Name

CHEA Transcription Factor Binding Site Profiles Dataset

From ChIP-X Enrichment Analysis

transcription factor binding site profiles from published ChIP-chip, ChIP-seq, and other transcription factor functional studies

CHEA Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From ChIP-X Enrichment Analysis

target genes of transcription factors from published ChIP-chip, ChIP-seq, and other transcription factor binding site profiling studies

ENCODE Transcription Factor Binding Site Profiles Dataset

From Encyclopedia of DNA Elements

transcription factor binding site profiles for cell lines

ENCODE Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From Encyclopedia of DNA Elements

target genes of transcription factors from transcription factor binding site profiles

GEO Signatures of Differentially Expressed Genes for Transcription Factor Perturbations Dataset

From Gene Expression Omnibus

mRNA expression profiles for cell lines or tissues following transcription factor perturbation (inhibition, activation, knockdown, knockout, over-expression, mutation)

JASPAR Predicted Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From Jaspar PWMs

target genes of transcription factors predicted using known transcription factor binding site motifs

MotifMap Predicted Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From MotifMap

target genes of transcription factors predicted using known transcription factor binding site motifs

TRANSFAC Curated Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From TRANSFAC

target genes of transcription factors manually curated from low-throughput or high-throughput transcription factor functional studies

TRANSFAC Predicted Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

From TRANSFAC

target genes of transcription factors predicted using known transcription factor binding site motifs

OFD1P8Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 8, Y-linked

OFD1P18Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 18, Y-linked

OFD1P10Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 10, Y-linked

OFD1P5Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 5, Y-linked

OFC12 Gene

Orofacial cleft 12

OFC13 Gene

Orofacial cleft 13

OFC14 Gene

Orofacial cleft 14

OFD1P6Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 6, Y-linked

OFC9 Gene

Orofacial cleft 9

OFD1P12Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 12, Y-linked

OFCC1 Gene

orofacial cleft 1 candidate 1

OFD1P3Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 3, Y-linked

OFD1P11Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 11, Y-linked

OFD1P4Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 4, Y-linked

OFD1P14Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 14, Y-linked

OFD1 Gene

oral-facial-digital syndrome 1

This gene is located on the X chromosome and encodes a centrosomal protein. A knockout mouse model has been used to study the effect of mutations in this gene. The mouse gene is also located on the X chromosome, however, unlike the human gene it is not subject to X inactivation. Mutations in this gene are associated with oral-facial-digital syndrome type I and Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2. Many pseudogenes have been identified; a single pseudogene is found on chromosome 5 while as many as fifteen have been found on the Y chromosome. Alternatively spliced transcripts have been described for this gene but the biological validity of these transcripts has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

OFD1P9Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 9, Y-linked

OFD1P1Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 1, Y-linked

OFD1P17 Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 17

OFC2 Gene

orofacial cleft 2

OFC3 Gene

orofacial cleft 3

OFC1 Gene

orofacial cleft 1

OFC4 Gene

Orofacial cleft 4

OFD1P13Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 13, Y-linked

OFD1P2Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 2, Y-linked

OFD1P16Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 16, Y-linked

OFD1P7Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 7, Y-linked

OFD1P15Y Gene

OFD1 pseudogene 15, Y-linked

F13B Gene

coagulation factor XIII, B polypeptide

This gene encodes coagulation factor XIII B subunit. Coagulation factor XIII is the last zymogen to become activated in the blood coagulation cascade. Plasma factor XIII is a heterotetramer composed of 2 A subunits and 2 B subunits. The A subunits have catalytic function, and the B subunits do not have enzymatic activity and may serve as a plasma carrier molecules. Platelet factor XIII is comprised only of 2 A subunits, which are identical to those of plasma origin. Upon activation by the cleavage of the activation peptide by thrombin and in the presence of calcium ion, the plasma factor XIII dissociates its B subunits and yields the same active enzyme, factor XIIIa, as platelet factor XIII. This enzyme acts as a transglutaminase to catalyze the formation of gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine crosslinking between fibrin molecules, thus stabilizing the fibrin clot. Factor XIII deficiency is classified into two categories: type I deficiency, characterized by the lack of both the A and B subunits; and type II deficiency, characterized by the lack of the A subunit alone. These defects can result in a lifelong bleeding tendency, defective wound healing, and habitual abortion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

F13A1 Gene

coagulation factor XIII, A1 polypeptide

This gene encodes the coagulation factor XIII A subunit. Coagulation factor XIII is the last zymogen to become activated in the blood coagulation cascade. Plasma factor XIII is a heterotetramer composed of 2 A subunits and 2 B subunits. The A subunits have catalytic function, and the B subunits do not have enzymatic activity and may serve as plasma carrier molecules. Platelet factor XIII is comprised only of 2 A subunits, which are identical to those of plasma origin. Upon cleavage of the activation peptide by thrombin and in the presence of calcium ion, the plasma factor XIII dissociates its B subunits and yields the same active enzyme, factor XIIIa, as platelet factor XIII. This enzyme acts as a transglutaminase to catalyze the formation of gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine crosslinking between fibrin molecules, thus stabilizing the fibrin clot. It also crosslinks alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor, or fibronectin, to the alpha chains of fibrin. Factor XIII deficiency is classified into two categories: type I deficiency, characterized by the lack of both the A and B subunits; and type II deficiency, characterized by the lack of the A subunit alone. These defects can result in a lifelong bleeding tendency, defective wound healing, and habitual abortion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CA13 Gene

carbonic anhydrase XIII

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of zinc metalloenzymes. For background information on the CA family, see MIM 114800.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

SYT13 Gene

synaptotagmin XIII

This gene encodes a member of the large synaptotagmin protein family. Family members have an extracellular N-terminal transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic C terminus with two tandem C2 domains (C2A and C2B). Synaptotogmin family members can form homo- and heteromeric complexes with each other. They also have different biochemical properties and developmental profiles, and patterns of tissue distribution. Synaptotagmins function as membrane traffickers in multicellular organisms. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

COL13A1 Gene

collagen, type XIII, alpha 1

This gene encodes the alpha chain of one of the nonfibrillar collagens. The function of this gene product is not known, however, it has been detected at low levels in all connective tissue-producing cells so it may serve a general function in connective tissues. Unlike most of the collagens, which are secreted into the extracellular matrix, collagen XIII contains a transmembrane domain and the protein has been localized to the plasma membrane. The transcripts for this gene undergo complex and extensive splicing involving at least eight exons. Like other collagens, collagen XIII is a trimer; it is not known whether this trimer is composed of one or more than one alpha chain isomer. A number of alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but the full length nature of some of them has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105371405 Gene

collagen alpha-1(XIII) chain

MCFD2P1 Gene

multiple coagulation factor deficiency 2 pseudogene 1

MCFD2 Gene

multiple coagulation factor deficiency 2

This gene encodes a soluble luminal protein with two calmodulin-like EF-hand motifs at its C-terminus. This protein forms a complex with LAMN1 (lectin mannose binding protein 1; also known as ERGIC-53) that facilitates the transport of coagulation factors V (FV) and VIII (FVIII) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus via an endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). Mutations in this gene cause combined deficiency of FV and FVIII (F5F8D); a rare autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by mild to moderate bleeding and coordinate reduction in plasma FV and FVIII levels. This protein has also been shown to maintain stem cell potential in adult central nervous system and is a marker for testicular germ cell tumors. The 3' UTR of this gene contains a transposon-like human repeat element named 'THE 1'. A processed RNA pseudogene of this gene is on chromosome 6p22.1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

MMAA Gene

methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblA type

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the translocation of cobalamin into the mitochondrion, where it is used in the final steps of adenosylcobalamin synthesis. Adenosylcobalamin is a coenzyme required for the activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Defects in this gene are a cause of methylmalonic aciduria. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MMAB Gene

methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblB type

This gene encodes a protein that catalyzes the final step in the conversion of vitamin B(12) into adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl), a vitamin B12-containing coenzyme for methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Mutations in the gene are the cause of vitamin B12-dependent methylmalonic aciduria linked to the cblB complementation group. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

SHFLD3 Gene

Split-hand/foot malformation with long bone deficiency 3

GCCD2 Gene

Glucocorticoid deficiency 2

GCCD3 Gene

glucocorticoid deficiency 3

IGAD1 Gene

immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency susceptibility 1

MMACHC Gene

methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblC type, with homocystinuria

The exact function of the protein encoded by this gene is not known, however, its C-terminal region shows similarity to TonB, a bacterial protein involved in energy transduction for cobalamin (vitamin B12) uptake. Hence, it is postulated that this protein may have a role in the binding and intracellular trafficking of cobalamin. Mutations in this gene are associated with methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type cblC. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SHFLD2 Gene

Split-hand/foot malformation with long deficiency 2

MMADHC Gene

methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblD type, with homocystinuria

This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein that is involved in an early step of vitamin B12 metabolism. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is essential for normal development and survival in humans. Mutations in this gene cause methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type cblD (MMADHC), a disorder of cobalamin metabolism that is characterized by decreased levels of the coenzymes adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 11 and X.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

AGMX2 Gene

agammaglobulinemia, X-linked 2 (with growth hormone deficiency)

RRDX Gene

Radial ray deficiency

SHFL1 Gene

Split-hand/foot malformation with long bone deficiency 1

LOC100216356 Gene

methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblD type, with homocystinuria pseudogene

LOC100216355 Gene

methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblD type, with homocystinuria pseudogene

CANDN1 Gene

candidiasis, nail 1 (with ICAM1 deficiency)

NKCD Gene

Natural killer cell deficiency, familial isolated

HIF1AP1 Gene

hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor) pseudogene 1

HIF1A Gene

hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit (basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor)

This gene encodes the alpha subunit of transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), which is a heterodimer composed of an alpha and a beta subunit. HIF-1 functions as a master regulator of cellular and systemic homeostatic response to hypoxia by activating transcription of many genes, including those involved in energy metabolism, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and other genes whose protein products increase oxygen delivery or facilitate metabolic adaptation to hypoxia. HIF-1 thus plays an essential role in embryonic vascularization, tumor angiogenesis and pathophysiology of ischemic disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

RIIAD1 Gene

regulatory subunit of type II PKA R-subunit (RIIa) domain containing 1

LOC102725016 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B'' subunit beta

LOC100507083 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) pseudogene

ATP5G2P1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) pseudogene 1

ATP5G2P3 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) pseudogene 3

ATP5G2P2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) pseudogene 2

ATP5G2P4 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) pseudogene 4

ATP5G3 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C3 (subunit 9)

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene is one of three genes that encode subunit c of the proton channel. Each of the three genes have distinct mitochondrial import sequences but encode the identical mature protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different proteins have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

ATP5G2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9)

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and single representatives of the gamma, delta, and epsilon subunits. The proton channel likely has nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). There are three separate genes which encode subunit c of the proton channel and they specify precursors with different import sequences but identical mature proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is one of three precursors of subunit c. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. This gene has multiple pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

ATP5G1P3 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 3

ATP5G1P1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 1

ATP5G1P2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 2

ATP5G1P6 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 6

ATP5G1P7 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 7

ATP5G1P4 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 4

ATP5G1P5 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 5

ATP5G1P8 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) pseudogene 8

LOC102724991 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B'' subunit beta

ATP5G1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9)

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene is one of three genes that encode subunit c of the proton channel. Each of the three genes have distinct mitochondrial import sequences but encode the identical mature protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF3EP3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit E pseudogene 3

EIF3EP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit E pseudogene 2

EIF3EP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit E pseudogene 1

LOC390282 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit F pseudogene

EIF3EP4 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit E pseudogene 4

LOC100131158 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa pseudogene

LOC101060089 Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 5-like

EIF3FP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit F pseudogene 1

EIF3FP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit F pseudogene 2

EIF3FP3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit F pseudogene 3

LOC105377135 Gene

transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 4-like

LOC101929895 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit A-like

SF3A3P1 Gene

splicing factor 3a, subunit 3 pseudogene 1

SF3A3P2 Gene

splicing factor 3a, subunit 3 pseudogene 2

PAFAH1B1P1 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, regulatory subunit 1 pseudogene 1

LOC101929862 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

IGFALS Gene

insulin-like growth factor binding protein, acid labile subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a serum protein that binds insulin-like growth factors, increasing their half-life and their vascular localization. Production of the encoded protein, which contains twenty leucine-rich repeats, is stimulated by growth hormone. Defects in this gene are a cause of acid-labile subunit deficiency, which maifests itself in a delayed and slow puberty. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

LOC649166 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit J pseudogene

GABPAP Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, alpha subunit pseudogene

HIF3A Gene

hypoxia inducible factor 3, alpha subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha-3 subunit of one of several alpha/beta-subunit heterodimeric transcription factors that regulate many adaptive responses to low oxygen tension (hypoxia). The alpha-3 subunit lacks the transactivation domain found in factors containing either the alpha-1 or alpha-2 subunits. It is thought that factors containing the alpha-3 subunit are negative regulators of hypoxia-inducible gene expression. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

LOC102724594 Gene

splicing factor U2AF 35 kDa subunit

LOC643711 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, catalytic subunit 2 (30kDa) pseudogene

EIF2S2P1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 1

EIF2S2P3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 3

EIF2S2P2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 2

EIF2S2P5 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 5

EIF2S2P4 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 4

EIF2S2P7 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 7

EIF2S2P6 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta pseudogene 6

ATP5S Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit s (factor B)

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. This gene encodes the subunit s, also known as factor B, of the proton channel. This subunit is necessary for the energy transduction activity of the ATP synthase complexes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLP1 Gene

cleavage and polyadenylation factor I subunit 1

This gene encodes a member of the Clp1 family. The encoded protein is a multifunctional kinase which is a component of the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex and a component of the pre-mRNA cleavage complex II. This protein is implicated in tRNA, mRNA, and siRNA maturation. Mutations in this gene are associated with pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 10 (PCH10). Alternatively splice transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

NGFG Gene

Nerve growth factor, gamma subunit

SF3B4P1 Gene

splicing factor 3b, subunit 4 pseudogene 1

PCF11 Gene

PCF11 cleavage and polyadenylation factor subunit

EIF3KP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit K pseudogene 1

GABPB2 Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit 2

GABPB1 Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit 1

This gene encodes the GA-binding protein transcription factor, beta subunit. This protein forms a tetrameric complex with the alpha subunit, and stimulates transcription of target genes. The encoded protein may be involved in activation of cytochrome oxidase expression and nuclear control of mitochondrial function. The crystal structure of a similar protein in mouse has been resolved as a ternary protein complex. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PAFAH1B1 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, regulatory subunit 1 (45kDa)

This locus was identified as encoding a gene that when mutated or lost caused the lissencephaly associated with Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome. This gene encodes the non-catalytic alpha subunit of the intracellular Ib isoform of platelet-activating factor acteylhydrolase, a heterotrimeric enzyme that specifically catalyzes the removal of the acetyl group at the SN-2 position of platelet-activating factor (identified as 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glyceryl-3-phosphorylcholine). Two other isoforms of intracellular platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase exist: one composed of multiple subunits, the other, a single subunit. In addition, a single-subunit isoform of this enzyme is found in serum. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

