Gene

1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6

Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (EC 2.3.1.51) catalyze the conversion of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA). LPA and PA are involved in signal transduction and lipid biosynthesis.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

AGPAT5 Gene

1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 5

This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. This integral membrane protein converts lysophosphatidic acid to phosphatidic acid, the second step in de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. A pseudogene of this gene is present on the Y chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

AGPAT4 Gene

1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 4

This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. This integral membrane protein converts lysophosphatidic acid to phosphatidic acid, the second step in de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AGPAT3 Gene

1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is an acyltransferase that converts lysophosphatidic acid into phosphatidic acid, which is the second step in the de novo phospholipid biosynthetic pathway. The encoded protein may be an integral membrane protein. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AGPAT2 Gene

1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2

This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. The protein is located within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and converts lysophosphatidic acid to phosphatidic acid, the second step in de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL), or Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, a disease characterized by a near absence of adipose tissue and severe insulin resistance. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AGPAT1 Gene

1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1

This gene encodes an enzyme that converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) into phosphatidic acid (PA). LPA and PA are two phospholipids involved in signal transduction and in lipid biosynthesis in cells. This enzyme localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. This gene is located in the class III region of the human major histocompatibility complex. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AGPAT9 Gene

1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 9

This gene encodes a member of the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase protein family. The encoded protein is an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of glycerol-3-phosphate to lysophosphatidic acid in the synthesis of triacylglycerol. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

SLC34A1 Gene

solute carrier family 34 (type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter), member 1

This gene encodes a member of the type II sodium-phosphate cotransporter family. Mutations in this gene are associated with hypophosphatemia nephrolithiasis/osteoporosis 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

SLC34A3 Gene

solute carrier family 34 (type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter), member 3

This gene encodes a member of SLC34A transporter family of proteins, and is expressed primarily in the kidney. It is involved in transporting phosphate into cells via sodium cotransport in the renal brush border membrane, and contributes to the maintenance of inorganic phosphate concentration in the kidney. Mutations in this gene are associated with hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants varying in the 5' UTR have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

SLC34A2 Gene

solute carrier family 34 (type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter), member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a pH-sensitive sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. Phosphate uptake is increased at lower pH. Defects in this gene are a cause of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LOC100421569 Gene

glyoxylate reductase 1 homolog (Arabidopsis) pseudogene

UQCRC2P1 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein II pseudogene 1

UQCRFS1P1 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, Rieske iron-sulfur polypeptide 1 pseudogene 1

UQCRFS1P2 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, Rieske iron-sulfur polypeptide 1 pseudogene 2

UQCRFS1P3 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, Rieske iron-sulfur polypeptide 1 pseudogene 3

CBR4 Gene

carbonyl reductase 4

CBR1 Gene

carbonyl reductase 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) family, which function as NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases having wide specificity for carbonyl compounds, such as quinones, prostaglandins, and various xenobiotics. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

CBR3 Gene

carbonyl reductase 3

Carbonyl reductase 3 catalyzes the reduction of a large number of biologically and pharmacologically active carbonyl compounds to their corresponding alcohols. The enzyme is classified as a monomeric NADPH-dependent oxidoreductase. CBR3 contains three exons spanning 11.2 kilobases and is closely linked to another carbonyl reductase gene - CBR1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

M6PR Gene

mannose-6-phosphate receptor (cation dependent)

This gene encodes a member of the P-type lectin family. P-type lectins play a critical role in lysosome function through the specific transport of mannose-6-phosphate-containing acid hydrolases from the Golgi complex to lysosomes. The encoded protein functions as a homodimer and requires divalent cations for ligand binding. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

CPTP Gene

ceramide-1-phosphate transfer protein

SDR16C6P Gene

short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 16C, member 6, pseudogene

RPIAP1 Gene

ribose 5-phosphate isomerase A pseudogene 1

GAPDHP26 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 26

GAPDHP25 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 25

GAPDHP22 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 22

GAPDHP23 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 23

GAPDHP20 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 20

GAPDHP21 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 21

GAPDHP29 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 29

RPE Gene

ribulose-5-phosphate-3-epimerase

FAR2P3 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene 3

FAR2P2 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene 2

SLC25A23 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 23

SLC25A24 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 24

This gene encodes a carrier protein that transports ATP-Mg exchanging it for phosphate. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

SLC25A25 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 25

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of calcium-binding mitochondrial carriers, with a characteristic mitochondrial carrier domain at the C-terminus. These proteins are found in the inner membranes of mitochondria, and function as transport proteins. They shuttle metabolites, nucleotides and cofactors through the mitochondrial membrane and thereby connect and/or regulate cytoplasm and matrix functions. This protein may function as an ATP-Mg/Pi carrier that mediates the transport of Mg-ATP in exchange for phosphate, and likely responsible for the net uptake or efflux of adenine nucleotides into or from the mitochondria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms with a common C-terminus but variable N-termini have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

GPD1 Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (soluble)

This gene encodes a member of the NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family. The encoded protein plays a critical role in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by catalyzing the reversible conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) and NAD+. The encoded cytosolic protein and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase also form a glycerol phosphate shuttle that facilitates the transfer of reducing equivalents from the cytosol to mitochondria. Mutations in this gene are a cause of transient infantile hypertriglyceridemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

GPD2 Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (mitochondrial)

The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the inner mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the conversion of glycerol-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate, using FAD as a cofactor. Along with GDP1, the encoded protein constitutes the glycerol phosphate shuttle, which reoxidizes NADH formed during glycolysis. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

MSRB1 Gene

methionine sulfoxide reductase B1

This gene encodes a selenoprotein, which contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue at its active site. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA codon that normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of selenoprotein genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), that is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. This protein belongs to the methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) protein family which includes repair enzymes that reduce oxidized methionine residues in proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is expressed in a variety of adult and fetal tissues and localizes to the cell nucleus and cytosol. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

MSRB3 Gene

methionine sulfoxide reductase B3

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the reduction of methionine sulfoxide to methionine. This enzyme acts as a monomer and requires zinc as a cofactor. Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. One of the isoforms localizes to mitochondria while the other localizes to endoplasmic reticula. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

LOC727947 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein pseudogene

LOC100421409 Gene

glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 pseudogene

GALT Gene

galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase

Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) catalyzes the second step of the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism, namely the conversion of UDP-glucose + galactose-1-phosphate to glucose-1-phosphate + UDP-galactose. The absence of this enzyme results in classic galactosemia in humans and can be fatal in the newborn period if lactose is not removed from the diet. The pathophysiology of galactosemia has not been clearly defined. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

DHRS9 Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 9

This gene encodes a member of the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. This protein demonstrates oxidoreductase activity toward hydroxysteroids and is able to convert 3-alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone to dihydroxyprogesterone and 3-alpha-androstanediol to dihydroxyprogesterone in the cytoplasm, and may additionally function as a transcriptional repressor in the nucleus. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

DHRS7 Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7

Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs), such as DHRS7, catalyze the oxidation/reduction of a wide range of substrates, including retinoids and steroids (Haeseleer and Palczewski, 2000 [PubMed 10800688]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

DHRS4 Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 4

DHRS2 Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 2

DHRS3 Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 3

Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs), such as DHRS3, catalyze the oxidation/reduction of a wide range of substrates, including retinoids and steroids (Haeseleer and Palczewski, 2000 [PubMed 10800688]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

DHRS1 Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 1

This gene encodes a member of the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) family. The encoded enzyme contains a conserved catalytic domain and likely functions as an oxidoreductase. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

DHRSX Gene

dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) X-linked

VKORC1 Gene

vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1

Vitamin K is essential for blood clotting but must be enzymatically activated. This enzymatically activated form of vitamin K is a reduced form required for the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in some blood-clotting proteins. The product of this gene encodes the enzyme that is responsible for reducing vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to the enzymatically activated form. Fatal bleeding can be caused by vitamin K deficiency and by the vitamin K antagonist warfarin, and it is the product of this gene that is sensitive to warfarin. In humans, mutations in this gene can be associated with deficiencies in vitamin-K-dependent clotting factors and, in humans and rats, with warfarin resistance. Two pseudogenes have been identified on chromosome 1 and the X chromosome. Two alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RRM2B Gene

ribonucleotide reductase M2 B (TP53 inducible)

This gene encodes the small subunit of a p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase. This heterotetrameric enzyme catalyzes the conversion of ribonucleoside diphosphates to deoxyribonucleoside diphosphates. The product of this reaction is necessary for DNA synthesis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal recessive mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia-5, and mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

AKR1B1P4 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 pseudogene 4

AKR1B1P5 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 pseudogene 5

AKR1B1P6 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 pseudogene 6

AKR1B1P7 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 pseudogene 7

AKR1B1P1 Gene

aldehyde reductase family 1, member B1 pseudogene 1

AKR1B1P2 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 pseudogene 2

AKR1B1P3 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 pseudogene 3

AKR1B1P8 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 pseudogene 8

GAPDHP24 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 24

GAPDHP28 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 28

VKORC1L1 Gene

vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1-like 1

AKR1C7P Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C7, pseudogene

RRM2P4 Gene

ribonucleotide reductase M2 polypeptide pseudogene 4

RRM2P3 Gene

ribonucleotide reductase M2 polypeptide pseudogene 3

RRM2P2 Gene

ribonucleotide reductase M2 polypeptide pseudogene 2

CYBRD1 Gene

cytochrome b reductase 1

This gene is a member of the cytochrome b(561) family that encodes an iron-regulated protein. It highly expressed in the duodenal brush border membrane. It has ferric reductase activity and is believed to play a physiological role in dietary iron absorption. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GAPDHP68 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 68

LOC441241 Gene

vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1-like 1 pseudogene

GPAT2 Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2, mitochondrial

LOC100131200 Gene

mannose-6-phosphate receptor (cation dependent) pseudogene

AKR1B10P1 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10 pseudogene 1

AKR1B10P2 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10 pseudogene 2

UQCRBP2 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein pseudogene 2

UQCRBP3 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein pseudogene 3

UQCRBP1 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein pseudogene 1

GMPR2 Gene

guanosine monophosphate reductase 2

LOC100422348 Gene

short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 42E, member 1 pseudogene

LOC100422346 Gene

short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 42E, member 1 pseudogene

LOC100422347 Gene

short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 42E, member 1 pseudogene

RPEL1 Gene

ribulose-5-phosphate-3-epimerase-like 1

SPR Gene

sepiapterin reductase (7,8-dihydrobiopterin:NADP+ oxidoreductase)

This gene encodes an aldo-keto reductase that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of pteridine derivatives and is important in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Mutations in this gene result in DOPA-responsive dystonia due to sepiaterin reductase deficiency. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC653924 Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2, mitochondrial pseudogene

MPI Gene

mannose phosphate isomerase

Phosphomannose isomerase catalyzes the interconversion of fructose-6-phosphate and mannose-6-phosphate and plays a critical role in maintaining the supply of D-mannose derivatives, which are required for most glycosylation reactions. Mutations in the MPI gene were found in patients with carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome, type Ib. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GNPNAT1 Gene

glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1

SLC37A2 Gene

solute carrier family 37 (glucose-6-phosphate transporter), member 2

SLC37A4 Gene

solute carrier family 37 (glucose-6-phosphate transporter), member 4

This gene regulates glucose-6-phosphate transport from the cytoplasm to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, in order to maintain glucose homeostasis. It also plays a role in ATP-mediated calcium sequestration in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in this gene have been associated with various forms of glycogen storage disease. Alternative splicing in this gene results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

TECRP1 Gene

trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase pseudogene 1

TECRP2 Gene

trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase pseudogene 2

PHEX Gene

phosphate regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked

The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane endopeptidase that belongs to the type II integral membrane zinc-dependent endopeptidase family. The protein is thought to be involved in bone and dentin mineralization and renal phosphate reabsorption. Mutations in this gene cause X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

MTHFR Gene

methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NAD(P)H)

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine. Genetic variation in this gene influences susceptibility to occlusive vascular disease, neural tube defects, colon cancer and acute leukemia, and mutations in this gene are associated with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

AKR1C8P Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C8, pseudogene

AGPAT5P1 Gene

1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 5 pseudogene 1

GPD1L Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1-like

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the conversion of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to glycerone phosphate. The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm, associated with the plasma membrane, where it binds the sodium channel, voltage-gated, type V, alpha subunit (SCN5A). Defects in this gene are a cause of Brugada syndrome type 2 (BRS2) as well as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

GAPDHP75 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 75

GAPDHP74 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 74

GAPDHP71 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 71

GAPDHP70 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 70

GAPDHP73 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 73

GAPDHP72 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 72

G6PD Gene

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

This gene encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This protein is a cytosolic enzyme encoded by a housekeeping X-linked gene whose main function is to produce NADPH, a key electron donor in the defense against oxidizing agents and in reductive biosynthetic reactions. G6PD is remarkable for its genetic diversity. Many variants of G6PD, mostly produced from missense mutations, have been described with wide ranging levels of enzyme activity and associated clinical symptoms. G6PD deficiency may cause neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis, or severe chronic non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100418573 Gene

dihydrofolate reductase-like 1 pseudogene

FRRS1 Gene

ferric-chelate reductase 1

Members of the cytochrome b561 (CYB561; MIM 600019) family, including FRRS1, reduce ferric to ferrous iron before its transport from the endosome to the cytoplasm (Vargas et al., 2003 [PubMed 14499595]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GAPDH Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase

This gene encodes a member of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. The product of this gene catalyzes an important energy-yielding step in carbohydrate metabolism, the reversible oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate in the presence of inorganic phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The encoded protein has additionally been identified to have uracil DNA glycosylase activity in the nucleus. Also, this protein contains a peptide that has antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans. Studies of a similar protein in mouse have assigned a variety of additional functions including nitrosylation of nuclear proteins, the regulation of mRNA stability, and acting as a transferrin receptor on the cell surface of macrophage. Many pseudogenes similar to this locus are present in the human genome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

FAR1P1 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 1 pseudogene 1

LPPR3 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 3

The proteins in the lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) family, including PRG2, are integral membrane proteins that modulate bioactive lipid phosphates including phosphatidate, lysophosphatidate, and sphingosine-1-phosphate in the context of cell migration, neurite retraction, and mitogenesis (Brauer et al., 2003 [PubMed 12730698]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GAPDHP65 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 65

GPI Gene

glucose-6-phosphate isomerase

This gene encodes a member of the glucose phosphate isomerase protein family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. In the cytoplasm, the gene product functions as a glycolytic enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase) that interconverts glucose-6-phophsate and fructose-6-phosphate. Extracellularly, the encoded protein (also referred to as neuroleukin) functions as a neurotrophic factor that promotes survival of skeletal motor neurons and sensory neurons, and as a lymphokine that induces immunoglobulin secretion. The encoded protein is also referred to as autocrine motility factor based on an additional function as a tumor-secreted cytokine and angiogenic factor. Defects in this gene are the cause of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia and a severe enzyme deficiency can be associated with hydrops fetalis, immediate neonatal death and neurological impairment. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GFPT1 Gene

glutamine--fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1

This gene encodes the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine pathway and controls the flux of glucose into the hexosamine pathway. The product of this gene catalyzes the formation of glucosamine 6-phosphate. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

