Name

NURSA Protein Complexes Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

proteins identified in complexes isolated from cultured cells

NURSA Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

protein-protein interactions inferred from membership in complexes

GABRG3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, gamma 3

This gene encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. GABA-A receptors are pentameric, consisting of proteins from several subunit classes: alpha, beta, gamma, delta and rho. The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma subunit, which contains the benzodiazepine binding site. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

GABRG2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, gamma 2

This gene encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammlian brain, where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. GABA-A receptors are pentameric, consisting of proteins from several subunit classes: alpha, beta, gamma, delta and rho. Mutations in this gene have been associated with epilepsy and febrile seizures. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRG1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, gamma 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ligand-gated ionic channel family. It is an integral membrane protein and plays an important role in inhibiting neurotransmission by binding to the benzodiazepine receptor and opening an integral chloride channel. This gene is clustered with three other family members on chromosome 4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABBR1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 1

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. GABA exerts its effects through ionotropic [GABA(A/C)] receptors, to produce fast synaptic inhibition, and metabotropic [GABA(B)] receptors, to produce slow, prolonged inhibitory signals. The GABA(B) receptor consists of a heterodimer of two related 7-transmembrane receptors, GABA(B) receptor 1 and GABA(B) receptor 2. The GABA(B) receptor 1 gene is mapped to chromosome 6p21.3 within the HLA class I region close to the HLA-F gene. Susceptibility loci for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and schizophrenia have also been mapped in this region. Alternative splicing of this gene generates multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

GABRR1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, rho 1

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. GABRR1 is a member of the rho subunit family. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

GABRR2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, rho 2

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the rho subunit family and is a component of the GABA receptor complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRR3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, rho 3 (gene/pseudogene)

The neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions in the central nervous system to regulate synaptic transmission of neurons. This gene encodes one of three related subunits, which combine as homo- or hetero-pentamers to form GABA(C) receptors. In humans, some individuals contain a single-base polymorphism (dbSNP rs832032) that is predicted to inactivate the gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

GABRB1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 1

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes GABA A receptor, beta 1 subunit. It is mapped to chromosome 4p12 in a cluster comprised of genes encoding alpha 4, alpha 2 and gamma 1 subunits of the GABA A receptor. Alteration of this gene is implicated in the pathogenetics of schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRB3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 3

This gene encodes a member of the ligand-gated ionic channel family. The encoded protein is one the subunits of a multi-subunit chloride channel that serves as the receptor for gamma-aminobutyric acid, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian nervous system. This gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 15 in a cluster with two other genes encoding related subunits of the family. This gene may be associated with the pathogenesis of several disorders including Angelman syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, nonsyndromic orofacial clefts, epilepsy and autism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

GABRQ Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, theta

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes the theta subunit of the GABA A receptor. The gene is mapped to chromosome Xq28 in a cluster of genes including those that encode the alpha 3 and epsilon subunits of the GABA A receptor. This gene location is also the candidate region of two different neurologic diseases: early-onset parkinsonism (Waisman syndrome) and X-linked mental retardation (MRX3). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

GABRP Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, pi

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. The subunit encoded by this gene is expressed in several non-neuronal tissues including the uterus and ovaries. This subunit can assemble with known GABA A receptor subunits, and the presence of this subunit alters the sensitivity of recombinant receptors to modulatory agents such as pregnanolone. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

GABRE Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, epsilon

The product of this gene belongs to the ligand-gated ionic channel (TC 1.A.9) family. It encodes the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor which is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes an epsilon subunit. It is mapped to chromosome Xq28 in a cluster comprised of genes encoding alpha 3, beta 4 and theta subunits of the same receptor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, but only one is thought to encode a protein. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

GABRD Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, delta

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. The GABA-A receptor is generally pentameric and there are five types of subunits: alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and rho. This gene encodes the delta subunit. Mutations in this gene have been associated with susceptibility to generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures, type 5. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA5 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 5

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. Transcript variants utilizing three different alternative non-coding first exons have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA4 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 4

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. This gene encodes subunit alpha-4, which is involved in the etiology of autism and eventually increases autism risk through interaction with another subunit, gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor beta-1 (GABRB1). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

GABRA6 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 6

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA1 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 1

This gene encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor. GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. GABA-A receptors are pentameric, consisting of proteins from several subunit classes: alpha, beta, gamma, delta and rho. Mutations in this gene cause juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and childhood absence epilepsy type 4. Multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA3 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 3

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GABRA2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, alpha 2

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain where it acts at GABA-A receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as benzodiazepines that bind to the GABA-A receptor. At least 16 distinct subunits of GABA-A receptors have been identified. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

GABBR2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor, 2

The multi-pass membrane protein encoded by this gene belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 3 family and GABA-B receptor subfamily. The GABA-B receptors inhibit neuronal activity through G protein-coupled second-messenger systems, which regulate the release of neurotransmitters, and the activity of ion channels and adenylyl cyclase. This receptor subunit forms an active heterodimeric complex with GABA-B receptor subunit 1, neither of which is effective on its own. Allelic variants of this gene have been associated with nicotine dependence.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

GABRB2 Gene

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, beta 2

The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is a multisubunit chloride channel that mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. This gene encodes GABA A receptor, beta 2 subunit. It is mapped to chromosome 5q34 in a cluster comprised of genes encoding alpha 1 and gamma 2 subunits of the GABA A receptor. Alternative splicing of this gene generates 2 transcript variants, differing by a 114 bp insertion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RARG Gene

retinoic acid receptor, gamma

This gene encodes a retinoic acid receptor that belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) act as ligand-dependent transcriptional regulators. When bound to ligands, RARs activate transcription by binding as heterodimers to the retinoic acid response elements (RARE) found in the promoter regions of the target genes. In their unbound form, RARs repress transcription of their target genes. RARs are involved in various biological processes, including limb bud development, skeletal growth, and matrix homeostasis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC100422537 Gene

signal sequence receptor, gamma (translocon-associated protein gamma) pseudogene

SSR3 Gene

signal sequence receptor, gamma (translocon-associated protein gamma)

The signal sequence receptor (SSR) is a glycosylated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane receptor associated with protein translocation across the ER membrane. The SSR is comprised of four membrane proteins/subunits: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The first two are glycosylated subunits and the latter two are non-glycosylated subunits. This gene encodes the gamma subunit, which is predicted to span the membrane four times. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

IFNGR2 Gene

interferon gamma receptor 2 (interferon gamma transducer 1)

This gene (IFNGR2) encodes the non-ligand-binding beta chain of the gamma interferon receptor. Human interferon-gamma receptor is a heterodimer of IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. Defects in IFNGR2 are a cause of mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD), also known as familial disseminated atypical mycobacterial infection. MSMD is a genetically heterogeneous disease with autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant or X-linked inheritance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BAATP1 Gene

bile acid CoA: amino acid N-acyltransferase pseudogene 1

BAAT Gene

bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase

The protein encoded by this gene is a liver enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of C24 bile acids from the acyl-CoA thioester to either glycine or taurine, the second step in the formation of bile acid-amino acid conjugates. The bile acid conjugates then act as a detergent in the gastrointestinal tract, which enhances lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. Defects in this gene are a cause of familial hypercholanemia (FHCA). Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BBOX1 Gene

butyrobetaine (gamma), 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase (gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase) 1

This gene encodes gamma butyrobetaine hydroxylase which catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine, the last step in the L-carnitine biosynthetic pathway. Carnitine is essential for the transport of activated fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane during mitochondrial beta-oxidation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TFAP2C Gene

transcription factor AP-2 gamma (activating enhancer binding protein 2 gamma)

The protein encoded by this gene is a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor involved in the activation of several developmental genes. The encoded protein can act as either a homodimer or heterodimer with other family members and is induced during retinoic acid-mediated differentiation. It plays a role in the development of the eyes, face, body wall, limbs, and neural tube. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LPAR1 Gene

lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1

The integral membrane protein encoded by this gene is a lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor from a group known as EDG receptors. These receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. Utilized by LPA for cell signaling, EDG receptors mediate diverse biologic functions, including proliferation, platelet aggregation, smooth muscle contraction, inhibition of neuroblastoma cell differentiation, chemotaxis, and tumor cell invasion. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RARA Gene

retinoic acid receptor, alpha

This gene represents a nuclear retinoic acid receptor. The encoded protein, retinoic acid receptor alpha, regulates transcription in a ligand-dependent manner. This gene has been implicated in regulation of development, differentiation, apoptosis, granulopoeisis, and transcription of clock genes. Translocations between this locus and several other loci have been associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this locus.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

RARB Gene

retinoic acid receptor, beta

This gene encodes retinoic acid receptor beta, a member of the thyroid-steroid hormone receptor superfamily of nuclear transcriptional regulators. This receptor localizes to the cytoplasm and to subnuclear compartments. It binds retinoic acid, the biologically active form of vitamin A which mediates cellular signalling in embryonic morphogenesis, cell growth and differentiation. It is thought that this protein limits growth of many cell types by regulating gene expression. The gene was first identified in a hepatocellular carcinoma where it flanks a hepatitis B virus integration site. Alternate promoter usage and differential splicing result in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

HCAR3 Gene

hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 3

HCAR2 Gene

hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 2

HCAR1 Gene

hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, or GPRs), such as GPR81, contain 7 transmembrane domains and transduce extracellular signals through heterotrimeric G proteins.[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2005]

LPAR2 Gene

lysophosphatidic acid receptor 2

This gene encodes a member of family I of the G protein-coupled receptors, as well as the EDG family of proteins. This protein functions as a lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor and contributes to Ca2+ mobilization, a critical cellular response to LPA in cells, through association with Gi and Gq proteins. An alternative splice variant has been described but its full length sequence has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LPAR3 Gene

lysophosphatidic acid receptor 3

This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, as well as the EDG family of proteins. This protein functions as a cellular receptor for lysophosphatidic acid and mediates lysophosphatidic acid-evoked calcium mobilization. This receptor couples predominantly to G(q/11) alpha proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LPAR6 Gene

lysophosphatidic acid receptor 6

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of G-protein coupled receptors, that are preferentially activated by adenosine and uridine nucleotides. This gene aligns with an internal intron of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene in the reverse orientation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

LPAR4 Gene

lysophosphatidic acid receptor 4

This gene encodes a member of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor family. It may also be related to the P2Y receptors, a family of receptors that bind purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and are coupled to G proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in monocytic differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

LPAR5 Gene

lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5

This gene encodes a member of the rhodopsin class of G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. This protein transmits extracellular signals from lysophosphatidic acid to cells through heterotrimeric G proteins and mediates numerous cellular processes. Many G protein receptors serve as targets for pharmaceutical drugs. Transcript variants of this gene have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

GPBAR1 Gene

G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1

This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. This enzyme functions as a cell surface receptor for bile acids. Treatment of cells expressing this GPCR with bile acids induces the production of intracellular cAMP, activation of a MAP kinase signaling pathway, and internalization of the receptor. The receptor is implicated in the suppression of macrophage functions and regulation of energy homeostasis by bile acids. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RARRES2 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2

This gene encodes a secreted chemotactic protein that initiates chemotaxis via the ChemR23 G protein-coupled seven-transmembrane domain ligand. Expression of this gene is upregulated by the synthetic retinoid tazarotene and occurs in a wide variety of tissues. The active protein has several roles, including that as an adipokine and as an antimicrobial protein with activity against bacteria and fungi. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

RARRES3 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 3

Retinoids exert biologic effects such as potent growth inhibitory and cell differentiation activities and are used in the treatment of hyperproliferative dermatological diseases. These effects are mediated by specific nuclear receptor proteins that are members of the steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily of transcriptional regulators. RARRES1, RARRES2, and RARRES3 are genes whose expression is upregulated by the synthetic retinoid tazarotene. RARRES3 is thought act as a tumor suppressor or growth regulator. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RARRES1 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 1

This gene was identified as a retinoid acid (RA) receptor-responsive gene. It encodes a type 1 membrane protein. The expression of this gene is upregulated by tazarotene as well as by retinoic acid receptors. The expression of this gene is found to be downregulated in prostate cancer, which is caused by the methylation of its promoter and CpG island. Alternatively spliced transcript variant encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC102723333 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder protein 2 pseudogene

FFAR4 Gene

free fatty acid receptor 4

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) which belongs to the rhodopsin family of GPRs. The encoded protein functions as a receptor for free fatty acids, including omega-3, and participates in suppressing anti-inflammatory responses and insulin sensitizing. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

RARRES2P8 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2 pseudogene 8

RARRES2P2 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2 pseudogene 2

RARRES2P1 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2 pseudogene 1

RARRES2P4 Gene

retinoic acid receptor responder (tazarotene induced) 2 pseudogene 4

FFAR2 Gene

free fatty acid receptor 2

This gene encodes a member of the GP40 family of G protein-coupled receptors that are clustered together on chromosome 19. The encoded protein is a receptor for short chain free fatty acids and may be involved in the inflammatory response and in regulating lipid plasma levels. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

FFAR3 Gene

free fatty acid receptor 3

FFAR1 Gene

free fatty acid receptor 1

This gene encodes a member of the GP40 family of G protein-coupled receptors that are clustered together on chromosome 19. The encoded protein is a receptor for medium and long chain free fatty acids and may be involved in the metabolic regulation of insulin secretion. Polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

FCER1G Gene

Fc fragment of IgE, high affinity I, receptor for; gamma polypeptide

The high affinity IgE receptor is a key molecule involved in allergic reactions. It is a tetramer composed of 1 alpha, 1 beta, and 2 gamma chains. The gamma chains are also subunits of other Fc receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRGJ2 Gene

T cell receptor gamma joining 2

TRGJ1 Gene

T cell receptor gamma joining 1

TRGJP Gene

T cell receptor gamma joining P

TRGV5P Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 5P (pseudogene)

TRGV10 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 10 (non-functional)

TRGJP2 Gene

T cell receptor gamma joining P2

TRGJP1 Gene

T cell receptor gamma joining P1

FOLR3P1 Gene

folate receptor 3 (gamma) pseudogene 1

TRGC1 Gene

T cell receptor gamma constant 1

TRGC2 Gene

T cell receptor gamma constant 2

RXRG Gene

retinoid X receptor, gamma

This gene encodes a member of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) family of nuclear receptors which are involved in mediating the antiproliferative effects of retinoic acid (RA). This receptor forms dimers with the retinoic acid, thyroid hormone, and vitamin D receptors, increasing both DNA binding and transcriptional function on their respective response elements. This gene is expressed at significantly lower levels in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

PPRC1 Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator-related 1

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to PPAR-gamma coactivator 1 (PPARGC1/PGC-1), a protein that can activate mitochondrial biogenesis in part through a direct interaction with nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1). This protein has been shown to interact with NRF1. It is thought to be a functional relative of PPAR-gamma coactivator 1 that activates mitochondrial biogenesis through NRF1 in response to proliferative signals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

IL2RG Gene

interleukin 2 receptor, gamma

The protein encoded by this gene is an important signaling component of many interleukin receptors, including those of interleukin -2, -4, -7 and -21, and is thus referred to as the common gamma chain. Mutations in this gene cause X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID), as well as X-linked combined immunodeficiency (XCID), a less severe immunodeficiency disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

TRG-AS1 Gene

T cell receptor gamma locus antisense RNA 1

TRGV6 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 6 (pseudogene)

TRGV7 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 7 (pseudogene)

TRGV4 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 4

TRGV5 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 5

TRGV2 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 2

TRGV3 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 3

TRGV1 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 1 (non-functional)

TRGV8 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 8

TRGV9 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 9

TRGVB Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable B (pseudogene)

TRGVA Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable A (pseudogene)

FOLR3 Gene

folate receptor 3 (gamma)

This gene encodes a member of the folate receptor (FOLR) family, members of which have a high affinity for folic acid and for several reduced folic acid derivatives, and mediate delivery of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate to the interior of cells. This gene includes two polymorphic variants; the shorter one has two base deletion in the CDS, resulting in a truncated polypeptide, compared to the longer one. Both protein products are constitutively secreted in hematopoietic tissues and are potential serum marker for certain hematopoietic malignancies. The longer protein has a 71% and 79% sequence homology with the FOLR1 and FOLR2 proteins, respectively. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPARGC1A Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism. This protein interacts with PPARgamma, which permits the interaction of this protein with multiple transcription factors. This protein can interact with, and regulate the activities of, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear respiratory factors (NRFs). It provides a direct link between external physiological stimuli and the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and is a major factor that regulates muscle fiber type determination. This protein may be also involved in controlling blood pressure, regulating cellular cholesterol homoeostasis, and the development of obesity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPARGC1B Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta

The protein encoded by this gene stimulates the activity of several transcription factors and nuclear receptors, including estrogen receptor alpha, nuclear respiratory factor 1, and glucocorticoid receptor. The encoded protein may be involved in fat oxidation, non-oxidative glucose metabolism, and the regulation of energy expenditure. This protein is downregulated in prediabetic and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Certain allelic variations in this gene increase the risk of the development of obesity. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PPARG Gene

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. PPARs form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and these heterodimers regulate transcription of various genes. Three subtypes of PPARs are known: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-delta, and PPAR-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene is PPAR-gamma and is a regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, PPAR-gamma has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRG Gene

T cell receptor gamma locus

T cell receptors recognize foreign antigens which have been processed as small peptides and bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules at the surface of antigen presenting cells (APC). Each T cell receptor is a dimer consisting of one alpha and one beta chain or one delta and one gamma chain. In a single cell, the T cell receptor loci are rearranged and expressed in the order delta, gamma, beta, and alpha. If both delta and gamma rearrangements produce functional chains, the cell expresses delta and gamma. If not, the cell proceeds to rearrange the beta and alpha loci. This region represents the germline organization of the T cell receptor gamma locus. The gamma locus includes V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant) segments. During T cell development, the gamma chain is synthesized by a recombination event at the DNA level joining a V segment with a J segment; the C segment is later joined by splicing at the RNA level. Recombination of many different V segments with several J segments provides a wide range of antigen recognition. Additional diversity is attained by junctional diversity, resulting from the random addition of nucleotides by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase. Several V segments of the gamma locus are known to be incapable of encoding a protein and are considered pseudogenes. Somatic rearrangement of the gamma locus has been observed in T cells derived from patients with T cell leukemia and ataxia telangiectasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHRNG Gene

cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, gamma (muscle)

The mammalian muscle-type acetylcholine receptor is a transmembrane pentameric glycoprotein with two alpha subunits, one beta, one delta, and one epsilon (in adult skeletal muscle) or gamma (in fetal and denervated muscle) subunit. This gene, which encodes the gamma subunit, is expressed prior to the thirty-third week of gestation in humans. The gamma subunit of the acetylcholine receptor plays a role in neuromuscular organogenesis and ligand binding and disruption of gamma subunit expression prevents the correct localization of the receptor in cell membranes. Mutations in this gene cause Escobar syndrome and a lethal form of multiple pterygium syndrome. Muscle-type acetylcholine receptor is the major antigen in the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

ESRRG Gene

estrogen-related receptor gamma

This gene encodes a member of the estrogen receptor-related receptor (ESRR) family, which belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. All members of the ESRR family share an almost identical DNA binding domain, which is composed of two C4-type zinc finger motifs. The ESRR members are orphan nuclear receptors; they bind to the estrogen response element and steroidogenic factor 1 response element, and activate genes controlled by both response elements in the absence of any ligands. The ESRR family is closely related to the estrogen receptor (ER) family. They share target genes, co-regulators and promoters, and by targeting the same set of genes, the ESRRs seem to interfere with the ER-mediated estrogen response in various ways. It has been reported that the family member encoded by this gene functions as a transcriptional activator of DNA cytosine-5-methyltransferases 1 (Dnmt1) expression by direct binding to its response elements in the DNMT1 promoters, modulates cell proliferation and estrogen signaling in breast cancer, and negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, which mainly differ at the 5' end and some of which encode protein isoforms differing in the N-terminal region. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

IFNGR1 Gene

interferon gamma receptor 1

This gene (IFNGR1) encodes the ligand-binding chain (alpha) of the gamma interferon receptor. Human interferon-gamma receptor is a heterodimer of IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. A genetic variation in IFNGR1 is associated with susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection. In addition, defects in IFNGR1 are a cause of mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, also known as familial disseminated atypical mycobacterial infection. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TRGV11 Gene

T cell receptor gamma variable 11 (non-functional)

SLC36A4 Gene

solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member 4

SLC36A4 belongs to the SLC36 family of amino acid transporters based on sequence similarity with other family members (e.g., SLC36A1; MIM 606561). SLC36 proteins contain about 500 amino acids and have 9 to 11 transmembrane domains. Unlike other SLC36 family members, which are proton-coupled amino acid transporters, SLC36A4 is a high-affinity/low-capacity non-proton-coupled amino acid transporter (Pillai and Meredith, 2011 [PubMed 21097500]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2011]

SLC36A1 Gene

solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member 1

This gene encodes a member of the eukaryote-specific amino acid/auxin permease (AAAP) 1 transporter family. The encoded protein functions as a proton-dependent, small amino acid transporter. This gene is clustered with related family members on chromosome 5q33.1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

REREP3 Gene

arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE) repeats pseudogene 3

SLC36A2 Gene

solute carrier family 36 (proton/amino acid symporter), member 2

This gene encodes a pH-dependent proton-coupled amino acid transporter that belongs to the amino acid auxin permease 1 protein family. The encoded protein primarily transports small amino acids such as glycine, alanine and proline. Mutations in this gene are associated with iminoglycinuria and hyperglycinuria. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

SMPD1 Gene

sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1, acid lysosomal

The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase that converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. The encoded protein also has phospholipase C activity. Defects in this gene are a cause of Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPA) and Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPB). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

SIGLEC27P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 27, pseudogene

SLC7A6 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, y+L system), member 6

SLC7A1 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 1

LOC100271656 Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase pseudogene

CRABP1 Gene

cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1

This gene encodes a specific binding protein for a vitamin A family member and is thought to play an important role in retinoic acid-mediated differentiation and proliferation processes. It is structurally similar to the cellular retinol-binding proteins, but binds only retinoic acid at specific sites within the nucleus, which may contribute to vitamin A-directed differentiation in epithelial tissue. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DAOA Gene

D-amino acid oxidase activator

This gene encodes a protein that may function as an activator of D-amino acid oxidase, which degrades the gliotransmitter D-serine, a potent activator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors. Studies also suggest that one encoded isoform may play a role in mitochondrial function and dendritic arborization. Polymorphisms in this gene have been implicated in susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

LIAS Gene

lipoic acid synthetase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the biotin and lipoic acid synthetases family. It localizes in mitochondrion and plays an important role in alpha-(+)-lipoic acid synthesis. It may also function in the sulfur insertion chemistry in lipoate biosynthesis. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SIGLEC30P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 30, pseudogene

STRA6 Gene

stimulated by retinoic acid 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane protein involved in the metabolism of retinol. The encoded protein acts as a receptor for retinol/retinol binding protein complexes. This protein removes the retinol from the complex and transports it across the cell membrane. Defects in this gene are a cause of syndromic microphthalmia type 9 (MCOPS9). Several transcript variants encoding a few different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

SIGLEC16 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 16 (gene/pseudogene)

SIGLEC14 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 14

SIGLEC15 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 15

SIGLEC12 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 12 (gene/pseudogene)

Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (SIGLECs) are a family of cell surface proteins belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. They mediate protein-carbohydrate interactions by selectively binding to different sialic acid moieties present on glycolipids and glycoproteins. This gene encodes a member of the SIGLEC3-like subfamily of SIGLECs. Members of this subfamily are characterized by an extracellular V-set immunoglobulin-like domain followed by two C2-set immunoglobulin-like domains, and the cytoplasmic tyrosine-based motifs ITIM and SLAM-like. The encoded protein, upon tyrosine phosphorylation, has been shown to recruit the Src homology 2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatases SHP1 and SHP2. It has been suggested that the protein is involved in the negative regulation of macrophage signaling by functioning as an inhibitory receptor. This gene is located in a cluster with other SIGLEC3-like genes on 19q13.4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

SIGLEC10 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 10

SIGLECs are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily that are expressed on the cell surface. Most SIGLECs have 1 or more cytoplasmic immune receptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs, or ITIMs. SIGLECs are typically expressed on cells of the innate immune system, with the exception of the B-cell expressed SIGLEC6 (MIM 604405).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

SIGLEC11 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 11

This gene encodes a member of the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin family. These cell surface lectins are characterized by structural motifs in the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains and sialic acid recognition sites in the first Ig V set domain. This family member mediates anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive signaling. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

CNBP Gene

CCHC-type zinc finger, nucleic acid binding protein

This gene encodes a nucleic-acid binding protein with seven zinc-finger domains. The protein has a preference for binding single stranded DNA and RNA. The protein functions in cap-independent translation of ornithine decarboxylase mRNA, and may also function in sterol-mediated transcriptional regulation. A CCTG expansion in the first intron of this gene results in myotonic dystrophy type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC23A2 Gene

solute carrier family 23 (ascorbic acid transporter), member 2

The absorption of vitamin C into the body and its distribution to organs requires two sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters. This gene encodes one of the two required transporters and the encoded protein accounts for tissue-specific uptake of vitamin C. Previously, this gene had an official symbol of SLC23A1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GBAP1 Gene

glucosidase, beta, acid pseudogene 1

LOC100128407 Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase pseudogene

FAAHP1 Gene

fatty acid amide hydrolase pseudogene 1

SIGLEC22P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 22, pseudogene

LOC100130747 Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase pseudogene

FABP7P2 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 7, brain pseudogene 2

FABP7P1 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 7, brain pseudogene 1

FRA7A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(7)(p11.2)

TRNAE-UUC Gene

transfer RNA glutamic acid (anticodon UUC)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

FASN Gene

fatty acid synthase

The enzyme encoded by this gene is a multifunctional protein. Its main function is to catalyze the synthesis of palmitate from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, in the presence of NADPH, into long-chain saturated fatty acids. In some cancer cell lines, this protein has been found to be fused with estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha), in which the N-terminus of FAS is fused in-frame with the C-terminus of ER-alpha. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC6A17 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 17

The SLC6 family of proteins, which includes SLC6A17, acts as specific transporters for neurotransmitters, amino acids, and osmolytes like betaine, taurine, and creatine. SLC6 proteins are sodium cotransporters that derive the energy for solute transport from the electrochemical gradient for sodium ions (Hoglund et al., 2005 [PubMed 16125675]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SLC6A15 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 15

This gene encodes a member of the solute carrier family 6 protein family which transports neutral amino acids. The encoded protein is thought to play a role in neuronal amino acid transport (PMID: 16185194) and may be associated with major depression (PMID: 21521612). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

SLC6A14 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14

This gene encodes a member of the solute carrier family 6. Members of this family are sodium and chloride dependent neurotransmitter transporters. The encoded protein transports both neutral and cationic amino acids. This protein may also function as a beta-alanine carrier. Mutations in this gene may be associated with X-linked obesity. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome X.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

IGFALS Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein, acid labile subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a serum protein that binds insulin-like growth factors, increasing their half-life and their vascular localization. Production of the encoded protein, which contains twenty leucine-rich repeats, is stimulated by growth hormone. Defects in this gene are a cause of acid-labile subunit deficiency, which maifests itself in a delayed and slow puberty. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

SLC7A9 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, bo,+ system), member 9

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a family of light subunits of amino acid transporters. This protein plays a role in the high-affinity and sodium-independent transport of cystine and neutral and dibasic amino acids, and appears to function in the reabsorption of cystine in the kidney tubule. Mutations in this gene cause non-type I cystinuria, a disease that leads to cystine stones in the urinary system due to impaired transport of cystine and dibasic amino acids. Alternate transcript variants, which encode the same protein, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

FRA10A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(10)(q23.3) or fra(10)(q24.2)

FRA2B Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(2)(q13)

FRA2A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(2)(q11.2)

FRA2K Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(2)(q22.3)

NANP Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid phosphatase

NANS Gene

N-acetylneuraminic acid synthase

This gene encodes an enzyme that functions in the biosynthetic pathways of sialic acids. In vitro, the encoded protein uses N-acetylmannosamine 6-phosphate and mannose 6-phosphate as substrates to generate phosphorylated forms of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid (KDN), respectively; however, it exhibits much higher activity toward the Neu5Ac phosphate product. In insect cells, expression of this gene results in Neu5Ac and KDN production. This gene is related to the E. coli sialic acid synthase gene neuB, and it can partially restore sialic acid synthase activity in an E. coli neuB-negative mutant. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CRABP2 Gene

cellular retinoic acid binding protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the retinoic acid (RA, a form of vitamin A) binding protein family and lipocalin/cytosolic fatty-acid binding protein family. The protein is a cytosol-to-nuclear shuttling protein, which facilitates RA binding to its cognate receptor complex and transfer to the nucleus. It is involved in the retinoid signaling pathway, and is associated with increased circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

RAI1 Gene

retinoic acid induced 1

This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. It is highly similar to its mouse counterpart and is expressed at high levels mainly in neuronal tissues. The protein encoded by this gene includes a polymorphic polyglutamine tract in the N-terminal domain. Expression of the mouse counterpart in neurons is induced by retinoic acid. This gene is associated with both the severity of the phenotype and the response to medication in schizophrenic patients. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SIGLEC25P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 25, pseudogene

FAAH2 Gene

fatty acid amide hydrolase 2

This gene encodes a fatty acid amide hydrolase that shares a conserved protein motif with the amidase signature family of enzymes. The encoded enzyme is able to catalyze the hydrolysis of a broad range of bioactive lipids, including those from the three main classes of fatty acid amides; N-acylethanolamines, fatty acid primary amides and N-acyl amino acids. This enzyme has a preference for monounsaturated acyl chains as a substrate.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

GBA2 Gene

glucosidase, beta (bile acid) 2

This gene encodes a microsomal beta-glucosidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of bile acid 3-O-glucosides as endogenous compounds. Studies to determine subcellular localization of this protein in the liver indicated that the enzyme was mainly enriched in the microsomal fraction where it appeared to be confined to the endoplasmic reticulum. This putative transmembrane protein is thought to play a role in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GBA3 Gene

glucosidase, beta, acid 3 (gene/pseudogene)

The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme that can hydrolyze several types of glycosides. This gene is a polymorphic pseudogene, with the most common allele being the functional allele that encodes the full-length protein. Some individuals, as represented by the reference genome allele, contain a single nucleotide polymorphism that results in a premature stop codon in the coding region, and therefore this allele is pseudogenic due to the failure to produce a functional full-length protein. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

TRDMT1 Gene

tRNA aspartic acid methyltransferase 1

This gene encodes a protein responsible for the methylation of aspartic acid transfer RNA, specifically at the cytosine-38 residue in the anticodon loop. This enzyme also possesses residual DNA-(cytosine-C5) methyltransferase activity. While similar in sequence and structure to DNA cytosine methyltransferases, this gene is distinct and highly conserved in its function among taxa. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

CSAD Gene

cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase

This gene encodes a member of the group 2 decarboxylase family. A similar protein in rodents plays a role in multiple biological processes as the rate-limiting enzyme in taurine biosynthesis, catalyzing the decarboxylation of cysteinesulfinate to hypotaurine. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

SLC27A5 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 5

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (VLCS). It is capable of activating very long-chain fatty-acids containing 24- and 26-carbons. It is expressed in liver and associated with endoplasmic reticulum but not with peroxisomes. Its primary role is in fatty acid elongation or complex lipid synthesis rather than in degradation. This gene has a mouse ortholog. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC27A4 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 4

This gene encodes a member of a family of fatty acid transport proteins, which are involved in translocation of long-chain fatty acids cross the plasma membrane. This protein is expressed at high levels on the apical side of mature enterocytes in the small intestine, and appears to be the principal fatty acid transporter in enterocytes. Clinical studies suggest this gene as a candidate gene for the insulin resistance syndrome. Mutations in this gene have been associated with ichthyosis prematurity syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

SLC27A6 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 6

This gene encodes a member of the fatty acid transport protein family (FATP). FATPs are involved in the uptake of long-chain fatty acids and have unique expression patterns. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC27A3 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 3

SLC27A2 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. This isozyme activates long-chain, branched-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids containing 22 or more carbons to their CoA derivatives. It is expressed primarily in liver and kidney, and is present in both endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes, but not in mitochondria. Its decreased peroxisomal enzyme activity is in part responsible for the biochemical pathology in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