PAFAH1B3 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, catalytic subunit 3 (29kDa)

This gene encodes an acetylhydrolase that catalyzes the removal of an acetyl group from the glycerol backbone of platelet-activating factor. The encoded enzyme is a subunit of the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase isoform 1B complex, which consists of the catalytic beta and gamma subunits and the regulatory alpha subunit. This complex functions in brain development. A translocation between this gene on chromosome 19 and the CDC-like kinase 2 gene on chromosome 1 has been observed, and was associated with mental retardation, ataxia, and atrophy of the brain. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

PAFAH1B2 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, catalytic subunit 2 (30kDa)

Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAFAH) inactivates platelet-activating factor (PAF) into acetate and LYSO-PAF. This gene encodes the beta subunit of PAFAH, the other subunits are alpha and gamma. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

CBFA2T3 Gene

core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 3

This gene encodes a member of the myeloid translocation gene family which interact with DNA-bound transcription factors and recruit a range of corepressors to facilitate transcriptional repression. The t(16;21)(q24;q22) translocation is one of the less common karyotypic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia. The translocation produces a chimeric gene made up of the 5'-region of the runt-related transcription factor 1 gene fused to the 3'-region of this gene. This gene is also a putative breast tumor suppressor. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

CBFA2T2 Gene

core-binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2; translocated to, 2

In acute myeloid leukemia, especially in the M2 subtype, the t(8;21)(q22;q22) translocation is one of the most frequent karyotypic abnormalities. The translocation produces a chimeric gene made up of the 5'-region of the RUNX1 (AML1) gene fused to the 3'-region of the CBFA2T1 (MTG8) gene. The chimeric protein is thought to associate with the nuclear corepressor/histone deacetylase complex to block hematopoietic differentiation. The protein encoded by this gene binds to the AML1-MTG8 complex and may be important in promoting leukemogenesis. Several transcript variants are thought to exist for this gene, but the full-length natures of only three have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF3C Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit C

EIF3D Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit D

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor-3 (eIF3), the largest of the eIFs, is a multiprotein complex composed of at least ten nonidentical subunits. The complex binds to the 40S ribosome and helps maintain the 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits in a dissociated state. It is also thought to play a role in the formation of the 40S initiation complex by interacting with the ternary complex of eIF2/GTP/methionyl-tRNA, and by promoting mRNA binding. The protein encoded by this gene is the major RNA binding subunit of the eIF3 complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF3G Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit G

LOC101929748 Gene

transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 4-like

CHAF1A Gene

chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit A (p150)

Chromatin assembly factor I (CAF1) is a nuclear complex consisting of p50, p60 (CHAF1B; MIM 601245), and p150 (CHAF1A) subunits that assembles histone octamers onto replicating DNA in vitro (Kaufman et al., 1995 [PubMed 7600578]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CHAF1B Gene

chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit B (p60)

Chromatin assembly factor I (CAF-I) is required for the assembly of histone octamers onto newly-replicated DNA. CAF-I is composed of three protein subunits, p50, p60, and p150. The protein encoded by this gene corresponds to the p60 subunit and is required for chromatin assembly after replication. The encoded protein is differentially phosphorylated in a cell cycle-dependent manner. In addition, it is normally found in the nucleus except during mitosis, when it is released into the cytoplasm. This protein is a member of the WD-repeat HIR1 family and may also be involved in DNA repair. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF3CL Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit C-like

EIF3KP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit K pseudogene 2

EIF3H Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit H

EIF3I Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit I

EIF3J Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit J

This gene encodes a core subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 complex, which participates in the initiation of translation by aiding in the recruitment of protein and mRNA components to the 40S ribosome. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 3, and 9. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

EIF3K Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit K

The 700-kD eukaryotic translation initiation factor-3 (eIF3) is the largest eIF and contains at least 12 subunits, including EIF2S12. eIF3 plays an essential role in translation by binding directly to the 40S ribosomal subunit and promoting formation of the 40S preinitiation complex (Mayeur et al., 2003 [PubMed 14519125]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

EIF3L Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit L

EIF3M Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit M

This gene encodes a protein that is part of the eurkaryotic translation initiation factor 3 complete (eIF-3) required for protein synthesis. Elevated levels of the encoded protein are present in cancer cell lines. Inactivation of the encoded protein has been shown to interfere with translation of herpes virus mRNAs by preventing the association of mRNAs with the ribosomes. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

EIF3A Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit A

EIF3B Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit B

EIF3E Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit E

EIF3F Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit F

LOC101930161 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

LOC101930165 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

LOC648442 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit I pseudogene

EIF3KP3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit K pseudogene 3

CSTF1 Gene

cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 1, 50kDa

This gene encodes one of three subunits which combine to form cleavage stimulation factor (CSTF). CSTF is involved in the polyadenylation and 3'end cleavage of pre-mRNAs. Similar to mammalian G protein beta subunits, this protein contains transducin-like repeats. Several transcript variants with different 5' UTR, but encoding the same protein, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CSTF3 Gene

cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 3, 77kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is one of three (including CSTF1 and CSTF2) cleavage stimulation factors that combine to form the cleavage stimulation factor complex (CSTF). This complex is involved in the polyadenylation and 3' end cleavage of pre-mRNAs. The encoded protein functions as a homodimer and interacts directly with both CSTF1 and CSTF2 in the CSTF complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CSTF2 Gene

cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 2, 64kDa

This gene encodes a nuclear protein with an RRM (RNA recognition motif) domain. The protein is a member of the cleavage stimulation factor (CSTF) complex that is involved in the 3' end cleavage and polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs. Specifically, this protein binds GU-rich elements within the 3'-untranslated region of mRNAs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF2S1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 1 alpha, 35kDa

The translation initiation factor EIF2 catalyzes the first regulated step of protein synthesis initiation, promoting the binding of the initiator tRNA to 40S ribosomal subunits. Binding occurs as a ternary complex of methionyl-tRNA, EIF2, and GTP. EIF2 is composed of 3 nonidentical subunits, the 36-kD EIF2-alpha subunit (EIF2S1), the 38-kD EIF2-beta subunit (EIF2S2; MIM 603908), and the 52-kD EIF2-gamma subunit (EIF2S3; MIM 300161). The rate of formation of the ternary complex is modulated by the phosphorylation state of EIF2-alpha (Ernst et al., 1987 [PubMed 2948954]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

EIF2S3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is the largest subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein involved in the recruitment of methionyl-tRNA(i) to the 40 S ribosomal subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

EIF2S2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta, 38kDa

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (EIF-2) functions in the early steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA and binding to a 40S ribosomal subunit. EIF-2 is composed of three subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma, with the protein encoded by this gene representing the beta subunit. The beta subunit catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP, which recycles the EIF-2 complex for another round of initiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC645852 Gene

splicing factor 3a, subunit 2, 66kDa pseudogene

LOC105369241 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

LOC105377637 Gene

transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 4-like

BRF2 Gene

BRF2, RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor 50 kDa subunit

This gene encodes one of the multiple subunits of the RNA polymerase III transcription factor complex required for transcription of genes with promoter elements upstream of the initiation site. The product of this gene, a TFIIB-like factor, is directly recruited to the TATA-box of polymerase III small nuclear RNA gene promoters through its interaction with the TATA-binding protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BRF1 Gene

BRF1, RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor 90 kDa subunit

This gene encodes one of the three subunits of the RNA polymerase III transcription factor complex. This complex plays a central role in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase III on genes encoding tRNA, 5S rRNA, and other small structural RNAs. The gene product belongs to the TF2B family. Several alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms, that function at different promoters transcribed by RNA polymerase III, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

GABPA Gene

GA binding protein transcription factor, alpha subunit 60kDa

This gene encodes one of three GA-binding protein transcription factor subunits which functions as a DNA-binding subunit. Since this subunit shares identity with a subunit encoding the nuclear respiratory factor 2 gene, it is likely involved in activation of cytochrome oxidase expression and nuclear control of mitochondrial function. This subunit also shares identity with a subunit constituting the transcription factor E4TF1, responsible for expression of the adenovirus E4 gene. Because of its chromosomal localization and ability to form heterodimers with other polypeptides, this gene may play a role in the Down Syndrome phenotype. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

EIF3LP2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit L pseudogene 2

EIF3LP3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit L pseudogene 3

EIF3LP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit L pseudogene 1

LOC105370378 Gene

splicing factor 3B subunit 4-like

LOC101929851 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

LOC101930171 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

LOC100422587 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, regulatory subunit 1 (45kDa) pseudogene

LOC100422212 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit J pseudogene

LOC105369255 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

LOC100328982 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa pseudogene

LOC100129776 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa pseudogene

PAFAH1B1P2 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, regulatory subunit 1 pseudogene 2

LOC102725069 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

LOC102725060 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

EIF2B4 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 4 delta, 67kDa

Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (EIF2B), which is necessary for protein synthesis, is a GTP exchange factor composed of five different subunits. The protein encoded by this gene is the fourth, or delta, subunit. Defects in this gene are a cause of leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter (VWM) and ovarioleukodystrophy. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF2B5 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 5 epsilon, 82kDa

This gene encodes one of five subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (EIF2B), a GTP exchange factor for eukaryotic initiation factor 2 and an essential regulator for protein synthesis. Mutations in this gene and the genes encoding other EIF2B subunits have been associated with leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

EIF2B2 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 2 beta, 39kDa

This gene encodes the beta subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2B (EIF2B). EIF2B is involved in protein synthesis and exchanges GDP and GTP for its activation and deactivation. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

EIF2B3 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 3 gamma, 58kDa

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the subunits of initiation factor eIF2B, which catalyzes the exchange of eukaryotic initiation factor 2-bound GDP for GTP. It has also been found to function as a cofactor of hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with leukodystrophy with vanishing white matter. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

EIF2B1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 1 alpha, 26kDa

This gene encodes one of five subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (EIF2B), a GTP exchange factor for eukaryotic initiation factor 2 and an essential regulator for protein synthesis. Mutations in this gene and the genes encoding other EIF2B subunits have been associated with leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SF3B3 Gene

splicing factor 3b, subunit 3, 130kDa

This gene encodes subunit 3 of the splicing factor 3b protein complex. Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and a 12S RNA unit, forms the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins complex (U2 snRNP). The splicing factor 3b/3a complex binds pre-mRNA upstream of the intron's branch site in a sequence independent manner and may anchor the U2 snRNP to the pre-mRNA. Splicing factor 3b is also a component of the minor U12-type spliceosome. Subunit 3 has also been identified as a component of the STAGA (SPT3-TAF(II)31-GCN5L acetylase) transcription coactivator-HAT (histone acetyltransferase) complex, and the TFTC (TATA-binding-protein-free TAF(II)-containing complex). These complexes may function in chromatin modification, transcription, splicing, and DNA repair. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC255308 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa pseudogene

LOC101929870 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

LOC101060093 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit J-like

CBFB Gene

core-binding factor, beta subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is the beta subunit of a heterodimeric core-binding transcription factor belonging to the PEBP2/CBF transcription factor family which master-regulates a host of genes specific to hematopoiesis (e.g., RUNX1) and osteogenesis (e.g., RUNX2). The beta subunit is a non-DNA binding regulatory subunit; it allosterically enhances DNA binding by alpha subunit as the complex binds to the core site of various enhancers and promoters, including murine leukemia virus, polyomavirus enhancer, T-cell receptor enhancers and GM-CSF promoters. Alternative splicing generates two mRNA variants, each encoding a distinct carboxyl terminus. In some cases, a pericentric inversion of chromosome 16 [inv(16)(p13q22)] produces a chimeric transcript consisting of the N terminus of core-binding factor beta in a fusion with the C-terminal portion of the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain 11. This chromosomal rearrangement is associated with acute myeloid leukemia of the M4Eo subtype. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SF3A1 Gene

splicing factor 3a, subunit 1, 120kDa

This gene encodes a subunit of the splicing factor 3a protein complex. The splicing factor 3a heterotrimer is a component of the mature U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP). U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins play a critical role in spliceosome assembly and pre-mRNA splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

SF3A2 Gene

splicing factor 3a, subunit 2, 66kDa

This gene encodes subunit 2 of the splicing factor 3a protein complex. The splicing factor 3a heterotrimer includes subunits 1, 2 and 3 and is necessary for the in vitro conversion of 15S U2 snRNP into an active 17S particle that performs pre-mRNA splicing. Subunit 2 interacts with subunit 1 through its amino-terminus while the single zinc finger domain of subunit 2 plays a role in its binding to the 15S U2 snRNP. Subunit 2 may also function independently of its RNA splicing function as a microtubule-binding protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SF3A3 Gene

splicing factor 3a, subunit 3, 60kDa

This gene encodes subunit 3 of the splicing factor 3a protein complex. The splicing factor 3a heterotrimer includes subunits 1, 2 and 3 and is necessary for the in vitro conversion of 15S U2 snRNP into an active 17S particle that performs pre-mRNA splicing. Subunit 3 interacts with subunit 1 through its amino-terminus while the zinc finger domain of subunit 3 plays a role in its binding to the 15S U2 snRNP. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 20. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BDP1 Gene

B double prime 1, subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor IIIB

The product of this gene is a subunit of the TFIIIB transcription initiation complex, which recruits RNA polymerase III to target promoters in order to initiate transcription. The encoded protein localizes to concentrated aggregates in the nucleus, and is required for transcription from all three types of polymerase III promoters. It is phosphorylated by casein kinase II during mitosis, resulting in its release from chromatin and suppression of polymerase III transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HIF1AN Gene

hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit inhibitor

CSTF2T Gene

cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 2, 64kDa, tau variant

LOC100130683 Gene

chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit B (p60) pseudogene

EIF3IP1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit I pseudogene 1

LOC139957 Gene

platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, catalytic subunit 2 (30kDa) pseudogene