GFPT2 Gene

glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 2

HPBP Gene

phosphate binding apolipoprotein

LOC401767 Gene

1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6 (lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, zeta) pseudogene

SDR42E1P1 Gene

short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 42E, member 1 pseudogene 1

CAD Gene

carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase

The de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is required for mammalian cells to proliferate. This gene encodes a trifunctional protein which is associated with the enzymatic activities of the first 3 enzymes in the 6-step pathway of pyrimidine biosynthesis: carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS II), aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase. This protein is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, which indicates a direct link between activation of the MAPK cascade and de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

LOC100421317 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

LOC100421314 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

CRYZP1 Gene

crystallin, zeta (quinone reductase) pseudogene 1

CRYZP2 Gene

crystallin, zeta (quinone reductase) pseudogene 2

LOC100420006 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene

UQCRHL Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein-like

This gene has characteristics of a pseudogene derived from the UQCRH gene. However, there is still an open reading frame that could produce a protein of the same or nearly the same size as that of the UQCRH gene, so this gene is being called protein-coding for now. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC20A2 Gene

solute carrier family 20 (phosphate transporter), member 2

This gene encodes a member of the inorganic phosphate transporter family. The encoded protein is a type 3 sodium-dependent phosphate symporter that plays an important role in phosphate homeostasis by mediating cellular phosphate uptake. The encoded protein also confers susceptibility to viral infection as a gamma-retroviral receptor. Mutations in this gene may play a role in familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

SLC20A1 Gene

solute carrier family 20 (phosphate transporter), member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a sodium-phosphate symporter that absorbs phosphate from interstitial fluid for use in cellular functions such as metabolism, signal transduction, and nucleic acid and lipid synthesis. The encoded protein is also a retroviral receptor, causing human cells to be susceptible to infection by gibbon ape leukemia virus, simian sarcoma-associated virus, feline leukemia virus subgroup B, and 10A1 murine leukemia virus.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

AKR1C1 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1

This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme catalyzes the reaction of progesterone to the inactive form 20-alpha-hydroxy-progesterone. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC645433 Gene

inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1 pseudogene

LOC729999 Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (mitochondrial) pseudogene

UQCRHP3 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein pseudogene 3

LOC100420653 Gene

guanosine monophosphate reductase pseudogene

LOC100423044 Gene

solute carrier family 34 (type II sodium/phosphate cotransporter), member 2 pseudogene

DHFRP2 Gene

dihydrofolate reductase pseudogene 2

SLC20A1P1 Gene

solute carrier family 20 (phosphate transporter), member 1 pseudogene 1

SLC20A1P3 Gene

solute carrier family 20 (phosphate transporter), member 1 pseudogene 3

SLC20A1P2 Gene

solute carrier family 20 (phosphate transporter), member 1 pseudogene 2

BCS1L Gene

BC1 (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase) synthesis-like

This gene encodes a homolog of the S. cerevisiae bcs1 protein which is involved in the assembly of complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The encoded protein does not contain a mitochondrial targeting sequence but experimental studies confirm that it is imported into mitochondria. Mutations in this gene are associated with mitochondrial complex III deficiency and the GRACILE syndrome. Five alternatively spliced transcripts encoding the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

SGPP2 Gene

sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase 2

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that regulates diverse biologic processes. SGPP2 catalyzes the degradation of S1P (Ogawa et al., 2003 [PubMed 12411432]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

SGPP1 Gene

sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase 1

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that regulates diverse biologic processes. SGPP1 catalyzes the degradation of S1P via salvage and recycling of sphingosine into long-chain ceramides (Mandala et al., 2000 [PubMed 10859351]; Le Stunff et al., 2007 [PubMed 17895250]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

FDXR Gene

ferredoxin reductase

This gene encodes a mitochondrial flavoprotein that initiates electron transport for cytochromes P450 receiving electrons from NADPH. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

AKR1D1P1 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member D1 pseudogene 1

LOC100421261 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

LOC100421264 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

LOC100420790 Gene

glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2 pseudogene

GAPDHP48 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 48

GAPDHP49 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 49

GAPDHP44 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 44

GAPDHP45 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 45

GAPDHP46 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 46

GAPDHP47 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 47

GAPDHP40 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 40

GAPDHP41 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 41

GAPDHP42 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 42

GAPDHP43 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 43

SLC25A3 Gene

solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 3

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the transport of phosphate into the mitochondrial matrix, either by proton cotransport or in exchange for hydroxyl ions. The protein contains three related segments arranged in tandem which are related to those found in other characterized members of the mitochondrial carrier family. Both the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of this protein protrude toward the cytosol. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been isolated. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

UQCRFS1 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, Rieske iron-sulfur polypeptide 1

AKR1C4 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C4

This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme catalyzes the bioreduction of chlordecone, a toxic organochlorine pesticide, to chlordecone alcohol in liver. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AKR1C2 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C2

This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols using NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme binds bile acid with high affinity, and shows minimal 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

DPAGT1 Gene

dolichyl-phosphate (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase 1 (GlcNAc-1-P transferase)

The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme that catalyzes the first step in the dolichol-linked oligosaccharide pathway for glycoprotein biosynthesis. This enzyme belongs to the glycosyltransferase family 4. This protein is an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. The congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ij is caused by mutation in the gene encoding this enzyme. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HMGCR Gene

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase

HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis and is regulated via a negative feedback mechanism mediated by sterols and non-sterol metabolites derived from mevalonate, the product of the reaction catalyzed by reductase. Normally in mammalian cells this enzyme is suppressed by cholesterol derived from the internalization and degradation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) via the LDL receptor. Competitive inhibitors of the reductase induce the expression of LDL receptors in the liver, which in turn increases the catabolism of plasma LDL and lowers the plasma concentration of cholesterol, an important determinant of atherosclerosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

AKR1C3 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3

This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ), and the oxidation of 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 to PGD2. It may play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, and may also have a role in controlling cell growth and/or differentiation. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

LOC100420171 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene

LOC100420172 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene

LOC100420175 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2 pseudogene

NDUFS5P3 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 5, 15kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) pseudogene 3

NDUFS5P2 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 5, 15kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) pseudogene 2

NDUFS5P7 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 5, 15kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) pseudogene 7

NDUFS5P5 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 5, 15kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) pseudogene 5

NDUFS5P4 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 5, 15kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) pseudogene 4

SDR9C7 Gene

short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 9C, member 7

This gene encodes a protein with similarity to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family but has not been shown to have retinoid or dehydrogenase activities. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

RCL1 Gene

RNA terminal phosphate cyclase-like 1

GLYR1 Gene

glyoxylate reductase 1 homolog (Arabidopsis)

SQRDL Gene

sulfide quinone reductase-like (yeast)

The protein encoded by this gene may function in mitochondria to catalyze the conversion of sulfide to persulfides, thereby decreasing toxic concencrations of sulfide. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

AKR7L Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 7-like (gene/pseudogene)

This gene is one of three aldo-keto reductase genes that are present in a cluster on the p arm of chromosome 1. The encoded proteins are involved in the reduction of the dialdehyde protein-binding form of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to the non-binding AFB1 dialcohol. It has been speculated that this family member encodes a selenoprotein, which includes a selenocysteine (Sec) residue in lieu of a UGA translational termination codon. However, there is no evidence that such a protein is produced in vivo. The alternative interpretation is that this family member is a duplicated pseudogene, and it is therefore represented as such in this Gene record. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

AKR1C5P Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C5, pseudogene

CYB5R4 Gene

cytochrome b5 reductase 4

NCB5OR is a flavohemoprotein that contains functional domains found in both cytochrome b5 (CYB5A; MIM 613218) and CYB5 reductase (CYB5R3; MIM 613213) (Zhu et al., 1999 [PubMed 10611283]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2010]

CYB5R3 Gene

cytochrome b5 reductase 3

This gene encodes cytochrome b5 reductase, which includes a membrane-bound form in somatic cells (anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondrial and other membranes) and a soluble form in erythrocytes. The membrane-bound form exists mainly on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum and functions in desaturation and elongation of fatty acids, in cholesterol biosynthesis, and in drug metabolism. The erythrocyte form is located in a soluble fraction of circulating erythrocytes and is involved in methemoglobin reduction. The membrane-bound form has both membrane-binding and catalytic domains, while the soluble form has only the catalytic domain. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Mutations in this gene cause methemoglobinemias. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

CYB5R2 Gene

cytochrome b5 reductase 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the flavoprotein pyridine nucleotide cytochrome reductase family of proteins. Cytochrome b-type NAD(P)H oxidoreductases are implicated in many processes including cholesterol biosynthesis, fatty acid desaturation and elongation, and respiratory burst in neutrophils and macrophages. Cytochrome b5 reductases have soluble and membrane-bound forms that are the product of alternative splicing. In animal cells, the membrane-bound form binds to the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is a member of a fatty acid desaturation complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

CYB5R1 Gene

cytochrome b5 reductase 1

CYB5RL Gene

cytochrome b5 reductase-like

NDUFS5P1 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 5, 15kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) pseudogene 1

UQCRC2 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein II

UQCRC1 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein I

RETSAT Gene

retinol saturase (all-trans-retinol 13,14-reductase)

TXNRD3NB Gene

thioredoxin reductase 3 neighbor

LPPR5 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a type 2 member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. All type 2 members of this protein family contain 6 transmembrane regions, and a consensus N-glycosylation site. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in de novo synthesis of glycerolipids as well as in receptor-activated signal transduction mediated by phospholipase D. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LPPR4 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 4

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP) family. LPPs catalyze the dephosphorylation of a number of bioactive lipid mediators that regulate a variety of cell functions. This protein is specifically expressed in neurons. It is located in the membranes of outgrowing axons and has been shown to be important for axonal outgrowth during development and regenerative sprouting. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

LPPR2 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 2

LPPR1 Gene

lipid phosphate phosphatase-related protein type 1

This gene encodes a member of the plasticity-related gene (PRG) family. Members of the PRG family mediate lipid phosphate phosphatase activity in neurons and are known to be involved in neuronal plasticity. The protein encoded by this gene does not perform its function through enzymatic phospholipid degradation. This gene is strongly expressed in brain. It shows dynamic expression regulation during brain development and neuronal excitation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100419293 Gene

carbonyl reductase 1 pseudogene

CRYZ Gene

crystallin, zeta (quinone reductase)

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. The former class is also called phylogenetically-restricted crystallins. This gene encodes a taxon-specific crystallin protein which has NADPH-dependent quinone reductase activity distinct from other known quinone reductases. It lacks alcohol dehydrogenase activity although by similarity it is considered a member of the zinc-containing alcohol dehydrogenase family. Unlike other mammalian species, in humans, lens expression is low. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. One pseudogene is known to exist. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

PIP5KL1 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase-like 1

PIP5KL1 is a phosphoinositide kinase-like protein that lacks intrinsic lipid kinase activity but associates with type I PIPKs (see PIP5K1A; MIM 603275) and may play a role in localization of PIPK activity (Chang et al., 2004 [PubMed 14701839]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

KAR Gene

Aromatic alpha-keto acid reductase

DHFRP1 Gene

dihydrofolate reductase pseudogene 1

NDUFS1 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1, 75kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the complex I 75 kDa subunit family. Mammalian complex I is composed of 45 different subunits. It locates at the mitochondrial inner membrane. This protein has NADH dehydrogenase activity and oxidoreductase activity. It transfers electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone. This protein is the largest subunit of complex I and it is a component of the iron-sulfur (IP) fragment of the enzyme. It may form part of the active site crevice where NADH is oxidized. Mutations in this gene are associated with complex I deficiency. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

NDUFS2 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 2, 49kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase)

The protein encoded by this gene is a core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (complex I). Mammalian mitochondrial complex I is composed of at least 43 different subunits, 7 of which are encoded by the mitochondrial genome, and the rest are the products of nuclear genes. The iron-sulfur protein fraction of complex I is made up of 7 subunits, including this gene product. Complex I catalyzes the NADH oxidation with concomitant ubiquinone reduction and proton ejection out of the mitochondria. Mutations in this gene are associated with mitochondrial complex I deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

NDUFS3 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 3, 30kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase)

This gene encodes one of the iron-sulfur protein (IP) components of mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I). Mutations in this gene are associated with Leigh syndrome resulting from mitochondrial complex I deficiency.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

NDUFS4 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 4, 18kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase)

This gene encodes an accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), or NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the first multi-subunit enzyme complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Complex I plays a vital role in cellular ATP production, the primary source of energy for many crucial processes in living cells. It removes electrons from NADH and passes them by a series of different protein-coupled redox centers to the electron acceptor ubiquinone. In well-coupled mitochondria, the electron flux leads to ATP generation via the building of a proton gradient across the inner membrane. Complex I is composed of at least 41 subunits, of which 7 are encoded by the mitochondrial genome and the remainder by nuclear genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NDUFS5 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 5, 15kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase)

This gene is a member of the NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) iron-sulfur protein family. The encoded protein is a subunit of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), the first enzyme complex in the electron transport chain located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants and pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1, 4 and 17. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

NDUFS6 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 6, 13kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase)

This gene encodes a subunit of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I), which is the first enzyme complex in the electron transport chain of mitochondria. This complex functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The subunit encoded by this gene is one of seven subunits in the iron-sulfur protein fraction. Mutations in this gene cause mitochondrial complex I deficiency, a disease that causes a wide variety of clinical disorders, including neonatal disease and adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

NDUFS7 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 7, 20kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase)

This gene encodes a protein that is a subunit of one of the complexes that forms the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This protein is one of over 40 subunits found in complex I, the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH):ubiquinone oxidoreductase. This complex functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain, and ubiquinone is believed to be the immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme. Mutations in this gene cause Leigh syndrome due to mitochondrial complex I deficiency, a severe neurological disorder that results in bilaterally symmetrical necrotic lesions in subcortical brain regions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NDUFS8 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 8, 23kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase)

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, or Complex I, a multimeric enzyme of the respiratory chain responsible for NADH oxidation, ubiquinone reduction, and the ejection of protons from mitochondria. The encoded protein is involved in the binding of two of the six to eight iron-sulfur clusters of Complex I and, as such, is required in the electron transfer process. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Leigh syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

GAPDHP17 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 17

GAPDHP16 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 16

GAPDHP14 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 14

GAPDHP19 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 19

PYCR2 Gene

pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase family, member 2

This gene belongs to the pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase family. The encoded mitochondrial protein catalyzes the conversion of pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline, which is the last step in proline biosynthesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