SLC7A8 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, L system), member 8

SLC7A7 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, y+L system), member 7

The protein encoded by this gene is the light subunit of a cationic amino acid transporter. This sodium-independent transporter is formed when the light subunit encoded by this gene dimerizes with the heavy subunit transporter protein SLC3A2. This transporter is found in epithelial cell membranes where it transfers cationic and large neutral amino acids from the cell to the extracellular space. Defects in this gene are a cause of lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

SLC7A5 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, L system), member 5

SLC7A2 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a cationic amino acid transporter and a member of the APC (amino acid-polyamine-organocation) family of transporters. The encoded membrane protein is responsible for the cellular uptake of arginine, lysine and ornithine. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

SLC7A3 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3

This gene encodes a member of the solute carrier family 7. The encoded protein is a sodium-independent cationic amino acid transporter. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcripts that encoded the same protein.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

FADS1 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family. Desaturase enzymes regulate unsaturation of fatty acids through the introduction of double bonds between defined carbons of the fatty acyl chain. FADS family members are considered fusion products composed of an N-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain and a C-terminal multiple membrane-spanning desaturase portion, both of which are characterized by conserved histidine motifs. This gene is clustered with family members FADS1 and FADS2 at 11q12-q13.1; this cluster is thought to have arisen evolutionarily from gene duplication based on its similar exon/intron organization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FADS3 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family. Desaturase enzymes regulate unsaturation of fatty acids through the introduction of double bonds between defined carbons of the fatty acyl chain. FADS family members are considered fusion products composed of an N-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain and a C-terminal multiple membrane-spanning desaturase portion, both of which are characterized by conserved histidine motifs. This gene is clustered with family members FADS1 and FADS2 at 11q12-q13.1; this cluster is thought to have arisen evolutionarily from gene duplication based on its similar exon/intron organization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FADS2 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family. Desaturase enzymes regulate unsaturation of fatty acids through the introduction of double bonds between defined carbons of the fatty acyl chain. FADS family members are considered fusion products composed of an N-terminal cytochrome b5-like domain and a C-terminal multiple membrane-spanning desaturase portion, both of which are characterized by conserved histidine motifs. This gene is clustered with family members at 11q12-q13.1; this cluster is thought to have arisen evolutionarily from gene duplication based on its similar exon/intron organization. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

FADS6 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 6

FABP5P1 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 1

FABP5P3 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 3

FABP5P2 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 2

FABP5P5 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 5

FABP5P4 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 4

FABP5P7 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 7

FABP5P6 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 6

FABP5P9 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 9

FABP5P8 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 8

LOC100422417 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14 pseudogene

SIGLEC28P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 28, pseudogene

ASAH1 Gene

N-acylsphingosine amidohydrolase (acid ceramidase) 1

This gene encodes a heterodimeric protein consisting of a nonglycosylated alpha subunit and a glycosylated beta subunit that is cleaved to the mature enzyme posttranslationally. The encoded protein catalyzes the synthesis and degradation of ceramide into sphingosine and fatty acid. Mutations in this gene have been associated with a lysosomal storage disorder known as Farber disease. Multiple transcript variants encoding several distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105369259 Gene

putative L-type amino acid transporter 1-like protein MLAS

SIGLEC20P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 20, pseudogene

GCN1L1 Gene

GCN1 general control of amino-acid synthesis 1-like 1 (yeast)

SIAE Gene

sialic acid acetylesterase

This gene encodes an enzyme which removes 9-O-acetylation modifications from sialic acids. Mutations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to autoimmune disease 6. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms, found either in the cytosol or in the lysosome, have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

FRA5G Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(5)(q35)

ATHL1 Gene

ATH1, acid trehalase-like 1 (yeast)

FABP5P15 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 15

FABP5P14 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 14

FABP5P10 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 10

FABP5P12 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 12

NABP2 Gene

nucleic acid binding protein 2

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins, such as OBFC2B, are ubiquitous and essential for a variety of DNA metabolic processes, including replication, recombination, and detection and repair of damage (Richard et al., 2008 [PubMed 18449195]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2008]

NABP1 Gene

nucleic acid binding protein 1

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding proteins, such as OBFC2A, are ubiquitous and essential for a variety of DNA metabolic processes, including replication, recombination, and detection and repair of damage (Richard et al., 2008 [PubMed 18449195]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2008]

SLC27A1 Gene

solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 1

FRA16A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(16)(p13.11)

There are several phenotypes associated with variation in pericentric region of chromosome 16: see the 16p12.2-p11.2 deletion syndrome (MIM 613604); see MIM 611913 for a deletion or duplication at 16p11.2 associated with autism (AUTS14); and see MIM 613444 for a 220-kb deletion at 16p11.2 associated with isolated severe early-onset obesity and obesity with developmental delay.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

LOC284379 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3 pseudogene

ATRAID Gene

all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation factor

This gene is thought to be involved in apoptosis, and may also be involved in hematopoietic development and differentiation. The use of alternative splice sites and promotors result in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

SLC10A2 Gene

solute carrier family 10 (sodium/bile acid cotransporter), member 2

This gene encodes a sodium/bile acid cotransporter. This transporter is the primary mechanism for uptake of intestinal bile acids by apical cells in the distal ileum. Bile acids are the catabolic product of cholesterol metabolism, so this protein is also critical for cholesterol homeostasis. Mutations in this gene cause primary bile acid malabsorption (PBAM); muatations in this gene may also be associated with other diseases of the liver and intestines, such as familial hypertriglyceridemia (FHTG). [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

SLC10A6 Gene

solute carrier family 10 (sodium/bile acid cotransporter), member 6

LOC105372490 Gene

sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin 14

PIPOX Gene

pipecolic acid oxidase

BCAT2 Gene

branched chain amino-acid transaminase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a branched chain aminotransferase found in mitochondria. The encoded protein forms a dimer that catalyzes the first step in the production of the branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

BCAT1 Gene

branched chain amino-acid transaminase 1, cytosolic

This gene encodes the cytosolic form of the enzyme branched-chain amino acid transaminase. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible transamination of branched-chain alpha-keto acids to branched-chain L-amino acids essential for cell growth. Two different clinical disorders have been attributed to a defect of branched-chain amino acid transamination: hypervalinemia and hyperleucine-isoleucinemia. As there is also a gene encoding a mitochondrial form of this enzyme, mutations in either gene may contribute to these disorders. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

SLC43A2 Gene

solute carrier family 43 (amino acid system L transporter), member 2

System L amino acid transporters, such as SLC43A2, mediate sodium-independent transport of bulky neutral amino acids across cell membranes (Bodoy et al., 2005 [PubMed 15659399]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SLC43A1 Gene

solute carrier family 43 (amino acid system L transporter), member 1

SLC43A1 belongs to the system L family of plasma membrane carrier proteins that transports large neutral amino acids (Babu et al., 2003 [PubMed 12930836]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TRNAE-CUC Gene

transfer RNA glutamic acid (anticodon CUC)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

UAQTL6 Gene

Uric acid concentration, serum, QTL6

UAQTL5 Gene

Uric acid concentration, serum, QTL5

UAQTL4 Gene

Uric acid concentration, serum, QTL4

UAQTL3 Gene

Uric acid concentration, serum, QTL3

FABP12 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 12

SIGLEC17P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 17, pseudogene

FRA8A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(8)(q22.3)

GBA Gene

glucosidase, beta, acid

This gene encodes a lysosomal membrane protein that cleaves the beta-glucosidic linkage of glycosylceramide, an intermediate in glycolipid metabolism. Mutations in this gene cause Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disease characterized by an accumulation of glucocerebrosides. A related pseudogene is approximately 12 kb downstream of this gene on chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

SLC3A2 Gene

solute carrier family 3 (amino acid transporter heavy chain), member 2

This gene is a member of the solute carrier family and encodes a cell surface, transmembrane protein. The protein exists as the heavy chain of a heterodimer, covalently bound through di-sulfide bonds to one of several possible light chains. The encoded transporter plays a role in regulation of intracellular calcium levels and transports L-type amino acids. Alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

SLC3A1 Gene

solute carrier family 3 (amino acid transporter heavy chain), member 1

This gene encodes a type II membrane glycoprotein which is one of the components of the renal amino acid transporter which transports neutral and basic amino acids in the renal tubule and intestinal tract. Mutations and deletions in this gene are associated with cystinuria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MGARP Gene

mitochondria-localized glutamic acid-rich protein

PPAP2C Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2C

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in de novo synthesis of glycerolipids as well as in receptor-activated signal transduction mediated by phospholipase D. This protein is similar to phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2A (PPAP2A) and type 2B (PPAP2B). All three proteins contain 6 transmembrane regions, and a consensus N-glycosylation site. This protein has been shown to possess membrane associated PAP activity. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPAP2B Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in de novo synthesis of glycerolipids as well as in receptor-activated signal transduction mediated by phospholipase D. This protein is a membrane glycoprotein localized at the cell plasma membrane. It has been shown to actively hydrolyze extracellular lysophosphatidic acid and short-chain phosphatidic acid. The expression of this gene is found to be enhanced by epidermal growth factor in Hela cells. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PPAP2A Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2A

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) family. PAPs convert phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol, and function in synthesis of glycerolipids and in phospholipase D-mediated signal transduction. This enzyme is an integral membrane glycoprotein that plays a role in the hydrolysis and uptake of lipids from extracellular space. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

LOC401767 Gene

1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6 (lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase, zeta) pseudogene

STRA8 Gene

stimulated by retinoic acid 8

This gene encodes a retinoic acid-responsive protein. A homologous protein in mouse has been shown to be involved in the regulation of meiotic initiation in both spermatogenesis and oogenesis, though feature differences between the mouse and human proteins suggest that these homologs are not entirely functionally equivalent. It is thought that this gene may play a role in spermatogenesis in humans. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

BRINP3 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein/retinoic acid inducible neural-specific 3

BRINP2 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein/retinoic acid inducible neural-specific 2

BRINP1 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein/retinoic acid inducible neural-specific 1

This gene is located within a chromosomal region that shows loss of heterozygosity in some bladder cancers. It contains a 5' CpG island that may be a frequent target of hypermethylation, and it may undergo hypermethylation-based silencing in some bladder cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC9C1 Gene

solute carrier family 9, subfamily C (Na+-transporting carboxylic acid decarboxylase), member 1

SLC9A10 is a member of the sodium-hydrogen exchanger (NHE) family (see SLC9A1, MIM 107310) and is required for male fertility and sperm motility (Wang et al., 2003 [PubMed 14634667]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2009]

PAPL Gene

iron/zinc purple acid phosphatase-like protein

Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs), including PAPL, are a family of binuclear metallohydrolases that have been identified in plants, animals, and fungi (Flanagan et al., 2006 [PubMed 16793224]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

FRA10AC1 Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(10)(q23.3) or fra(10)(q24.2) candidate 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear phosphoprotein of unknown function. The 5' UTR of this gene is part of a CpG island and contains a tandem CGG repeat region that normally consists of 8-14 repeats but can expand to over 200 repeats. The expanded allele becomes hypermethylated and is not transcribed; however, an expanded repeat region has not been associated with any disease phenotype. This gene is found within the rare FRA10A folate-sensitive fragile site. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

TRNAD-GUC Gene

transfer RNA aspartic acid (anticodon GUC)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

SLC23A1 Gene

solute carrier family 23 (ascorbic acid transporter), member 1

The absorption of vitamin C into the body and its distribution to organs requires two sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters. This gene encodes one of the two transporters. The encoded protein is active in bulk vitamin C transport involving epithelial surfaces. Previously, this gene had an official symbol of SLC23A2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

FABP6 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 6, ileal

This gene encodes the ileal fatty acid binding protein. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. FABP6 and FABP1 (the liver fatty acid binding protein) are also able to bind bile acids. It is thought that FABPs roles include fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. Transcript variants generated by alternate transcription promoters and/or alternate splicing have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP7 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 7, brain

The protein encoded by this gene is a brain fatty acid binding protein. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. FABPs are thought to play roles in fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP4 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 4, adipocyte

FABP4 encodes the fatty acid binding protein found in adipocytes. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. It is thought that FABPs roles include fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP5 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 (psoriasis-associated)

This gene encodes the fatty acid binding protein found in epidermal cells, and was first identified as being upregulated in psoriasis tissue. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. FABPs may play roles in fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with type 2 diabetes. The human genome contains many pseudogenes similar to this locus.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

FABP2 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 2, intestinal

The intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) belong to a multigene family with nearly twenty identified members. FABPs are divided into at least three distinct types, namely the hepatic-, intestinal- and cardiac-type. They form 14-15 kDa proteins and are thought to participate in the uptake, intracellular metabolism and/or transport of long-chain fatty acids. They may also be responsible in the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene contains four exons and is an abundant cytosolic protein in small intestine epithelial cells. This gene has a polymorphism at codon 54 that identified an alanine-encoding allele and a threonine-encoding allele. Thr-54 protein is associated with increased fat oxidation and insulin resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP3 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 3, muscle and heart

The intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) belongs to a multigene family. FABPs are divided into at least three distinct types, namely the hepatic-, intestinal- and cardiac-type. They form 14-15 kDa proteins and are thought to participate in the uptake, intracellular metabolism and/or transport of long-chain fatty acids. They may also be responsible in the modulation of cell growth and proliferation. Fatty acid-binding protein 3 gene contains four exons and its function is to arrest growth of mammary epithelial cells. This gene is a candidate tumor suppressor gene for human breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422432 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14 pseudogene

SIGLEC21P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 21, pseudogene

SIGLEC8 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 8

Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins, or SIGLECs (e.g., CD33 (MIM 159590)), are a family of type 1 transmembrane proteins each having a unique expression pattern, mostly in hemopoietic cells. SIGLEC8 is a member of the CD33-like subgroup of SIGLECs, which are localized to 19q13.3-q13.4 and have 2 conserved cytoplasmic tyrosine-based motifs: an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif, or ITIM (see MIM 604964), and a motif homologous to one identified in signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; MIM 603492) that mediates an association with SLAM-associated protein (SAP; MIM 300490) (summarized by Foussias et al., 2000 [PubMed 11095983]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2010]

SIGLEC9 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 9

SIGLEC5 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 5

This gene encodes a member of the sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec) family. These cell surface lectins are characterized by structural motifs in the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains and sialic acid recognition sites in the first Ig V set domain. The encoded protein is a member of the CD33-related subset of Siglecs and inhibits the activation of several cell types including monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. Binding of group B Streptococcus (GBS) to the encoded protein plays a role in GBS immune evasion. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

SIGLEC6 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 6

SIGLEC7 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 7

SIGLEC1 Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 1, sialoadhesin

This gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The encoded protein is a lectin-like adhesion molecule that binds glycoconjugate ligands on cell surfaces in a sialic acid-dependent manner. It is a type I transmembrane protein expressed only by a subpopulation of macrophages and is involved in mediating cell-cell interactions. Alternative splicing produces a transcript variant encoding an isoform that is soluble rather than membrane-bound; however, the full-length nature of this variant has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RAET1K Gene

retinoic acid early transcript 1K pseudogene

RAET1M Gene

retinoic acid early transcript 1M pseudogene

GLCE Gene

glucuronic acid epimerase

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a negatively charged cell surface polysaccharide required for the biologic activities of circulating extracellular ligands. GLCE is responsible for epimerization of D-glucuronic acid (GlcA) to L-iduronic acid (IdoA) of HS, which endows the nascent polysaccharide chain with the ability to bind growth factors and cytokines (Ghiselli and Agrawal, 2005 [PubMed 15853773]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2008]

SIGLEC26P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 26, pseudogene

SIGLEC18P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 18, pseudogene

FRA22A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(22)(q13)

GAA Gene

glucosidase, alpha; acid

This gene encodes acid alpha-glucosidase, which is essential for the degradation of glycogen to glucose in lysosomes. Different forms of acid alpha-glucosidase are obtained by proteolytic processing. Defects in this gene are the cause of glycogen storage disease II, also known as Pompe's disease, which is an autosomal recessive disorder with a broad clinical spectrum. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FABP1 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 1, liver

This gene encodes the fatty acid binding protein found in liver. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. This protein and FABP6 (the ileal fatty acid binding protein) are also able to bind bile acids. It is thought that FABPs roles include fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