LOC730021 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit J pseudogene

LOC105376854 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit A-like

LOC101928724 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit J-like

SF3B5 Gene

splicing factor 3b, subunit 5, 10kDa

SF3B4 Gene

splicing factor 3b, subunit 4, 49kDa

This gene encodes one of four subunits of the splicing factor 3B. The protein encoded by this gene cross-links to a region in the pre-mRNA immediately upstream of the branchpoint sequence in pre-mRNA in the prespliceosomal complex A. It also may be involved in the assembly of the B, C and E spliceosomal complexes. In addition to RNA-binding activity, this protein interacts directly and highly specifically with subunit 2 of the splicing factor 3B. This protein contains two N-terminal RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs), consistent with the observation that it binds directly to pre-mRNA. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SF3B6 Gene

splicing factor 3b, subunit 6, 14kDa

This gene encodes a 14 kDa protein subunit of the splicing factor 3b complex. Splicing factor 3b associates with both the U2 and U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes (U2 snRNP) of spliceosomes. This 14 kDa protein interacts directly with subunit 1 of the splicing factor 3b complex. This 14 kDa protein also interacts directly with the adenosine that carries out the first transesterification step of splicing at the pre-mRNA branch site. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SF3B1 Gene

splicing factor 3b, subunit 1, 155kDa

This gene encodes subunit 1 of the splicing factor 3b protein complex. Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and a 12S RNA unit, forms the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins complex (U2 snRNP). The splicing factor 3b/3a complex binds pre-mRNA upstream of the intron's branch site in a sequence independent manner and may anchor the U2 snRNP to the pre-mRNA. Splicing factor 3b is also a component of the minor U12-type spliceosome. The carboxy-terminal two-thirds of subunit 1 have 22 non-identical, tandem HEAT repeats that form rod-like, helical structures. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SF3B2 Gene

splicing factor 3b, subunit 2, 145kDa

This gene encodes subunit 2 of the splicing factor 3b protein complex. Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and a 12S RNA unit, forms the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins complex (U2 snRNP). The splicing factor 3b/3a complex binds pre-mRNA upstream of the intron's branch site in a sequence-independent manner and may anchor the U2 snRNP to the pre-mRNA. Splicing factor 3b is also a component of the minor U12-type spliceosome. Subunit 2 associates with pre-mRNA upstream of the branch site at the anchoring site. Subunit 2 also interacts directly with subunit 4 of the splicing factor 3b complex. Subunit 2 is a highly hydrophilic protein with a proline-rich N-terminus and a glutamate-rich stretch in the C-terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC102725046 Gene

RNA polymerase II transcription factor SIII subunit A3-like

F12 Gene

coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor)

This gene encodes coagulation factor XII which circulates in blood as a zymogen. This single chain zymogen is converted to a two-chain serine protease with an heavy chain (alpha-factor XIIa) and a light chain. The heavy chain contains two fibronectin-type domains, two epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains, a kringle domain and a proline-rich domain, whereas the light chain contains only a catalytic domain. On activation, further cleavages takes place in the heavy chain, resulting in the production of beta-factor XIIa light chain and the alpha-factor XIIa light chain becomes beta-factor XIIa heavy chain. Prekallikrein is cleaved by factor XII to form kallikrein, which then cleaves factor XII first to alpha-factor XIIa and then to beta-factor XIIa. The active factor XIIa participates in the initiation of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and the generation of bradykinin and angiotensin. It activates coagulation factors VII and XI. Defects in this gene do not cause any clinical symptoms and the sole effect is that whole-blood clotting time is prolonged. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARFGEF1 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 1 (brefeldin A-inhibited)

ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) play an important role in intracellular vesicular trafficking. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the activation of ARFs by accelerating replacement of bound GDP with GTP. It contains a Sec7 domain, which may be responsible for guanine-nucleotide exchange activity and also brefeldin A inhibition. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ARFGEF2 Gene

ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 (brefeldin A-inhibited)

ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) play an important role in intracellular vesicular trafficking. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the activation of ARFs by accelerating replacement of bound GDP with GTP and is involved in Golgi transport. It contains a Sec7 domain, which may be responsible for its guanine-nucleotide exchange activity and also brefeldin A inhibition. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

EIF4ENIF1 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E nuclear import factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein for the translation initiation factor eIF4E. This shuttle protein interacts with the importin alpha-beta complex to mediate nuclear import of eIF4E. It is predominantly cytoplasmic; its own nuclear import is regulated by a nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signals. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

TAF5L Gene

TAF5-like RNA polymerase II, p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF)-associated factor, 65kDa

The product of this gene belongs to the WD-repeat TAF5 family of proteins. This gene encodes a protein that is a component of the PCAF histone acetylase complex. The PCAF histone acetylase complex, which is composed of more than 20 polypeptides some of which are TAFs, is required for myogenic transcription and differentiation. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. The encoded protein is structurally similar to one of the histone-like TAFs, TAF5. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422267 Gene

coagulation factor III (thromboplastin, tissue factor) pseudogene

NXT2 Gene

nuclear transport factor 2-like export factor 2

The protein encoded by this gene contains a nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF2) domain, which plays an important role in the trafficking of macromolecules, ions, and small molecules between the cytoplasm and nucleus. This protein may also have a role in mRNA nuclear export. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

NXT1 Gene

nuclear transport factor 2-like export factor 1

The protein encoded by this gene is located in the nuclear envelope. It has protein similarity to nuclear transport factor 2. This protein functions as a nuclear export factor in both RAN (Ras-related nuclear protein)- and CRM1 (required for chromosome region maintenance)-dependent pathways. It is found to stimulate the export of U1 snRNA in RAN- and CRM1-dependent pathways and the export of tRNA and mRNA in a CRM1-independent pathway. The encoded protein heterodimerizes with Tap protein and may regulate the ability of Tap protein to mediate nuclear mRNA export. The use of alternate polyadenylation sites has been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HGF Gene

hepatocyte growth factor (hepapoietin A; scatter factor)

Hepatocyte growth factor regulates cell growth, cell motility, and morphogenesis by activating a tyrosine kinase signaling cascade after binding to the proto-oncogenic c-Met receptor. Hepatocyte growth factor is secreted by mesenchymal cells and acts as a multi-functional cytokine on cells of mainly epithelial origin. Its ability to stimulate mitogenesis, cell motility, and matrix invasion gives it a central role in angiogenesis, tumorogenesis, and tissue regeneration. It is secreted as a single inactive polypeptide and is cleaved by serine proteases into a 69-kDa alpha-chain and 34-kDa beta-chain. A disulfide bond between the alpha and beta chains produces the active, heterodimeric molecule. The protein belongs to the plasminogen subfamily of S1 peptidases but has no detectable protease activity. Alternative splicing of this gene produces multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ELF1 Gene

E74-like factor 1 (ets domain transcription factor)

This gene encodes an E26 transformation-specific related transcription factor. The encoded protein is primarily expressed in lymphoid cells and acts as both an enhancer and a repressor to regulate transcription of various genes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

ELF3 Gene

E74-like factor 3 (ets domain transcription factor, epithelial-specific )

ELF2 Gene

E74-like factor 2 (ets domain transcription factor)

ELF5 Gene

E74-like factor 5 (ets domain transcription factor)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of an epithelium-specific subclass of the Ets transcritpion factor family. In addition to its role in regulating the later stages of terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, it appears to regulate a number of epithelium-specific genes found in tissues containing glandular epithelium such as salivary gland and prostate. It has very low affinity to DNA due to its negative regulatory domain at the amino terminus. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

ELF4 Gene

E74-like factor 4 (ets domain transcription factor)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator that binds and activates the promoters of the CSF2, IL3, IL8, and PRF1 genes. The encoded protein is involved in natural killer cell development and function, innate immunity, and induction of cell cycle arrest in naive CD8+ cells. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

SRF Gene

serum response factor (c-fos serum response element-binding transcription factor)

This gene encodes a ubiquitous nuclear protein that stimulates both cell proliferation and differentiation. It is a member of the MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and SRF) box superfamily of transcription factors. This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the activity of many immediate-early genes, for example c-fos, and thereby participates in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell growth, and cell differentiation. This gene is the downstream target of many pathways; for example, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) that acts through the ternary complex factors (TCFs). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

LOC101929989 Gene

lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha factor-like

FIGF Gene

c-fos induced growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor D)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (PDGF/VEGF) family and is active in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and endothelial cell growth. This secreted protein undergoes a complex proteolytic maturation, generating multiple processed forms which bind and activate VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 receptors. This protein is structurally and functionally similar to vascular endothelial growth factor C. Read-through transcription has been observed between this locus and the upstream PIR (GeneID 8544) locus. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

TAF6L Gene

TAF6-like RNA polymerase II, p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF)-associated factor, 65kDa

Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes a protein that is a component of the PCAF histone acetylase complex and structurally similar to one of the histone-like TAFs, TAF6. The PCAF histone acetylase complex, which is composed of more than 20 polypeptides some of which are TAFs, is required for myogenic transcription and differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MIF Gene

macrophage migration inhibitory factor (glycosylation-inhibiting factor)

This gene encodes a lymphokine involved in cell-mediated immunity, immunoregulation, and inflammation. It plays a role in the regulation of macrophage function in host defense through the suppression of anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. This lymphokine and the JAB1 protein form a complex in the cytosol near the peripheral plasma membrane, which may indicate an additional role in integrin signaling pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TAF5LP1 Gene

TAF5-like RNA polymerase II, p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF)-associated factor, 65kDa pseudogene 1

F3 Gene

coagulation factor III (thromboplastin, tissue factor)

This gene encodes coagulation factor III which is a cell surface glycoprotein. This factor enables cells to initiate the blood coagulation cascades, and it functions as the high-affinity receptor for the coagulation factor VII. The resulting complex provides a catalytic event that is responsible for initiation of the coagulation protease cascades by specific limited proteolysis. Unlike the other cofactors of these protease cascades, which circulate as nonfunctional precursors, this factor is a potent initiator that is fully functional when expressed on cell surfaces. There are 3 distinct domains of this factor: extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic. This protein is the only one in the coagulation pathway for which a congenital deficiency has not been described. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

F5 Gene

coagulation factor V (proaccelerin, labile factor)

This gene encodes an essential cofactor of the blood coagulation cascade. This factor circulates in plasma, and is converted to the active form by the release of the activation peptide by thrombin during coagulation. This generates a heavy chain and a light chain which are held together by calcium ions. The activated protein is a cofactor that participates with activated coagulation factor X to activate prothrombin to thrombin. Defects in this gene result in either an autosomal recessive hemorrhagic diathesis or an autosomal dominant form of thrombophilia, which is known as activated protein C resistance. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

NFIC Gene

nuclear factor I/C (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CTF/NF-I family. These are dimeric DNA-binding proteins, and function as cellular transcription factors and as replication factors for adenovirus DNA replication. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

NFIX Gene

nuclear factor I/X (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)

The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that binds the palindromic sequence 5'-TTGGCNNNNNGCCAA-3 in viral and cellular promoters. The encoded protein can also stimulate adenovirus replication in vitro. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

ITGA2 Gene

integrin, alpha 2 (CD49B, alpha 2 subunit of VLA-2 receptor)

This gene encodes the alpha subunit of a transmembrane receptor for collagens and related proteins. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a beta subunit and mediates the adhesion of platelets and other cell types to the extracellular matrix. Loss of the encoded protein is associated with bleeding disorder platelet-type 9. Antibodies against this protein are found in several immune disorders, including neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. This gene is located adjacent to a related alpha subunit gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

ITGA3 Gene

integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of integrins. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain, and function as cell surface adhesion molecules. This gene encodes alpha 3 subunit, which undergoes post-translational cleavage in the extracellular domain to yield disulfide-linked light and heavy chains that join with beta 1 subunit to form an integrin that interacts with many extracellular-matrix proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

ITGA4 Gene

integrin, alpha 4 (antigen CD49D, alpha 4 subunit of VLA-4 receptor)

The product of this gene belongs to the integrin alpha chain family of proteins. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes an alpha 4 chain. Unlike other integrin alpha chains, alpha 4 neither contains an I-domain, nor undergoes disulfide-linked cleavage. Alpha 4 chain associates with either beta 1 chain or beta 7 chain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITGAX Gene

integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit)

This gene encodes the integrin alpha X chain protein. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This protein combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form a leukocyte-specific integrin referred to as inactivated-C3b (iC3b) receptor 4 (CR4). The alpha X beta 2 complex seems to overlap the properties of the alpha M beta 2 integrin in the adherence of neutrophils and monocytes to stimulated endothelium cells, and in the phagocytosis of complement coated particles. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

ITGAM Gene

integrin, alpha M (complement component 3 receptor 3 subunit)

This gene encodes the integrin alpha M chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form a leukocyte-specific integrin referred to as macrophage receptor 1 ('Mac-1'), or inactivated-C3b (iC3b) receptor 3 ('CR3'). The alpha M beta 2 integrin is important in the adherence of neutrophils and monocytes to stimulated endothelium, and also in the phagocytosis of complement coated particles. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

LOC101928952 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase small subunit A pseudogene

CKS1B Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B

CKS1B protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. The CKS1B mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects a specialized role for the encoded protein. At least two transcript variants have been identified for this gene, and it appears that only one of them encodes a protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

LOC100421559 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 5, mu 1 subunit pseudogene

PPP1R1AP2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1A pseudogene 2

COX4I1P1 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1 pseudogene 1

COX4I1P2 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1 pseudogene 2

SEC61A1 Gene

Sec61 alpha 1 subunit (S. cerevisiae)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SECY/SEC61- alpha family. It appears to play a crucial role in the insertion of secretory and membrane polypeptides into the endoplasmic reticulum. This protein found to be tightly associated with membrane-bound ribosomes, either directly or through adaptor proteins. This gene encodes an alpha subunit of the heteromeric SEC61 complex, which also contains beta and gamma subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SEC61A2 Gene

Sec61 alpha 2 subunit (S. cerevisiae)

The protein encoded by this gene has similarity to a mouse protein which suggests a role in the insertion of secretory and membrane polypeptides into the endoplasmic reticulum. It may also be required for the assembly of membrane and secretory proteins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

RAB3GAP2 Gene

RAB3 GTPase activating protein subunit 2 (non-catalytic)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the RAB3 protein family, members of which are involved in regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters and hormones. This protein forms the Rab3 GTPase-activating complex with RAB3GAP1, where it constitutes the regulatory subunit, whereas the latter functions as the catalytic subunit. This gene has the highest level of expression in the brain, consistent with it having a key role in neurodevelopment. Mutations in this gene are associated with Martsolf syndrome.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

RAB3GAP1 Gene

RAB3 GTPase activating protein subunit 1 (catalytic)

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of a Rab GTPase activating protein. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a non-catalytic subunit to specifically regulate the activity of members of the Rab3 subfamily of small G proteins. This protein mediates the hydrolysis of GTP bound Rab3 to the GDP bound form. Mutations in this gene are associated with Warburg micro syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

PSMB9 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 9

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is located in the class II region of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex). Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 1 (proteasome beta 6 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. Proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PSMB8 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 8

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is located in the class II region of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex). Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 3 (proteasome beta 5 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. Proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. Two alternative transcripts encoding two isoforms have been identified; both isoforms are processed to yield the same mature subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMB7 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 7

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. The encoded protein is a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, and is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. Expression of this catalytic subunit is downregulated by gamma interferon, and proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMB6 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 6

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. The encoded protein is a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, and is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMB5 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 5

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. This catalytic subunit is not present in the immunoproteasome and is replaced by catalytic subunit 3i (proteasome beta 8 subunit). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

PSMB4 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 4

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMB3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 3

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. The 26 S proteasome may be involved in trinucleotide repeat expansion, a phenomenon which is associated with many hereditary neurological diseases. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 2 and 12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PSMB2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 2

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PSMB1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 1

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is tightly linked to the TBP (TATA-binding protein) gene in human and in mouse, and is transcribed in the opposite orientation in both species. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KRR1 Gene

KRR1, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast)