PYCR1 Gene

pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1

This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the NAD(P)H-dependent conversion of pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline. This enzyme may also play a physiologic role in the generation of NADP(+) in some cell types. The protein forms a homopolymer and localizes to the mitochondrion. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

PYCRL Gene

pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase-like

RTCB Gene

RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ligase

RTCA Gene

RNA 3'-terminal phosphate cyclase

This gene encodes a member of the RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase family. The encoded protein plays a role in RNA metabolism by catalyzing the ATP-dependent conversion of the 3'-phosphate of RNA substrates to a 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiester. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

GAPDHP59 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 59

GAPDHP58 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 58

GAPDHP56 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 56

DHCR24 Gene

24-dehydrocholesterol reductase

This gene encodes a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent oxidoreductase which catalyzes the reduction of the delta-24 double bond of sterol intermediates during cholesterol biosynthesis. The protein contains a leader sequence that directs it to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Missense mutations in this gene have been associated with desmosterolosis. Also, reduced expression of the gene occurs in the temporal cortex of Alzheimer disease patients and overexpression has been observed in adrenal gland cancer cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AKR1D1 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member D1

The enzyme encoded by this gene is responsible for the catalysis of the 5-beta-reduction of bile acid intermediates and steroid hormones carrying a delta(4)-3-one structure. Deficiency of this enzyme may contribute to hepatic dysfunction. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Other variants may be present, but their full-length natures have not been determined yet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

GAPDHS Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spermatogenic

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase family of enzymes that play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. Like its somatic cell counterpart, this sperm-specific enzyme functions in a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent manner to remove hydrogen and add phosphate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to form 1,3-diphosphoglycerate. During spermiogenesis, this enzyme may play an important role in regulating the switch between different energy-producing pathways, and it is required for sperm motility and male fertility. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FPGT Gene

fucose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase

L-fucose is a key sugar in glycoproteins and other complex carbohydrates since it may be involved in many of the functional roles of these macromolecules, such as in cell-cell recognition. The fucosyl donor for these fucosylated oligosaccharides is GDP-beta-L-fucose. There are two alternate pathways for the biosynthesis of GDP-fucose; the major pathway converts GDP-alpha-D-mannose to GDP-beta-L-fucose. The protein encoded by this gene participates in an alternate pathway that is present in certain mammalian tissues, such as liver and kidney, and appears to function as a salvage pathway to reutilize L-fucose arising from the turnover of glycoproteins and glycolipids. This pathway involves the phosphorylation of L-fucose to form beta-L-fucose-1-phosphate, and then condensation of the beta-L-fucose-1-phosphate with GTP by fucose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase to form GDP-beta-L-fucose. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the neighboring downstream TNNI3 interacting kinase (TNNI3K) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

FAR1 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is required for the reduction of fatty acids to fatty alcohols, a process that is required for the synthesis of monoesters and ether lipids. NADPH is required as a cofactor in this reaction, and 16-18 carbon saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are the preferred substrate. This is a peroxisomal membrane protein, and studies suggest that the N-terminus contains a large catalytic domain located on the outside of the peroxisome, while the C-terminus is exposed to the matrix of the peroxisome. Studies indicate that the regulation of this protein is dependent on plasmalogen levels. Mutations in this gene have been associated with individuals affected by severe intellectual disability, early-onset epilepsy, microcephaly, congenital cataracts, growth retardation, and spasticity (PMID: 25439727). A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

FAR2 Gene

fatty acyl CoA reductase 2

This gene belongs to the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. It encodes a reductase enzyme involved in the first step of wax biosynthesis wherein fatty acids are converted to fatty alcohols. The encoded peroxisomal protein utilizes saturated fatty acids of 16 or 18 carbons as preferred substrates. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 2, 14 and 22. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

UQCC1 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex assembly factor 1

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein that is structurally similar to the mouse basic fibroblast growth factor repressed ZIC-binding protein. In mouse this protein may be involved in fibroblast growth factor regulated growth control. In humans, polymorphisms in this gene are associated with variation in human height and osteoarthritis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

UQCC3 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex assembly factor 3

Complex III is a mitochondrial inner membrane protein complex that transfers electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c. This gene encodes a protein that functions in complex III assembly. Mutations in this gene result in Mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear type 9. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

UQCC2 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex assembly factor 2

This gene encodes a nucleoid protein localized to the mitochondria inner membrane. The encoded protein affects regulation of insulin secretion, mitochondrial ATP production, and myogenesis through modulation of mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

LOC100418559 Gene

dihydrofolate reductase pseudogene

S1PR3 Gene

sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3

This gene encodes a member of the EDG family of receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors. This protein has been identified as a functional receptor for sphingosine 1-phosphate and likely contributes to the regulation of angiogenesis and vascular endothelial cell function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S1PR2 Gene

sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2

This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptors, as well as the EDG family of proteins. This protein participates in sphingosine 1-phosphate-induced cell proliferation, survival, and transcriptional activation [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S1PR1 Gene

sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is structurally similar to G protein-coupled receptors and is highly expressed in endothelial cells. It binds the ligand sphingosine-1-phosphate with high affinity and high specificity, and suggested to be involved in the processes that regulate the differentiation of endothelial cells. Activation of this receptor induces cell-cell adhesion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

S1PR5 Gene

sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 5

The lysosphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, motility, and neurite retraction. Its actions may be both intracellular as a second messenger and extracellular as a receptor ligand. S1P and the structurally related lysolipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signal cells through a set of G protein-coupled receptors known as EDG receptors. Some EDG receptors (e.g., EDG1; MIM 601974) are S1P receptors; others (e.g., EDG2; MIM 602282) are LPA receptors.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

S1PR4 Gene

sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 4

This gene is a member of the endothelial differentiation, G-protein-coupled (EDG)) receptor gene family. EDG receptors bind lysophospholipids or lysosphingolipids as ligands, and are involved in cell signalling in many different cell types. This EDG receptor gene is intronless and is specifically expressed in the lymphoid tissue. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AKR1E2 Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member E2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily. Members in this family are characterized by their structure (evolutionarily highly conserved TIM barrel) and function (NAD(P)H-dependent oxido-reduction of carbonyl groups). Transcripts of this gene have been reported in specimens of human testis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

AKR1C6P Gene

aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C6, pseudogene

MSRB2 Gene

methionine sulfoxide reductase B2

LOC100421335 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

GAPDHP15 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 15

DERA Gene

deoxyribose-phosphate aldolase (putative)

LOC1720 Gene

dihydrofolate reductase pseudogene

GNPDA2 Gene

glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is an allosteric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction converting D-glucosamine-6-phosphate into D-fructose-6-phosphate and ammonium. Variations of this gene have been reported to be associated with influencing body mass index and susceptibility to obesity. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 9. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

GNPDA1 Gene

glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase 1

Glucosamine-6-phosphate deaminase (EC 3.5.99.6) is an allosteric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of D-glucosamine-6-phosphate into D-fructose-6-phosphate and ammonium (Arreola et al., 2003 [PubMed 12965206]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2010]

LOC100422339 Gene

short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 42E, member 1 pseudogene

GMPR Gene

guanosine monophosphate reductase

This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible and NADPH-dependent reductive deamination of GMP to IMP. The protein also functions in the re-utilization of free intracellular bases and purine nucleosides.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

GSR Gene

glutathione reductase

This gene encodes a member of the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. This enzyme is a homodimeric flavoprotein. It is a central enzyme of cellular antioxidant defense, and reduces oxidized glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to the sulfhydryl form GSH, which is an important cellular antioxidant. Rare mutations in this gene result in hereditary glutathione reductase deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

DHCR7 Gene

7-dehydrocholesterol reductase

This gene encodes an enzyme that removes the C(7-8) double bond in the B ring of sterols and catalyzes the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol. This gene is ubiquitously expressed and its transmembrane protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and nuclear outer membrane. Mutations in this gene cause Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS); a syndrome that is metabolically characterized by reduced serum cholesterol levels and elevated serum 7-dehydrocholesterol levels and phenotypically characterized by mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, syndactyly of second and third toes, and holoprosencephaly in severe cases to minimal physical abnormalities and near-normal intelligence in mild cases. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

TXNRD2 Gene

thioredoxin reductase 2

This gene encodes a member of the class I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. The encoded protein is a selenocysteine-containing flavoenzyme that maintains thioredoxins in a reduced state, thereby playing a key role in regulating the cellular redox environment. Mammals have three related thioredoxin reductases. This gene encodes a mitochondrial form important for scavenging of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

TXNRD3 Gene

thioredoxin reductase 3

This gene encodes a member of the family of pyridine nucleotide oxidoreductases. This protein catalyzes the reduction of thioredoxin, and is implicated in the defense against oxidative stress. It contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue (which is essential for catalytic activity), encoded by a UGA codon, at the penultimate C-terminal position. The 3' UTR of Sec-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), which is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

TXNRD1 Gene

thioredoxin reductase 1

This gene encodes a member of the family of pyridine nucleotide oxidoreductases. This protein reduces thioredoxins as well as other substrates, and plays a role in selenium metabolism and protection against oxidative stress. The functional enzyme is thought to be a homodimer which uses FAD as a cofactor. Each subunit contains a selenocysteine (Sec) residue which is required for catalytic activity. The selenocysteine is encoded by the UGA codon that normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of selenocysteine-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), that is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding the same or different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SDR16C5 Gene

short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 16C, member 5

RDHE2 belongs to a family of short-chain alcohol dehydrogenases/reductases that catalyze the first and rate-limiting step that generates retinaldehyde from retinol (Matsuzaka et al., 2002 [PubMed 12372410]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

GAPDHP62 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 62

GAPDHP63 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 63

GAPDHP60 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 60

GAPDHP61 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 61

GAPDHP66 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 66

GAPDHP67 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 67

GAPDHP64 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 64

GAPDHP69 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 69

UQCRHP4 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein pseudogene 4

UQCRHP1 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein pseudogene 1

UQCRHP2 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein pseudogene 2

LOC100133147 Gene

glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 pseudogene

DECR2 Gene

2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase 2, peroxisomal

DECR1 Gene

2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase 1, mitochondrial

This gene encodes an accessory enzyme which participates in the beta-oxidation and metabolism of unsaturated fatty enoyl-CoA esters. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DHFR Gene

dihydrofolate reductase

Dihydrofolate reductase converts dihydrofolate into tetrahydrofolate, a methyl group shuttle required for the de novo synthesis of purines, thymidylic acid, and certain amino acids. While the functional dihydrofolate reductase gene has been mapped to chromosome 5, multiple intronless processed pseudogenes or dihydrofolate reductase-like genes have been identified on separate chromosomes. Dihydrofolate reductase deficiency has been linked to megaloblastic anemia. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

SRD5A3P1 Gene

steroid 5 alpha-reductase 3 pseudogene 1

TECR Gene

trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase

This gene encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that resides in the endoplasmic reticulum, and belongs to the steroid 5-alpha reductase family. The elongation of microsomal long and very long chain fatty acid consists of 4 sequential reactions. This protein catalyzes the final step, reducing trans-2,3-enoyl-CoA to saturated acyl-CoA. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

LOC100421322 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

LOC643219 Gene

glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2, mitochondrial pseudogene

GAPDHP27 Gene

glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene 27

LOC100421265 Gene

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase pseudogene

LOC100421444 Gene

glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 pseudogene

PIP5K1B Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, beta

PIP5K1A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, alpha

SDR39U1 Gene

short chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 39U, member 1

This gene encodes a member of the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) superfamily, which includes both classical and extended types. The encoded protein represents an extended type, with similarity to epimerases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CPS1 Gene

carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1, mitochondrial

The mitochondrial enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from ammonia and bicarbonate. This reaction is the first committed step of the urea cycle, which is important in the removal of excess urea from cells. The encoded protein may also represent a core mitochondrial nucleoid protein. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The shortest isoform may not be localized to the mitochondrion. Mutations in this gene have been associated with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency, susceptibility to persistent pulmonary hypertension, and susceptibility to venoocclusive disease after bone marrow transplantation.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LOC105371187 Gene

putative short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 42E member 2

AAGAB Gene

alpha- and gamma-adaptin binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the gamma-adaptin and alpha-adaptin subunits of complexes involved in clathrin-coated vesicle trafficking. Mutations in this gene are associated with type I punctate palmoplantar keratoderma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

ATP5C1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, gamma polypeptide 1

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the gamma subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. This gene also has a pseudogene on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FCER1G Gene

Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; gamma polypeptide

The high affinity IgE receptor is a key molecule involved in allergic reactions. It is a tetramer composed of 1 alpha, 1 beta, and 2 gamma chains. The gamma chains are also subunits of other Fc receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGA1 Gene

golgi-associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin ear-containing, ARF-binding (GGA) protein family. Members of this family are ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the lysosome. These proteins share an amino-terminal VHS domain which mediates sorting of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors at the trans-Golgi network. They also contain a carboxy-terminal region with homology to the ear domain of gamma-adaptins. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGA3 Gene

golgi-associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 3

This gene encodes a member of the Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin ear-containing, ARF-binding (GGA) family. This family includes ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the lysosome. These proteins share an amino-terminal VHS domain which mediates sorting of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors at the trans-Golgi network. They also contain a carboxy-terminal region with homology to the ear domain of gamma-adaptins. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified in this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

GGA2 Gene

golgi-associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin ear-containing, ARF-binding (GGA) family. This family includes ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the lysosome. These proteins share an amino-terminal VHS domain which mediates sorting of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors at the trans-Golgi network. They also contain a carboxy-terminal region with homology to the ear domain of gamma-adaptins. This family member may play a significant role in cargo molecules regulation and clathrin-coated vesicle assembly. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GJC2 Gene

gap junction protein, gamma 2, 47kDa

This gene encodes a gap junction protein. Gap junction proteins are members of a large family of homologous connexins and comprise 4 transmembrane, 2 extracellular, and 3 cytoplasmic domains. This gene plays a key role in central myelination and is involved in peripheral myelination in humans. Defects in this gene are the cause of autosomal recessive Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease-1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GJC3 Gene

gap junction protein, gamma 3, 30.2kDa

This gene encodes a gap junction protein. The encoded protein, also known as a connexin, plays a role in formation of gap junctions, which provide direct connections between neighboring cells. Mutations in this gene have been reported to be associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

GJC1 Gene

gap junction protein, gamma 1, 45kDa

This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of arrays of intercellular channels that provide a route for the diffusion of low molecular weight materials from cell to cell. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same isoform have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP3CC Gene

protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme

Calcineurin is a calcium-dependent, calmodulin-stimulated protein phosphatase involved in the downstream regulation of dopaminergic signal transduction. Calcineurin is composed of a regulatory subunit and a catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of the regulatory subunits that has been found for calcineurin. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