SLC16A10 Gene

solute carrier family 16 (aromatic amino acid transporter), member 10

SLC16A10 is a member of a family of plasma membrane amino acid transporters that mediate the Na(+)-independent transport of aromatic amino acids across the plasma membrane.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

FRAXE Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(X)(q28) E

FRAXA Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(X)(q27.3) A (macroorchidism, mental retardation)

RAI2 Gene

retinoic acid induced 2

Retinoic acid plays a critical role in development, cellular growth, and differentiation. The specific function of this retinoic acid-induced gene has not yet been determined but it may play a role in development. The chromosomal location of this gene designates it to be a candidate for diseases such as Nance-Horan syndrome, sensorineural deafness, non-specific X-linked mental retardation, oral-facial-digital syndrome, and Fried syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

SIGLEC31P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 31, pseudogene

SLC7A5P1 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, L system), member 5 pseudogene 1

This locus represents a transcribed pseudogene of the L-type amino acid transporter 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC7A5P2 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (amino acid transporter light chain, L system), member 5 pseudogene 2

RAE1 Gene

ribonucleic acid export 1

Mutations in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rae1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gle2 genes have been shown to result in accumulation of poly(A)-containing mRNA in the nucleus, suggesting that the encoded proteins are involved in RNA export. The protein encoded by this gene is a homolog of yeast Rae1. It contains four WD40 motifs, and has been shown to localize to distinct foci in the nucleoplasm, to the nuclear rim, and to meshwork-like structures throughout the cytoplasm. This gene is thought to be involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport, and in directly or indirectly attaching cytoplasmic mRNPs to the cytoskeleton. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SIGLEC29P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 29, pseudogene

LOC100422614 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter), member 13 pseudogene

LOC100422610 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (cationic amino acid transporter, y+ system), member 3 pseudogene

FA2H Gene

fatty acid 2-hydroxylase

This gene encodes a protein that catalyzes the synthesis of 2-hydroxysphingolipids, a subset of sphingolipids that contain 2-hydroxy fatty acids. Sphingolipids play roles in many cellular processes and their structural diversity arises from modification of the hydrophobic ceramide moiety, such as by 2-hydroxylation of the N-acyl chain, and the existence of many different head groups. Mutations in this gene have been associated with leukodystrophy dysmyelinating with spastic paraparesis with or without dystonia.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

SLC6A19 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 19

This gene encodes a system B(0) transmembrane protein that actively transports most neutral amino acids across the apical membrane of epithelial cells. Mutations in this gene result in Hartnup disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC6A18 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 18

The SLC6 family of proteins, which includes SLC6A18, act as specific transporters for neurotransmitters, amino acids, and osmolytes like betaine, taurine, and creatine. SLC6 proteins are sodium cotransporters that derive the energy for solute transport from the electrochemical gradient for sodium ions (Hoglund et al., 2005 [PubMed 16125675]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]

STRA13 Gene

stimulated by retinoic acid 13

LOC101060604 Gene

putative L-type amino acid transporter 1-like protein IMAA

PPAPDC1B Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 1B

PPAPDC1A Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 1A

FADS2P1 Gene

fatty acid desaturase 2 pseudogene 1

FABP9 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 9, testis

KAR Gene

Aromatic alpha-keto acid reductase

RAET1E Gene

retinoic acid early transcript 1E

This gene belong to the RAET1 family, which consists of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related genes located in a cluster on chromosome 6q24.2-q25.3. This and RAET1G protein differ from other RAET1 proteins in that they have type I membrane-spanning sequences at their C termini rather than glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor sequences. This protein functions as a ligand for NKG2D receptor, which is expressed on the surface of several types of immune cells, and is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

RAET1G Gene

retinoic acid early transcript 1G

Members of the RAET1 family, such as RAET1G, are major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related genes located within a 180-kb cluster on chromosome 6q24.2-q25.3. RAET1 proteins contain MHC class I-like alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains. RAET1E (MIM 609243) and RAET1G differ from the other RAET1 proteins (e.g., RAET1I, or ULBP1; MIM 605697) in that they have type I membrane-spanning sequences at their C termini rather than glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor sequences. (Radosavljevic et al., 2002 [PubMed 11827464]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RAET1F Gene

retinoic acid early transcript 1F pseudogene

RAET1L Gene

retinoic acid early transcript 1L

RAET1L belongs to the RAET1 family of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related genes, which are located within a 180-kb cluster on chromosome 6q24.2-q25.3. The REAT1 genes encode glycoproteins that contain extracellular alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains, but they lack the membrane proximal Ig-like alpha-3 domain. Most RAET1 glycoproteins are anchored to the membrane via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) linkage (Radosavljevic et al., 2002 [PubMed 11827464]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SMPDL3B Gene

sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, acid-like 3B

SMPDL3A Gene

sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase, acid-like 3A

LIPA Gene

lipase A, lysosomal acid, cholesterol esterase

This gene encodes lipase A, the lysosomal acid lipase (also known as cholesterol ester hydrolase). This enzyme functions in the lysosome to catalyze the hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. Mutations in this gene can result in Wolman disease and cholesteryl ester storage disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

LIPB Gene

lipase B, lysosomal acid

FRA6A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(6)(p23)

NARR Gene

nine-amino acid residue-repeats

LOC100462652 Gene

solute carrier family 6 (amino acid transporter), member 14 pseudogene

DAO Gene

D-amino-acid oxidase

This gene encodes the peroxisomal enzyme D-amino acid oxidase. The enzyme is a flavoprotein which uses flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as its prosthetic group. Its substrates include a wide variety of D-amino acids, but it is inactive on the naturally occurring L-amino acids. Its biological function is not known; it may act as a detoxifying agent which removes D-amino acids that accumulate during aging. In mice, it degrades D-serine, a co-agonist of the NMDA receptor. This gene may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRRG4 Gene

proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 4 (transmembrane)

PRRG1 Gene

proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 1

This gene encodes a vitamin K-dependent, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla)-containing, single-pass transmembrane protein. This protein contains a Gla domain at the N-terminus, preceded by a propeptide sequence required for post-translational gamma-carboxylation of specific glutamic acid residues by a vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase. The C-terminus is proline-rich containing PPXY and PXXP motifs found in a variety of signaling and cytoskeletal proteins. This gene is highly expressed in the spinal cord. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PRRG2 Gene

proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 2

PRRG3 Gene

proline rich Gla (G-carboxyglutamic acid) 3 (transmembrane)

This gene encodes a protein which contains a vitamin K-dependent carboxylation/gamma-carboxyglutamic domain. The encoded protein is a member of a family of vitamin K-dependent transmembrane proteins which contain a glutamate-rich extracellular domain. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ACP5 Gene

acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant

This gene encodes an iron containing glycoprotein which catalyzes the conversion of orthophosphoric monoester to alcohol and orthophosphate. It is the most basic of the acid phosphatases and is the only form not inhibited by L(+)-tartrate. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

ACP6 Gene

acid phosphatase 6, lysophosphatidic

ACP1 Gene

acid phosphatase 1, soluble

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase family of proteins. It functions as an acid phosphatase and a protein tyrosine phosphatase by hydrolyzing protein tyrosine phosphate to protein tyrosine and orthophosphate. This enzyme also hydrolyzes orthophosphoric monoesters to alcohol and orthophosphate. This gene is genetically polymorphic, and three common alleles segregating at the corresponding locus give rise to six phenotypes. Each allele appears to encode at least two electrophoretically different isozymes, Bf and Bs, which are produced in allele-specific ratios. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

ACP2 Gene

acid phosphatase 2, lysosomal

This gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP). LAP is chemically and genetically distinct from red cell acid phosphatase. The encoded protein belongs to a family of distinct isoenzymes which hydrolyze orthophosphoric monoesters to alcohol and phosphate. LAP-deficiencies in mice cause multiple defects including bone structure alterations, lysosomal storage defects in the kidneys and central nervous system, and an increased tendency towards seizures. An enzymatically-inactive allele of LAP in mice exhibited a more severe phenotype than the null allele, and defects included cerebellum abnormalities, growth retardation, hair-follicle abnormalities, and an ataxia-like phenotype. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

ACPT Gene

acid phosphatase, testicular

Acid phosphatases are enzymes capable of hydrolyzing orthophosphoric acid esters in an acid medium. This gene is up-regulated by androgens and is down-regulated by estrogens in the prostate cancer cell line. This gene exhibits a lower level of expression in testicular cancer tissues than in normal tissues. The protein encoded by this gene has structural similarity to prostatic and lysosomal acid phosphatases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ACPP Gene

acid phosphatase, prostate

This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of orthophosphoric monoester to alcohol and orthophosphate. It is synthesized under androgen regulation and is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. An alternatively spliced transcript variant encoding a longer isoform has been found for this gene. This isoform contains a transmembrane domain and is localized in the plasma membrane-endosomal-lysosomal pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

NAAA Gene

N-acylethanolamine acid amidase

This gene encodes an N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing enzyme which is highly similar to acid ceramidase. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RERE Gene

arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide (RE) repeats

This gene encodes a member of the atrophin family of arginine-glutamic acid (RE) dipeptide repeat-containing proteins. The encoded protein co-localizes with a transcription factor in the nucleus, and its overexpression triggers apoptosis. A similar protein in mouse associates with histone deacetylase and is thought to function as a transcriptional co-repressor during embryonic development. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CMAHP Gene

cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase, pseudogene

Sialic acids are terminal components of the carbohydrate chains of glycoconjugates involved in ligand-receptor, cell-cell, and cell-pathogen interactions. The two most common forms of sialic acid found in mammalian cells are N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and its hydroxylated derivative, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Studies of sialic acid distribution show that Neu5Gc is not detectable in normal human tissues although it was an abundant sialic acid in other mammals. Neu5Gc is, in actuality, immunogenic in humans. The absense of Neu5Gc in humans is due to a deletion within the human gene CMAH encoding cytidine monophosphate-N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase, an enzyme responsible for Neu5Gc biosynthesis. Sequences encoding the mouse, pig, and chimpanzee hydroxylase enzymes were obtained by cDNA cloning and found to be highly homologous. However, the homologous human cDNA differs from these cDNAs by a 92-bp deletion in the 5' region. This deletion, corresponding to exon 6 of the mouse hydroxylase gene, causes a frameshift mutation and premature termination of the polypeptide chain in human. It seems unlikely that the truncated human hydroxylase mRNA encodes for an active enzyme explaining why Neu5Gc is undetectable in normal human tissues. Human genomic DNA also shows evidence of this deletion which does not occur in the genomes of African great apes. Nonetheless, the CMAH gene maps to 6p21.32 in humans and great apes indicating that mutation of the CMAH gene occurred following human divergence from chimpanzees and bonobos. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPAPDC3 Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 3

PPAPDC2 Gene

phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2 domain containing 2

FURIN Gene

furin (paired basic amino acid cleaving enzyme)

This gene encodes a member of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family, which includes proteases that process protein and peptide precursors trafficking through regulated or constitutive branches of the secretory pathway. It encodes a type 1 membrane bound protease that is expressed in many tissues, including neuroendocrine, liver, gut, and brain. The encoded protein undergoes an initial autocatalytic processing event in the ER and then sorts to the trans-Golgi network through endosomes where a second autocatalytic event takes place and the catalytic activity is acquired. The product of this gene is one of the seven basic amino acid-specific members which cleave their substrates at single or paired basic residues. Some of its substrates include proparathyroid hormone, transforming growth factor beta 1 precursor, proalbumin, pro-beta-secretase, membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase, beta subunit of pro-nerve growth factor and von Willebrand factor. It is also thought to be one of the proteases responsible for the activation of HIV envelope glycoproteins gp160 and gp140 and may play a role in tumor progression. This gene is located in close proximity to family member proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 6 and upstream of the FES oncogene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

SLC10A1 Gene

solute carrier family 10 (sodium/bile acid cotransporter), member 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the sodium/bile acid cotransporter family, which are integral membrane glycoproteins that participate in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Two homologous transporters are involved in the reabsorption of bile acids; the ileal sodium/bile acid cotransporter with an apical cell localization that absorbs bile acids from the intestinal lumen, bile duct and kidney, and the liver-specific sodium/bile acid cotransporter, represented by this protein, that is found in the basolateral membranes of hepatocytes. Bile acids are the catabolic product of cholesterol metabolism, hence this protein is important for cholesterol homeostasis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

FRA11A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(11)(q13.3)

BCKDHB Gene

branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1, beta polypeptide

Branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase is a multienzyme complex associated with the inner membrane of mitochondria, and functions in the catabolism of branched-chain amino acids. The complex consists of multiple copies of 3 components: branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), lipoamide acyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). This gene encodes the E1 beta subunit, and mutations therein have been associated with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), type 1B, a disease characterized by a maple syrup odor to the urine in addition to mental and physical retardation, and feeding problems. Alternative splicing at this locus results in transcript variants with different 3' non-coding regions, but encoding the same isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BCKDHA Gene

branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase E1, alpha polypeptide

The branched-chain alpha-keto acid (BCAA) dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex is an innter mitochondrial enzyme complex that catalyzes the second major step in the catabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The BCKD complex consists of three catalytic components: a heterotetrameric (alpha2-beta2) branched-chain alpha-keto acid decarboxylase (E1), a dihydrolipoyl transacylase (E2), and a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the decarboxylase (E1) component. Mutations in this gene result in maple syrup urine disease, type IA. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

CMAS Gene

cytidine monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase

Sialic acids are a family of nine-carbon sugars on cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids that play a pivotal role in determining the structure and function of many animal tissues. The pattern of cell surface sialylation is highly regulated during embryonic development and N-glycosylation is a common post-translational modification during cellular differentiation. Sialic acids play important roles in cell-cell communications and immune responses. Sialylated glycoprotein and glycolipid formation requires the activation of a sialic acid to a cytidine monophosphate (CMP) diester by the enzyme encoded by this gene: CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

RAI14 Gene

retinoic acid induced 14

FRA1M Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(1)(p21.3)

SLC35A1 Gene

solute carrier family 35 (CMP-sialic acid transporter), member A1

The protein encoded by this gene is found in the membrane of the Golgi apparatus, where it transports nucleotide sugars into the Golgi. One such nucleotide sugar is CMP-sialic acid, which is imported into the Golgi by the encoded protein and subsequently glycosylated. Defects in this gene are a cause of congenital disorder of glycosylation type 2F (CDG2F). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

ASIC5 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel family member 5

This gene belongs to the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel and degenerin (NaC/DEG) family, members of which have been identified in many animal species ranging from the nematode to human. The amiloride-sensitive Na(+) channel encoded by this gene is primarily expressed in the small intestine, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ASIC4 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel family member 4

This gene belongs to the superfamily of acid-sensing ion channels, which are proton-gated, amiloride-sensitive sodium channels. These channels have been implicated in synaptic transmission, pain perception as well as mechanoperception. This gene is predominantly expressed in the pituitary gland, and was considered a candidate for paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC), a movement disorder, however, no correlation was found between mutations in this gene and PDC. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ASIC1 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 1

This gene encodes a member of the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) family of proteins, which are part of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. Members of the ASIC family are sensitive to amiloride and function in neurotransmission. The encoded proteins function in learning, pain transduction, touch sensation, and development of memory and fear. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ASIC3 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 3

This gene encodes a member of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. The members of this family are amiloride-sensitive sodium channels that contain intracellular N and C termini, two hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and a large extracellular loop, which has many cysteine residues with conserved spacing. The member encoded by this gene is an acid sensor and may play an important role in the detection of lasting pH changes. In addition, a heteromeric association between this member and acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channel 2 has been observed as proton-gated channels sensitive to gadolinium. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ASIC2 Gene

acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 2

This gene encodes a member of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. The members of this family are amiloride-sensitive sodium channels that contain intracellular N and C termini, 2 hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and a large extracellular loop, which has many cysteine residues with conserved spacing. The member encoded by this gene may play a role in neurotransmission. In addition, a heteromeric association between this member and acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channel 3 has been observed to co-assemble into proton-gated channels sensitive to gadolinium. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and two variants, encoding distinct isoforms, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

FRA19B Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(19)(p13)

SIGLEC24P Gene

sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 24, pseudogene

FABP3P2 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 3, pseudogene 2

FRA20A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(20)(p11.23)

FRA9B Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(9)(q32)

FRA9A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(9)(p21)