PPP3CA Gene

protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme

PPP3CB Gene

protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme

PPP3CC Gene

protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme

Calcineurin is a calcium-dependent, calmodulin-stimulated protein phosphatase involved in the downstream regulation of dopaminergic signal transduction. Calcineurin is composed of a regulatory subunit and a catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of the regulatory subunits that has been found for calcineurin. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

LOC347381 Gene

hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), beta subunit pseudogene

DRC7 Gene

dynein regulatory complex subunit 7

DRC1 Gene

dynein regulatory complex subunit 1

LOC100533945 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene

PDSS2 Gene

prenyl (decaprenyl) diphosphate synthase, subunit 2

The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme that synthesizes the prenyl side-chain of coenzyme Q, or ubiquinone, one of the key elements in the respiratory chain. The gene product catalyzes the formation of all trans-polyprenyl pyrophosphates from isopentyl diphosphate in the assembly of polyisoprenoid side chains, the first step in coenzyme Q biosynthesis. Defects in this gene are a cause of coenzyme Q10 deficiency.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

PDSS1 Gene

prenyl (decaprenyl) diphosphate synthase, subunit 1

The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme that elongates the prenyl side-chain of coenzyme Q, or ubiquinone, one of the key elements in the respiratory chain. The gene product catalyzes the formation of all trans-polyprenyl pyrophosphates from isopentyl diphosphate in the assembly of polyisoprenoid side chains, the first step in coenzyme Q biosynthesis. The protein may be peripherally associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane, though no transit peptide has been definitively identified to date. Defects in this gene are a cause of coenzyme Q10 deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP6V1G1P4 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 13kDa, V1 subunit G1 pseudogene 4

ATP6V1G1P7 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 13kDa, V1 subunit G1 pseudogene 7

ATP6V1G1P1 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 13kDa, V1 subunit G1 pseudogene 1

ATP6V1G1P3 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 13kDa, V1 subunit G1 pseudogene 3

PPP1R26 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 26

PPP1R27 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 27

PPP1R21 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 21

OSTCP7 Gene

oligosaccharyltransferase complex subunit pseudogene 7

OSTCP4 Gene

oligosaccharyltransferase complex subunit pseudogene 4

OSTCP2 Gene

oligosaccharyltransferase complex subunit pseudogene 2

SKA1 Gene

spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 1

SKA3 Gene

spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 3

This gene encodes a component of the spindle and kinetochore-associated protein complex that regulates microtubule attachment to the kinetochores during mitosis. The encoded protein localizes to the outer kinetechore and may be required for normal chromosome segregation and cell division. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SKA2 Gene

spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 2

PPP1R13B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13B

This gene encodes a member of the ASPP (apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53) family of p53 interacting proteins. The protein contains four ankyrin repeats and an SH3 domain involved in protein-protein interactions. ASPP proteins are required for the induction of apoptosis by p53-family proteins. They promote DNA binding and transactivation of p53-family proteins on the promoters of proapoptotic genes. Expression of this gene is regulated by the E2F transcription factor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R13L Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 13 like

IASPP is one of the most evolutionarily conserved inhibitors of p53 (TP53; MIM 191170), whereas ASPP1 (MIM 606455) and ASPP2 (MIM 602143) are activators of p53.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100631380 Gene

protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 2 pseudogene 1

NCAPD2P1 Gene

non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit D2 pseudogene 1

LOC100506672 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIc pseudogene

ELP6 Gene

elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 6

ELP5 Gene

elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 5

ELP4 Gene

elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 4

This gene encodes a component of the six subunit elongator complex, a histone acetyltransferase complex that associates directly with RNA polymerase II during transcriptional elongation. The human gene can partially complement sensitivity phenotypes of yeast ELP4 deletion mutants. This gene has also been associated with Rolandic epilepsy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

ELP3 Gene

elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 3

ELP3 is the catalytic subunit of the histone acetyltransferase elongator complex, which contributes to transcript elongation and also regulates the maturation of projection neurons (Creppe et al., 2009 [PubMed 19185337]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2009]

ELP2 Gene

elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 2

LOC101180897 Gene

Rab geranylgeranyltransferase, beta subunit pseudogene

COX6B1P7 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb polypeptide 1 (ubiquitous) pseudogene 7

COX6B1P5 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb polypeptide 1 (ubiquitous) pseudogene 5

LOC105376811 Gene

laminin subunit beta-2-like

COX5A Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It is a multi-subunit enzyme complex that couples the transfer of electrons from cytochrome c to molecular oxygen and contributes to a proton electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The complex consists of 13 mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded subunits. The mitochondrially-encoded subunits perform the electron transfer of proton pumping activities. The functions of the nuclear-encoded subunits are unknown but they may play a role in the regulation and assembly of the complex. This gene encodes the nuclear-encoded subunit Va of the human mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme. A pseudogene COX5AP1 has been found in chromosome 14q22. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COX5B Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb

Cytochrome C oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It is a multi-subunit enzyme complex that couples the transfer of electrons from cytochrome c to molecular oxygen and contributes to a proton electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The complex consists of 13 mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded subunits. The mitochondrially-encoded subunits perform the electron transfer and proton pumping activities. The functions of the nuclear-encoded subunits are unknown but they may play a role in the regulation and assembly of the complex. This gene encodes the nuclear-encoded subunit Vb of the human mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MT-ND1 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase, subunit 1 (complex I)

MT-ND3 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase, subunit 3 (complex I)

MT-ND4 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase, subunit 4 (complex I)

MT-ND5 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase, subunit 5 (complex I)

MT-ND6 Gene

NADH dehydrogenase, subunit 6 (complex I)

LOC101929104 Gene

mitochondrial import receptor subunit TOM22 homolog pseudogene

CCT4P2 Gene

chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 4 (delta) pseudogene 2

ANAPC1 Gene

anaphase promoting complex subunit 1

This gene encodes a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. This complex is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through the metaphase to anaphase portion of the cell cycle by ubiquitinating proteins which targets them for degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

ANAPC2 Gene

anaphase promoting complex subunit 2

A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition by ubiquitinating its specific substrates such as mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitor, which are subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. Biochemical studies have shown that the vertebrate APC contains eight subunits. The composition of the APC is highly conserved in organisms from yeast to humans. The product of this gene is a component of the complex and shares sequence similarity with a recently identified family of proteins called cullins, which may also be involved in ubiquitin-mediated degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ANAPC5 Gene

anaphase promoting complex subunit 5

This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat-containing component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls cell cycle progression by targeting a number of cell cycle regulators such as B-type cyclins for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation through ubiquitination. The encoded protein is required for the proper ubiquitination function of APC/C and for the interaction of APC/C with transcription coactivators. It also interacts with polyA binding protein and represses internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. These differences cause translation initiation at a downstream AUG and result in a shorter protein (isoform b), compared to isoform a. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

ANAPC4 Gene

anaphase promoting complex subunit 4

A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition by ubiquitinating its specific substrates such as mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitor, which are subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. Biochemical studies have shown that the vertebrate APC contains eight subunits. The composition of the APC is highly conserved in organisms from yeast to humans. The exact function of this gene product is not known. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

ANAPC7 Gene

anaphase promoting complex subunit 7

This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat containing component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls cell cycle progression by targeting a number of cell cycle regulators such as B-type cyclins for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation through ubiquitination. The encoded protein is required for proper protein ubiquitination function of APC/C and for the interaction of APC/C with certain transcription coactivators. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

PSMD14 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 14

This gene encodes a component of the 26S proteasome. The 26S proteasome is a large multiprotein complex that catalyzes the degradation of ubiquitinated intracellular proteins. The encoded protein is a component of the 19S regulatory cap complex of the 26S proteasome and mediates substrate deubiquitination. A pseudogene of this gene is also located on the long arm of chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

PSMD11 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 11

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome subunit S9 family that functions as a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator and is phosphorylated by AMP-activated protein kinase. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMD10 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 10

This gene encodes a subunit of the PA700/19S complex, which is the regulatory component of the 26S proteasome. The 26S proteosome complex is required for ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. This protein is a non-ATPase subunit that may be involved in protein-protein interactions. Aberrant expression of this gene may paly a role in tumorigenesis. Two transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 3 and 20.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

PSMD13 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 13

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator. Two transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMD12 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 12

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COPS8P1 Gene

COP9 signalosome subunit 8 pseudogene 1

KCNMB3P1 Gene

potassium channel subfamily M regulatory beta subunit 3 pseudogene 1

PPP6C Gene

protein phosphatase 6, catalytic subunit

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase, a component of a signaling pathway regulating cell cycle progression. Splice variants encoding different protein isoforms exist. The pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421419 Gene

protein phosphatase 4, regulatory subunit 2 pseudogene

PSMB3P Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 3 pseudogene

COX7A2L Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa polypeptide 2 like

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the electron transfer from reduced cytochrome c to oxygen. This component is a heteromeric complex consisting of 3 catalytic subunits encoded by mitochondrial genes and multiple structural subunits encoded by nuclear genes. The mitochondrially-encoded subunits function in electron transfer, and the nuclear-encoded subunits may function in the regulation and assembly of the complex. This nuclear gene encodes a protein similar to polypeptides 1 and 2 of subunit VIIa in the C-terminal region, and also highly similar to the mouse Sig81 protein sequence. This gene is expressed in all tissues, and upregulated in a breast cancer cell line after estrogen treatment. It is possible that this gene represents a regulatory subunit of COX and mediates the higher level of energy production in target cells by estrogen. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BLOC1S6 Gene

biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex-1, subunit 6, pallidin

The protein encoded by this gene may play a role in intracellular vesicle trafficking. It interacts with Syntaxin 13 which mediates intracellular membrane fusion. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BLOC1S1 Gene

biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex-1, subunit 1

BLOC1S1 is a component of the ubiquitously expressed BLOC1 multisubunit protein complex. BLOC1 is required for normal biogenesis of specialized organelles of the endosomal-lysosomal system, such as melanosomes and platelet dense granules (Starcevic and Dell'Angelica, 2004 [PubMed 15102850]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ANAPC1P1 Gene

anaphase promoting complex subunit 1 pseudogene 1

AP1S1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is part of the clathrin coat assembly complex which links clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. These vesicles are involved in endocytosis and Golgi processing. This protein, as well as beta-prime-adaptin, gamma-adaptin, and the medium (mu) chain AP47, form the AP-1 assembly protein complex located at the Golgi vesicle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN1B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type I beta subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are heteromeric proteins that function in the generation and propagation of action potentials in muscle and neuronal cells. They are composed of one alpha and two beta subunits, where the alpha subunit provides channel activity and the beta-1 subunit modulates the kinetics of channel inactivation. This gene encodes a sodium channel beta-1 subunit. Mutations in this gene result in generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, Brugada syndrome 5, and defects in cardiac conduction. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SCN1A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type I alpha subunit

The vertebrate sodium channel is a voltage-gated ion channel essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials, mainly in nerve and muscle. Voltage-sensitive sodium channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of a large central pore-forming glycosylated alpha subunit, and two smaller auxiliary beta subunits. This gene encodes the large alpha subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with several epilepsy, convulsion and migraine disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. The RefSeq Project has decided to create four representative RefSeq records. Three of the transcript variants are supported by experimental evidence and the fourth contains alternate 5' untranslated exons, the exact combination of which have not been experimentally confirmed for the full-length transcript.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

LOC644661 Gene

importin subunit alpha-1 pseudogene

PDPR Gene

pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit

PDP1 Gene

pyruvate dehyrogenase phosphatase catalytic subunit 1

Pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) is one of the three components (E1, E2, and E3) of the large pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases catalyze phosphorylation of serine residues of E1 to inactivate the E1 component and inhibit the complex. Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatases catalyze the dephosphorylation and activation of the E1 component to reverse the effects of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases. Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase is a heterodimer consisting of catalytic and regulatory subunits. Two catalytic subunits have been reported; one is predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle and another one is is much more abundant in the liver. The catalytic subunit, encoded by this gene, is the former, and belongs to the protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) superfamily. Along with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases, this enzyme is located in the mitochondrial matrix. Mutation in this gene causes pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

PDP2 Gene

pyruvate dehyrogenase phosphatase catalytic subunit 2

ATP5L2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit G2

KATNBL1 Gene

katanin p80 subunit B-like 1

NACA Gene

nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha subunit

The protein encoded by this gene associates with basic transcription factor 3 (BTF3) to form the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC). NAC binds to nascent proteins as they emerge from the ribosome, blocking interaction with the signal recognition particle (SRP) and preventing mistranslocation to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, nascent proteins with an exposed signal peptide will not be bound by the encoded protein, enabling them to bind the SRP and enter the secretory pathway. This protein has been determined to be an IgE autoantigen in atopic dermatitis patients. Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

PSME2P6 Gene

proteasome activator subunit 2 pseudogene 6

PSME2P4 Gene

proteasome activator subunit 2 pseudogene 4

PSME2P3 Gene

proteasome activator subunit 2 pseudogene 3

SPTLC1P1 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 1

SPTLC1P2 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 2

SPTLC1P5 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 5

SPTLC1P4 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1 pseudogene 4

INTS12 Gene

integrator complex subunit 12

INTS12 is a subunit of the Integrator complex, which associates with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II large subunit (POLR2A; MIM 180660) and mediates 3-prime end processing of small nuclear RNAs U1 (RNU1; MIM 180680) and U2 (RNU2; MIM 180690) (Baillat et al., 2005 [PubMed 16239144]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

INTS10 Gene

integrator complex subunit 10

INTS10 is a subunit of the Integrator complex, which associates with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II large subunit (POLR2A; MIM 180660) and mediates 3-prime end processing of small nuclear RNAs U1 (RNU1; MIM 180680) and U2 (RNU2; MIM 180690) (Baillat et al., 2005 [PubMed 16239144]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

RRP9 Gene

ribosomal RNA processing 9, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast)

This gene encodes a member of the WD-repeat protein family. The encoded protein is a component of the nucleolar small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snoRNP) and is essential for 18s rRNA processing during ribosome synthesis. It contains seven WD domains required for nucleolar localization and specific interaction with the U3 small nucleolar RNA (U3 snoRNA). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

SCNN1D Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 delta subunit

SCNN1B Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 beta subunit

Nonvoltage-gated, amiloride-sensitive, sodium channels control fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelia in many organs. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the beta subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1), and Liddle syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

SCNN1A Gene

sodium channel, non voltage gated 1 alpha subunit

Nonvoltage-gated, amiloride-sensitive, sodium channels control fluid and electrolyte transport across epithelia in many organs. These channels are heteromeric complexes consisting of 3 subunits: alpha, beta, and gamma. This gene encodes the alpha subunit, and mutations in this gene have been associated with pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1), a rare salt wasting disease resulting from target organ unresponsiveness to mineralocorticoids. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]

LOC100422479 Gene

integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit) pseudogene

PPP1R10P1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 10 pseudogene 1

NAA50 Gene

N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 50, NatE catalytic subunit

LOC100127892 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1 pseudogene

AP5B1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 5, beta 1 subunit

ITGB2 Gene

integrin, beta 2 (complement component 3 receptor 3 and 4 subunit)