LOC100131158 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa pseudogene

GABBR1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. GABA exerts its effects through ionotropic [GABA(A/C)] receptors, to produce fast synaptic inhibition, and metabotropic [GABA(B)] receptors, to produce slow, prolonged inhibitory signals. The GABA(B) receptor consists of a heterodimer of two related 7-transmembrane receptors, GABA(B) receptor 1 and GABA(B) receptor 2. The GABA(B) receptor 1 gene is mapped to chromosome 6p21.3 within the HLA class I region close to the HLA-F gene. Susceptibility loci for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and schizophrenia have also been mapped in this region. Alternative splicing of this gene generates multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

CSNK1G1 Gene

casein kinase 1, gamma 1

This gene encodes a member of the casein kinase I gene family. The encoded protein is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins, and participates in pathways for cell growth. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

DOC2GP Gene

double C2-like domains, gamma, pseudogene

TRGJ2 Gene

T cell receptor gamma joining 2

TRGJ1 Gene

T cell receptor gamma joining 1

TRGJP Gene

T cell receptor gamma joining P

NFYC Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, gamma

This gene encodes one subunit of a trimeric complex forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds with high specificity to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of a variety of genes. The encoded protein, subunit C, forms a tight dimer with the B subunit, a prerequisite for subunit A association. The resulting trimer binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. Subunits B and C each contain a histone-like motif. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

IFI30 Gene

interferon, gamma-inducible protein 30

The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal thiol reductase that at low pH can reduce protein disulfide bonds. The enzyme is expressed constitutively in antigen-presenting cells and induced by gamma-interferon in other cell types. This enzyme has an important role in MHC class II-restricted antigen processing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PEX11G Gene

peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 gamma

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PEX11 family. This family is reported to regulate the number and size of peroxisomes in evolutionarily distant organisms. The protein encoded by this gene may induce clustering of peroxisomes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

GGTLC5P Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase light chain 5 pseudogene

TUBG1P Gene

tubulin, gamma 1 pseudogene

YWHAG Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, gamma

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 100% identical to the rat ortholog. It is induced by growth factors in human vascular smooth muscle cells, and is also highly expressed in skeletal and heart muscles, suggesting an important role for this protein in muscle tissue. It has been shown to interact with RAF1 and protein kinase C, proteins involved in various signal transduction pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGG Gene

fibrinogen gamma chain

The protein encoded by this gene is the gamma component of fibrinogen, a blood-borne glycoprotein comprised of three pairs of nonidentical polypeptide chains. Following vascular injury, fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form fibrin which is the most abundant component of blood clots. In addition, various cleavage products of fibrinogen and fibrin regulate cell adhesion and spreading, display vasoconstrictor and chemotactic activities, and are mitogens for several cell types. Mutations in this gene lead to several disorders, including dysfibrinogenemia, hypofibrinogenemia and thrombophilia. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GADD45G Gene

growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, gamma

This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The protein encoded by this gene responds to environmental stresses by mediating activation of the p38/JNK pathway via MTK1/MEKK4 kinase. The GADD45G is highly expressed in placenta. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C8G Gene

complement component 8, gamma polypeptide

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the lipocalin family. It is one of the three subunits that constitutes complement component 8 (C8), which is composed of a disulfide-linked C8 alpha-gamma heterodimer and a non-covalently associated C8 beta chain. C8 participates in the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC) on bacterial cell membranes. While subunits alpha and beta play a role in complement-mediated bacterial killing, the gamma subunit is not required for the bactericidal activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

SIRPG Gene

signal-regulatory protein gamma

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the signal-regulatory protein (SIRP) family, and also belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. SIRP family members are receptor-type transmembrane glycoproteins known to be involved in the negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase-coupled signaling processes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGTLC4P Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase light chain 4 pseudogene

ENO2 Gene

enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal)

This gene encodes one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme, a homodimer, is found in mature neurons and cells of neuronal origin. A switch from alpha enolase to gamma enolase occurs in neural tissue during development in rats and primates. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNG5P4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 4

LOC129026 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase-like activity 1 pseudogene

This pseudogene is similar to the human gene encoding gamma-glutamyltransferase-like activity 1, an enzyme which hydrolyzes the gamma-glutamyl moiety of glutathione and converts leukotriene C4 to leukotriene D4. This pseudogene lies in the immunoglobulin lambda gene cluster on chromosome 22q11.21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SNCG Gene

synuclein, gamma (breast cancer-specific protein 1)

This gene encodes a member of the synuclein family of proteins which are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mutations in this gene have also been associated with breast tumor development. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

GNG10P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 pseudogene 1

ACTG1P24 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 24

ACTG1P22 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 22

ACTG1P20 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 20

PKIG Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor gamma

This gene encodes a member of the protein kinase inhibitor family. Studies of a similar protein in mice suggest that this protein acts as a potent competitive cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, and is a predominant form of inhibitor in various tissues. The encoded protein may be involved in osteogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

LOC100631258 Gene

isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (NAD+) gamma pseudogene

PCDHGA8 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 8

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA2 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 2

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA3 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 3

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA1 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 1

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA6 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 6

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA7 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 7

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA4 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 4

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA5 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 5

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRR1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, rho 1

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. GABRR1 is a member of the rho subunit family. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

GABRR2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, rho 2

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the rho subunit family and is a component of the GABA receptor complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRR3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, rho 3 (gene/pseudogene)

The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions in the central nervous system to regulate synaptic transmission of neurons. This gene encodes one of three related subunits, which combine as homo- or hetero-pentamers to form GABA(C) receptors. In humans, some individuals contain a single-base polymorphism (dbSNP rs832032) that is predicted to inactivate the gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

TRGV5P Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 5P (pseudogene)

GNG5P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 1

GNG5P3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 3

GNG5P2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 2

GNG5P5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 5

TRGV10 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 10 (non-functional)

CRYGFP Gene

crystallin, gamma F pseudogene

EEF1G Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma

This gene encodes a subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This subunit contains an N-terminal glutathione transferase domain, which may be involved in regulating the assembly of multisubunit complexes containing this elongation factor and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IGHG4 Gene

immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 4 (G4m marker)

IGHG1 Gene

immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 1 (G1m marker)

IGHG2 Gene

immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 2 (G2m marker)

IGHG3 Gene

immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 (G3m marker)

PHKG1P2 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 pseudogene 2

CAMK2G Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma

The product of this gene is one of the four subunits of an enzyme which belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a gamma chain. Many alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described but the full-length nature of all the variants has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

IGHGP Gene

immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma P (non-functional)

PCDHGB8P Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 8 pseudogene

TPSG1 Gene

tryptase gamma 1

Tryptases comprise a family of trypsin-like serine proteases, the peptidase family S1. Tryptases are enzymatically active only as heparin-stabilized tetramers, and they are resistant to all known endogenous proteinase inhibitors. Several tryptase genes are clustered on chromosome 16p13.3. There is uncertainty regarding the number of genes in this cluster. Currently four functional genes - alpha I, beta I, beta II and gamma I - have been identified. And beta I has an allelic variant named alpha II, beta II has an allelic variant beta III, also gamma I has an allelic variant gamma II. Beta tryptases appear to be the main isoenzymes expressed in mast cells; whereas in basophils, alpha-tryptases predominant. This gene differs from other members of the tryptase gene family in that it has C-terminal hydrophobic domain, which may serve as a membrane anchor. Tryptases have been implicated as mediators in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic and inflammatory disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421808 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, gamma pseudogene

PHKG1P4 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 pseudogene 4

PHKG1P1 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 pseudogene 1

PHKG1P3 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 pseudogene 3

PLCG2 Gene

phospholipase C, gamma 2 (phosphatidylinositol-specific)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane signaling enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate to 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) using calcium as a cofactor. IP3 and DAG are second messenger molecules important for transmitting signals from growth factor receptors and immune system receptors across the cell membrane. Mutations in this gene have been found in autoinflammation, antibody deficiency, and immune dysregulation syndrome and familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CEBPG Gene

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), gamma

The C/EBP family of transcription factors regulates viral and cellular CCAAT/enhancer element-mediated transcription. C/EBP proteins contain the bZIP region, which is characterized by two motifs in the C-terminal half of the protein: a basic region involved in DNA binding and a leucine zipper motif involved in dimerization. The C/EBP family consist of several related proteins, C/EBP alpha, C/EBP beta, C/EBP gamma, and C/EBP delta, that form homodimers and that form heterodimers with each other. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein gamma may cooperate with Fos to bind PRE-I enhancer elements. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

IKBKG Gene

inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma

This gene encodes the regulatory subunit of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex, which activates NF-kappaB resulting in activation of genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and other pathways. Mutations in this gene result in incontinentia pigmenti, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and several other types of immunodeficiencies. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. A pseudogene highly similar to this locus is located in an adjacent region of the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

RARG Gene

retinoic acid receptor, gamma

This gene encodes a retinoic acid receptor that belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) act as ligand-dependent transcriptional regulators. When bound to ligands, RARs activate transcription by binding as heterodimers to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) found in the promoter regions of the target genes. In their unbound form, RARs repress transcription of their target genes. RARs are involved in various biological processes, including limb bud development, skeletal growth, and matrix homeostasis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GABRB1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 1

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes GABA A receptor, beta 1 subunit. It is mapped to chromosome 4p12 in a cluster comprised of genes encoding alpha 4, alpha 2 and gamma 1 subunits of the GABA A receptor. Alteration of this gene is implicated in the pathogenetics of schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRB3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 3

This gene encodes a member of the ligand-gated ionic channel family. The encoded protein is one the subunits of a multi-subunit chloride channel that serves as the receptor for gamma-aminobutyric acid, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian nervous system. This gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 15 in a cluster with two other genes encoding related subunits of the family. This gene may be associated with the pathogenesis of several disorders including Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, nonsyndromic orofacial clefts, epilepsy and autism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

HNF4GP1 Gene

hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, gamma pseudogene 1

CSNK1G2 Gene

casein kinase 1, gamma 2

CSNK1G3 Gene

casein kinase 1, gamma 3

This gene encodes a member of a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that phosphorylate caseins and other acidic proteins. A related protein in the African clawed frog participates in the transmission of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PRKACG Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes the gamma form of its catalytic subunit. The gene is intronless and is thought to be a retrotransposon derived from the gene for the alpha form of the PKA catalytic subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100418692 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene

LOC100418690 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene

LOC100421023 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, gamma pseudogene

PCDHGB2 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 2

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGB1 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 1

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGB7 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 7

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGB6 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 6

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGB5 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 5

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGB4 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 4

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. This particular family member is expressed in fibroblasts and is thought to play a role in wound healing in response to injury. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC102724197 Gene

inactive gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 2-like

GABRQ Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, theta

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes the theta subunit of the GABA A receptor. The gene is mapped to chromosome Xq28 in a cluster of genes including those that encode the alpha 3 and epsilon subunits of the GABA A receptor. This gene location is also the candidate region of two different neurologic diseases: early-onset parkinsonism (Waisman syndrome) and X-linked mental retardation (MRX3). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

GABRP Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, pi

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. The subunit encoded by this gene is expressed in several non-neuronal tissues including the uterus and ovaries. This subunit can assemble with known GABA A receptor subunits, and the presence of this subunit alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

GABRE Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, epsilon

The product of this gene belongs to the ligand-gated ionic channel (TC 1.A.9) family. It encodes the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor which is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes an epsilon subunit. It is mapped to chromosome Xq28 in a cluster comprised of genes encoding alpha 3, beta 4 and theta subunits of the same receptor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, but only one is thought to encode a protein. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

GABRD Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, delta

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. The GABA-A receptor is generally pentameric and there are five types of subunits: alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and rho. This gene encodes the delta subunit. Mutations in this gene have been associated with susceptibility to generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures, type 5. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NGFG Gene

Nerve growth factor, gamma subunit

GNG7 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 7

GNG4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 4

GNG5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5

G proteins are trimeric (alpha-beta-gamma) membrane-associated proteins that regulate flow of information from cell surface receptors to a variety of internal metabolic effectors. Interaction of a G protein with its activated receptor promotes exchange of GTP for GDP that is bound to the alpha subunit. The alpha-GTP complex dissociates from the beta-gamma heterodimer so that the subunits, in turn, may interact with and regulate effector molecules (Gilman, 1987 [PubMed 3113327]; summary by Ahmad et al., 1995) [PubMed 7606925].[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

GNG2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2

This gene encodes one of the gamma subunits of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Such proteins are involved in signaling mechanisms across membranes. Various subunits forms heterodimers which then interact with the different signal molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GNG3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 3

Guanine nucleotide binding proteins are heterotrimeric signal-transducing molecules consisting of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The gamma subunit determines the specificity of which signaling pathways will be affected by this particular complex. The protein encoded by this gene represents the gamma subunit of both inhibitory and stimulatory complexes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

GNG8 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 8

CRYGEP Gene

crystallin, gamma E, pseudogene

NTF6G Gene

neurotrophin 6 gamma (pseudogene)

EEF1GP8 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 8

EEF1GP3 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 3

EEF1GP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 2

EEF1GP7 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 7

EEF1GP6 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 6

EEF1GP5 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 5

GSAP Gene

gamma-secretase activating protein

Accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid-beta is a major hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD; MIM 104300). Formation of amyloid-beta is catalyzed by gamma-secretase (see PSEN1; MIM 104311), a protease with numerous substrates. PION, or GSAP, selectively increases amyloid-beta production through a mechanism involving its interaction with both gamma-secretase and its substrate, the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP; MIM 104760) C-terminal fragment (APP-CTF) (He et al., 2010 [PubMed 20811458]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

GGT3P Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 3 pseudogene

LOC100529052 Gene

gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase pseudogene

ATP5C1P1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, gamma polypeptide 1 pseudogene 1

TXLNGY Gene

taxilin gamma pseudogene, Y-linked

LOC102724823 Gene

inactive gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 2

CRYBG3 Gene

beta-gamma crystallin domain containing 3

IFI16 Gene

interferon, gamma-inducible protein 16

This gene encodes a member of the HIN-200 (hematopoietic interferon-inducible nuclear antigens with 200 amino acid repeats) family of cytokines. The encoded protein contains domains involved in DNA binding, transcriptional regulation, and protein-protein interactions. The protein localizes to the nucleoplasm and nucleoli, and interacts with p53 and retinoblastoma-1. It modulates p53 function, and inhibits cell growth in the Ras/Raf signaling pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

TRGJP2 Gene

T cell receptor gamma joining P2

TRGJP1 Gene

T cell receptor gamma joining P1

ACTG1P23 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 23

ACTG1P21 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 21

ACTG1P18 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 18

ACTG1P10 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 10

PIK3R3 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 3 (gamma)