SLC1A4 Gene

solute carrier family 1 (glutamate/neutral amino acid transporter), member 4

SLC1A5 Gene

solute carrier family 1 (neutral amino acid transporter), member 5

The SLC1A5 gene encodes a sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that can act as a receptor for RD114/type D retrovirus (Larriba et al., 2001 [PubMed 11781704]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

ELOVL6 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 6

Fatty acid elongases (EC 6.2.1.3), such as ELOVL6, use malonyl-CoA as a 2-carbon donor in the first and rate-limiting step of fatty acid elongation (Moon et al., 2001 [PubMed 11567032]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ELOVL7 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 7

ELOVL4 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 4

This gene encodes a membrane-bound protein which is a member of the ELO family, proteins which participate in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. Consistent with the expression of the encoded protein in photoreceptor cells of the retina, mutations and small deletions in this gene are associated with Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) and autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (ADMD), also referred to as autosomal dominant atrophic macular degeneration. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ELOVL5 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 5

This gene belongs to the ELO family. It is highly expressed in the adrenal gland and testis, and encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. This protein is involved in the elongation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Mutations in this gene have been associated with spinocerebellar ataxia-38 (SCA38). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

ELOVL2 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 2

ELOVL3 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 3

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the GNS1/SUR4 family. Members of this family play a role in elongation of long chain fatty acids to provide precursors for synthesis of sphingolipids and ceramides. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

ELOVL1 Gene

ELOVL fatty acid elongase 1

LOC100129728 Gene

nucleic acid binding protein 2 pseudogene

FABP5P11 Gene

fatty acid binding protein 5 pseudogene 11

FAXDC2 Gene

fatty acid hydroxylase domain containing 2

FRA12A Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(12)(q13.1)

FRA12A is a folate-sensitive chromosomal fragile site prone to breakage. No consistent phenotype has been observed with FRA12A, and it can be inherited without phenotypic effect (Berg et al., 2000 [PubMed 10955484]). However, mental retardation with or without other anomalies has been described in patients with over 40% of cells expressing FRA12A (Winnepenninckx et al., 2007).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

FRA12D Gene

fragile site, folic acid type, rare, fra(12)(q24.13)

DDC Gene

dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase)

The encoded protein catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine. Defects in this gene are the cause of aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase deficiency (AADCD). AADCD deficiency is an inborn error in neurotransmitter metabolism that leads to combined serotonin and catecholamine deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

FAAH Gene

fatty acid amide hydrolase

This gene encodes a protein that is responsible for the hydrolysis of a number of primary and secondary fatty acid amides, including the neuromodulatory compounds anandamide and oleamide. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLC7A10 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (neutral amino acid transporter light chain, asc system), member 10

SLC7A10, in association with 4F2HC (SLC3A2; MIM 158070), mediates high-affinity transport of D-serine and several other neutral amino acids (Nakauchi et al., 2000 [PubMed 10863037]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SLC7A11 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter light chain, xc- system), member 11

This gene encodes a member of a heteromeric, sodium-independent, anionic amino acid transport system that is highly specific for cysteine and glutamate. In this system, designated Xc(-), the anionic form of cysteine is transported in exchange for glutamate. This protein has been identified as the predominant mediator of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus fusion and entry permissiveness into cells. Also, increased expression of this gene in primary gliomas (compared to normal brain tissue) was associated with increased glutamate secretion via the XCT channels, resulting in neuronal cell death. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

SLC7A13 Gene

solute carrier family 7 (anionic amino acid transporter), member 13

AAGAB Gene

alpha- and gamma-adaptin binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the gamma-adaptin and alpha-adaptin subunits of complexes involved in clathrin-coated vesicle trafficking. Mutations in this gene are associated with type I punctate palmoplantar keratoderma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

ATP5C1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, gamma polypeptide 1

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the gamma subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. This gene also has a pseudogene on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGA1 Gene

golgi-associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 1

This gene encodes a member of the Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin ear-containing, ARF-binding (GGA) protein family. Members of this family are ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the lysosome. These proteins share an amino-terminal VHS domain which mediates sorting of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors at the trans-Golgi network. They also contain a carboxy-terminal region with homology to the ear domain of gamma-adaptins. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGA3 Gene

golgi-associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 3

This gene encodes a member of the Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin ear-containing, ARF-binding (GGA) family. This family includes ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the lysosome. These proteins share an amino-terminal VHS domain which mediates sorting of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors at the trans-Golgi network. They also contain a carboxy-terminal region with homology to the ear domain of gamma-adaptins. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified in this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

GGA2 Gene

golgi-associated, gamma adaptin ear containing, ARF binding protein 2

This gene encodes a member of the Golgi-localized, gamma adaptin ear-containing, ARF-binding (GGA) family. This family includes ubiquitous coat proteins that regulate the trafficking of proteins between the trans-Golgi network and the lysosome. These proteins share an amino-terminal VHS domain which mediates sorting of the mannose 6-phosphate receptors at the trans-Golgi network. They also contain a carboxy-terminal region with homology to the ear domain of gamma-adaptins. This family member may play a significant role in cargo molecules regulation and clathrin-coated vesicle assembly. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GJC2 Gene

gap junction protein, gamma 2, 47kDa

This gene encodes a gap junction protein. Gap junction proteins are members of a large family of homologous connexins and comprise 4 transmembrane, 2 extracellular, and 3 cytoplasmic domains. This gene plays a key role in central myelination and is involved in peripheral myelination in humans. Defects in this gene are the cause of autosomal recessive Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease-1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GJC3 Gene

gap junction protein, gamma 3, 30.2kDa

This gene encodes a gap junction protein. The encoded protein, also known as a connexin, plays a role in formation of gap junctions, which provide direct connections between neighboring cells. Mutations in this gene have been reported to be associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

GJC1 Gene

gap junction protein, gamma 1, 45kDa

This gene is a member of the connexin gene family. The encoded protein is a component of gap junctions, which are composed of arrays of intercellular channels that provide a route for the diffusion of low molecular weight materials from cell to cell. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same isoform have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP3CC Gene

protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme

Calcineurin is a calcium-dependent, calmodulin-stimulated protein phosphatase involved in the downstream regulation of dopaminergic signal transduction. Calcineurin is composed of a regulatory subunit and a catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of the regulatory subunits that has been found for calcineurin. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

LOC100131158 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa pseudogene

CSNK1G1 Gene

casein kinase 1, gamma 1

This gene encodes a member of the casein kinase I gene family. The encoded protein is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins, and participates in pathways for cell growth. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

DOC2GP Gene

double C2-like domains, gamma, pseudogene

NFYC Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, gamma

This gene encodes one subunit of a trimeric complex forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds with high specificity to CCAAT motifs in the promoters of a variety of genes. The encoded protein, subunit C, forms a tight dimer with the B subunit, a prerequisite for subunit A association. The resulting trimer binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. Subunits B and C each contain a histone-like motif. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

IFI30 Gene

interferon, gamma-inducible protein 30

The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal thiol reductase that at low pH can reduce protein disulfide bonds. The enzyme is expressed constitutively in antigen-presenting cells and induced by gamma-interferon in other cell types. This enzyme has an important role in MHC class II-restricted antigen processing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PEX11G Gene

peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 gamma

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PEX11 family. This family is reported to regulate the number and size of peroxisomes in evolutionarily distant organisms. The protein encoded by this gene may induce clustering of peroxisomes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

GGTLC5P Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase light chain 5 pseudogene

TUBG1P Gene

tubulin, gamma 1 pseudogene

YWHAG Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, gamma

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 100% identical to the rat ortholog. It is induced by growth factors in human vascular smooth muscle cells, and is also highly expressed in skeletal and heart muscles, suggesting an important role for this protein in muscle tissue. It has been shown to interact with RAF1 and protein kinase C, proteins involved in various signal transduction pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FGG Gene

fibrinogen gamma chain

The protein encoded by this gene is the gamma component of fibrinogen, a blood-borne glycoprotein comprised of three pairs of nonidentical polypeptide chains. Following vascular injury, fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form fibrin which is the most abundant component of blood clots. In addition, various cleavage products of fibrinogen and fibrin regulate cell adhesion and spreading, display vasoconstrictor and chemotactic activities, and are mitogens for several cell types. Mutations in this gene lead to several disorders, including dysfibrinogenemia, hypofibrinogenemia and thrombophilia. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GADD45G Gene

growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, gamma

This gene is a member of a group of genes whose transcript levels are increased following stressful growth arrest conditions and treatment with DNA-damaging agents. The protein encoded by this gene responds to environmental stresses by mediating activation of the p38/JNK pathway via MTK1/MEKK4 kinase. The GADD45G is highly expressed in placenta. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

C8G Gene

complement component 8, gamma polypeptide

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the lipocalin family. It is one of the three subunits that constitutes complement component 8 (C8), which is composed of a disulfide-linked C8 alpha-gamma heterodimer and a non-covalently associated C8 beta chain. C8 participates in the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC) on bacterial cell membranes. While subunits alpha and beta play a role in complement-mediated bacterial killing, the gamma subunit is not required for the bactericidal activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

SIRPG Gene

signal-regulatory protein gamma

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the signal-regulatory protein (SIRP) family, and also belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. SIRP family members are receptor-type transmembrane glycoproteins known to be involved in the negative regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase-coupled signaling processes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGTLC4P Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase light chain 4 pseudogene

ENO2 Gene

enolase 2 (gamma, neuronal)

This gene encodes one of the three enolase isoenzymes found in mammals. This isoenzyme, a homodimer, is found in mature neurons and cells of neuronal origin. A switch from alpha enolase to gamma enolase occurs in neural tissue during development in rats and primates. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNG5P4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 4

LOC129026 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase-like activity 1 pseudogene

This pseudogene is similar to the human gene encoding gamma-glutamyltransferase-like activity 1, an enzyme which hydrolyzes the gamma-glutamyl moiety of glutathione and converts leukotriene C4 to leukotriene D4. This pseudogene lies in the immunoglobulin lambda gene cluster on chromosome 22q11.21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SNCG Gene

synuclein, gamma (breast cancer-specific protein 1)

This gene encodes a member of the synuclein family of proteins which are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Mutations in this gene have also been associated with breast tumor development. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

GNG10P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 pseudogene 1

ACTG1P24 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 24

ACTG1P22 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 22

ACTG1P20 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 20

PKIG Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor gamma

This gene encodes a member of the protein kinase inhibitor family. Studies of a similar protein in mice suggest that this protein acts as a potent competitive cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, and is a predominant form of inhibitor in various tissues. The encoded protein may be involved in osteogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

LOC100631258 Gene

isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (NAD+) gamma pseudogene

PCDHGA8 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 8

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA2 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 2

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA3 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 3

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA1 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 1

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA6 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 6

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA7 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 7

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA4 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 4

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA5 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 5

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNG5P1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 1

GNG5P3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 3

GNG5P2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 2

GNG5P5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 pseudogene 5

CRYGFP Gene

crystallin, gamma F pseudogene

EEF1G Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma

This gene encodes a subunit of the elongation factor-1 complex, which is responsible for the enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl tRNAs to the ribosome. This subunit contains an N-terminal glutathione transferase domain, which may be involved in regulating the assembly of multisubunit complexes containing this elongation factor and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IGHG4 Gene

immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 4 (G4m marker)

IGHG1 Gene

immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 1 (G1m marker)

IGHG2 Gene

immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 2 (G2m marker)

IGHG3 Gene

immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 (G3m marker)

PHKG1P2 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 pseudogene 2

CAMK2G Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma

The product of this gene is one of the four subunits of an enzyme which belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a gamma chain. Many alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described but the full-length nature of all the variants has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

IGHGP Gene

immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma P (non-functional)

PCDHGB8P Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 8 pseudogene

TPSG1 Gene

tryptase gamma 1

Tryptases comprise a family of trypsin-like serine proteases, the peptidase family S1. Tryptases are enzymatically active only as heparin-stabilized tetramers, and they are resistant to all known endogenous proteinase inhibitors. Several tryptase genes are clustered on chromosome 16p13.3. There is uncertainty regarding the number of genes in this cluster. Currently four functional genes - alpha I, beta I, beta II and gamma I - have been identified. And beta I has an allelic variant named alpha II, beta II has an allelic variant beta III, also gamma I has an allelic variant gamma II. Beta tryptases appear to be the main isoenzymes expressed in mast cells; whereas in basophils, alpha-tryptases predominant. This gene differs from other members of the tryptase gene family in that it has C-terminal hydrophobic domain, which may serve as a membrane anchor. Tryptases have been implicated as mediators in the pathogenesis of asthma and other allergic and inflammatory disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421808 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, gamma pseudogene

PHKG1P4 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 pseudogene 4

PHKG1P1 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 pseudogene 1

PHKG1P3 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 pseudogene 3

PLCG2 Gene

phospholipase C, gamma 2 (phosphatidylinositol-specific)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane signaling enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate to 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) using calcium as a cofactor. IP3 and DAG are second messenger molecules important for transmitting signals from growth factor receptors and immune system receptors across the cell membrane. Mutations in this gene have been found in autoinflammation, antibody deficiency, and immune dysregulation syndrome and familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CEBPG Gene

CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), gamma

The C/EBP family of transcription factors regulates viral and cellular CCAAT/enhancer element-mediated transcription. C/EBP proteins contain the bZIP region, which is characterized by two motifs in the C-terminal half of the protein: a basic region involved in DNA binding and a leucine zipper motif involved in dimerization. The C/EBP family consist of several related proteins, C/EBP alpha, C/EBP beta, C/EBP gamma, and C/EBP delta, that form homodimers and that form heterodimers with each other. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein gamma may cooperate with Fos to bind PRE-I enhancer elements. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

IKBKG Gene

inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma

This gene encodes the regulatory subunit of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex, which activates NF-kappaB resulting in activation of genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and other pathways. Mutations in this gene result in incontinentia pigmenti, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and several other types of immunodeficiencies. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. A pseudogene highly similar to this locus is located in an adjacent region of the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

HNF4GP1 Gene

hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, gamma pseudogene 1

CSNK1G2 Gene

casein kinase 1, gamma 2

CSNK1G3 Gene

casein kinase 1, gamma 3

This gene encodes a member of a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that phosphorylate caseins and other acidic proteins. A related protein in the African clawed frog participates in the transmission of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PRKACG Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes the gamma form of its catalytic subunit. The gene is intronless and is thought to be a retrotransposon derived from the gene for the alpha form of the PKA catalytic subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100418692 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene

LOC100418690 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene

LOC100421023 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, gamma pseudogene

PCDHGB2 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 2

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGB1 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 1

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGB7 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 7

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGB6 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 6

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGB5 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 5

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGB4 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 4

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. This particular family member is expressed in fibroblasts and is thought to play a role in wound healing in response to injury. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC102724197 Gene

inactive gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 2-like

NGFG Gene

Nerve growth factor, gamma subunit

GNG7 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 7

GNG4 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 4

GNG5 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5

G proteins are trimeric (alpha-beta-gamma) membrane-associated proteins that regulate flow of information from cell surface receptors to a variety of internal metabolic effectors. Interaction of a G protein with its activated receptor promotes exchange of GTP for GDP that is bound to the alpha subunit. The alpha-GTP complex dissociates from the beta-gamma heterodimer so that the subunits, in turn, may interact with and regulate effector molecules (Gilman, 1987 [PubMed 3113327]; summary by Ahmad et al., 1995) [PubMed 7606925].[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

GNG2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2

This gene encodes one of the gamma subunits of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein. Such proteins are involved in signaling mechanisms across membranes. Various subunits forms heterodimers which then interact with the different signal molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

GNG3 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 3

Guanine nucleotide binding proteins are heterotrimeric signal-transducing molecules consisting of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The gamma subunit determines the specificity of which signaling pathways will be affected by this particular complex. The protein encoded by this gene represents the gamma subunit of both inhibitory and stimulatory complexes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

GNG8 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 8

CRYGEP Gene

crystallin, gamma E, pseudogene

NTF6G Gene

neurotrophin 6 gamma (pseudogene)