This gene encodes an integrin beta chain, which combines with multiple different alpha chains to form different integrin heterodimers. Integrins are integral cell-surface proteins that participate in cell adhesion as well as cell-surface mediated signalling. The encoded protein plays an important role in immune response and defects in this gene cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]

RNASEH2A Gene

ribonuclease H2, subunit A

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the heterotrimeric type II ribonuclease H enzyme (RNAseH2). RNAseH2 is the major source of ribonuclease H activity in mammalian cells and endonucleolytically cleaves ribonucleotides. It is predicted to remove Okazaki fragment RNA primers during lagging strand DNA synthesis and to excise single ribonucleotides from DNA-DNA duplexes. Mutations in this gene cause Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome (AGS), a an autosomal recessive neurological disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly and psychomotor retardation, intracranial calcifications, elevated levels of interferon-alpha and white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

RNASEH2C Gene

ribonuclease H2, subunit C

This gene encodes a ribonuclease H subunit that can cleave ribonucleotides from RNA:DNA duplexes. Mutations in this gene cause Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome-3, a disease that causes severe neurologic dysfunction. A pseudogene for this gene has been identified on chromosome Y, near the sex determining region Y (SRY) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RNASEH2B Gene

ribonuclease H2, subunit B

RNase H2 is composed of a single catalytic subunit (A) and two non-catalytic subunits (B and C) and specifically degrades the RNA of RNA:DNA hybrids. The protein encoded by this gene is the non-catalytic B subunit of RNase H2, which is thought to play a role in DNA replication. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Defects in this gene are a cause of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome type 2 (AGS2). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

SCN9A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type IX alpha subunit

This gene encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel which plays a significant role in nociception signaling. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary erythermalgia, channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain, and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

PPP6CP Gene

protein phosphatase 6, catalytic subunit pseudogene

AP5Z1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 5, zeta 1 subunit

This gene was identified by genome-wide screen for genes involved in homologous recombination DNA double-strand break repair (HR-DSBR). The encoded protein was found in a complex with other proteins that have a role in HR-DSBR. Knockdown of this gene reduced homologous recombination, and mutations in this gene were found in patients with spastic paraplegia. It was concluded that this gene likely encodes a helicase (PMID:20613862). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

COX6CP4 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc pseudogene 4

LOC100533944 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene

LOC390705 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', beta pseudogene

LOC100533948 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene

COPS8 Gene

COP9 signalosome subunit 8

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the eight subunits of COP9 signalosome, a highly conserved protein complex that functions as an important regulator in multiple signaling pathways. The structure and function of COP9 signalosome is similar to that of the 19S regulatory particle of 26S proteasome. COP9 signalosome has been shown to interact with SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligases and act as a positive regulator of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COPS2 Gene

COP9 signalosome subunit 2

COPS3 Gene

COP9 signalosome subunit 3

The protein encoded by this gene possesses kinase activity that phosphorylates regulators involved in signal transduction. It phosphorylates I kappa-Balpha, p105, and c-Jun. It acts as a docking site for complex-mediated phosphorylation. The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

COPS6 Gene

COP9 signalosome subunit 6

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the eight subunits of COP9 signalosome, a highly conserved protein complex that functions as an important regulator in multiple signaling pathways. The structure and function of COP9 signalosome is similar to that of the 19S regulatory particle of 26S proteasome. COP9 signalosome has been shown to interact with SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligases and act as a positive regulator of E3 ubiquitin ligases. This protein belongs to translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) superfamily. It is involved in the regulation of cell cycle and likely to be a cellular cofactor for HIV-1 accessory gene product Vpr. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COPS4 Gene

COP9 signalosome subunit 4

This gene encodes one of eight subunits composing COP9 signalosome, a highly conserved protein complex that functions as an important regulator in multiple signaling pathways. The structure and function of COP9 signalosome is similar to that of the 19S regulatory particle of 26S proteasome. COP9 signalosome has been shown to interact with SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligases and act as a positive regulator of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]

COPS5 Gene

COP9 signalosome subunit 5

The protein encoded by this gene is one of the eight subunits of COP9 signalosome, a highly conserved protein complex that functions as an important regulator in multiple signaling pathways. The structure and function of COP9 signalosome is similar to that of the 19S regulatory particle of 26S proteasome. COP9 signalosome has been shown to interact with SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligases and act as a positive regulator of E3 ubiquitin ligases. This protein is reported to be involved in the degradation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1B/p27Kip1. It is also known to be an coactivator that increases the specificity of JUN/AP1 transcription factors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100421096 Gene

non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G pseudogene

PSMA2P3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 3

NCAPH2 Gene

non-SMC condensin II complex, subunit H2

This gene encodes one of the non-SMC subunits of the condensin II complex. This complex plays an essential role in mitotic chromosome assembly. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

TSEN54 Gene

TSEN54 tRNA splicing endonuclease subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex, which catalyzes the removal of introns from precursor tRNAs. The complex is also implicated in pre-mRNA 3-prime end processing. Mutations in this gene result in pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

PSMA2P1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 1

LOC642890 Gene

N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 50, NatE catalytic subunit pseudogene

BRK1P2 Gene

BRICK1, SCAR/WAVE actin-nucleating complex subunit pseudogene 2

MED13P1 Gene

mediator complex subunit 13 pseudogene 1

INTS4P1 Gene

integrator complex subunit 4 pseudogene 1

INTS4P2 Gene

integrator complex subunit 4 pseudogene 2

SKA2P1 Gene

spindle and kinetochore associated complex subunit 2 pseudogene 1

AP2B1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the assembly protein complex 2, which serves to link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. The encoded protein is found on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles in the plasma membrane. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R14D Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14D

Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1; see MIM 176875) is a major cellular phosphatase that reverses serine/threonine protein phosphorylation. PPP1R14D is a PP1 inhibitor that itself is regulated by phosphorylation (Liu et al., 2004 [PubMed 12974676]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

PPP1R14B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B

PPP1R14C Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14C

The degree of protein phosphorylation is regulated by a balance of protein kinase and phosphatase activities. Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1; see MIM 176875) is a signal-transducing phosphatase that influences neuronal activity, protein synthesis, metabolism, muscle contraction, and cell division. PPP1R14C is an inhibitor of PP1 (Liu et al., 2002 [PubMed 11812771]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

PPP1R14A Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14A

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) inhibitor family. This protein is an inhibitor of smooth muscle myosin phosphatase, and has higher inhibitory activity when phosphorylated. Inhibition of myosin phosphatase leads to increased myosin phosphorylation and enhanced smooth muscle contraction. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

ATP6V1G1P6 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 13kDa, V1 subunit G1 pseudogene 6

ATP6V1G1P2 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 13kDa, V1 subunit G1 pseudogene 2

LOC100133326 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

MED15P7 Gene

mediator complex subunit 15 pseudogene 7

MED15P6 Gene

mediator complex subunit 15 pseudogene 6

MED15P5 Gene

mediator complex subunit 15 pseudogene 5

MED15P4 Gene

mediator complex subunit 15 pseudogene 4

MED15P1 Gene

mediator complex subunit 15 pseudogene 1

MED15P9 Gene

mediator complex subunit 15 pseudogene 9

LOC105369236 Gene

structure-specific endonuclease subunit SLX1-like

INO80 Gene

INO80 complex subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of the chromatin remodeling complex, which is classified into subfamilies depending on sequence features apart from the conserved ATPase domain. This protein is the catalytic ATPase subunit of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, which is characterized by a DNA-binding domain. This protein is proposed to bind DNA and be recruited by the YY1 transcription factor to activate certain genes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

KANSL1L Gene

KAT8 regulatory NSL complex subunit 1-like

LOC100129052 Gene

N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 40, NatD catalytic subunit, homolog (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene

COX7B2 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIb2

COX6C Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc

Cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the electron transfer from reduced cytochrome c to oxygen. It is a heteromeric complex consisting of 3 catalytic subunits encoded by mitochondrial genes and multiple structural subunits encoded by nuclear genes. The mitochondrially-encoded subunits function in electron transfer, and the nuclear-encoded subunits may be involved in the regulation and assembly of the complex. This nuclear gene encodes subunit VIc, which has 77% amino acid sequence identity with mouse subunit VIc. This gene is up-regulated in prostate cancer cells. A pseudogene has been found on chromosomes 16p12. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

LOC100289091 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit G2 pseudogene

PSMA2P2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2 pseudogene 2

COX6A1 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIa polypeptide 1

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the electron transfer from reduced cytochrome c to oxygen. It is a heteromeric complex consisting of 3 catalytic subunits encoded by mitochondrial genes and multiple structural subunits encoded by nuclear genes. The mitochondrially-encoded subunits function in the electron transfer and the nuclear-encoded subunits may function in the regulation and assembly of the complex. This nuclear gene encodes polypeptide 1 (liver isoform) of subunit VIa, and polypeptide 1 is found in all non-muscle tissues. Polypeptide 2 (heart/muscle isoform) of subunit VIa is encoded by a different gene, and is present only in striated muscles. These two polypeptides share 66% amino acid sequence identity. It has been reported that there may be several pseudogenes on chromosomes 1, 6, 7q21, 7q31-32 and 12. However, only one pseudogene (COX6A1P) on chromosome 1p31.1 has been documented. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

COX6A2 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIa polypeptide 2

Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, catalyzes the electron transfer from reduced cytochrome c to oxygen. It is a heteromeric complex consisting of 3 catalytic subunits encoded by mitochondrial genes and multiple structural subunits encoded by nuclear genes. The mitochondrially-encoded subunits function in electron transfer, and the nuclear-encoded subunits may be involved in the regulation and assembly of the complex. This nuclear gene encodes polypeptide 2 (heart/muscle isoform) of subunit VIa, and polypeptide 2 is present only in striated muscles. Polypeptide 1 (liver isoform) of subunit VIa is encoded by a different gene, and is found in all non-muscle tissues. These two polypeptides share 66% amino acid sequence identity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100192388 Gene

anaphase promoting complex subunit 13 pseudogene

LOC100192389 Gene

anaphase promoting complex subunit 13 pseudogene

ATP6V1E1 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 31kDa, V1 subunit E1

This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A, three B, and two G subunits, as well as a C, D, E, F, and H subunit. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. This gene encodes alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different V1 domain E subunit isoforms. Pseudogenes for this gene have been found in the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP6V1E2 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 31kDa, V1 subunit E2

CNOT4 Gene

CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the CCR4-NOT complex, a global transcriptional regulator. The encoded protein interacts with CNOT1 and has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

PPP1R12BP1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 12B pseudogene, Y-linked 1

PPP1R12BP2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 12B Y-linked pseudogene 2

CKS2 Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2

CKS2 protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. The CKS2 mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects specialized role for the encoded protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100287189 Gene

Sec61 beta subunit pseudogene

LOC100418484 Gene

KAT8 regulatory NSL complex subunit 1 pseudogene

RPP25L Gene

ribonuclease P/MRP 25kDa subunit-like

This gene encodes a protein that appears to belong to a family of evolutionarily related proteins (DUF78), that may share one or more domains in common. Members of this family are small archaebacterial proteins with no known function. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and two variants, both encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DPM2 Gene

dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase polypeptide 2, regulatory subunit

Dolichol-phosphate mannose (Dol-P-Man) serves as a donor of mannosyl residues on the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Lack of Dol-P-Man results in defective surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins. Dol-P-Man is synthesized from GDP-mannose and dolichol-phosphate on the cytosolic side of the ER by the enzyme dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase. The protein encoded by this gene is a hydrophobic protein that contains 2 predicted transmembrane domains and a putative ER localization signal near the C terminus. This protein associates with DPM1 in vivo and is required for the ER localization and stable expression of DPM1 and also enhances the binding of dolichol-phosphate to DPM1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DPM1 Gene

dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase polypeptide 1, catalytic subunit

Dolichol-phosphate mannose (Dol-P-Man) serves as a donor of mannosyl residues on the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Lack of Dol-P-Man results in defective surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins. Dol-P-Man is synthesized from GDP-mannose and dolichol-phosphate on the cytosolic side of the ER by the enzyme dolichyl-phosphate mannosyltransferase. Human DPM1 lacks a carboxy-terminal transmembrane domain and signal sequence and is regulated by DPM2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ARPC5L Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5-like

LOC100132108 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 7 pseudogene

LOC101060521 Gene

DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC5

TCIRG1 Gene

T-cell, immune regulator 1, ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit A3

Through alternate splicing, this gene encodes two proteins with similarity to subunits of the vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) but the encoded proteins seem to have different functions. V-ATPase is a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. V-ATPase is comprised of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. Mutations in this gene are associated with infantile malignant osteopetrosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN11A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type XI alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are membrane protein complexes that play a fundamental role in the rising phase of the action potential in most excitable cells. Alpha subunits, such as SCN11A, mediate voltage-dependent gating and conductance, while auxiliary beta subunits regulate the kinetic properties of the channel and facilitate membrane localization of the complex. Aberrant expression patterns or mutations of alpha subunits underlie a number of disorders. Each alpha subunit consists of 4 domains connected by 3 intracellular loops; each domain consists of 6 transmembrane segments and intra- and extracellular linkers.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

LOC100288771 Gene

prefoldin subunit 1 pseudogene

CCT8P1 Gene

chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 8 (theta) pseudogene 1

PDSS1P1 Gene

prenyl (decaprenyl) diphosphate synthase, subunit 1 pseudogene 1

PDSS1P2 Gene

prenyl (decaprenyl) diphosphate synthase, subunit 1 pseudogene 2

LOC646112 Gene

origin recognition complex, subunit 3-like (yeast) pseudogene

TPGS2 Gene

tubulin polyglutamylase complex subunit 2

This gene encodes a protein that is a component of the neuronal polyglutamylase complex, which plays a role in post-translational addition of glutamate residues to C-terminal tubulin tails. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

TPGS1 Gene

tubulin polyglutamylase complex subunit 1

LOC653653 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit pseudogene

CNOT7P2 Gene

CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 7 pseudogene 2

CNOT7P1 Gene

CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 7 pseudogene 1

ATP5J2LP Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2-like pseudogene

EME2 Gene

essential meiotic structure-specific endonuclease subunit 2

EME2 forms a heterodimer with MUS81 (MIM 606591) that functions as an XPF (MIM 278760)-type flap/fork endonuclease in DNA repair (Ciccia et al., 2007 [PubMed 17289582]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

DGCR8 Gene

DGCR8 microprocessor complex subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of the microprocessor complex which mediates the biogenesis of microRNAs from the primary microRNA transcript. The encoded protein is a double-stranded RNA binding protein that functions as the non-catalytic subunit of the microprocessor complex. This protein is required for binding the double-stranded RNA substrate and facilitates cleavage of the RNA by the ribonuclease III protein, Drosha. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

LOC100421808 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, gamma pseudogene

RPP40 Gene

ribonuclease P/MRP 40kDa subunit

LOC100421802 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, alpha pseudogene