SYNRG Gene

synergin, gamma

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the gamma subunit of AP1 clathrin-adaptor complex. The AP1 complex is located at the trans-Golgi network and associates specific proteins with clathrin-coated vesicles. This encoded protein may act to connect the AP1 complex to other proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFNG Gene

interferon, gamma

This gene encodes a member of the type II interferon family. The protein encoded is a soluble cytokine with antiviral, immunoregulatory and anti-tumor properties and is a potent activator of macrophages. Mutations in this gene are associated with aplastic anemia.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

FOLR3P1 Gene

folate receptor 3 (gamma) pseudogene 1

TRGC1 Gene

T cell receptor gamma constant 1

TRGC2 Gene

T cell receptor gamma constant 2

CTGLF9P Gene

centaurin, gamma-like family, member 9 pseudogene

FLNC Gene

filamin C, gamma

This gene encodes one of three related filamin genes, specifically gamma filamin. These filamin proteins crosslink actin filaments into orthogonal networks in cortical cytoplasm and participate in the anchoring of membrane proteins for the actin cytoskeleton. Three functional domains exist in filamin: an N-terminal filamentous actin-binding domain, a C-terminal self-association domain, and a membrane glycoprotein-binding domain. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLG Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), gamma

Mitochondrial DNA polymerase is heterotrimeric, consisting of a homodimer of accessory subunits plus a catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase. The encoded protein contains a polyglutamine tract near its N-terminus that may be polymorphic. Defects in this gene are a cause of progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions 1 (PEOA1), sensory ataxic neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoparesis (SANDO), Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), and mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy syndrome (MNGIE). Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422526 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 3 (PA28 gamma; Ki) pseudogene

CACNG8 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type II TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. The mRNA for this gene is believed to initiate translation from a non-AUG (CUG) start codon. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is a susceptibility locus for childhood absence epilepsy. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG6 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 6

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of two known gamma subunit proteins. This particular gamma subunit is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members that function as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Variants in this gene have been associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG7 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type I TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

GGT4P Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 4 pseudogene

CSNK1G2P1 Gene

casein kinase 1, gamma 2 pseudogene 1

CD3G Gene

CD3g molecule, gamma (CD3-TCR complex)

The protein encoded by this gene is the CD3-gamma polypeptide, which together with CD3-epsilon, -delta and -zeta, and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, forms the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex. This complex plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways. The genes encoding the epsilon, gamma and delta polypeptides are located in the same cluster on chromosome 11. Defects in this gene are associated with T cell immunodeficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF2S3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is the largest subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein involved in the recruitment of methionyl-tRNA(i) to the 40 S ribosomal subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

LOC648044 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12-like

PCDHGA11 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 11

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA12 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 12

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SGCG Gene

sarcoglycan, gamma (35kDa dystrophin-associated glycoprotein)

This gene encodes gamma-sarcoglycan, one of several sarcolemmal transmembrane glycoproteins that interact with dystrophin. The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) spans the sarcolemma and is comprised of dystrophin, syntrophin, alpha- and beta-dystroglycans and sarcoglycans. The DGC provides a structural link between the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix of muscle cells. Defects in the encoded protein can lead to early onset autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy, in particular limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, type 2C (LGMD2C). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

IDH3G Gene

isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (NAD+) gamma

Isocitrate dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to 2-oxoglutarate. These enzymes belong to two distinct subclasses, one of which utilizes NAD(+) as the electron acceptor and the other NADP(+). Five isocitrate dehydrogenases have been reported: three NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, which localize to the mitochondrial matrix, and two NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, one of which is mitochondrial and the other predominantly cytosolic. NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases catalyze the allosterically regulated rate-limiting step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Each isozyme is a heterotetramer that is composed of two alpha subunits, one beta subunit, and one gamma subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is the gamma subunit of one isozyme of NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase. This gene is a candidate gene for periventricular heterotopia. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but only some of their full length natures have been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DGKG Gene

diacylglycerol kinase, gamma 90kDa

This gene encodes an enzyme that is a member of the type I subfamily of diacylglycerol kinases, which are involved in lipid metabolism. These enzymes generate phosphatidic acid by catalyzing the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol, a fundamental lipid second messenger that activates numerous proteins, including protein kinase C isoforms, Ras guanyl nucleotide-releasing proteins and some transient receptor potential channels. Diacylglycerol kinase gamma has been implicated in cell cycle regulation and in the negative regulation of macrophage differentiation in leukemia cells. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GADD45GIP1 Gene

growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, gamma interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a nuclear-localized protein that may be induced by p53 and regulates the cell cycle by inhibiting G1 to S phase progression. The encoded protein may interact with other cell cycle regulators. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

RXRG Gene

retinoid X receptor, gamma

This gene encodes a member of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors which are involved in mediating the antiproliferative effects of retinoic acid (RA). This receptor forms dimers with the retinoic acid, thyroid hormone, and vitamin D receptors, increasing both DNA binding and transcriptional function on their respective response elements. This gene is expressed at significantly lower levels in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

SNTG1 Gene

syntrophin, gamma 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the syntrophin family. Syntrophins are cytoplasmic peripheral membrane proteins that typically contain 2 pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, a PDZ domain that bisects the first PH domain, and a C-terminal domain that mediates dystrophin binding. This gene is specifically expressed in the brain. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

SNTG2 Gene

syntrophin, gamma 2

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the syntrophin family. Syntrophins are cytoplasmic peripheral membrane proteins that bind to components of mechanosenstive sodium channels and the extreme carboxy-terminal domain of dystrophin and dystrophin-related proteins. The PDZ domain of this protein product interacts with a protein component of a mechanosensitive sodium channel that affects channel gating. Absence or reduction of this protein product has been associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. There is evidence of alternative splicing yet the full-length nature of these variants has not been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPRC1 Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator-related 1

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to PPAR-gamma coactivator 1 (PPARGC1/PGC-1), a protein that can activate mitochondrial biogenesis in part through a direct interaction with nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1). This protein has been shown to interact with NRF1. It is thought to be a functional relative of PPAR-gamma coactivator 1 that activates mitochondrial biogenesis through NRF1 in response to proliferative signals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

CCT3P1 Gene

chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 3 (gamma) pseudogene 1

TUBG1 Gene

tubulin, gamma 1

This gene encodes a member of the tubulin superfamily. The encoded protein localizes to the centrosome where it binds to microtubules as part of a complex referred to as the gamma-tubulin ring complex. The protein mediates microtubule nucleation and is required for microtubule formation and progression of the cell cycle. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

TUBG2 Gene

tubulin, gamma 2

IL2RG Gene

interleukin 2 receptor, gamma

The protein encoded by this gene is an important signaling component of many interleukin receptors, including those of interleukin -2, -4, -7 and -21, and is thus referred to as the common gamma chain. Mutations in this gene cause X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID), as well as X-linked combined immunodeficiency (XCID), a less severe immunodeficiency disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PARD6G Gene

par-6 family cell polarity regulator gamma

CRYGS Gene

crystallin, gamma S

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Gamma-crystallins are a homogeneous group of highly symmetrical, monomeric proteins typically lacking connecting peptides and terminal extensions. They are differentially regulated after early development. This gene encodes a protein initially considered to be a beta-crystallin but the encoded protein is monomeric and has greater sequence similarity to other gamma-crystallins. This gene encodes the most significant gamma-crystallin in adult eye lens tissue. Whether due to aging or mutations in specific genes, gamma-crystallins have been involved in cataract formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CRYGN Gene

crystallin, gamma N

This gene encodes a member of the crystallin family of proteins that are localized to the refractive structure of vertebrate eye lenses. The protein encoded by this gene is unique in that it has both beta and gamma crystallin protein motifs. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

CRYGA Gene

crystallin, gamma A

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Gamma-crystallins are a homogeneous group of highly symmetrical, monomeric proteins typically lacking connecting peptides and terminal extensions. They are differentially regulated after early development. Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. Whether due to aging or mutations in specific genes, gamma-crystallins have been involved in cataract formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CRYGB Gene

crystallin, gamma B

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Gamma-crystallins are a homogeneous group of highly symmetrical, monomeric proteins typically lacking connecting peptides and terminal extensions. They are differentially regulated after early development. Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. Whether due to aging or mutations in specific genes, gamma-crystallins have been involved in cataract formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CRYGC Gene

crystallin, gamma C

This gene encodes a member of the beta/gamma-crystallin family of proteins. Crystallins constitute the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintain the transparency and refractive index of the lens. This gene and several family members are present in a gene cluster on chromosome 2. Mutations in this gene have been shown to cause multiple types of cataract, including Coppock-like cataract and zonular pulverulent cataract, among others. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

CRYGD Gene

crystallin, gamma D

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Gamma-crystallins are a homogeneous group of highly symmetrical, monomeric proteins typically lacking connecting peptides and terminal extensions. They are differentially regulated after early development. Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. Whether due to aging or mutations in specific genes, gamma-crystallins have been involved in cataract formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CTGLF12P Gene

centaurin, gamma-like family, member 12 pseudogene

NAPG Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma

This gene encodes soluble NSF attachment protein gamma. The soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs) enable N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) to bind to target membranes. NSF and SNAPs appear to be general components of the intracellular membrane fusion apparatus, and their action at specific sites of fusion must be controlled by SNAP receptors particular to the membranes being fused. The product of this gene mediates platelet exocytosis and controls the membrane fusion events of this process.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

PCDHG@ Gene

protocadherin gamma cluster

The protocadherin gamma gene cluster is one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies, all part of the cadherin superfamily. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. In addition, ORNT2 and TAF2F are included in the cluster due to their localization between protocadherin clusters beta and gamma on chromosome five. The protocadherin genes are organized in a tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons followed by a constant region, which contains 3 exons shared by all protocadherin genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes an extracellular domain comprised of 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode a common cytoplasmic tail. These neural adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNG10 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10

GNG11 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 11

This gene is a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) gamma family and encodes a lipid-anchored, cell membrane protein. As a member of the heterotrimeric G protein complex, this protein plays a role in this transmembrane signaling system. This protein is also subject to carboxyl-terminal processing. Decreased expression of this gene is associated with splenic marginal zone lymphomas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNG12 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12

GNG13 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 13

Heterotrimeric G proteins, which consist of alpha (see MIM 139320), beta (see MIM 139380), and gamma subunits, function as signal transducers for the 7-transmembrane-helix G protein-coupled receptors. GNG13 is a gamma subunit that is expressed in taste, retinal, and neuronal tissues and plays a key role in taste transduction (Li et al., 2006 [PubMed 16473877]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

COPG2 Gene

coatomer protein complex, subunit gamma 2

COPG1 Gene

coatomer protein complex, subunit gamma 1

TRG-AS1 Gene

T cell receptor gamma locus antisense RNA 1

CRYGGP Gene

crystallin, gamma G, pseudogene

PPP2R3C Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', gamma

This gene encodes a regulatory subunit of the serine/threonine phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2. This protein is localized to both nuclear and cytoplasmic regions depending on cell cycle phase. Homozygous conditional knockout mice for this gene exhibit reduced numbers and impaired proliferation of immune system B cells. This protein may regulate the expression of the P-glycoprotein ATP-binding cassette transporter through its phosphatase activity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

LOC100128334 Gene

gap junction protein, gamma 3, 30.2kDa pseudogene

GMFG Gene

glia maturation factor, gamma

EIF4G3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 3

EIF4G2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 2

Translation initiation is mediated by specific recognition of the cap structure by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), which is a cap binding protein complex that consists of three subunits: eIF4A, eIF4E and eIF4G. The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the C-terminal region of eIF4G that contains the binding sites for eIF4A and eIF3; eIF4G, in addition, contains a binding site for eIF4E at the N-terminus. Unlike eIF4G, which supports cap-dependent and independent translation, this gene product functions as a general repressor of translation by forming translationally inactive complexes. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that translation of this mRNA initiates exclusively at a non-AUG (GUG) codon. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms of this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF4G1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the multi-subunit protein complex EIF4F. This complex facilitates the recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome, which is a rate-limiting step during the initiation phase of protein synthesis. The recognition of the mRNA cap and the ATP-dependent unwinding of 5'-terminal secondary structure is catalyzed by factors in this complex. The subunit encoded by this gene is a large scaffolding protein that contains binding sites for other members of the EIF4F complex. A domain at its N-terminus can also interact with the poly(A)-binding protein, which may mediate the circularization of mRNA during translation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, some of which are derived from alternative promoter usage. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

CACNG1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 1

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of two known gamma subunit proteins. This particular gamma subunit is part of skeletal muscle 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels and is an integral membrane protein that plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members that function as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

TRGV6 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 6 (pseudogene)

TRGV7 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 7 (pseudogene)

TRGV4 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 4

TRGV5 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 5

TRGV2 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 2

TRGV3 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 3

TRGV1 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 1 (non-functional)

TRGV8 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 8

TRGV9 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 9

TRGVB Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable B (pseudogene)

TRGVA Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable A (pseudogene)

PSENEN Gene

presenilin enhancer gamma secretase subunit

Presenilins, which are components of the gamma-secretase protein complex, are required for intramembranous processing of some type I transmembrane proteins, such as the Notch proteins and the beta-amyloid precursor protein. Signaling by Notch receptors mediates a wide range of developmental cell fates. Processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein generates neurotoxic amyloid beta peptides, the major component of senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease. This gene encodes a protein that is required for Notch pathway signaling, and for the activity and accumulation of gamma-secretase. Mutations resulting in haploinsufficiency for this gene cause familial acne inversa-2 (ACNINV2). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

CCT3 Gene

chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 3 (gamma)

The protein encoded by this gene is a molecular chaperone that is a member of the chaperonin containing TCP1 complex (CCT), also known as the TCP1 ring complex (TRiC). This complex consists of two identical stacked rings, each containing eight different proteins. Unfolded polypeptides enter the central cavity of the complex and are folded in an ATP-dependent manner. The complex folds various proteins, including actin and tubulin. Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized for this gene. In addition, a pseudogene of this gene has been found on chromosome 8. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

PHKG2 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 2 (testis)

Phosphorylase kinase is a polymer of 16 subunits, four each of alpha, beta, gamma and delta. The alpha subunit includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, encoded by two different genes. The beta subunit is the same in both the muscle and hepatic isoforms, and encoded by one gene. The gamma subunit also includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, and the hepatic isoform is encoded by this gene. The delta subunit is a calmodulin and can be encoded by three different genes. The gamma subunits contain the active site of the enzyme, whereas the alpha and beta subunits have regulatory functions controlled by phosphorylation. The delta subunit mediates the dependence of the enzyme on calcium concentration. Mutations in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type 9C, also known as autosomal liver glycogenosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

PHKG1 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 (muscle)

This gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family and encodes a protein with one protein kinase domain and two calmodulin-binding domains. This protein is the catalytic member of a 16 subunit protein kinase complex which contains equimolar ratios of 4 subunit types. The complex is a crucial glycogenolytic regulatory enzyme. This gene has two pseudogenes at chromosome 7q11.21 and one at chromosome 11p11.12. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