EEF1GP8 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 8

EEF1GP3 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 3

EEF1GP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 2

EEF1GP7 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 7

EEF1GP6 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 6

EEF1GP5 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 5

PIP4K2C Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, gamma

GSAP Gene

gamma-secretase activating protein

Accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid-beta is a major hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD; MIM 104300). Formation of amyloid-beta is catalyzed by gamma-secretase (see PSEN1; MIM 104311), a protease with numerous substrates. PION, or GSAP, selectively increases amyloid-beta production through a mechanism involving its interaction with both gamma-secretase and its substrate, the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP; MIM 104760) C-terminal fragment (APP-CTF) (He et al., 2010 [PubMed 20811458]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

GGT3P Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 3 pseudogene

LOC100529052 Gene

gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase pseudogene

ATP5C1P1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, gamma polypeptide 1 pseudogene 1

TXLNGY Gene

taxilin gamma pseudogene, Y-linked

LOC102724823 Gene

inactive gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 2

CRYBG3 Gene

beta-gamma crystallin domain containing 3

IFI16 Gene

interferon, gamma-inducible protein 16

This gene encodes a member of the HIN-200 (hematopoietic interferon-inducible nuclear antigens with 200 amino acid repeats) family of cytokines. The encoded protein contains domains involved in DNA binding, transcriptional regulation, and protein-protein interactions. The protein localizes to the nucleoplasm and nucleoli, and interacts with p53 and retinoblastoma-1. It modulates p53 function, and inhibits cell growth in the Ras/Raf signaling pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

PIK3C2G Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 gamma

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. This gene may play a role in several diseases, including type II diabetes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

ACTG1P23 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 23

ACTG1P21 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 21

ACTG1P18 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 18

ACTG1P10 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 10

PIK3R3 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 3 (gamma)

SYNRG Gene

synergin, gamma

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the gamma subunit of AP1 clathrin-adaptor complex. The AP1 complex is located at the trans-Golgi network and associates specific proteins with clathrin-coated vesicles. This encoded protein may act to connect the AP1 complex to other proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IFNG Gene

interferon, gamma

This gene encodes a member of the type II interferon family. The protein encoded is a soluble cytokine with antiviral, immunoregulatory and anti-tumor properties and is a potent activator of macrophages. Mutations in this gene are associated with aplastic anemia.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

CTGLF9P Gene

centaurin, gamma-like family, member 9 pseudogene

FLNC Gene

filamin C, gamma

This gene encodes one of three related filamin genes, specifically gamma filamin. These filamin proteins crosslink actin filaments into orthogonal networks in cortical cytoplasm and participate in the anchoring of membrane proteins for the actin cytoskeleton. Three functional domains exist in filamin: an N-terminal filamentous actin-binding domain, a C-terminal self-association domain, and a membrane glycoprotein-binding domain. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLG Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), gamma

Mitochondrial DNA polymerase is heterotrimeric, consisting of a homodimer of accessory subunits plus a catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is the catalytic subunit of mitochondrial DNA polymerase. The encoded protein contains a polyglutamine tract near its N-terminus that may be polymorphic. Defects in this gene are a cause of progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions 1 (PEOA1), sensory ataxic neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoparesis (SANDO), Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), and mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy syndrome (MNGIE). Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGH Gene

gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (conjugase, folylpolygammaglutamyl hydrolase)

This gene catalyzes the hydrolysis of folylpoly-gamma-glutamates and antifolylpoly-gamma-glutamates by the removal of gamma-linked polyglutamates and glutamate. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422526 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 3 (PA28 gamma; Ki) pseudogene

CACNG8 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type II TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. The mRNA for this gene is believed to initiate translation from a non-AUG (CUG) start codon. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is a susceptibility locus for childhood absence epilepsy. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG6 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 6

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of two known gamma subunit proteins. This particular gamma subunit is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members that function as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Variants in this gene have been associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG7 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type I TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

GGT4P Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 4 pseudogene

CSNK1G2P1 Gene

casein kinase 1, gamma 2 pseudogene 1

CD3G Gene

CD3g molecule, gamma (CD3-TCR complex)

The protein encoded by this gene is the CD3-gamma polypeptide, which together with CD3-epsilon, -delta and -zeta, and the T-cell receptor alpha/beta and gamma/delta heterodimers, forms the T-cell receptor-CD3 complex. This complex plays an important role in coupling antigen recognition to several intracellular signal-transduction pathways. The genes encoding the epsilon, gamma and delta polypeptides are located in the same cluster on chromosome 11. Defects in this gene are associated with T cell immunodeficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF2S3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is the largest subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein involved in the recruitment of methionyl-tRNA(i) to the 40 S ribosomal subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

LOC648044 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12-like

PCDHGA11 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 11

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGA12 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 12

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SGCG Gene

sarcoglycan, gamma (35kDa dystrophin-associated glycoprotein)

This gene encodes gamma-sarcoglycan, one of several sarcolemmal transmembrane glycoproteins that interact with dystrophin. The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) spans the sarcolemma and is comprised of dystrophin, syntrophin, alpha- and beta-dystroglycans and sarcoglycans. The DGC provides a structural link between the subsarcolemmal cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix of muscle cells. Defects in the encoded protein can lead to early onset autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy, in particular limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, type 2C (LGMD2C). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

IDH3G Gene

isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (NAD+) gamma

Isocitrate dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to 2-oxoglutarate. These enzymes belong to two distinct subclasses, one of which utilizes NAD(+) as the electron acceptor and the other NADP(+). Five isocitrate dehydrogenases have been reported: three NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, which localize to the mitochondrial matrix, and two NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, one of which is mitochondrial and the other predominantly cytosolic. NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases catalyze the allosterically regulated rate-limiting step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Each isozyme is a heterotetramer that is composed of two alpha subunits, one beta subunit, and one gamma subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is the gamma subunit of one isozyme of NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase. This gene is a candidate gene for periventricular heterotopia. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but only some of their full length natures have been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DGKG Gene

diacylglycerol kinase, gamma 90kDa

This gene encodes an enzyme that is a member of the type I subfamily of diacylglycerol kinases, which are involved in lipid metabolism. These enzymes generate phosphatidic acid by catalyzing the phosphorylation of diacylglycerol, a fundamental lipid second messenger that activates numerous proteins, including protein kinase C isoforms, Ras guanyl nucleotide-releasing proteins and some transient receptor potential channels. Diacylglycerol kinase gamma has been implicated in cell cycle regulation and in the negative regulation of macrophage differentiation in leukemia cells. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GADD45GIP1 Gene

growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, gamma interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a nuclear-localized protein that may be induced by p53 and regulates the cell cycle by inhibiting G1 to S phase progression. The encoded protein may interact with other cell cycle regulators. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

SNTG1 Gene

syntrophin, gamma 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the syntrophin family. Syntrophins are cytoplasmic peripheral membrane proteins that typically contain 2 pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, a PDZ domain that bisects the first PH domain, and a C-terminal domain that mediates dystrophin binding. This gene is specifically expressed in the brain. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

SNTG2 Gene

syntrophin, gamma 2

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the syntrophin family. Syntrophins are cytoplasmic peripheral membrane proteins that bind to components of mechanosenstive sodium channels and the extreme carboxy-terminal domain of dystrophin and dystrophin-related proteins. The PDZ domain of this protein product interacts with a protein component of a mechanosensitive sodium channel that affects channel gating. Absence or reduction of this protein product has been associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. There is evidence of alternative splicing yet the full-length nature of these variants has not been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CCT3P1 Gene

chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 3 (gamma) pseudogene 1

TUBG1 Gene

tubulin, gamma 1

This gene encodes a member of the tubulin superfamily. The encoded protein localizes to the centrosome where it binds to microtubules as part of a complex referred to as the gamma-tubulin ring complex. The protein mediates microtubule nucleation and is required for microtubule formation and progression of the cell cycle. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

TUBG2 Gene

tubulin, gamma 2

PARD6G Gene

par-6 family cell polarity regulator gamma

CRYGS Gene

crystallin, gamma S

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Gamma-crystallins are a homogeneous group of highly symmetrical, monomeric proteins typically lacking connecting peptides and terminal extensions. They are differentially regulated after early development. This gene encodes a protein initially considered to be a beta-crystallin but the encoded protein is monomeric and has greater sequence similarity to other gamma-crystallins. This gene encodes the most significant gamma-crystallin in adult eye lens tissue. Whether due to aging or mutations in specific genes, gamma-crystallins have been involved in cataract formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CRYGN Gene

crystallin, gamma N

This gene encodes a member of the crystallin family of proteins that are localized to the refractive structure of vertebrate eye lenses. The protein encoded by this gene is unique in that it has both beta and gamma crystallin protein motifs. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

CRYGA Gene

crystallin, gamma A

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Gamma-crystallins are a homogeneous group of highly symmetrical, monomeric proteins typically lacking connecting peptides and terminal extensions. They are differentially regulated after early development. Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. Whether due to aging or mutations in specific genes, gamma-crystallins have been involved in cataract formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CRYGB Gene

crystallin, gamma B

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Gamma-crystallins are a homogeneous group of highly symmetrical, monomeric proteins typically lacking connecting peptides and terminal extensions. They are differentially regulated after early development. Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. Whether due to aging or mutations in specific genes, gamma-crystallins have been involved in cataract formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CRYGC Gene

crystallin, gamma C

This gene encodes a member of the beta/gamma-crystallin family of proteins. Crystallins constitute the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintain the transparency and refractive index of the lens. This gene and several family members are present in a gene cluster on chromosome 2. Mutations in this gene have been shown to cause multiple types of cataract, including Coppock-like cataract and zonular pulverulent cataract, among others. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

CRYGD Gene

crystallin, gamma D

Crystallins are separated into two classes: taxon-specific, or enzyme, and ubiquitous. The latter class constitutes the major proteins of vertebrate eye lens and maintains the transparency and refractive index of the lens. Since lens central fiber cells lose their nuclei during development, these crystallins are made and then retained throughout life, making them extremely stable proteins. Mammalian lens crystallins are divided into alpha, beta, and gamma families; beta and gamma crystallins are also considered as a superfamily. Alpha and beta families are further divided into acidic and basic groups. Seven protein regions exist in crystallins: four homologous motifs, a connecting peptide, and N- and C-terminal extensions. Gamma-crystallins are a homogeneous group of highly symmetrical, monomeric proteins typically lacking connecting peptides and terminal extensions. They are differentially regulated after early development. Four gamma-crystallin genes (gamma-A through gamma-D) and three pseudogenes (gamma-E, gamma-F, gamma-G) are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. Whether due to aging or mutations in specific genes, gamma-crystallins have been involved in cataract formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CTGLF12P Gene

centaurin, gamma-like family, member 12 pseudogene

NAPG Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma

This gene encodes soluble NSF attachment protein gamma. The soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs) enable N-ethyl-maleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) to bind to target membranes. NSF and SNAPs appear to be general components of the intracellular membrane fusion apparatus, and their action at specific sites of fusion must be controlled by SNAP receptors particular to the membranes being fused. The product of this gene mediates platelet exocytosis and controls the membrane fusion events of this process.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

PCDHG@ Gene

protocadherin gamma cluster

The protocadherin gamma gene cluster is one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. The clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies, all part of the cadherin superfamily. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. In addition, ORNT2 and TAF2F are included in the cluster due to their localization between protocadherin clusters beta and gamma on chromosome five. The protocadherin genes are organized in a tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons followed by a constant region, which contains 3 exons shared by all protocadherin genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes an extracellular domain comprised of 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode a common cytoplasmic tail. These neural adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNG10 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10

GNG11 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 11

This gene is a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) gamma family and encodes a lipid-anchored, cell membrane protein. As a member of the heterotrimeric G protein complex, this protein plays a role in this transmembrane signaling system. This protein is also subject to carboxyl-terminal processing. Decreased expression of this gene is associated with splenic marginal zone lymphomas. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GNG12 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12

GNG13 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 13

Heterotrimeric G proteins, which consist of alpha (see MIM 139320), beta (see MIM 139380), and gamma subunits, function as signal transducers for the 7-transmembrane-helix G protein-coupled receptors. GNG13 is a gamma subunit that is expressed in taste, retinal, and neuronal tissues and plays a key role in taste transduction (Li et al., 2006 [PubMed 16473877]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

GNPTG Gene

N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase, gamma subunit

This gene encodes the gamma sunbunit of the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase complex. This hexameric complex, composed of alpha, beta and gamma subunits, catalyzes the first step in synthesis of a mannose 6-phosphate lysosomal recognition marker. This enzyme complex is necessary for targeting of lysosomal hydrolases to the lysosome. Mutations in the gene encoding the gamma subunit have been associated with mucolipidosis IIIC, also known as mucolipidosis III gamma.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

COPG2 Gene

coatomer protein complex, subunit gamma 2

COPG1 Gene

coatomer protein complex, subunit gamma 1

CRYGGP Gene

crystallin, gamma G, pseudogene

PPP2R3C Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', gamma

This gene encodes a regulatory subunit of the serine/threonine phosphatase, protein phosphatase 2. This protein is localized to both nuclear and cytoplasmic regions depending on cell cycle phase. Homozygous conditional knockout mice for this gene exhibit reduced numbers and impaired proliferation of immune system B cells. This protein may regulate the expression of the P-glycoprotein ATP-binding cassette transporter through its phosphatase activity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

LOC100128334 Gene

gap junction protein, gamma 3, 30.2kDa pseudogene

GMFG Gene

glia maturation factor, gamma

EIF4G3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 3

EIF4G2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 2

Translation initiation is mediated by specific recognition of the cap structure by eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), which is a cap binding protein complex that consists of three subunits: eIF4A, eIF4E and eIF4G. The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the C-terminal region of eIF4G that contains the binding sites for eIF4A and eIF3; eIF4G, in addition, contains a binding site for eIF4E at the N-terminus. Unlike eIF4G, which supports cap-dependent and independent translation, this gene product functions as a general repressor of translation by forming translationally inactive complexes. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that translation of this mRNA initiates exclusively at a non-AUG (GUG) codon. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms of this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF4G1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the multi-subunit protein complex EIF4F. This complex facilitates the recruitment of mRNA to the ribosome, which is a rate-limiting step during the initiation phase of protein synthesis. The recognition of the mRNA cap and the ATP-dependent unwinding of 5'-terminal secondary structure is catalyzed by factors in this complex. The subunit encoded by this gene is a large scaffolding protein that contains binding sites for other members of the EIF4F complex. A domain at its N-terminus can also interact with the poly(A)-binding protein, which may mediate the circularization of mRNA during translation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, some of which are derived from alternative promoter usage. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

CACNG1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 1

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of two known gamma subunit proteins. This particular gamma subunit is part of skeletal muscle 1,4-dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels and is an integral membrane protein that plays a role in excitation-contraction coupling. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members that function as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PSENEN Gene

presenilin enhancer gamma secretase subunit

Presenilins, which are components of the gamma-secretase protein complex, are required for intramembranous processing of some type I transmembrane proteins, such as the Notch proteins and the beta-amyloid precursor protein. Signaling by Notch receptors mediates a wide range of developmental cell fates. Processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein generates neurotoxic amyloid beta peptides, the major component of senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease. This gene encodes a protein that is required for Notch pathway signaling, and for the activity and accumulation of gamma-secretase. Mutations resulting in haploinsufficiency for this gene cause familial acne inversa-2 (ACNINV2). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

CCT3 Gene

chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 3 (gamma)

The protein encoded by this gene is a molecular chaperone that is a member of the chaperonin containing TCP1 complex (CCT), also known as the TCP1 ring complex (TRiC). This complex consists of two identical stacked rings, each containing eight different proteins. Unfolded polypeptides enter the central cavity of the complex and are folded in an ATP-dependent manner. The complex folds various proteins, including actin and tubulin. Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized for this gene. In addition, a pseudogene of this gene has been found on chromosome 8. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

PHKG2 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 2 (testis)

Phosphorylase kinase is a polymer of 16 subunits, four each of alpha, beta, gamma and delta. The alpha subunit includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, encoded by two different genes. The beta subunit is the same in both the muscle and hepatic isoforms, and encoded by one gene. The gamma subunit also includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, and the hepatic isoform is encoded by this gene. The delta subunit is a calmodulin and can be encoded by three different genes. The gamma subunits contain the active site of the enzyme, whereas the alpha and beta subunits have regulatory functions controlled by phosphorylation. The delta subunit mediates the dependence of the enzyme on calcium concentration. Mutations in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type 9C, also known as autosomal liver glycogenosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

PHKG1 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 (muscle)

This gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family and encodes a protein with one protein kinase domain and two calmodulin-binding domains. This protein is the catalytic member of a 16 subunit protein kinase complex which contains equimolar ratios of 4 subunit types. The complex is a crucial glycogenolytic regulatory enzyme. This gene has two pseudogenes at chromosome 7q11.21 and one at chromosome 11p11.12. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

ADH1C Gene

alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (class I), gamma polypeptide

This gene encodes class I alcohol dehydrogenase, gamma subunit, which is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this enzyme family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Class I alcohol dehydrogenase, consisting of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, exhibits high activity for ethanol oxidation and plays a major role in ethanol catabolism. Three genes encoding alpha, beta and gamma subunits are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCNN1G Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 gamma subunit

Nonvoltage-gated, amiloride-sensitive, sodium channels control fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelia in many organs. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the gamma subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with Liddle syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

CHAC1 Gene

ChaC glutathione-specific gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase 1

LOC729998 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene

BGLAP Gene

bone gamma-carboxyglutamate (gla) protein

LOC100418689 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene

CACNG5 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type I TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. This gene is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CTGLF11P Gene

centaurin, gamma-like family, member 11 pseudogene

PCDHGB3 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 3

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LAMC2 Gene

laminin, gamma 2

Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, signaling, neurite outgrowth and metastasis. Laminins, composed of 3 non identical chains: laminin alpha, beta and gamma (formerly A, B1, and B2, respectively), have a cruciform structure consisting of 3 short arms, each formed by a different chain, and a long arm composed of all 3 chains. Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. Different alpha, beta and gamma chain isomers combine to give rise to different heterotrimeric laminin isoforms which are designated by Arabic numerals in the order of their discovery, i.e. alpha1beta1gamma1 heterotrimer is laminin 1. The biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the chains have been shown to differ with respect to their tissue distribution, presumably reflecting diverse functions in vivo. This gene encodes the gamma chain isoform laminin, gamma 2. The gamma 2 chain, formerly thought to be a truncated version of beta chain (B2t), is highly homologous to the gamma 1 chain; however, it lacks domain VI, and domains V, IV and III are shorter. It is expressed in several fetal tissues but differently from gamma 1, and is specifically localized to epithelial cells in skin, lung and kidney. The gamma 2 chain together with alpha 3 and beta 3 chains constitute laminin 5 (earlier known as kalinin), which is an integral part of the anchoring filaments that connect epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane. The epithelium-specific expression of the gamma 2 chain implied its role as an epithelium attachment molecule, and mutations in this gene have been associated with junctional epidermolysis bullosa, a skin disease characterized by blisters due to disruption of the epidermal-dermal junction. Two transcript variants resulting from alternative splicing of the 3' terminal exon, and encoding different isoforms of gamma 2 chain, have been described. The two variants are differentially expressed in embryonic tissues, however, the biological significance of the two forms is not known. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA_signal have also been noted in literature. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LAMC3 Gene

laminin, gamma 3

Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, signaling, neurite outgrowth and metastasis. Laminins are composed of 3 non identical chains: laminin alpha, beta and gamma (formerly A, B1, and B2, respectively) and they form a cruciform structure consisting of 3 short arms, each formed by a different chain, and a long arm composed of all 3 chains. Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. Different alpha, beta and gamma chain isomers combine to give rise to different heterotrimeric laminin isoforms which are designated by Arabic numerals in the order of their discovery, i.e. alpha1beta1gamma1 heterotrimer is laminin 1. The biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the chains have been shown to differ with respect to their tissue distribution, presumably reflecting diverse functions in vivo. This gene encodes the gamma chain isoform laminin, gamma 3. The gamma 3 chain is most similar to the gamma 1 chain, and contains all the 6 domains expected of the gamma chain. It is a component of laminin 12. The gamma 3 chain is broadly expressed in skin, heart, lung, and the reproductive tracts. In skin, it is seen within the basement membrane of the dermal-epidermal junction at points of nerve penetration. Gamma 3 is also a prominent element of the apical surface of ciliated epithelial cells of lung, oviduct, epididymis, ductus deferens, and seminiferous tubules. The distribution of gamma 3-containing laminins along ciliated epithelial surfaces suggests that the apical laminins are important in the morphogenesis and structural stability of the ciliated processes of these cells. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LAMC1 Gene

laminin, gamma 1 (formerly LAMB2)

Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, signaling, neurite outgrowth and metastasis. Laminins, composed of 3 non identical chains: laminin alpha, beta and gamma (formerly A, B1, and B2, respectively), have a cruciform structure consisting of 3 short arms, each formed by a different chain, and a long arm composed of all 3 chains. Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. Different alpha, beta and gamma chain isomers combine to give rise to different heterotrimeric laminin isoforms which are designated by Arabic numerals in the order of their discovery, i.e. alpha1beta1gamma1 heterotrimer is laminin 1. The biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the chains have been shown to differ with respect to their tissue distribution, presumably reflecting diverse functions in vivo. This gene encodes the gamma chain isoform laminin, gamma 1. The gamma 1 chain, formerly thought to be a beta chain, contains structural domains similar to beta chains, however, lacks the short alpha region separating domains I and II. The structural organization of this gene also suggested that it had diverged considerably from the beta chain genes. Embryos of transgenic mice in which both alleles of the gamma 1 chain gene were inactivated by homologous recombination, lacked basement membranes, indicating that laminin, gamma 1 chain is necessary for laminin heterotrimer assembly. It has been inferred by analogy with the strikingly similar 3' UTR sequence in mouse laminin gamma 1 cDNA, that multiple polyadenylation sites are utilized in human to generate the 2 different sized mRNAs (5.5 and 7.5 kb) seen on Northern analysis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC100328982 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa pseudogene

PLCG1 Gene

phospholipase C, gamma 1

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This reaction uses calcium as a cofactor and plays an important role in the intracellular transduction of receptor-mediated tyrosine kinase activators. For example, when activated by SRC, the encoded protein causes the Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP1 to translocate to the Golgi, where it activates Ras. Also, this protein has been shown to be a major substrate for heparin-binding growth factor 1 (acidic fibroblast growth factor)-activated tyrosine kinase. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100129776 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa pseudogene

ACTG1 Gene

actin gamma 1

Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. In vertebrates, three main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta and gamma have been identified. The alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton, and as mediators of internal cell motility. Actin, gamma 1, encoded by this gene, is a cytoplasmic actin found in non-muscle cells. Mutations in this gene are associated with DFNA20/26, a subtype of autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural progressive hearing loss. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

ACTG2 Gene

actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric

Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and in the maintenance of the cytoskeleton. Three types of actins, alpha, beta and gamma, have been identified in vertebrates. Alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton and as mediators of internal cell motility. This gene encodes actin gamma 2; a smooth muscle actin found in enteric tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Based on similarity to peptide cleavage of related actins, the mature protein of this gene is formed by removal of two N-terminal peptides.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

LOC100289060 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 pseudogene

ACTG1P19 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 19

ACTG1P11 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 11

ACTG1P17 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 17

ACTG1P16 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 16

ACTG1P15 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 15

ACTG1P14 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 14

DNAJC5G Gene

DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 5 gamma

PDE6G Gene

phosphodiesterase 6G, cGMP-specific, rod, gamma

This gene encodes the gamma subunit of cyclic GMP-phosphodiesterase, which is composed of alpha- and beta- catalytic subunits and two identical, inhibitory gamma subunits. This gene is expressed in rod photoreceptors and functions in the phototransduction signaling cascade. It is also expressed in a variety of other tissues, and has been shown to regulate the c-Src protein kinase and G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

PDE6H Gene

phosphodiesterase 6H, cGMP-specific, cone, gamma

This gene encodes the inhibitory (or gamma) subunit of the cone-specific cGMP phosphodiesterase, which is a tetramer composed of two catalytic chains (alpha and beta), and two inhibitory chains (gamma). It is specifically expressed in the retina, and is involved in the transmission and amplification of the visual signal. Mutations in this gene are associated with retinal cone dystrophy type 3A (RCD3A). [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

ACTG1P7 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 7

ACTG1P6 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 6

ACTG1P4 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 4

ACTG1P3 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 3

ACTG1P2 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 2

ACTG1P1 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 1

ACTG1P9 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 9

ACTG1P8 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 8

GGCX Gene

gamma-glutamyl carboxylase

This gene encodes an enzyme which catalyzes the posttranslational modification of vitamin K-dependent protein. Many of these vitamin K-dependent proteins are involved in coagulation so the function of the encoded enzyme is essential for hemostasis. Mutations in this gene are associated with vitamin K-dependent coagulation defect and PXE-like disorder with multiple coagulation factor deficiency. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

GGCT Gene

gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of 5-oxoproline from gamma-glutamyl dipeptides, the penultimate step in glutathione catabolism, and may play a critical role in glutathione homeostasis. The encoded protein may also play a role in cell proliferation, and the expression of this gene is a potential marker for cancer. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on the long arm of chromosome 5 and the short arm of chromosomes 2 and 20. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

EIF2B3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 3 gamma, 58kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the subunits of initiation factor eIF2B, which catalyzes the exchange of eukaryotic initiation factor 2-bound GDP for GTP. It has also been found to function as a cofactor of hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with leukodystrophy with vanishing white matter. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

TARP Gene

TCR gamma alternate reading frame protein

In some non-lymphoid tissues, the unrearranged T cell receptor gamma (TRG@) locus is expressed. The resulting transcript contains a subset of the TRG@ gene segments and is shorter than TRG@ transcripts expressed in lymphoid tissues. This RefSeq record represents the unrearranged TRG@ locus transcript; the complete TRG@ locus is represented by the genomic RefSeq NG_001336. The transcript represented by this RefSeq has two open reading frames (ORFs) that encode different proteins. The downstream ORF is in the same frame as TRG@ and its protein product is similar to TRG@ proteins. The upstream ORF uses a different reading frame and encodes a novel protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HNF4G Gene

hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, gamma

LOC100418691 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene

LOC255308 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa pseudogene

SEC61G Gene

Sec61 gamma subunit

The Sec61 complex is the central component of the protein translocation apparatus of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Oligomers of the Sec61 complex form a transmembrane channel where proteins are translocated across and integrated into the ER membrane. This complex consists of three membrane proteins- alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the gamma-subunit protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARHGDIG Gene

Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) gamma

The GDP-dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) play a primary role in modulating the activation of GTPases by inhibiting the exchange of GDP for GTP. See ARHGDIB (MIM 602843).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

PRKAG1 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 1 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit is one of the gamma regulatory subunits of AMPK. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAG3 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 3 non-catalytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit is one of the gamma regulatory subunits of AMPK. It is dominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. Studies of the pig counterpart suggest that this subunit may play a key role in the regulation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAG2 Gene

protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 2 non-catalytic subunit

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric protein composed of a catalytic alpha subunit, a noncatalytic beta subunit, and a noncatalytic regulatory gamma subunit. Various forms of each of these subunits exist, encoded by different genes. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status and functions by inactivating key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This gene is a member of the AMPK gamma subunit family. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and glycogen storage disease of the heart. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

REG3G Gene

regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma

This gene encodes a member of the regenerating islet-derived genes (REG)3 protein family. These proteins are secreted, C-type lectins with a carbohydrate recognition domain and N-terminal signal peptide. The protein encoded by this gene is an antimicrobial lectin with activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

PCDHGA10 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 10

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IL36G Gene

interleukin 36, gamma

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. The activity of this cytokine is mediated by interleukin 1 receptor-like 2 (IL1RL2/IL1R-rp2), and is specifically inhibited by interleukin 1 family, member 5 (IL1F5/IL-1 delta). Interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1, beta (IL1B) are reported to stimulate the expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes. The expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes can also be induced by a contact hypersensitivity reaction or herpes simplex virus infection. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

TXLNG Gene

taxilin gamma

This gene encodes a member of the taxilin family. The encoded protein binds to the C-terminal coiled-coil region of syntaxin family members 1A, 3A and 4A, and may play a role in intracellular vesicle trafficking. This gene is up-regulated by lipopolysaccharide and the gene product may be involved in cell cycle regulation. The related mouse protein was also shown to inhibit activating transcription factor 4-mediated transcription and thus regulate bone mass accrual. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

GGTLC2 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase light chain 2

This gene encodes a protein related to enzymes that cleaves gamma-glutamyl peptide bonds in glutathione and other peptides. Unlike similar proteins, the encoded protein contains only the light chain portion and may not have catalytic activity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. There are several related family members and related pseudogene for this gene situated in the same region of chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PPP2R5C Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', gamma

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes a gamma isoform of the regulatory subunit B56 subfamily. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC653503 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 pseudogene

GGT2 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 2

GGT2 belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; EC 2.3.2.2) gene family. GGT is a membrane-bound extracellular enzyme that cleaves gamma-glutamyl peptide bonds in glutathione and other peptides and transfers the gamma-glutamyl moiety to acceptors. GGT is also key to glutathione homeostasis because it provides substrates for glutathione synthesis (Heisterkamp et al., 2008 [PubMed 18357469]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2008]

GGT1 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 1

The enzyme encoded by this gene is a type I gamma-glutamyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of the glutamyl moiety of glutathione to a variety of amino acids and dipeptide acceptors. The enzyme is composed of a heavy chain and a light chain, which are derived from a single precursor protein. It is expressed in tissues involved in absorption and secretion and may contribute to the etiology of diabetes and other metabolic disorders. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been identified. There are a number of related genes present on chromosomes 20 and 22, and putative pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 2, 13, and 22. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

GGT6 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 6

GGT6 belongs to the gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT; EC 2.3.2.2) gene family. GGT is a membrane-bound extracellular enzyme that cleaves gamma-glutamyl peptide bonds in glutathione and other peptides and transfers the gamma-glutamyl moiety to acceptors. GGT is also key to glutathione homeostasis because it provides substrates for glutathione synthesis (Heisterkamp et al., 2008 [PubMed 18357469]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2008]

GGT7 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 7

This gene is a member of a gene family that encodes enzymes involved in both the metabolism of glutathione and in the transpeptidation of amino acids. Changes in the activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase may signal preneoplastic or toxic conditions in the liver or kidney. The protein encoded by this gene consists of a heavy and a light chain, and it can interact with CT120, a plasma membrane-associated protein that is possibly involved in lung carcinogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGT5 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 5

This gene is a member of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase gene family, and some reports indicate that it is capable of cleaving the gamma-glutamyl moiety of glutathione. The protein encoded by this gene is synthesized as a single, catalytically-inactive polypeptide, that is processed post-transcriptionally to form a heavy and light subunit, with the catalytic activity contained within the small subunit. The encoded enzyme is able to convert leukotriene C4 to leukotriene D4, but appears to have distinct substrate specificity compared to gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

MAP1LC3C Gene

microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 gamma

Autophagy is a highly regulated bulk degradation process that plays an important role in cellular maintenance and development. MAP1LC3C is an ortholog of the yeast autophagosome protein Atg8 (He et al., 2003 [PubMed 12740394]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

GGTLC1 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase light chain 1

This gene encodes a member of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) family, which are important in the metabolism of glutathione. The most ubiquitously expressed human GGT gene, GGT1, encodes a single transmembrane polypeptide that is post-translationally processed to form a heavy and a light chain. In contrast, the product of this gene only contains homology to the light chain region, and lacks a transmembrane domain. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

GGTLC3 Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase light chain 3

Gamma-glutamyltransferase-1 (GGT1; MIM 612346) is a membrane-bound extracellular enzyme that cleaves gamma-glutamyl peptide bonds in glutathione and other peptides and transfers the gamma-glutamyl moiety to acceptors. Autocatalytic cleavage of the GGT1 precursor polypeptide produces a heavy chain and a light chain that associate with each other to form the functional enzyme. Light chain-only GGTs, such as GGTLC3, contain a region corresponding to the GGT1 light chain, but they lack the membrane-anchoring heavy chain region (Heisterkamp et al., 2008 [PubMed 18357469]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2008]

LOC100130849 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 (muscle) pseudogene

LOC100418688 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene

PIK3CG Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit gamma

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the pi3/pi4-kinase family of proteins. The gene product is an enzyme that phosphorylates phosphoinositides on the 3-hydroxyl group of the inositol ring. It is an important modulator of extracellular signals, including those elicited by E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, which plays an important role in maintenance of the structural and functional integrity of epithelia. In addition to its role in promoting assembly of adherens junctions, the protein is thought to play a pivotal role in the regulation of cytotoxicity in NK cells. The gene is located in a commonly deleted segment of chromosome 7 previously identified in myeloid leukemias. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