NAA20 Gene

N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 20, NatB catalytic subunit

NAT5 is a component of N-acetyltransferase complex B (NatB). Human NatB performs cotranslational N(alpha)-terminal acetylation of methionine residues when they are followed by asparagine (Starheim et al., 2008 [PubMed 18570629]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2009]

NAA25 Gene

N(alpha)-acetyltransferase 25, NatB auxiliary subunit

This gene encodes the auxiliary subunit of the heteromeric N-terminal acetyltransferase B complex. This complex acetylates methionine residues that are followed by acidic or asparagine residues.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

CACTIN Gene

cactin, spliceosome C complex subunit

LOC647208 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', beta pseudogene

LOC100288416 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2 pseudogene

LOC643454 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit pseudogene

AP3M1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is the medium subunit of AP-3, which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the Golgi region as well as more peripheral intracellular structures. AP-3 facilitates the budding of vesicles from the Golgi membrane and may be directly involved in protein sorting to the endosomal/lysosomal system. AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta3), a medium subunit (mu3), and a small subunit (sigma 3). Mutations in one of the large subunits of AP-3 have been associated with the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by defective lysosome-related organelles. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AP3M2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 2 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric adaptor-related protein comlex 3 (AP-3), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. The AP-3 complex plays a role in protein trafficking to lysosomes and specialized organelles. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

PSMD10P3 Gene

proteasome 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 10 pseudogene 3

PSMD10P2 Gene

proteasome 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 10 pseudogene 2

PSMD10P1 Gene

proteasome 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 10 pseudogene 1

PPP2R2DP1 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, delta pseudogene 1

HADHAP2 Gene

hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), alpha subunit pseudogene 2

LOC100289381 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit pseudogene

BRCC3P1 Gene

BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex, subunit 3 pseudogene 1

CACNA2D1 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 1

The preproprotein encoded by this gene is cleaved into multiple chains that comprise the alpha-2 and delta subunits of the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. Mutations in this gene can cause cardiac deficiencies, including Brugada syndrome and short QT syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants, some of which may lack the delta subunit portion. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

LOC102724200 Gene

trafficking protein particle complex subunit 10-like

ICE2P2 Gene

interactor of little elongation complex ELL subunit 2 pseudogene 2

ICE2P1 Gene

interactor of little elongation complex ELL subunit 2 pseudogene 1

LOC149935 Gene

CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 3 pseudogene

PSMD8 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 8

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMD5 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 5

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. This gene encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator base that functions as a chaperone protein during 26S proteasome assembly. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMD4 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 4

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes one of the non-ATPase subunits of the 19S regulator lid. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 10 and 21. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMD7 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 7

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMD6 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 6

This gene encodes a member of the protease subunit S10 family. The encoded protein is a subunit of the 26S proteasome which colocalizes with DNA damage foci and is involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquinated proteins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

PSMD1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 1

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes the largest non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator lid, which is responsible for substrate recognition and binding. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

PSMD3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 3

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome subunit S3 family that functions as one of the non-ATPase subunits of the 19S regulator lid. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are associated with neutrophil count. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMD2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 2

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes one of the non-ATPase subunits of the 19S regulator lid. In addition to participation in proteasome function, this subunit may also participate in the TNF signalling pathway since it interacts with the tumor necrosis factor type 1 receptor. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

COPS7B Gene

COP9 signalosome subunit 7B

COPS7A Gene

COP9 signalosome subunit 7A

This gene encodes a component of the COP9 signalosome, an evolutionarily conserved multi-subunit protease that regulates the activity of the ubiquitin conjugation pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

RABGGTB Gene

Rab geranylgeranyltransferase, beta subunit

This gene encodes the beta-subunit of the enzyme Rab geranylgeranyl-transferase (RabGGTase), which belongs to the protein prenyltransferase family. RabGGTase catalyzes the post-translational addition of geranylgeranyl groups to C-terminal cysteine residues of Rab GTPases. Three small nucleolar RNA genes are present in the intronic regions of this gene. Alternately spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. A pseudogene associated with this gene is located on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

PPP1R26P5 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 26 pseudogene 5

RABGGTA Gene

Rab geranylgeranyltransferase, alpha subunit

PPP1R26P2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 26 pseudogene 2

PTAR1 Gene

protein prenyltransferase alpha subunit repeat containing 1

POLD4 Gene

polymerase (DNA-directed), delta 4, accessory subunit

This gene encodes the smallest subunit of DNA polymerase delta. DNA polymerase delta possesses both polymerase and 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and plays a critical role in DNA replication and repair. The encoded protein enhances the activity of DNA polymerase delta and plays a role in fork repair and stabilization through interactions with the DNA helicase Bloom syndrome protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

LOC260421 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A pseudogene

LOC260422 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1A pseudogene

AP4B1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of a heterotetrameric adapter-like complex 4 that is involved in targeting proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the endosomal-lysosomal system. Mutations in this gene are associated with cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegic type 5 (CPSQ5) disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

POLE3 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon 3, accessory subunit

POLE3 is a histone-fold protein that interacts with other histone-fold proteins to bind DNA in a sequence-independent manner. These histone-fold protein dimers combine within larger enzymatic complexes for DNA transcription, replication, and packaging.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

STT3B Gene

STT3B, subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex (catalytic)

The protein encoded by this gene is a catalytic subunit of a protein complex that transfers oligosaccharides onto asparagine residues. Defects in this gene are a cause of congenital disorder of glycosylation Ix (CDG1X). [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

STT3A Gene

STT3A, subunit of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex (catalytic)

UTP3 Gene

UTP3, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (S. cerevisiae)

SWAP70 Gene

SWAP switching B-cell complex 70kDa subunit

MUS81 Gene

MUS81 structure-specific endonuclease subunit

ATP6V1E1P2 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 31kDa, V1 subunit E1 pseudogene 2

FARSBP1 Gene

phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, beta subunit pseudogene 1

ATP6V1E1P1 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 31kDa, V1 subunit E1 pseudogene 1

PGGT1BP1 Gene

protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I, beta subunit pseudogene 1

AP2A1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit

This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer consisting of two large adaptins (alpha or beta), a medium adaptin (mu), and a small adaptin (sigma). The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles which links clathrin to receptors in vesicles. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms. A third transcript variant has been described, but its full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AP2A2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit

ATP5JP1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F6 pseudogene 1

ATP6V0A4 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit a4

This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells. V-ATPase dependent acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c'', and d. This gene is one of four genes in man and mouse that encode different isoforms of the a subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. Mutations in this gene are associated with renal tubular acidosis associated with preserved hearing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP6V0A1 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit a1

This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c", and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This gene encodes one of three A subunit proteins and the encoded protein is associated with clathrin-coated vesicles. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP6V0A2 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit a2

The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase (v-ATPase), an heteromultimeric enzyme that is present in intracellular vesicles and in the plasma membrane of specialized cells, and which is essential for the acidification of diverse cellular components. V-ATPase is comprised of a membrane peripheral V(1) domain for ATP hydrolysis, and an integral membrane V(0) domain for proton translocation. The subunit encoded by this gene is a component of the V(0) domain. Mutations in this gene are a cause of both cutis laxa type II and wrinkly skin syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

ATP5A1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1, cardiac muscle

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, using an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the different isoforms have been identified. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 9, 2, and 16. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

LOC105369446 Gene

mitochondrial import receptor subunit TOM20 homolog pseudogene

NACA2 Gene

nascent polypeptide-associated complex alpha subunit 2

LOC100130035 Gene

biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 subunit 6-like

LOC644310 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit X pseudogene

LOC100131348 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit pseudogene

NCAPG2 Gene

non-SMC condensin II complex, subunit G2

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the Condensin2nSMC family of proteins. The encoded protein is a regulatory subunit of the condensin II complex which, along with the condensin I complex, plays a role in chromosome assembly and segregation during mitosis. A similar protein in mouse is required for early development of the embryo. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

LOC100422044 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa pseudogene

COX5BP8 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb pseudogene 8

COX5BP4 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb pseudogene 4

COX5BP5 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb pseudogene 5

COX5BP6 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb pseudogene 6

COX5BP7 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb pseudogene 7

COX5BP1 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb pseudogene 1

COX5BP2 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb pseudogene 2

COX5BP3 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb pseudogene 3

REV3L Gene

REV3-like, polymerase (DNA directed), zeta, catalytic subunit

LOC101930420 Gene

DNA primase large subunit-like

ATP5J2P6 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2 pseudogene 6

ATP5J2P4 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2 pseudogene 4

ATP5J2P5 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2 pseudogene 5

ATP5J2P2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2 pseudogene 2

ATP5J2P3 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2 pseudogene 3

PPP1R8P1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 8 pseudogene 1

LOC391247 Gene

GINS complex subunit 2 (Psf2 homolog) pseudogene

ATP5J Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F6

Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The F1 complex consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled in a ratio of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The Fo seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the F6 subunit of the Fo complex, required for F1 and Fo interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. A pseudogene exists on chromosome Yp11.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

ATP5I Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit E

Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The F1 complex consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled in a ratio of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The Fo seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the e subunit of the Fo complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

ATP5H Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit d

Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The F1 complex consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled in a ratio of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The Fo seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the d subunit of the Fo complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. In addition, three pseudogenes are located on chromosomes 9, 12 and 15. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

ATP5O Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, O subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the F-type ATPase found in the mitochondrial matrix. F-type ATPases are composed of a catalytic core and a membrane proton channel. The encoded protein appears to be part of the connector linking these two components and may be involved in transmission of conformational changes or proton conductance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP5E Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, epsilon subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the epsilon subunit of the catalytic core. Two pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 4 and 13. Read-through transcripts that include exons from this gene are expressed from the upstream gene SLMO2.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

ATP5D Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, delta subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the delta subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same isoform have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLPX Gene

caseinolytic mitochondrial matrix peptidase chaperone subunit

CLPP Gene

caseinolytic mitochondrial matrix peptidase proteolytic subunit

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the peptidase family S14 and hydrolyzes proteins into small peptides in the presence of ATP and magnesium. The protein is transported into mitochondrial matrix and is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100507586 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIb pseudogene

LOC105379604 Gene

set1/Ash2 histone methyltransferase complex subunit ASH2 pseudogene

PSMD4P1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 4 pseudogene 1

PPP2R1B Gene

protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, beta

This gene encodes a constant regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2. Protein phosphatase 2 is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The constant regulatory subunit A serves as a scaffolding molecule to coordinate the assembly of the catalytic subunit and a variable regulatory B subunit. This gene encodes a beta isoform of the constant regulatory subunit A. Mutations in this gene have been associated with some lung and colon cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]

PPP1R26P4 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 26 pseudogene 4

PSMA3 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 3

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100132849 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, O subunit pseudogene

HAUS8P1 Gene

HAUS augmin-like complex, subunit 8 pseudogene 1

CCT5P1 Gene

chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 5 (epsilon) pseudogene 1

LOC100421148 Gene

non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G pseudogene

LOC100422490 Gene

UTP6, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast) pseudogene

LOC100422497 Gene

UTP18, small subunit (SSU) processome component, homolog (yeast) pseudogene

CKS1BP4 Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B pseudogene 4

PPP2R4 Gene

protein phosphatase 2A activator, regulatory subunit 4

Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. Protein phosphatase 2A holoenzymes are heterotrimeric proteins composed of a structural subunit A, a catalytic subunit C, and a regulatory subunit B. The regulatory subunit is encoded by a diverse set of genes that have been grouped into the B/PR55, B'/PR61, and B''/PR72 families. These different regulatory subunits confer distinct enzymatic specificities and intracellular localizations to the holozenzyme. The product of this gene belongs to the B' family. This gene encodes a specific phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator of the dimeric form of protein phosphatase 2A. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC285074 Gene

anaphase promoting complex subunit 1 pseudogene

ARPC4 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 4, 20kDa

This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. This complex controls actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution. This gene encodes the p20 subunit, which is necessary for actin nucleation and high-affinity binding to F-actin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Naturally occurring read-through transcription exists between this gene and the downstream tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family, member 3 (TTLL3), which results in the production of a fusion protein. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

COPS5P1 Gene

COP9 signalosome subunit 5 pseudogene 1

ATP6V0CP3 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 16kDa, V0 subunit c pseudogene 3

PSMB11 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 11

Proteasomes generate peptides that are presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I molecules to other cells of the immune system. Proteolysis is conducted by 20S proteasomes, complexes of 28 subunits arranged as a cylinder in 4 heteroheptameric rings: alpha-1 to -7, beta-1 to -7, beta-1 to -7, and alpha-1 to -7. The catalytic subunits are beta-1 (PSMB6; MIM 600307), beta-2 (PSMB7; MIM 604030), and beta-5 (PSMB5; MIM 600306). Three additional subunits, beta-1i (PSMB9; MIM 177045), beta-2i (PSMB10; MIM 176847), and beta-5i (PSMB8; MIM 177046), are induced by gamma-interferon (IFNG; MIM 147570) and are preferentially incorporated into proteasomes to make immunoproteasomes. PSMB11, or beta-5t, is a catalytic subunit expressed exclusively in cortical thymic epithelial cells (Murata et al., 2007 [PubMed 17540904]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PSMB10 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 10

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. Proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon, and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 2 (proteasome beta 7 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HADHAP1 Gene

hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase/3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase/enoyl-CoA hydratase (trifunctional protein), alpha subunit pseudogene 1

EZH2P1 Gene

enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit pseudogene 1

ARPC3P4 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3 pseudogene 4

SCN3A Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type III alpha subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit with 24 transmembrane domains and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family, and is found in a cluster of five alpha subunit genes on chromosome 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SCN3B Gene

sodium channel, voltage gated, type III beta subunit

Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel beta subunit gene family, and influences the inactivation kinetics of the sodium channel. Two alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

XKRYP6 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked pseudogene 6

XKRYP4 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked pseudogene 4

XKRYP5 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked pseudogene 5

XKRYP2 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked pseudogene 2

XKRYP3 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked pseudogene 3

XKRYP1 Gene

XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related, Y-linked pseudogene 1

PIK3C2B Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is sensitive to low nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmanin. The C2 domain of this protein was shown to bind phospholipids but not Ca2+, which suggests that this enzyme may function in a calcium-independent manner. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 alpha

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is not sensitive to nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmanin. This protein was shown to be able to be activated by insulin and may be involved in integrin-dependent signaling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2G Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 gamma

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. This gene may play a role in several diseases, including type II diabetes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

LOC102723574 Gene

HAUS augmin-like complex subunit 6 pseudogene

LOC100132773 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

AP1S2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit

Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates both the recruitment of clathrin to the membrane and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane receptors. This complex is a heterotetramer composed of two large, one medium, and one small adaptin subunit. The protein encoded by this gene serves as the small subunit of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

AP1S3 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 3 subunit

This gene encodes a member of the adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma subunit genes. The encoded protein is a component of adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1), one of the AP complexes involved in claathrin-mediated vesicular transport from the Golgi or endosomes. Disruption of the pathway for display of HIV-1 antigens, which prevents recognition of the virus by cytotoxic T cells, has been shown to involve the AP-1 complex (PMID: 15569716). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