GABRA5 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 5

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. Transcript variants utilizing three different alternative non-coding first exons have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA4 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 4

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. This gene encodes subunit alpha-4, which is involved in the etiology of autism and eventually increases autism risk through interaction with another subunit, gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor beta-1 (GABRB1). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

GABRA6 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 6

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 1

This gene encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. GABA-A receptors are pentameric, consisting of proteins from several subunit classes: alpha, beta, gamma, delta and rho. Mutations in this gene cause juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and childhood absence epilepsy type 4. Multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 3

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 2

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

ADH1C Gene

alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (class I), gamma polypeptide

This gene encodes class I alcohol dehydrogenase, gamma subunit, which is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this enzyme family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Class I alcohol dehydrogenase, consisting of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, exhibits high activity for ethanol oxidation and plays a major role in ethanol catabolism. Three genes encoding alpha, beta and gamma subunits are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCNN1G Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 gamma subunit

Nonvoltage-gated, amiloride-sensitive, sodium channels control fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelia in many organs. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the gamma subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with Liddle syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

CHAC1 Gene

ChaC glutathione-specific gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase 1

LOC729998 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene

FOLR3 Gene

folate receptor 3 (gamma)

This gene encodes a member of the folate receptor (FOLR) family, members of which have a high affinity for folic acid and for several reduced folic acid derivatives, and mediate delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the interior of cells. This gene includes two polymorphic variants; the shorter one has two base deletion in the CDS, resulting in a truncated polypeptide, compared to the longer one. Both protein products are constitutively secreted in hematopoietic tissues and are potential serum marker for certain hematopoietic malignancies. The longer protein has a 71% and 79% sequence homology with the FOLR1 and FOLR2 proteins, respectively. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BGLAP Gene

bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla) protein

LOC100418689 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene

CACNG5 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type I TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. This gene is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CTGLF11P Gene

centaurin, gamma-like family, member 11 pseudogene

PCDHGB3 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 3

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LAMC2 Gene

laminin, gamma 2

Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, signaling, neurite outgrowth and metastasis. Laminins, composed of 3 non identical chains: laminin alpha, beta and gamma (formerly A, B1, and B2, respectively), have a cruciform structure consisting of 3 short arms, each formed by a different chain, and a long arm composed of all 3 chains. Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. Different alpha, beta and gamma chain isomers combine to give rise to different heterotrimeric laminin isoforms which are designated by Arabic numerals in the order of their discovery, i.e. alpha1beta1gamma1 heterotrimer is laminin 1. The biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the chains have been shown to differ with respect to their tissue distribution, presumably reflecting diverse functions in vivo. This gene encodes the gamma chain isoform laminin, gamma 2. The gamma 2 chain, formerly thought to be a truncated version of beta chain (B2t), is highly homologous to the gamma 1 chain; however, it lacks domain VI, and domains V, IV and III are shorter. It is expressed in several fetal tissues but differently from gamma 1, and is specifically localized to epithelial cells in skin, lung and kidney. The gamma 2 chain together with alpha 3 and beta 3 chains constitute laminin 5 (earlier known as kalinin), which is an integral part of the anchoring filaments that connect epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane. The epithelium-specific expression of the gamma 2 chain implied its role as an epithelium attachment molecule, and mutations in this gene have been associated with junctional epidermolysis bullosa, a skin disease characterized by blisters due to disruption of the epidermal-dermal junction. Two transcript variants resulting from alternative splicing of the 3' terminal exon, and encoding different isoforms of gamma 2 chain, have been described. The two variants are differentially expressed in embryonic tissues, however, the biological significance of the two forms is not known. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA_signal have also been noted in literature. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LAMC3 Gene

laminin, gamma 3

Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, signaling, neurite outgrowth and metastasis. Laminins are composed of 3 non identical chains: laminin alpha, beta and gamma (formerly A, B1, and B2, respectively) and they form a cruciform structure consisting of 3 short arms, each formed by a different chain, and a long arm composed of all 3 chains. Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. Different alpha, beta and gamma chain isomers combine to give rise to different heterotrimeric laminin isoforms which are designated by Arabic numerals in the order of their discovery, i.e. alpha1beta1gamma1 heterotrimer is laminin 1. The biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the chains have been shown to differ with respect to their tissue distribution, presumably reflecting diverse functions in vivo. This gene encodes the gamma chain isoform laminin, gamma 3. The gamma 3 chain is most similar to the gamma 1 chain, and contains all the 6 domains expected of the gamma chain. It is a component of laminin 12. The gamma 3 chain is broadly expressed in skin, heart, lung, and the reproductive tracts. In skin, it is seen within the basement membrane of the dermal-epidermal junction at points of nerve penetration. Gamma 3 is also a prominent element of the apical surface of ciliated epithelial cells of lung, oviduct, epididymis, ductus deferens, and seminiferous tubules. The distribution of gamma 3-containing laminins along ciliated epithelial surfaces suggests that the apical laminins are important in the morphogenesis and structural stability of the ciliated processes of these cells. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LAMC1 Gene

laminin, gamma 1 (formerly LAMB2)

Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, signaling, neurite outgrowth and metastasis. Laminins, composed of 3 non identical chains: laminin alpha, beta and gamma (formerly A, B1, and B2, respectively), have a cruciform structure consisting of 3 short arms, each formed by a different chain, and a long arm composed of all 3 chains. Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. Different alpha, beta and gamma chain isomers combine to give rise to different heterotrimeric laminin isoforms which are designated by Arabic numerals in the order of their discovery, i.e. alpha1beta1gamma1 heterotrimer is laminin 1. The biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the chains have been shown to differ with respect to their tissue distribution, presumably reflecting diverse functions in vivo. This gene encodes the gamma chain isoform laminin, gamma 1. The gamma 1 chain, formerly thought to be a beta chain, contains structural domains similar to beta chains, however, lacks the short alpha region separating domains I and II. The structural organization of this gene also suggested that it had diverged considerably from the beta chain genes. Embryos of transgenic mice in which both alleles of the gamma 1 chain gene were inactivated by homologous recombination, lacked basement membranes, indicating that laminin, gamma 1 chain is necessary for laminin heterotrimer assembly. It has been inferred by analogy with the strikingly similar 3' UTR sequence in mouse laminin gamma 1 cDNA, that multiple polyadenylation sites are utilized in human to generate the 2 different sized mRNAs (5.5 and 7.5 kb) seen on Northern analysis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GABBR2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 2

The multi-pass membrane protein encoded by this gene belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family and GABA-B receptor subfamily. The GABA-B receptors inhibit neuronal activity through G protein-coupled second-messenger systems, which regulate the release of neurotransmitters, and the activity of ion channels and adenylyl cyclase. This receptor subunit forms an active heterodimeric complex with GABA-B receptor subunit 1, neither of which is effective on its own. Allelic variants of this gene have been associated with nicotine dependence.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

LOC100328982 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa pseudogene

PPARGC1A Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism. This protein interacts with PPARgamma, which permits the interaction of this protein with multiple transcription factors. This protein can interact with, and regulate the activities of, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear respiratory factors (NRFs). It provides a direct link between external physiological stimuli and the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and is a major factor that regulates muscle fiber type determination. This protein may be also involved in controlling blood pressure, regulating cellular cholesterol homoeostasis, and the development of obesity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPARGC1B Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta

The protein encoded by this gene stimulates the activity of several transcription factors and nuclear receptors, including estrogen receptor alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and glucocorticoid receptor. The encoded protein may be involved in fat oxidation, non-oxidative glucose metabolism, and the regulation of energy expenditure. This protein is downregulated in prediabetic and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Certain allelic variations in this gene increase the risk of the development of obesity. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PPARG Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. PPARs form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and these heterodimers regulate transcription of various genes. Three subtypes of PPARs are known: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-delta, and PPAR-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene is PPAR-gamma and is a regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, PPAR-gamma has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PLCG1 Gene

phospholipase C, gamma 1

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This reaction uses calcium as a cofactor and plays an important role in the intracellular transduction of receptor-mediated tyrosine kinase activators. For example, when activated by SRC, the encoded protein causes the Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP1 to translocate to the Golgi, where it activates Ras. Also, this protein has been shown to be a major substrate for heparin-binding growth factor 1 (acidic fibroblast growth factor)-activated tyrosine kinase. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100129776 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa pseudogene

ACTG1 Gene

actin gamma 1

Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. In vertebrates, three main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta and gamma have been identified. The alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton, and as mediators of internal cell motility. Actin, gamma 1, encoded by this gene, is a cytoplasmic actin found in non-muscle cells. Mutations in this gene are associated with DFNA20/26, a subtype of autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural progressive hearing loss. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

ACTG2 Gene

actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric

Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and in the maintenance of the cytoskeleton. Three types of actins, alpha, beta and gamma, have been identified in vertebrates. Alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton and as mediators of internal cell motility. This gene encodes actin gamma 2; a smooth muscle actin found in enteric tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Based on similarity to peptide cleavage of related actins, the mature protein of this gene is formed by removal of two N-terminal peptides.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

TRG Gene

T cell receptor gamma locus

T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens which have been processed as small peptides and bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules at the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). Each T cell receptor is a dimer consisting of one alpha and one beta chain or one delta and one gamma chain. In a single cell, the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed in the order delta, gamma, beta, and alpha. If both delta and gamma rearrangements produce functional chains, the cell expresses delta and gamma. If not, the cell proceeds to rearrange the beta and alpha loci. This region represents the germline organization of the T cell receptor gamma locus. The gamma locus includes V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant) segments. During T cell development, the gamma chain is synthesized by a recombination event at the DNA level joining a V segment with a J segment; the C segment is later joined by splicing at the RNA level. Recombination of many different V segments with several J segments provides a wide range of antigen recognition. Additional diversity is attained by junctional diversity, resulting from the random addition of nucleotides by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase. Several V segments of the gamma locus are known to be incapable of encoding a protein and are considered pseudogenes. Somatic rearrangement of the gamma locus has been observed in T cells derived from patients with T cell leukemia and ataxia telangiectasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100289060 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 pseudogene

CHRNG Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, gamma (muscle)

The mammalian muscle-type acetylcholine receptor is a transmembrane pentameric glycoprotein with two alpha subunits, one beta, one delta, and one epsilon (in adult skeletal muscle) or gamma (in fetal and denervated muscle) subunit. This gene, which encodes the gamma subunit, is expressed prior to the thirty-third week of gestation in humans. The gamma subunit of the acetylcholine receptor plays a role in neuromuscular organogenesis and ligand binding and disruption of gamma subunit expression prevents the correct localization of the receptor in cell membranes. Mutations in this gene cause Escobar syndrome and a lethal form of multiple pterygium syndrome. Muscle-type acetylcholine receptor is the major antigen in the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

ESRRG Gene

estrogen-related receptor gamma

This gene encodes a member of the estrogen receptor-related receptor (ESRR) family, which belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. All members of the ESRR family share an almost identical DNA binding domain, which is composed of two C4-type zinc finger motifs. The ESRR members are orphan nuclear receptors; they bind to the estrogen response element and steroidogenic factor 1 response element, and activate genes controlled by both response elements in the absence of any ligands. The ESRR family is closely related to the estrogen receptor (ER) family. They share target genes, co-regulators and promoters, and by targeting the same set of genes, the ESRRs seem to interfere with the ER-mediated estrogen response in various ways. It has been reported that the family member encoded by this gene functions as a transcriptional activator of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferases 1 (Dnmt1) expression by direct binding to its response elements in the DNMT1 promoters, modulates cell proliferation and estrogen signaling in breast cancer, and negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, which mainly differ at the 5' end and some of which encode protein isoforms differing in the N-terminal region. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ACTG1P19 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 19

ACTG1P11 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 11

ACTG1P17 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 17

ACTG1P16 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 16

ACTG1P15 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 15

ACTG1P14 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 14

DNAJC5G Gene

DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 5 gamma

PDE6G Gene

phosphodiesterase 6G, cGMP-specific, rod, gamma

This gene encodes the gamma subunit of cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase, which is composed of alpha- and beta- catalytic subunits and two identical, inhibitory gamma subunits. This gene is expressed in rod photoreceptors and functions in the phototransduction signaling cascade. It is also expressed in a variety of other tissues, and has been shown to regulate the c-Src protein kinase and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

PDE6H Gene

phosphodiesterase 6H, cGMP-specific, cone, gamma

This gene encodes the inhibitory (or gamma) subunit of the cone-specific cGMP phosphodiesterase, which is a tetramer composed of two catalytic chains (alpha and beta), and two inhibitory chains (gamma). It is specifically expressed in the retina, and is involved in the transmission and amplification of the visual signal. Mutations in this gene are associated with retinal cone dystrophy type 3A (RCD3A). [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

ACTG1P7 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 7

ACTG1P6 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 6

ACTG1P4 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 4

ACTG1P3 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 3

ACTG1P2 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 2

ACTG1P1 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 1

ACTG1P9 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 9

ACTG1P8 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 8

GGCT Gene

gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of 5-oxoproline from gamma-glutamyl dipeptides, the penultimate step in glutathione catabolism, and may play a critical role in glutathione homeostasis. The encoded protein may also play a role in cell proliferation, and the expression of this gene is a potential marker for cancer. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on the long arm of chromosome 5 and the short arm of chromosomes 2 and 20. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

EIF2B3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 3 gamma, 58kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the subunits of initiation factor eIF2B, which catalyzes the exchange of eukaryotic initiation factor 2-bound GDP for GTP. It has also been found to function as a cofactor of hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with leukodystrophy with vanishing white matter. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

TARP Gene

TCR gamma alternate reading frame protein

In some non-lymphoid tissues, the unrearranged T cell receptor gamma (TRG@) locus is expressed. The resulting transcript contains a subset of the TRG@ gene segments and is shorter than TRG@ transcripts expressed in lymphoid tissues. This RefSeq record represents the unrearranged TRG@ locus transcript; the complete TRG@ locus is represented by the genomic RefSeq NG_001336. The transcript represented by this RefSeq has two open reading frames (ORFs) that encode different proteins. The downstream ORF is in the same frame as TRG@ and its protein product is similar to TRG@ proteins. The upstream ORF uses a different reading frame and encodes a novel protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HNF4G Gene

hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, gamma

LOC100418691 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene

LOC255308 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa pseudogene

SEC61G Gene

Sec61 gamma subunit

The Sec61 complex is the central component of the protein translocation apparatus of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Oligomers of the Sec61 complex form a transmembrane channel where proteins are translocated across and integrated into the ER membrane. This complex consists of three membrane proteins- alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the gamma-subunit protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARHGDIG Gene

Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) gamma

The GDP-dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) play a primary role in modulating the activation of GTPases by inhibiting the exchange of GDP for GTP. See ARHGDIB (MIM 602843).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

PRKAG1 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 1 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit is one of the gamma regulatory subunits of AMPK. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAG3 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 3 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit is one of the gamma regulatory subunits of AMPK. It is dominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. Studies of the pig counterpart suggest that this subunit may play a key role in the regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAG2 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 2 non-catalytic subunit

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric protein composed of a catalytic alpha subunit, a noncatalytic beta subunit, and a noncatalytic regulatory gamma subunit. Various forms of each of these subunits exist, encoded by different genes. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status and functions by inactivating key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This gene is a member of the AMPK gamma subunit family. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and glycogen storage disease of the heart. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

REG3G Gene

regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma

This gene encodes a member of the regenerating islet-derived genes (REG)3 protein family. These proteins are secreted, C-type lectins with a carbohydrate recognition domain and N-terminal signal peptide. The protein encoded by this gene is an antimicrobial lectin with activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

PCDHGA10 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 10

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IL36G Gene

interleukin 36, gamma

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. The activity of this cytokine is mediated by interleukin 1 receptor-like 2 (IL1RL2/IL1R-rp2), and is specifically inhibited by interleukin 1 family, member 5 (IL1F5/IL-1 delta). Interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1, beta (IL1B) are reported to stimulate the expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes. The expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes can also be induced by a contact hypersensitivity reaction or herpes simplex virus infection. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

TXLNG Gene

taxilin gamma

This gene encodes a member of the taxilin family. The encoded protein binds to the C-terminal coiled-coil region of syntaxin family members 1A, 3A and 4A, and may play a role in intracellular vesicle trafficking. This gene is up-regulated by lipopolysaccharide and the gene product may be involved in cell cycle regulation. The related mouse protein was also shown to inhibit activating transcription factor 4-mediated transcription and thus regulate bone mass accrual. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

GABRB2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 2

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes GABA A receptor, beta 2 subunit. It is mapped to chromosome 5q34 in a cluster comprised of genes encoding alpha 1 and gamma 2 subunits of the GABA A receptor. Alternative splicing of this gene generates 2 transcript variants, differing by a 114 bp insertion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGTLC2 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase light chain 2

This gene encodes a protein related to enzymes that cleaves gamma-glutamyl peptide bonds in glutathione and other peptides. Unlike similar proteins, the encoded protein contains only the light chain portion and may not have catalytic activity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. There are several related family members and related pseudogene for this gene situated in the same region of chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PPP2R5C Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', gamma

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes a gamma isoform of the regulatory subunit B56 subfamily. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC653503 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 pseudogene

GGT2 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 2

GGT2 belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; EC 2.3.2.2) gene family. GGT is a membrane-bound extracellular enzyme that cleaves gamma-glutamyl peptide bonds in glutathione and other peptides and transfers the gamma-glutamyl moiety to acceptors. GGT is also key to glutathione homeostasis because it provides substrates for glutathione synthesis (Heisterkamp et al., 2008 [PubMed 18357469]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2008]

GGT1 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 1

The enzyme encoded by this gene is a type I gamma-glutamyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of the glutamyl moiety of glutathione to a variety of amino acids and dipeptide acceptors. The enzyme is composed of a heavy chain and a light chain, which are derived from a single precursor protein. It is expressed in tissues involved in absorption and secretion and may contribute to the etiology of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been identified. There are a number of related genes present on chromosomes 20 and 22, and putative pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 2, 13, and 22. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GGT6 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 6

GGT6 belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; EC 2.3.2.2) gene family. GGT is a membrane-bound extracellular enzyme that cleaves gamma-glutamyl peptide bonds in glutathione and other peptides and transfers the gamma-glutamyl moiety to acceptors. GGT is also key to glutathione homeostasis because it provides substrates for glutathione synthesis (Heisterkamp et al., 2008 [PubMed 18357469]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2008]

GGT7 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 7

This gene is a member of a gene family that encodes enzymes involved in both the metabolism of glutathione and in the transpeptidation of amino acids. Changes in the activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase may signal preneoplastic or toxic conditions in the liver or kidney. The protein encoded by this gene consists of a heavy and a light chain, and it can interact with CT120, a plasma membrane-associated protein that is possibly involved in lung carcinogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGT5 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 5

This gene is a member of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase gene family, and some reports indicate that it is capable of cleaving the gamma-glutamyl moiety of glutathione. The protein encoded by this gene is synthesized as a single, catalytically-inactive polypeptide, that is processed post-transcriptionally to form a heavy and light subunit, with the catalytic activity contained within the small subunit. The encoded enzyme is able to convert leukotriene C4 to leukotriene D4, but appears to have distinct substrate specificity compared to gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

MAP1LC3C Gene

microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 gamma

Autophagy is a highly regulated bulk degradation process that plays an important role in cellular maintenance and development. MAP1LC3C is an ortholog of the yeast autophagosome protein Atg8 (He et al., 2003 [PubMed 12740394]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

GGTLC1 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase light chain 1

This gene encodes a member of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) family, which are important in the metabolism of glutathione. The most ubiquitously expressed human GGT gene, GGT1, encodes a single transmembrane polypeptide that is post-translationally processed to form a heavy and a light chain. In contrast, the product of this gene only contains homology to the light chain region, and lacks a transmembrane domain. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

GGTLC3 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase light chain 3

Gamma-glutamyltransferase-1 (GGT1; MIM 612346) is a membrane-bound extracellular enzyme that cleaves gamma-glutamyl peptide bonds in glutathione and other peptides and transfers the gamma-glutamyl moiety to acceptors. Autocatalytic cleavage of the GGT1 precursor polypeptide produces a heavy chain and a light chain that associate with each other to form the functional enzyme. Light chain-only GGTs, such as GGTLC3, contain a region corresponding to the GGT1 light chain, but they lack the membrane-anchoring heavy chain region (Heisterkamp et al., 2008 [PubMed 18357469]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2008]

LOC100130849 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 (muscle) pseudogene

LOC100418688 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene

PIK3CG Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit gamma

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the pi3/pi4-kinase family of proteins. The gene product is an enzyme that phosphorylates phosphoinositides on the 3-hydroxyl group of the inositol ring. It is an important modulator of extracellular signals, including those elicited by E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, which plays an important role in maintenance of the structural and functional integrity of epithelia. In addition to its role in promoting assembly of adherens junctions, the protein is thought to play a pivotal role in the regulation of cytotoxicity in NK cells. The gene is located in a commonly deleted segment of chromosome 7 previously identified in myeloid leukemias. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

CTH Gene

cystathionine gamma-lyase

This gene encodes a cytoplasmic enzyme in the trans-sulfuration pathway that converts cystathione derived from methionine into cysteine. Glutathione synthesis in the liver is dependent upon the availability of cysteine. Mutations in this gene cause cystathioninuria. Alternative splicing of this gene results in three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

CATSPERG Gene

catsper channel auxiliary subunit gamma

CATSPERG is a subunit of the CATSPER (see CATSPER1; MIM 606389) sperm calcium channel, which is required for sperm hyperactivated motility and male fertility (Wang et al., 2009 [PubMed 19516020]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]

GGACT Gene

gamma-glutamylamine cyclotransferase

The protein encoded by this gene aids in the proteolytic degradation of crosslinked fibrin by breaking down isodipeptide L-gamma-glutamyl-L-epsilon-lysine, a byproduct of fibrin degradation. The reaction catalyzed by the encoded gamma-glutamylaminecyclotransferase produces 5-oxo-L-proline and a free alkylamine. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

PRKCG Gene

protein kinase C, gamma

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play distinct roles in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This protein kinase is expressed solely in the brain and spinal cord and its localization is restricted to neurons. It has been demonstrated that several neuronal functions, including long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), specifically require this kinase. Knockout studies in mice also suggest that this kinase may be involved in neuropathic pain development. Defects in this protein have been associated with neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia-14 (SCA14). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGB9P Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 9 pseudogene

EEF1GP4 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 4

PSME3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 3 (PA28 gamma; Ki)

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The immunoproteasome contains an alternate regulator, referred to as the 11S regulator or PA28, that replaces the 19S regulator. Three subunits (alpha, beta and gamma) of the 11S regulator have been identified. This gene encodes the gamma subunit of the 11S regulator. Six gamma subunits combine to form a homohexameric ring. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

CACNG2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

LOC101060145 Gene

putative gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 3

CACNG4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type II TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

ACTG1P13 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 13

ACTG1P12 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 12

PPP1CC Gene

protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein phosphatase family, PP1 subfamily. PP1 is an ubiquitous serine/threonine phosphatase that regulates many cellular processes, including cell division. It is expressed in mammalian cells as three closely related isoforms, alpha, beta/delta and gamma, which have distinct localization patterns. This gene encodes the gamma isozyme. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

EEF1GP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 1

PCDHGCT Gene

protocadherin gamma constant

The genomic organization of the human protocadherin alpha, beta, and gamma gene clusters (PCDHA@, PCDHB@ and PCDHG@) is remarkably similar to that of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes. The extracellular and transmembrane domains of each protocadherin protein are encoded by an unusually large "variable" region exon, while the intracellular domains are encoded by three small "constant" region exons located downstream from a tandem array of variable region exons. This locus represents the three exons comprising the constant region of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGC3 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily C, 3

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGC4 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily C, 4

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGC5 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily C, 5

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100128052 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', gamma pseudogene

CDC42BPG Gene

CDC42 binding protein kinase gamma (DMPK-like)

PARVG Gene

parvin, gamma

Members of the parvin family, including PARVG, are actin-binding proteins associated with focal contacts.[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2004]

LOC100528061 Gene

gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase pseudogene

LOC100528063 Gene

gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase pseudogene

AP1G1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit

Adaptins are important components of clathrin-coated vesicles transporting ligand-receptor complexes from the plasma membrane or from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes. The adaptin family of proteins is composed of four classes of molecules named alpha, beta-, beta prime- and gamma- adaptins. Adaptins, together with medium and small subunits, form a heterotetrameric complex called an adaptor, whose role is to promote the formation of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AP1G2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit

Adaptins are important components of clathrin-coated vesicles transporting ligand-receptor complexes from the plasma membrane or from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes. The adaptin family of proteins is compsed of four classes of molecules named alpha, beta-, beta prime- and gamma- adaptins. Adaptins, together with medium and small subunits, form a heterotetrameric complex called an adaptor, whose role is to promote the formation of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This protein along with the complex is thought to function at some trafficking step in the complex pathways between the trans-Golgi network and the cell surface. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene exist, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

LOC100128345 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, gamma pseudogene

PPP2R2C Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, gamma

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2 is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes a gamma isoform of the regulatory subunit B55 subfamily. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAPOLG Gene

poly(A) polymerase gamma

This gene encodes a member of the poly(A) polymerase family which catalyzes template-independent extension of the 3' end of a DNA/RNA strand. This enzyme shares 60% identity to the well characterized poly(A) polymerase II (PAPII) at the amino acid level. These two enzymes have similar organization of structural and functional domains. This enzyme is exclusively localized in the nucleus and exhibits both nonspecific and CPSF (cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor)/AAUAAA-dependent polyadenylation activity. This gene is located on chromosome 2 in contrast to the PAPII gene, which is located on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFNGR1 Gene

interferon gamma receptor 1

This gene (IFNGR1) encodes the ligand-binding chain (alpha) of the gamma interferon receptor. Human interferon-gamma receptor is a heterodimer of IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. A genetic variation in IFNGR1 is associated with susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection. In addition, defects in IFNGR1 are a cause of mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, also known as familial disseminated atypical mycobacterial infection. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRGV11 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 11 (non-functional)

ADD3 Gene

adducin 3 (gamma)

Adducins are heteromeric proteins composed of different subunits referred to as adducin alpha, beta and gamma. The three subunits are encoded by distinct genes and belong to a family of membrane skeletal proteins involved in the assembly of spectrin-actin network in erythrocytes and at sites of cell-cell contact in epithelial tissues. While adducins alpha and gamma are ubiquitously expressed, the expression of adducin beta is restricted to brain and hematopoietic tissues. Adducin, originally purified from human erythrocytes, was found to be a heterodimer of adducins alpha and beta. Polymorphisms resulting in amino acid substitutions in these two subunits have been associated with the regulation of blood pressure in an animal model of hypertension. Heterodimers consisting of alpha and gamma subunits have also been described. Structurally, each subunit is comprised of two distinct domains. The amino-terminal region is protease resistant and globular in shape, while the carboxy-terminal region is protease sensitive. The latter contains multiple phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C, the binding site for calmodulin, and is required for association with spectrin and actin. Alternatively spliced adducin gamma transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. The functions of the different isoforms are not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP2R5CP Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', gamma pseudogene

LOC391334 Gene

actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric pseudogene

HBG2 Gene

hemoglobin, gamma G

The gamma globin genes (HBG1 and HBG2) are normally expressed in the fetal liver, spleen and bone marrow. Two gamma chains together with two alpha chains constitute fetal hemoglobin (HbF) which is normally replaced by adult hemoglobin (HbA) at birth. In some beta-thalassemias and related conditions, gamma chain production continues into adulthood. The two types of gamma chains differ at residue 136 where glycine is found in the G-gamma product (HBG2) and alanine is found in the A-gamma product (HBG1). The former is predominant at birth. The order of the genes in the beta-globin cluster is: 5'- epsilon -- gamma-G -- gamma-A -- delta -- beta--3'. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLG2 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), gamma 2, accessory subunit

This gene encodes the processivity subunit of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. The encoded protein forms a heterotrimer containing one catalytic subunit and two processivity subunits. This protein enhances DNA binding and promotes processive DNA synthesis. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

TUBGCP2 Gene

tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 2

TUBGCP3 Gene

tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 3

TUBGCP4 Gene

tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 4

This gene encodes a component of the gamma-tubulin ring complex, which is required for microtubule nucleation. In mammalian cells, the protein localizes to centrosomes in association with gamma-tubulin. Crystal structure analysis revealed a structure composed of five helical bundles arranged around conserved hydrophobic cores. An exposed surface area located in the C-terminal domain is essential and sufficient for direct binding to gamma-tubulin. Mutations in this gene that alter microtubule organization are associated with microcephaly and chorioretinopathy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2015]

TUBGCP5 Gene

tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 5

TUBGCP6 Gene

tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 6

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a large multisubunit complex required for microtubule nucleation at the centrosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGT8P Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 8 pseudogene

NAPGP2 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene 2

NAPGP1 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene 1

PCDHGA9 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 9

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

APH1B Gene

APH1B gamma secretase subunit

This gene encodes a multi-pass transmembrane protein that is a functional component of the gamma-secretase complex, which also contains presenilin and nicastrin. This protein represents a stabilizing cofactor for the presenilin holoprotein in the complex. The gamma-secretase complex catalyzes the cleavage of integral proteins such as notch receptors and beta-amyloid precursor protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