CTH Gene

cystathionine gamma-lyase

This gene encodes a cytoplasmic enzyme in the trans-sulfuration pathway that converts cystathione derived from methionine into cysteine. Glutathione synthesis in the liver is dependent upon the availability of cysteine. Mutations in this gene cause cystathioninuria. Alternative splicing of this gene results in three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

CATSPERG Gene

catsper channel auxiliary subunit gamma

CATSPERG is a subunit of the CATSPER (see CATSPER1; MIM 606389) sperm calcium channel, which is required for sperm hyperactivated motility and male fertility (Wang et al., 2009 [PubMed 19516020]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]

GGACT Gene

gamma-glutamylamine cyclotransferase

The protein encoded by this gene aids in the proteolytic degradation of crosslinked fibrin by breaking down isodipeptide L-gamma-glutamyl-L-epsilon-lysine, a byproduct of fibrin degradation. The reaction catalyzed by the encoded gamma-glutamylaminecyclotransferase produces 5-oxo-L-proline and a free alkylamine. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

PRKCG Gene

protein kinase C, gamma

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play distinct roles in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This protein kinase is expressed solely in the brain and spinal cord and its localization is restricted to neurons. It has been demonstrated that several neuronal functions, including long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), specifically require this kinase. Knockout studies in mice also suggest that this kinase may be involved in neuropathic pain development. Defects in this protein have been associated with neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia-14 (SCA14). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGB9P Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily B, 9 pseudogene

EEF1GP4 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 4

PSME3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 3 (PA28 gamma; Ki)

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The immunoproteasome contains an alternate regulator, referred to as the 11S regulator or PA28, that replaces the 19S regulator. Three subunits (alpha, beta and gamma) of the 11S regulator have been identified. This gene encodes the gamma subunit of the 11S regulator. Six gamma subunits combine to form a homohexameric ring. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

CACNG2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

LOC101060145 Gene

putative gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase 3

CACNG4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type II TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

ACTG1P13 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 13

ACTG1P12 Gene

actin gamma 1 pseudogene 12

PPP1CC Gene

protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein phosphatase family, PP1 subfamily. PP1 is an ubiquitous serine/threonine phosphatase that regulates many cellular processes, including cell division. It is expressed in mammalian cells as three closely related isoforms, alpha, beta/delta and gamma, which have distinct localization patterns. This gene encodes the gamma isozyme. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

EEF1GP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 gamma pseudogene 1

PCDHGCT Gene

protocadherin gamma constant

The genomic organization of the human protocadherin alpha, beta, and gamma gene clusters (PCDHA@, PCDHB@ and PCDHG@) is remarkably similar to that of immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes. The extracellular and transmembrane domains of each protocadherin protein are encoded by an unusually large "variable" region exon, while the intracellular domains are encoded by three small "constant" region exons located downstream from a tandem array of variable region exons. This locus represents the three exons comprising the constant region of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGC3 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily C, 3

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGC4 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily C, 4

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PCDHGC5 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily C, 5

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100128052 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', gamma pseudogene

CDC42BPG Gene

CDC42 binding protein kinase gamma (DMPK-like)

PARVG Gene

parvin, gamma

Members of the parvin family, including PARVG, are actin-binding proteins associated with focal contacts.[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2004]

LOC100528061 Gene

gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase pseudogene

LOC100528063 Gene

gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase pseudogene

AP1G1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit

Adaptins are important components of clathrin-coated vesicles transporting ligand-receptor complexes from the plasma membrane or from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes. The adaptin family of proteins is composed of four classes of molecules named alpha, beta-, beta prime- and gamma- adaptins. Adaptins, together with medium and small subunits, form a heterotetrameric complex called an adaptor, whose role is to promote the formation of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AP1G2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit

Adaptins are important components of clathrin-coated vesicles transporting ligand-receptor complexes from the plasma membrane or from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes. The adaptin family of proteins is compsed of four classes of molecules named alpha, beta-, beta prime- and gamma- adaptins. Adaptins, together with medium and small subunits, form a heterotetrameric complex called an adaptor, whose role is to promote the formation of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This protein along with the complex is thought to function at some trafficking step in the complex pathways between the trans-Golgi network and the cell surface. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene exist, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

LOC100128345 Gene

nuclear transcription factor Y, gamma pseudogene

PPP2R2C Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, gamma

The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2 is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes a gamma isoform of the regulatory subunit B55 subfamily. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAPOLG Gene

poly(A) polymerase gamma

This gene encodes a member of the poly(A) polymerase family which catalyzes template-independent extension of the 3' end of a DNA/RNA strand. This enzyme shares 60% identity to the well characterized poly(A) polymerase II (PAPII) at the amino acid level. These two enzymes have similar organization of structural and functional domains. This enzyme is exclusively localized in the nucleus and exhibits both nonspecific and CPSF (cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor)/AAUAAA-dependent polyadenylation activity. This gene is located on chromosome 2 in contrast to the PAPII gene, which is located on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADD3 Gene

adducin 3 (gamma)

Adducins are heteromeric proteins composed of different subunits referred to as adducin alpha, beta and gamma. The three subunits are encoded by distinct genes and belong to a family of membrane skeletal proteins involved in the assembly of spectrin-actin network in erythrocytes and at sites of cell-cell contact in epithelial tissues. While adducins alpha and gamma are ubiquitously expressed, the expression of adducin beta is restricted to brain and hematopoietic tissues. Adducin, originally purified from human erythrocytes, was found to be a heterodimer of adducins alpha and beta. Polymorphisms resulting in amino acid substitutions in these two subunits have been associated with the regulation of blood pressure in an animal model of hypertension. Heterodimers consisting of alpha and gamma subunits have also been described. Structurally, each subunit is comprised of two distinct domains. The amino-terminal region is protease resistant and globular in shape, while the carboxy-terminal region is protease sensitive. The latter contains multiple phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C, the binding site for calmodulin, and is required for association with spectrin and actin. Alternatively spliced adducin gamma transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. The functions of the different isoforms are not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP2R5CP Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', gamma pseudogene

PIP5K1C Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, gamma

This locus encodes a type I phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase. The encoded protein catalyzes phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, producing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. This enzyme is found at synapses and has been found to play roles in endocytosis and cell migration. Mutations at this locus have been associated with lethal congenital contractural syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

LOC391334 Gene

actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric pseudogene

HBG2 Gene

hemoglobin, gamma G

The gamma globin genes (HBG1 and HBG2) are normally expressed in the fetal liver, spleen and bone marrow. Two gamma chains together with two alpha chains constitute fetal hemoglobin (HbF) which is normally replaced by adult hemoglobin (HbA) at birth. In some beta-thalassemias and related conditions, gamma chain production continues into adulthood. The two types of gamma chains differ at residue 136 where glycine is found in the G-gamma product (HBG2) and alanine is found in the A-gamma product (HBG1). The former is predominant at birth. The order of the genes in the beta-globin cluster is: 5'- epsilon -- gamma-G -- gamma-A -- delta -- beta--3'. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLG2 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), gamma 2, accessory subunit

This gene encodes the processivity subunit of the mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. The encoded protein forms a heterotrimer containing one catalytic subunit and two processivity subunits. This protein enhances DNA binding and promotes processive DNA synthesis. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

TUBGCP2 Gene

tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 2

TUBGCP3 Gene

tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 3

TUBGCP4 Gene

tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 4

This gene encodes a component of the gamma-tubulin ring complex, which is required for microtubule nucleation. In mammalian cells, the protein localizes to centrosomes in association with gamma-tubulin. Crystal structure analysis revealed a structure composed of five helical bundles arranged around conserved hydrophobic cores. An exposed surface area located in the C-terminal domain is essential and sufficient for direct binding to gamma-tubulin. Mutations in this gene that alter microtubule organization are associated with microcephaly and chorioretinopathy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2015]

TUBGCP5 Gene

tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 5

TUBGCP6 Gene

tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 6

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a large multisubunit complex required for microtubule nucleation at the centrosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GGT8P Gene

gamma-glutamyltransferase 8 pseudogene

NAPGP2 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene 2

NAPGP1 Gene

N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, gamma pseudogene 1

PCDHGA9 Gene

protocadherin gamma subfamily A, 9

This gene is a member of the protocadherin gamma gene cluster, one of three related clusters tandemly linked on chromosome five. These gene clusters have an immunoglobulin-like organization, suggesting that a novel mechanism may be involved in their regulation and expression. The gamma gene cluster includes 22 genes divided into 3 subfamilies. Subfamily A contains 12 genes, subfamily B contains 7 genes and 2 pseudogenes, and the more distantly related subfamily C contains 3 genes. The tandem array of 22 large, variable region exons are followed by a constant region, containing 3 exons shared by all genes in the cluster. Each variable region exon encodes the extracellular region, which includes 6 cadherin ectodomains and a transmembrane region. The constant region exons encode the common cytoplasmic region. These neural cadherin-like cell adhesion proteins most likely play a critical role in the establishment and function of specific cell-cell connections in the brain. Alternative splicing has been described for the gamma cluster genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

APH1B Gene

APH1B gamma secretase subunit

This gene encodes a multi-pass transmembrane protein that is a functional component of the gamma-secretase complex, which also contains presenilin and nicastrin. This protein represents a stabilizing cofactor for the presenilin holoprotein in the complex. The gamma-secretase complex catalyzes the cleavage of integral proteins such as notch receptors and beta-amyloid precursor protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

APH1A Gene

APH1A gamma secretase subunit

This gene encodes a component of the gamma secretase complex that cleaves integral membrane proteins such as Notch receptors and beta-amyloid precursor protein. The gamma secretase complex contains this gene product, or the paralogous anterior pharynx defective 1 homolog B (APH1B), along with the presenilin, nicastrin, and presenilin enhancer-2 proteins. The precise function of this seven-transmembrane-domain protein is unknown though it is suspected of facilitating the association of nicastrin and presenilin in the gamma secretase complex as well as interacting with substrates of the gamma secretase complex prior to their proteolytic processing. Polymorphisms in a promoter region of this gene have been associated with an increased risk for developing sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple protein-coding and non-protein-coding transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

HBG1 Gene

hemoglobin, gamma A

The gamma globin genes (HBG1 and HBG2) are normally expressed in the fetal liver, spleen and bone marrow. Two gamma chains together with two alpha chains constitute fetal hemoglobin (HbF) which is normally replaced by adult hemoglobin (HbA) at birth. In some beta-thalassemias and related conditions, gamma chain production continues into adulthood. The two types of gamma chains differ at residue 136 where glycine is found in the G-gamma product (HBG2) and alanine is found in the A-gamma product (HBG1). The former is predominant at birth. The order of the genes in the beta-globin cluster is: 5'-epsilon -- gamma-G -- gamma-A -- delta -- beta--3'. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IKBKGP1 Gene

inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma pseudogene 1

GNGT2 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2

Phototransduction in rod and cone photoreceptors is regulated by groups of signaling proteins. The encoded protein is thought to play a crucial role in cone phototransduction. It belongs to the G protein gamma family and localized specifically in cones. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

GNGT1 Gene

guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 1

Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) transduce extracellular signals received by transmembrane receptors to effector proteins. Transducin is a guanine nucleotide-binding protein found specifically in rod outer segments, where it mediates activation by rhodopsin of a cyclic GTP-specific (guanosine monophosphate) phosphodiesterase. Transducin is also referred to as GMPase. GNGT1 encodes the gamma subunit of transducin (Hurley et al., 1984 [PubMed 6438626]; Scherer et al., 1996 [PubMed 8661128]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LRP8 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8, apolipoprotein e receptor

This gene encodes a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Low density lipoprotein receptors are cell surface proteins that play roles in both signal transduction and receptor-mediated endocytosis of specific ligands for lysosomal degradation. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the migration of neurons during development by mediating Reelin signaling, and also functions as a receptor for the cholesterol transport protein apolipoprotein E. Expression of this gene may be a marker for major depressive disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

ROR2 Gene

receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase and type I transmembrane protein that belongs to the ROR subfamily of cell surface receptors. The protein may be involved in the early formation of the chondrocytes and may be required for cartilage and growth plate development. Mutations in this gene can cause brachydactyly type B, a skeletal disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of distal phalanges and nails. In addition, mutations in this gene can cause the autosomal recessive form of Robinow syndrome, which is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with generalized limb bone shortening, segmental defects of the spine, brachydactyly, and a dysmorphic facial appearance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ROR1 Gene

receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1

This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor that modulates neurite growth in the central nervous system. The encoded protein is a glycosylated type I membrane protein that belongs to the ROR subfamily of cell surface receptors. It is a pseudokinase that lacks catalytic activity and may interact with the non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway. This gene is highly expressed during early embryonic development but expressed at very low levels in adult tissues. Increased expression of this gene is associated with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

NR3C1 Gene

nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor)

This gene encodes glucocorticoid receptor, which can function both as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements in the promoters of glucocorticoid responsive genes to activate their transcription, and as a regulator of other transcription factors. This receptor is typically found in the cytoplasm, but upon ligand binding, is transported into the nucleus. It is involved in inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation, and differentiation in target tissues. Mutations in this gene are associated with generalized glucocorticoid resistance. Alternative splicing of this gene results in transcript variants encoding either the same or different isoforms. Additional isoforms resulting from the use of alternate in-frame translation initiation sites have also been described, and shown to be functional, displaying diverse cytoplasm-to-nucleus trafficking patterns and distinct transcriptional activities (PMID:15866175). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

MC1R Gene

melanocortin 1 receptor (alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor)

This intronless gene encodes the receptor protein for melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). The encoded protein, a seven pass transmembrane G protein coupled receptor, controls melanogenesis. Two types of melanin exist: red pheomelanin and black eumelanin. Gene mutations that lead to a loss in function are associated with increased pheomelanin production, which leads to lighter skin and hair color. Eumelanin is photoprotective but pheomelanin may contribute to UV-induced skin damage by generating free radicals upon UV radiation. Binding of MSH to its receptor activates the receptor and stimulates eumelanin synthesis. This receptor is a major determining factor in sun sensitivity and is a genetic risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Over 30 variant alleles have been identified which correlate with skin and hair color, providing evidence that this gene is an important component in determining normal human pigment variation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INSRR Gene

insulin receptor-related receptor

GPR37 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 37 (endothelin receptor type B-like)

This gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. The encoded protein contains seven transmembrane domains and is found in cell and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. G protein-coupled receptors are involved in translating outside signals into G protein mediated intracellular effects. This gene product interacts with Parkin and is involved in juvenile Parkinson disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

MTVR2 Gene

mouse mammary tumor virus receptor homolog 2

ITGA2 Gene

integrin, alpha 2 (CD49B, alpha 2 subunit of VLA-2 receptor)

This gene encodes the alpha subunit of a transmembrane receptor for collagens and related proteins. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a beta subunit and mediates the adhesion of platelets and other cell types to the extracellular matrix. Loss of the encoded protein is associated with bleeding disorder platelet-type 9. Antibodies against this protein are found in several immune disorders, including neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. This gene is located adjacent to a related alpha subunit gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

ITGA3 Gene

integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of integrins. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain, and function as cell surface adhesion molecules. This gene encodes alpha 3 subunit, which undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 1 subunit to form an integrin that interacts with many extracellular-matrix proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

ITGA4 Gene

integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)

The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family of proteins. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes an alpha 4 chain. Unlike other integrin alpha chains, alpha 4 neither contains an I-domain, nor undergoes disulfide-linked cleavage. Alpha 4 chain associates with either beta 1 chain or beta 7 chain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGA5 Gene

integrin, alpha 5 (fibronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide)

The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes the integrin alpha 5 chain. Alpha chain 5 undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 1 to form a fibronectin receptor. In addition to adhesion, integrins are known to participate in cell-surface mediated signalling. Integrin alpha 5 and integrin alpha V chains are produced by distinct genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

TRHR Gene

thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor

This gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor for thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). Upon binding to TRH, this receptor activates the inositol phospholipid-calcium-protein kinase C transduction pathway. Mutations in this gene have been associated with generalized thyrotropin-releasing hormone resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

ITGAX Gene