ATP5J2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2

Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of five different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and single representatives of the gamma, delta, and epsilon subunits. The proton channel likely has nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the f subunit of the Fo complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. This gene has multiple pseudogenes. Naturally occurring read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the downstream pentatricopeptide repeat domain 1 (PTCD1) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

LOC100420889 Gene

anaphase promoting complex subunit 1 pseudogene

NAE1 Gene

NEDD8 activating enzyme E1 subunit 1

The protein encoded by this gene binds to the beta-amyloid precursor protein. Beta-amyloid precursor protein is a cell surface protein with signal-transducing properties, and it is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, the encoded protein can form a heterodimer with UBE1C and bind and activate NEDD8, a ubiquitin-like protein. This protein is required for cell cycle progression through the S/M checkpoint. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AP4E1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 4, epsilon 1 subunit

This gene encodes a member of the adaptor complexes large subunit protein family. These proteins are components of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes, which play important roles in the secretory and endocytic pathways by mediating vesicle formation and sorting of integral membrane proteins. The encoded protein is a large subunit of adaptor protein complex-4, which is associated with both clathrin- and nonclathrin-coated vesicles. Disruption of this gene may be associated with cerebral palsy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

TSEN34 Gene

TSEN34 tRNA splicing endonuclease subunit

This gene encodes a catalytic subunit of the tRNA splicing endonuclease, which catalyzes the removal of introns from precursor tRNAs. The endonuclease complex is also associated with a pre-mRNA 3-prime end processing factor. A mutation in this gene results in the neurological disorder pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

MED30 Gene

mediator complex subunit 30

The multiprotein TRAP/Mediator complex facilitates gene expression through a wide variety of transcriptional activators. MED30 is a component of this complex that appears to be metazoan specific (Baek et al., 2002 [PubMed 11909976]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

MED31 Gene

mediator complex subunit 31

LOC100422418 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 12 pseudogene

LOC100422413 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 7 pseudogene

LOC100422414 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 7 pseudogene

RPP14 Gene

ribonuclease P/MRP 14kDa subunit

MED23 Gene

mediator complex subunit 23

The activation of gene transcription is a multistep process that is triggered by factors that recognize transcriptional enhancer sites in DNA. These factors work with co-activators to direct transcriptional initiation by the RNA polymerase II apparatus. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the CRSP (cofactor required for SP1 activation) complex, which, along with TFIID, is required for efficient activation by SP1. This protein is also a component of other multisubunit complexes e.g. thyroid hormone receptor-(TR-) associated proteins which interact with TR and facilitate TR function on DNA templates in conjunction with initiation factors and cofactors. This protein also acts as a metastasis suppressor. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

ATP6V0B Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 21kDa, V0 subunit b

This gene encodes a portion of the V0 domain of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. Activity of this enzyme is necessary for such varied processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

ATP6V0C Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 16kDa, V0 subunit c

This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c", and d. This gene encodes the V0 subunit c. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 6 and 17. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

UQCR10 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit X

UCRC is a subunit of mitochondrial complex III (ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase; EC 1.10.2.2), which forms the middle segment of the respiratory chain of the inner mitochondrial membrane (Schagger et al., 1995 [PubMed 8592474]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

UQCR11 Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit XI

This gene encodes the smallest known component of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex, which forms part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The encoded protein may function as a binding factor for the iron-sulfur protein in this complex. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

MED14P1 Gene

mediator complex subunit 14 pseudogene 1

SUCLA2P1 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene 1

SUCLA2P2 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene 2

SUCLA2P3 Gene

succinate-CoA ligase, ADP-forming, beta subunit pseudogene 3

NCAPH Gene

non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit H

This gene encodes a member of the barr gene family and a regulatory subunit of the condensin complex. This complex is required for the conversion of interphase chromatin into condensed chromosomes. The protein encoded by this gene is associated with mitotic chromosomes, except during the early phase of chromosome condensation. During interphase, the protein has a distinct punctate nucleolar localization. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different proteins have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

NCAPG Gene

non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G

This gene encodes a subunit of the condensin complex, which is responsible for the condensation and stabilization of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. Phosphorylation of the encoded protein activates the condensin complex. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 8 and 15. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

CACNA2D2 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 2

Calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization. This gene encodes the alpha-2/delta subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. The complex consists of the main channel-forming subunit alpha-1, and auxiliary subunits alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma. The auxiliary subunits function in the assembly and membrane localization of the complex, and modulate calcium currents and channel activation/inactivation kinetics. The subunit encoded by this gene undergoes post-translational cleavage to yield the extracellular alpha2 peptide and a membrane-anchored delta polypeptide. This subunit is a receptor for the antiepileptic drug, gabapentin. Mutations in this gene are associated with early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are correlated with increased sensitivity to opioid drugs. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

CACNA2D3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3

This gene encodes a member of the alpha-2/delta subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. Research on a highly similar protein in rabbit suggests the protein described in this record is cleaved into alpha-2 and delta subunits. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CACNA2D4 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 4

This gene encodes a member of the alpha-2/delta subunit family, a protein in the voltage-dependent calcium channel complex. Calcium channels mediate the influx of calcium ions into the cell upon membrane polarization and consist of a complex of alpha-1, alpha-2/delta, beta, and gamma subunits in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Various versions of each of these subunits exist, either expressed from similar genes or the result of alternative splicing. Research on a highly similar protein in rabbit suggests the protein described in this record is cleaved into alpha-2 and delta subunits. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP2CBP1 Gene

protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme pseudogene 1

PIK3R6 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 6

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma is a lipid kinase that produces the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. The kinase is composed of a catalytic subunit and one of several regulatory subunits, and is chiefly activated by G protein-coupled receptors. This gene encodes a regulatory subunit, and is distantly related to the phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 5 gene which is located adjacent to this gene on chromosome 7. The orthologous protein in the mouse binds to both the catalytic subunit and to G(beta/gamma), and mediates activation of the kinase subunit downstream of G protein-coupled receptors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PIK3R5 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 5

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) phosphorylate the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol at the 3-prime position, and play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking. The PI3Ks are divided into three classes: I, II and III, and only the class I PI3Ks are involved in oncogenesis. This gene encodes the 101 kD regulatory subunit of the class I PI3K gamma complex, which is a dimeric enzyme, consisting of a 110 kD catalytic subunit gamma and a regulatory subunit of either 55, 87 or 101 kD. This protein recruits the catalytic subunit from the cytosol to the plasma membrane through high-affinity interaction with G-beta-gamma proteins. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

PIK3R4 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 4

PIK3R3 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 3 (gamma)

PIK3R2 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 2 (beta)

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a lipid kinase that phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol and similar compounds, creating second messengers important in growth signaling pathways. PI3K functions as a heterodimer of a regulatory and a catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory component of PI3K. Two transcript variants, one protein coding and the other non-protein coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

PIK3R1 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha)

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase phosphorylates the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol at the 3-prime position. The enzyme comprises a 110 kD catalytic subunit and a regulatory subunit of either 85, 55, or 50 kD. This gene encodes the 85 kD regulatory subunit. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase plays an important role in the metabolic actions of insulin, and a mutation in this gene has been associated with insulin resistance. Alternative splicing of this gene results in four transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

SLC51A Gene

solute carrier family 51, alpha subunit

SLC51B Gene

solute carrier family 51, beta subunit

SPTLC2 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 2

This gene encodes a long chain base subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase. Serine palmitoyltransferase, which consists of two different subunits, is the key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis. It catalyzes the pyridoxal-5-prime-phosphate-dependent condensation of L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA to 3-oxosphinganine. Mutations in this gene were identified in patients with hereditary sensory neuropathy type I. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

SPTLC3 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 3

The SPTLC3 gene encodes an isoform of the third subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT; EC 2.3.1.50), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the de novo synthesis of sphingolipids (Hornemann et al., 2006 [PubMed 17023427]). SPT contains 2 main subunits: the common SPTLC1 subunit (MIM 605712) and either SPTLC2 (MIM 605713) or its isoform SPTLC2L (SPTLC3), depending on the tissue in which biosynthesis occurs (Hornemann et al., 2006 [PubMed 17023427]). There are also 2 highly related isoforms of a third subunit, SSSPTA (MIM 613540) and SSSPTB (MIM 610412), that confer acyl-CoA preference of the SPT enzyme and are essential for maximal enzyme activity (Han et al., 2009 [PubMed 19416851]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

SPTLC1 Gene

serine palmitoyltransferase, long chain base subunit 1

This gene encodes a member of the class-II pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent aminotransferase family. The encoded protein is the long chain base subunit 1 of serine palmitoyltransferase. Serine palmitoyltransferase converts L-serine and palmitoyl-CoA to 3-oxosphinganine with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and is the key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis. Mutations in this gene were identified in patients with hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1. Alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. Pseudogenes of this gene have been defined on chromosomes 1, 6, 10, and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PPP1R14BP5 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 5

UQCRQ Gene

ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit VII, 9.5kDa

This gene encodes a ubiquinone-binding protein of low molecular mass. This protein is a small core-associated protein and a subunit of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex III, which is part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP6V0D2 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 38kDa, V0 subunit d2

ATP6V0D1 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 38kDa, V0 subunit d1

This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c'', and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This encoded protein is known as the D subunit and is found ubiquitously. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TSEN2P1 Gene

TSEN2 tRNA splicing endonuclease subunit pseudogene 1

LOC100422375 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha pseudogene

PSMA2 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 2

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMA1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 1

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

PSMA7 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 7

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family that functions as a 20S core alpha subunit. The encoded protein interacts with the hepatitis B virus X protein and plays a role in regulating hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity, an activity essential for viral replication. The encoded protein also plays a role in the cellular stress response by regulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PSMA4 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 4

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PSMA5 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 5

The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the peptidase T1A family, that is a 20S core alpha subunit. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PSMA8 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 8

LOC100288031 Gene

BRICK1, SCAR/WAVE actin-nucleating complex subunit pseudogene

AP4M1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit

This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric AP-4 complex. The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition and sorting of cargo proteins with tyrosine-based motifs from the trans-golgi network to the endosomal-lysosomal system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SDHA Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp)

This gene encodes a major catalytic subunit of succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase, a complex of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The complex is composed of four nuclear-encoded subunits and is localized in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Mutations in this gene have been associated with a form of mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency known as Leigh Syndrome. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 3q29. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

SDHC Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit C, integral membrane protein, 15kDa

This gene encodes one of four nuclear-encoded subunits that comprise succinate dehydrogenase, also known as mitochondrial complex II, a key enzyme complex of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and aerobic respiratory chains of mitochondria. The encoded protein is one of two integral membrane proteins that anchor other subunits of the complex, which form the catalytic core, to the inner mitochondrial membrane. There are several related pseudogenes for this gene on different chromosomes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with paragangliomas. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]

SDHB Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B, iron sulfur (Ip)

Complex II of the respiratory chain, which is specifically involved in the oxidation of succinate, carries electrons from FADH to CoQ. The complex is composed of four nuclear-encoded subunits and is localized in the mitochondrial inner membrane. The iron-sulfur subunit is highly conserved and contains three cysteine-rich clusters which may comprise the iron-sulfur centers of the enzyme. Sporadic and familial mutations in this gene result in paragangliomas and pheochromocytoma, and support a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SDHD Gene

succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein

This gene encodes a member of complex II of the respiratory chain, which is responsible for the oxidation of succinate. The encoded protein is one of two integral membrane proteins anchoring the complex to the matrix side of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Mutations in this gene are associated with the formation of tumors, including hereditary paraganglioma. Transmission of disease occurs almost exclusively through the paternal allele, suggesting that this locus may be maternally imprinted. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 7, and 18. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]

CNOT6LP1 Gene

CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 6-like pseudogene 1

SLX1A Gene

SLX1 structure-specific endonuclease subunit homolog A (S. cerevisiae)

This gene encodes a protein that is an important regulator of genome stability. The protein represents the catalytic subunit of the SLX1-SLX4 structure-specific endonuclease, which can resolve DNA secondary structures that are formed during repair and recombination processes. Two identical copies of this gene are located on the p arm of chromosome 16 due to a segmental duplication; this record represents the more centromeric copy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also occurs between this gene and the downstream SULT1A3 (sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 1A, phenol-preferring, member 3) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

SLX1B Gene

SLX1 structure-specific endonuclease subunit homolog B (S. cerevisiae)

This gene encodes a protein that is an important regulator of genome stability. The protein represents the catalytic subunit of the SLX1-SLX4 structure-specific endonuclease, which can resolve DNA secondary structures that are formed during repair and recombination processes. Two identical copies of this gene are located on the p arm of chromosome 16 due to a segmental duplication; this record represents the more telomeric copy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also occurs between this gene and the downstream SULT1A4 (sulfotransferase family, cytosolic, 1A, phenol-preferring, member 4) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

PPP1R14BP4 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 4

PPP1R14BP2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 2

PPP1R14BP3 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 3

PPP1R14BP1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 1

SAE1 Gene

SUMO1 activating enzyme subunit 1

Posttranslational modification of proteins by the addition of the small protein SUMO (see SUMO1; MIM 601912), or sumoylation, regulates protein structure and intracellular localization. SAE1 and UBA2 (MIM 613295) form a heterodimer that functions as a SUMO-activating enzyme for the sumoylation of proteins (Okuma et al., 1999 [PubMed 9920803]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]

ATP6V1C2 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 42kDa, V1 subunit C2

This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A,three B, and two G subunits, as well as a C, D, E, F, and H subunit. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. This gene encodes alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different V1 domain C subunit isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP6V1C1 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 42kDa, V1 subunit C1

This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells. V-ATPase dependent acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c'', and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This gene is one of two genes that encode the V1 domain C subunit proteins and is found ubiquitously. This C subunit is analogous but not homologous to gamma subunit of F-ATPases. Previously, this gene was designated ATP6D. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R3G Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3G

PPP1R3F Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3F

This gene encodes a protein that has been identified as one of several type-1 protein phosphatase (PP1) regulatory subunits. One or two of these subunits, together with the well-conserved catalytic subunit, can form the PP1 holoenzyme, where the regulatory subunit functions to regulate substrate specificity and/or targeting to a particular cellular compartment. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PPP1R3E Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3E

PPP1R3D Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3D

Phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues in proteins is a crucial step in the regulation of many cellular functions ranging from hormonal regulation to cell division and even short-term memory. The level of phosphorylation is controlled by the opposing actions of protein kinases and protein phosphatases. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) is 1 of 4 major serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatases which have been identified in eukaryotic cells. PP1 associates with various regulatory subunits that dictate its subcellular localization and modulate its substrate specificity. Several subunits that target PP1 to glycogen have been identified. This gene encodes a glycogen-targeting subunit of PP1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R3C Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3C