APH1A Gene

APH1A gamma secretase subunit

This gene encodes a component of the gamma secretase complex that cleaves integral membrane proteins such as Notch receptors and beta-amyloid precursor protein. The gamma secretase complex contains this gene product, or the paralogous anterior pharynx defective 1 homolog B (APH1B), along with the presenilin, nicastrin, and presenilin enhancer-2 proteins. The precise function of this seven-transmembrane-domain protein is unknown though it is suspected of facilitating the association of nicastrin and presenilin in the gamma secretase complex as well as interacting with substrates of the gamma secretase complex prior to their proteolytic processing. Polymorphisms in a promoter region of this gene have been associated with an increased risk for developing sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple protein-coding and non-protein-coding transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

HBG1 Gene

hemoglobin, gamma A

The gamma globin genes (HBG1 and HBG2) are normally expressed in the fetal liver, spleen and bone marrow. Two gamma chains together with two alpha chains constitute fetal hemoglobin (HbF) which is normally replaced by adult hemoglobin (HbA) at birth. In some beta-thalassemias and related conditions, gamma chain production continues into adulthood. The two types of gamma chains differ at residue 136 where glycine is found in the G-gamma product (HBG2) and alanine is found in the A-gamma product (HBG1). The former is predominant at birth. The order of the genes in the beta-globin cluster is: 5'-epsilon -- gamma-G -- gamma-A -- delta -- beta--3'. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IKBKGP1 Gene

inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma pseudogene 1

GNGT2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2

Phototransduction in rod and cone photoreceptors is regulated by groups of signaling proteins. The encoded protein is thought to play a crucial role in cone phototransduction. It belongs to the G protein gamma family and localized specifically in cones. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

GNGT1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 1

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) transduce extracellular signals received by transmembrane receptors to effector proteins. Transducin is a guanine nucleotide-binding protein found specifically in rod outer segments, where it mediates activation by rhodopsin of a cyclic GTP-specific (guanosine monophosphate) phosphodiesterase. Transducin is also referred to as GMPase. GNGT1 encodes the gamma subunit of transducin (Hurley et al., 1984 [PubMed 6438626]; Scherer et al., 1996 [PubMed 8661128]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

Gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase GPR Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase GPR protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase GPR, conserved site Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase GPR, conserved site protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

pyridoxal phosphate gamma-glutamyl hydrazone Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical pyridoxal phosphate gamma-glutamyl hydrazone from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

gamma-glutamyl-glutathione Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical gamma-glutamyl-glutathione from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

Gamma-Glutamyl[S-(2-Iodobenzyl)Cysteinyl]Glycine Gene Set

From DrugBank Drug Targets

interacting proteins for the Gamma-Glutamyl[S-(2-Iodobenzyl)Cysteinyl]Glycine drug from the curated DrugBank Drug Targets dataset.

2-ACETAMIDO-2-DEOXY-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSE(BETA1-4)-2-ACETAMIDO-1,6-ANHYDRO-3-O-[(R)-1-CARBOXYETHYL]-2-DEOXY-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSE-L-ALANYL-GAMMA-D-GLUTAMYL-MESO-DIAMINOPIMELYL-D-ALANINE Gene Set

From DrugBank Drug Targets

interacting proteins for the 2-ACETAMIDO-2-DEOXY-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSE(BETA1-4)-2-ACETAMIDO-1,6-ANHYDRO-3-O-[(R)-1-CARBOXYETHYL]-2-DEOXY-BETA-D-GLUCOPYRANOSE-L-ALANYL-GAMMA-D-GLUTAMYL-MESO-DIAMINOPIMELYL-D-ALANINE drug from the curated DrugBank Drug Targets dataset.

gamma-glutamyl-peptidase activity Gene Set

From GO Molecular Function Annotations

genes performing the gamma-glutamyl-peptidase activity molecular function from the curated GO Molecular Function Annotations dataset.

gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity Gene Set

From GO Molecular Function Annotations

genes performing the gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity molecular function from the curated GO Molecular Function Annotations dataset.

Liver enzyme levels (gamma-glutamyl transferase) Gene Set

From GWAS Catalog SNP-Phenotype Associations

genes associated with the Liver enzyme levels (gamma-glutamyl transferase) phenotype in GWAS datasets from the GWAS Catalog SNP-Phenotype Associations dataset.

Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase Gene Set

From GWAS Catalog SNP-Phenotype Associations

genes associated with the Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase phenotype in GWAS datasets from the GWAS Catalog SNP-Phenotype Associations dataset.

gamma-Glutamyl-beta-cyanoalanine Gene Set

From HMDB Metabolites of Enzymes

interacting proteins for the gamma-Glutamyl-beta-cyanoalanine metabolite from the curated HMDB Metabolites of Enzymes dataset.

gamma-Glutamyl-beta-aminopropiononitrile Gene Set

From HMDB Metabolites of Enzymes

interacting proteins for the gamma-Glutamyl-beta-aminopropiononitrile metabolite from the curated HMDB Metabolites of Enzymes dataset.

Gamma-Glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine Gene Set

From HMDB Metabolites of Enzymes

interacting proteins for the Gamma-Glutamyl-Se-methylselenocysteine metabolite from the curated HMDB Metabolites of Enzymes dataset.

γ-glutamyl cycle Gene Set

From HumanCyc Pathways

proteins participating in the γ-glutamyl cycle pathway from the HumanCyc Pathways dataset.

Peptidase C26, gamma-glutamyl hydrolase Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Peptidase C26, gamma-glutamyl hydrolase protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Gamma interferon inducible lysosomal thiol reductase GILT Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Gamma interferon inducible lysosomal thiol reductase GILT protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

PLC-gamma-2-Syk-LAT-FcR-gamma complex Gene Set

From CORUM Protein Complexes

proteins in the PLC-gamma-2-Syk-LAT-FcR-gamma complex protein complex from the CORUM Protein Complexes dataset.

PLC-gamma-2-Lyn-FcR-gamma complex Gene Set

From CORUM Protein Complexes

proteins in the PLC-gamma-2-Lyn-FcR-gamma complex protein complex from the CORUM Protein Complexes dataset.

increased expression of the g gamma and a gamma globin Gene Set

From GAD Gene-Disease Associations

genes associated with the disease increased expression of the g gamma and a gamma globin in GWAS and other genetic association datasets from the GAD Gene-Disease Associations dataset.

Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A receptor, gamma 1 subunit Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A receptor, gamma 1 subunit protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A receptor, gamma 3 subunit Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A receptor, gamma 3 subunit protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A receptor, gamma subunit Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A receptor, gamma subunit protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A receptor, gamma 2 subunit Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Gamma-aminobutyric-acid A receptor, gamma 2 subunit protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

pyridoxal phosphate gamma-aminobutyric acid Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical pyridoxal phosphate gamma-aminobutyric acid from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

adenosine 3'-phosphate-5'-phosphate Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical adenosine 3'-phosphate-5'-phosphate from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

3'-Phosphate-Adenosine-5'-Phosphate Sulfate Gene Set

From DrugBank Drug Targets

interacting proteins for the 3'-Phosphate-Adenosine-5'-Phosphate Sulfate drug from the curated DrugBank Drug Targets dataset.

protein-pyridoxal-5-phosphate linkage via peptidyl-n6-pyridoxal phosphate-l-lysine Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the protein-pyridoxal-5-phosphate linkage via peptidyl-n6-pyridoxal phosphate-l-lysine biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

sedoheptulose-7-phosphate:d-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate glyceronetransferase activity Gene Set

From GO Molecular Function Annotations

genes performing the sedoheptulose-7-phosphate:d-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate glyceronetransferase activity molecular function from the curated GO Molecular Function Annotations dataset.

Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase/Dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Glycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase/Dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

glutamyl-trna(gln) amidotransferase complex Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins localized to the glutamyl-trna(gln) amidotransferase complex cellular component from the COMPARTMENTS Curated Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

glutamyl-trna(gln) amidotransferase complex Gene Set

From COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores

proteins co-occuring with the glutamyl-trna(gln) amidotransferase complex cellular component in abstracts of biomedical publications from the COMPARTMENTS Text-mining Protein Localization Evidence Scores dataset.

benzoylcarbonyl-aspartyl-glutamyl-valyl-aspartyl-fluoromethyl ketone Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical benzoylcarbonyl-aspartyl-glutamyl-valyl-aspartyl-fluoromethyl ketone from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

aspartyl-glutamyl-valyl-aspartal Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical aspartyl-glutamyl-valyl-aspartal from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

acetyl-aspartyl-glutamyl-valyl-aspartic acid p-nitroanilide Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical acetyl-aspartyl-glutamyl-valyl-aspartic acid p-nitroanilide from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

benzyloxycarbonyl-leucyl-glutamyl-histidyl-aspartic acid fluoromethyl ketone Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical benzyloxycarbonyl-leucyl-glutamyl-histidyl-aspartic acid fluoromethyl ketone from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

aspartyl-glutamyl-valyl-aspartyl-p-nitroanilide Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical aspartyl-glutamyl-valyl-aspartyl-p-nitroanilide from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

benzyloxycarbonyl-isoleucyl-glutamyl-threonyl-aspartic acid fluoromethyl ketone Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical benzyloxycarbonyl-isoleucyl-glutamyl-threonyl-aspartic acid fluoromethyl ketone from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

glutamyl-(2-(((3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl)oxy)carbonyl)-3-((2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-3-oxopropyl)-cysteinyl-glycine sodium salt Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical glutamyl-(2-(((3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl)oxy)carbonyl)-3-((2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)amino)-3-oxopropyl)-cysteinyl-glycine sodium salt from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

acetyl-aspartyl-glutamyl-valyl-aspartal Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical acetyl-aspartyl-glutamyl-valyl-aspartal from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

benzyloxycarbonyl-alanyl-glutamyl-valyl-aspartic acid fluoromethyl ketone Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical benzyloxycarbonyl-alanyl-glutamyl-valyl-aspartic acid fluoromethyl ketone from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

isoleucyl-glutamyl-threonyl-aspartic acid fluoromethyl ketone Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical isoleucyl-glutamyl-threonyl-aspartic acid fluoromethyl ketone from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

benzyloxycarbonyl-isoleucyl-glutamyl(O-tert-butyl)-alanyl-leucinal Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical benzyloxycarbonyl-isoleucyl-glutamyl(O-tert-butyl)-alanyl-leucinal from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

acetyl-leucyl-glutamyl-histidyl-aspartal Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical acetyl-leucyl-glutamyl-histidyl-aspartal from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

deuterohemin-alanyl-histidyl-threonyl-valyl-glutamyl-lysine Gene Set

From CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions

genes/proteins interacting with the chemical deuterohemin-alanyl-histidyl-threonyl-valyl-glutamyl-lysine from the curated CTD Gene-Chemical Interactions dataset.

glutamyl Gene Set

From GeneRIF Biological Term Annotations

genes co-occuring with the biological term glutamyl in literature-supported statements describing functions of genes from the GeneRIF Biological Term Annotations dataset.

glutamyl-trna aminoacylation Gene Set

From GO Biological Process Annotations

genes participating in the glutamyl-trna aminoacylation biological process from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

glutamyl-trna(gln) amidotransferase complex Gene Set

From GO Cellular Component Annotations

proteins localized to the glutamyl-trna(gln) amidotransferase complex cellular component from the curated GO Cellular Component Annotations dataset.

p-nitrophenyl glutamyl anilide Gene Set

From Guide to Pharmacology Chemical Ligands of Receptors

receptors of the p-nitrophenyl glutamyl anilide ligand (chemical) from the curated Guide to Pharmacology Chemical Ligands of Receptors dataset.

5-L-Glutamyl-taurine Gene Set

From HMDB Metabolites of Enzymes

interacting proteins for the 5-L-Glutamyl-taurine metabolite from the curated HMDB Metabolites of Enzymes dataset.

Glutamyl/glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Glutamyl/glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Aspartyl/glutamyl-tRNA(Asn/Gln) amidotransferase, B subunit Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Aspartyl/glutamyl-tRNA(Asn/Gln) amidotransferase, B subunit protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Glutamyl/glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, class Ib, anti-codon binding domain Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Glutamyl/glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, class Ib, anti-codon binding domain protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Aspartyl/glutamyl-tRNA(Asn/Gln) amidotransferase, C subunit Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Aspartyl/glutamyl-tRNA(Asn/Gln) amidotransferase, C subunit protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Aspartyl/glutamyl-tRNA(Asn/Gln) amidotransferase, subunit B /E Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Aspartyl/glutamyl-tRNA(Asn/Gln) amidotransferase, subunit B /E protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase, subunit B, conserved site Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase, subunit B, conserved site protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Aspartyl/Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase, subunit B/E, catalytic Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Aspartyl/Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase, subunit B/E, catalytic protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, archaeal/eukaryotic cytosolic Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Glutamyl-tRNA synthetase, archaeal/eukaryotic cytosolic protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase A subunit Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase A subunit protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Aspartyl/glutamyl-tRNA amidotransferase subunit B-related Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Aspartyl/glutamyl-tRNA amidotransferase subunit B-related protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Glutamyl/glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, class Ib, catalytic domain Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Glutamyl/glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, class Ib, catalytic domain protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

Glutamyl/glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, class Ib, alpha-bundle domain Gene Set

From InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations

proteins predicted to have the Glutamyl/glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase, class Ib, alpha-bundle domain protein domain from the InterPro Predicted Protein Domain Annotations dataset.

GPR56-CD81-Galphaq/11-Gbeta complex Gene Set

From CORUM Protein Complexes

proteins in the GPR56-CD81-Galphaq/11-Gbeta complex protein complex from the CORUM Protein Complexes dataset.

HTR1A-GPR26 complex Gene Set

From CORUM Protein Complexes

proteins in the HTR1A-GPR26 complex protein complex from the CORUM Protein Complexes dataset.

gpr30egfr Gene Set

From GeneRIF Biological Term Annotations

genes co-occuring with the biological term gpr30egfr in literature-supported statements describing functions of genes from the GeneRIF Biological Term Annotations dataset.

gpr126 Gene Set

From GeneRIF Biological Term Annotations

genes co-occuring with the biological term gpr126 in literature-supported statements describing functions of genes from the GeneRIF Biological Term Annotations dataset.

gpr124 Gene Set

From GeneRIF Biological Term Annotations

genes co-occuring with the biological term gpr124 in literature-supported statements describing functions of genes from the GeneRIF Biological Term Annotations dataset.

gpr120 Gene Set

From GeneRIF Biological Term Annotations

genes co-occuring with the biological term gpr120 in literature-supported statements describing functions of genes from the GeneRIF Biological Term Annotations dataset.

gpr Gene Set

From GeneRIF Biological Term Annotations

genes co-occuring with the biol