This gene encodes a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). PP1 catalyzes reversible protein phosphorylation, which is important in a wide range of cellular activities: neuronal, muscular, RNA splicing, protein synthesis, cell death, and glycogen metabolism, to name just a few. By interacting with different regulatory subunits, PP1 is directed to different parts of the cell, to different substrates, or to respond to extracellular signals. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

PPP1R3B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3B

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the serine/theonine phosphatase, protein phosphatase-1. The encoded protein is expressed in liver and skeletal muscle tissue and may be involved in regulating glycogen synthesis in these tissues. This gene may be a involved in type 2 diabetes and maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

PPP1R3A Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3A

The glycogen-associated form of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) derived from skeletal muscle is a heterodimer composed of a 37-kD catalytic subunit and a 124-kD targeting and regulatory subunit. This gene encodes the regulatory subunit which binds to muscle glycogen with high affinity, thereby enhancing dephosphorylation of glycogen-bound substrates for PP1 such as glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase kinase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R37 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 37

PPP1R36 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 36

PPP1R35 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 35

PPP1R32 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 32

MED12L Gene

mediator complex subunit 12-like

The protein encoded by this gene is part of the Mediator complex, which is involved in transcriptional coactivation of nearly all RNA polymerase II-dependent genes. The Mediator complex links gene-specific transcriptional activators with the basal transcription machinery. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PPP1R12A Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 12A

Myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, which is also called the myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase, is one of the subunits of myosin phosphatase. Myosin phosphatase regulates the interaction of actin and myosin downstream of the guanosine triphosphatase Rho. The small guanosine triphosphatase Rho is implicated in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, which results in contraction of smooth muscle and interaction of actin and myosin in nonmuscle cells. The guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound, active form of RhoA (GTP.RhoA) specifically interacted with the myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase, which regulates the extent of phosphorylation of MLC. Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), which is activated by GTP. RhoA, phosphorylated MBS and consequently inactivated myosin phosphatase. Overexpression of RhoA or activated RhoA in NIH 3T3 cells increased phosphorylation of MBS and MLC. Thus, Rho appears to inhibit myosin phosphatase through the action of Rho-kinase. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

PPP1R12B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 12B

Myosin phosphatase is a protein complex comprised of three subunits: a catalytic subunit (PP1c-delta, protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit delta), a large regulatory subunit (MYPT, myosin phosphatase target) and small regulatory subunit (sm-M20). Two isoforms of MYPT have been isolated--MYPT1 and MYPT2, the first of which is widely expressed, and the second of which may be specific to heart, skeletal muscle, and brain. Each of the MYPT isoforms functions to bind PP1c-delta and increase phosphatase activity. This locus encodes both MYTP2 and M20. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. Related pseudogenes have been defined on the Y chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

PPP1R12C Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 12C

The gene encodes a subunit of myosin phosphatase. The encoded protein regulates the catalytic activity of protein phosphatase 1 delta and assembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

ALG13 Gene

ALG13, UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit

The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of a bipartite UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transferase. It heterodimerizes with asparagine-linked glycosylation 14 homolog to form a functional UDP-GlcNAc glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the second sugar addition of the highly conserved oligosaccharide precursor in endoplasmic reticulum N-linked glycosylation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

ALG14 Gene

ALG14, UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit

This gene is a member of the glycosyltransferase 1 family. The encoded protein and ALG13 are thought to be subunits of UDP-GlcNAc transferase, which catalyzes the first two committed steps in endoplasmic reticulum N-linked glycosylation. Mutations in this gene have been linked to congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMSWTA). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

GATB Gene

glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase, subunit B

GATC Gene

glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase, subunit C

PPP6R2 Gene

protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 2

Protein phosphatase regulatory subunits, such as SAPS2, modulate the activity of protein phosphatase catalytic subunits by restricting substrate specificity, recruiting substrates, and determining the intracellular localization of the holoenzyme. SAPS2 is a regulatory subunit for the protein phosphatase-6 catalytic subunit (PPP6C; MIM 612725) (Stefansson and Brautigan, 2006 [PubMed 16769727]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

PPP6R3 Gene

protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 3

Protein phosphatase regulatory subunits, such as SAPS3, modulate the activity of protein phosphatase catalytic subunits by restricting substrate specificity, recruiting substrates, and determining the intracellular localization of the holoenzyme. SAPS3 is a regulatory subunit for the protein phosphatase-6 catalytic subunit (PPP6C; MIM 612725) (Stefansson and Brautigan, 2006 [PubMed 16769727]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

PPP6R1 Gene

protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 1

Protein phosphatase regulatory subunits, such as SAPS1, modulate the activity of protein phosphatase catalytic subunits by restricting substrate specificity, recruiting substrates, and determining the intracellular localization of the holoenzyme. SAPS1 is a regulatory subunit for the protein phosphatase-6 catalytic subunit (PPP6C; MIM 612725) (Stefansson and Brautigan, 2006 [PubMed 16769727]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

POLE Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon, catalytic subunit

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon. The enzyme is involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. Mutations in this gene have been associated with colorectal cancer 12 and facial dysmorphism, immunodeficiency, livedo, and short stature. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PSMD9 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 9

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

ATP5EP1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, epsilon subunit pseudogene 1

ATP5EP2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, epsilon subunit pseudogene 2

LOC100422526 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 3 (PA28 gamma; Ki) pseudogene

PPP1R26P1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 26 pseudogene 1

CACNG8 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type II TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. The mRNA for this gene is believed to initiate translation from a non-AUG (CUG) start codon. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG3 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family. This gene is a susceptibility locus for childhood absence epilepsy. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG6 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 6

Voltage-dependent calcium channels are composed of five subunits. The protein encoded by this gene represents one of these subunits, gamma, and is one of two known gamma subunit proteins. This particular gamma subunit is an integral membrane protein that is thought to stabilize the calcium channel in an inactive (closed) state. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members that function as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Variants in this gene have been associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

CACNG7 Gene

calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP). TARPs regulate both trafficking and channel gating of the AMPA receptors. This gene is part of a functionally diverse eight-member protein subfamily of the PMP-22/EMP/MP20 family and is located in a cluster with two family members, a type I TARP and a calcium channel gamma subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

COPB1 Gene

coatomer protein complex, subunit beta 1

This gene encodes a protein subunit of the coatomer complex associated with non-clathrin coated vesicles. The coatomer complex, also known as the coat protein complex 1, forms in the cytoplasm and is recruited to the Golgi by activated guanosine triphosphatases. Once at the Golgi membrane, the coatomer complex may assist in the movement of protein and lipid components back to the endoplasmic reticulum. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

COPB2 Gene

coatomer protein complex, subunit beta 2 (beta prime)

The Golgi coatomer complex (see MIM 601924) constitutes the coat of nonclathrin-coated vesicles and is essential for Golgi budding and vesicular trafficking. It consists of 7 protein subunits, including COPB2.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

LOC100131868 Gene

serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 4 regulatory subunit 2-like

LOC100288663 Gene

actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa pseudogene

ATP6V1E1P3 Gene

ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 31kDa, V1 subunit E1 pseudogene 3

CCT4P1 Gene

chaperonin containing TCP1, subunit 4 (delta) pseudogene 1

MED1 Gene

mediator complex subunit 1

The activation of gene transcription is a multistep process that is triggered by factors that recognize transcriptional enhancer sites in DNA. These factors work with co-activators to direct transcriptional initiation by the RNA polymerase II apparatus. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the CRSP (cofactor required for SP1 activation) complex, which, along with TFIID, is required for efficient activation by SP1. This protein is also a component of other multisubunit complexes e.g. thyroid hormone receptor-(TR-) associated proteins which interact with TR and facilitate TR function on DNA templates in conjunction with initiation factors and cofactors. It also regulates p53-dependent apoptosis and it is essential for adipogenesis. This protein is known to have the ability to self-oligomerize. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MED6 Gene

mediator complex subunit 6

MED4 Gene

mediator complex subunit 4

This gene encodes a component of the Mediator complex. The Mediator complex interacts with DNA-binding gene-specific transcription factors to modulate transcription by RNA polymerase II. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

MED8 Gene

mediator complex subunit 8

This gene encodes a protein component of the mediator complex, which aids in transcriptional activation through interaction with RNA polymerase II and gene-specific transcription factors. The encoded protein may also function in ubiquitin ligation and protein degradation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

MED9 Gene

mediator complex subunit 9

The multiprotein Mediator complex is a coactivator required for activation of RNA polymerase II transcription by DNA bound transcription factors. The protein encoded by this gene is thought to be a subunit of the Mediator complex. This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP5C Gene

protein phosphatase 5, catalytic subunit

This gene encodes a serine/threonine phosphatase which is a member of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit family. Proteins in this family participate in pathways regulated by reversible phosphorylation at serine and threonine residues; many of these pathways are involved in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. The product of this gene has been shown to participate in signaling pathways in response to hormones or cellular stress, and elevated levels of this protein may be associated with breast cancer development. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

UTP18 Gene

UTP18 small subunit (SSU) processome component homolog (yeast)

AP3S2 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 2 subunit

AP3S1 Gene

adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit

LOC340569 Gene

origin recognition complex, subunit 1 pseudogene

LOC100131284 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 14 pseudogene

COX7BP2 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIb pseudogene 2

COX7BP1 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIb pseudogene 1

POLE2 Gene

polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon 2, accessory subunit

CDKAL1 Gene

CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 1-like 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the methylthiotransferase family. The function of this gene is not known. Genome-wide association studies have linked single nucleotide polymorphisms in an intron of this gene with susceptibilty to type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

VKORC1 Gene

vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1

Vitamin K is essential for blood clotting but must be enzymatically activated. This enzymatically activated form of vitamin K is a reduced form required for the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in some blood-clotting proteins. The product of this gene encodes the enzyme that is responsible for reducing vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to the enzymatically activated form. Fatal bleeding can be caused by vitamin K deficiency and by the vitamin K antagonist warfarin, and it is the product of this gene that is sensitive to warfarin. In humans, mutations in this gene can be associated with deficiencies in vitamin-K-dependent clotting factors and, in humans and rats, with warfarin resistance. Two pseudogenes have been identified on chromosome 1 and the X chromosome. Two alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ATP5HP1 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit d, pseudogene 1

ATP5HP3 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit d, pseudogene 3

ATP5HP2 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit d, pseudogene 2

ATP5HP4 Gene

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit d, pseudogene 4

PPP4R4 Gene

protein phosphatase 4, regulatory subunit 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a HEAT-like repeat-containing protein. The HEAT repeat is a tandemly repeated, 37-47 amino acid long module occurring in a number of cytoplasmic proteins. Arrays of HEAT repeats form a rod-like helical structure and appear to function as protein-protein interaction surfaces. The repeat-containing region of this protein has some similarity to the constant regulatory domain of the protein phosphatase 2A PR65/A subunit. The function of this particular gene product has not been determined. Alternative splicing has been observed for this gene and two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP4R1 Gene

protein phosphatase 4, regulatory subunit 1

This gene encodes one of several alternate regulatory subunits of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 4 (PP4). The protein features multiple HEAT repeats. This protein forms a complex with PP4RC. This complex may have a distinct role from other PP4 complexes, including regulation of HDAC3 (Zhang et al., PMID: 15805470). There is also a transcribed pseudogene on chromosome 20. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

PPP4R2 Gene

protein phosphatase 4, regulatory subunit 2

SRPRB Gene

signal recognition particle receptor, B subunit

The protein encoded by this gene has similarity to mouse protein which is a subunit of the signal recognition particle receptor (SR). This subunit is a transmembrane GTPase belonging to the GTPase superfamily. It anchors alpha subunit, a peripheral membrane GTPase, to the ER membrane. SR is required for the cotranslational targeting of both secretory and membrane proteins to the ER membrane. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FARSB Gene

phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, beta subunit

This gene encodes a highly conserved enzyme that belongs to the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase class IIc subfamily. This enzyme comprises the regulatory beta subunits that form a tetramer with two catalytic alpha subunits. In the presence of ATP, this tetramer is responsible for attaching L-phenylalanine to the terminal adenosine of the appropriate tRNA. A pseudogene located on chromosome 10 has been identified. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

FARSA Gene

phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, alpha subunit

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are a class of enzymes that charge tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. This gene encodes a product which is similar to the catalytic subunit of prokaryotic and Saccharomyces cerevisiae phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetases (PheRS). This gene product has been shown to be expressed in a tumor-selective and cell cycle stage- and differentiation-dependent manner, the first member of the tRNA synthetase gene family shown to exhibit this type of regulated expression [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IL23A Gene

interleukin 23, alpha subunit p19

This gene encodes a subunit of the heterodimeric cytokine interleukin 23 (IL23). IL23 is composed of this protein and the p40 subunit of interleukin 12 (IL12B). The receptor of IL23 is formed by the beta 1 subunit of IL12 (IL12RB1) and an IL23 specific subunit, IL23R. Both IL23 and IL12 can activate the transcription activator STAT4, and stimulate the production of interferon-gamma (IFNG). In contrast to IL12, which acts mainly on naive CD4(+) T cells, IL23 preferentially acts on memory CD4(+) T cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

POLE4 Gene

polymerase (DNA-directed), epsilon 4, accessory subunit

POLE4 is a histone-fold protein that interacts with other histone-fold proteins to bind DNA in a sequence-independent manner. These histone-fold protein dimers combine within larger enzymatic complexes for DNA transcription, replication, and packaging.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]

CMSS1 Gene

cms1 ribosomal small subunit homolog (yeast)

VKORC1L1 Gene

vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1-like 1

COX7A2P2 Gene

cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa polypeptide 2 (liver) pseudogene 2

LOC646794 Gene

SNF8, ESCRT-II complex subunit, homolog (S. cerevisiae) pseudogene

BLOC1S5 Gene

biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex-1, subunit 5, muted

This gene encodes a component of BLOC-1 (biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1). Components of this complex are involved in the biogenesis of organelles such as melanosomes and platelet-dense granules. A mouse model for Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome is mutated in the murine version of this gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription exists between this gene and the upstream EEF1E1 (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 epsilon 1) gene, as well as with the downstream TXNDC5 (thioredoxin domain containing 5) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

BLOC1S3 Gene

biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex-1, subunit 3

This gene encodes a protein that is a component of the BLOC1 multi-subunit protein complex. This complex is necessary for the biogenesis of specialized organelles of the endosomal-lysosomal system, including platelet dense granules and melanosomes. Mutations in this gene cause Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 8, a disease characterized by lysosomal storage defects, bleeding due to platelet storage pool deficiency, and oculocutaneous albinism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BLOC1S2 Gene

biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex-1, subunit 2

This gene encodes a protein with multiple functions. The encoded protein has been found in association with the centrosome, shown to co-localize with gamma-tubulin, and also found to be one of the proteins in the BLOC-1 complex which functions in the formation of lysosome-related organelles. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the X chromosome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

EMC9 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 9

EMC8 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 8

EMC3 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 3

EMC2 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 2

EMC1 Gene

ER membrane protein complex subunit 1

This gene encodes a single-pass type I transmembrane protein, which is a subunit of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein complex (EMC). Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

EMC7 Gene