Name

LINCS Kinativ Kinase Inhibitor Bioactivity Profiles Dataset

From LINCS Kinativ

percent inhibition of kinases by small molecules measured in cell lysates

LINCS KinomeScan Kinase Inhibitor Targets Dataset

From LINCS KinomeScan

kinase inhibitor targets from percent inhibition of kinases by small molecules measured using purified kinases

GEO Signatures of Differentially Expressed Genes for Kinase Perturbations Dataset

From Gene Expression Omnibus

mRNA expression profiles for cell lines or tissues following kinase perturbation (inhibition, activation, knockdown, knockout, over-expression, mutation)

KEA Substrates of Kinases Dataset

From Kinase Enrichment Analysis

protein substrates of kinases from published low-throughput and high-throughput phosphoproteomics studies

NURSA Protein Complexes Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

proteins identified in complexes isolated from cultured cells

NURSA Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

From Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas

protein-protein interactions inferred from membership in complexes

IBTK Gene

inhibitor of Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase

Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a protein tyrosine kinase that is expressed in B cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. The protein encoded by this gene binds to BTK and downregulates BTK's kinase activity. In addition, the encoded protein disrupts BTK-mediated calcium mobilization and negatively regulates the activation of nuclear factor-kappa-B-driven transcription. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 18. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

IBTKP1 Gene

inhibitor of Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase pseudogene 1

MAP4K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 1

MAP4K3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase family. The encoded protein activates key effectors in cell signalling, among them c-Jun. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

MAP4K2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. Although this kinase is found in many tissues, its expression in lymphoid follicles is restricted to the cells of germinal centre, where it may participate in B-cell differentiation. This kinase can be activated by TNF-alpha, and has been shown to specifically activate MAP kinases. This kinase is also found to interact with TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), which is involved in the activation of MAP3K1/MEKK1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

MAP4K5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 5

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family, that is highly similar to yeast SPS1/STE20 kinase. Yeast SPS1/STE20 functions near the beginning of the MAP kinase signal cascades that is essential for yeast pheromone response. This kinase was shown to activate Jun kinase in mammalian cells, which suggested a role in stress response. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP4K4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase has been shown to specifically activate MAPK8/JNK. The activation of MAPK8 by this kinase is found to be inhibited by the dominant-negative mutants of MAP3K7/TAK1, MAP2K4/MKK4, and MAP2K7/MKK7, which suggests that this kinase may function through the MAP3K7-MAP2K4-MAP2K7 kinase cascade, and mediate the TNF-alpha signaling pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ROR2 Gene

receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor protein tyrosine kinase and type I transmembrane protein that belongs to the ROR subfamily of cell surface receptors. The protein may be involved in the early formation of the chondrocytes and may be required for cartilage and growth plate development. Mutations in this gene can cause brachydactyly type B, a skeletal disorder characterized by hypoplasia/aplasia of distal phalanges and nails. In addition, mutations in this gene can cause the autosomal recessive form of Robinow syndrome, which is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with generalized limb bone shortening, segmental defects of the spine, brachydactyly, and a dysmorphic facial appearance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ROR1 Gene

receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1

This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor that modulates neurite growth in the central nervous system. The encoded protein is a glycosylated type I membrane protein that belongs to the ROR subfamily of cell surface receptors. It is a pseudokinase that lacks catalytic activity and may interact with the non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway. This gene is highly expressed during early embryonic development but expressed at very low levels in adult tissues. Increased expression of this gene is associated with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

SERPINE4P Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 4 pseudogene

SERPINE1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 1

This gene encodes a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. This member is the principal inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase (uPA), and hence is an inhibitor of fibrinolysis. Defects in this gene are the cause of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency (PAI-1 deficiency), and high concentrations of the gene product are associated with thrombophilia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

SERPINE2 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 2

This gene encodes a member of the serpin family of proteins, a group of proteins that inhibit serine proteases. Thrombin, urokinase, plasmin and trypsin are among the proteases that this family member can inhibit. This gene is a susceptibility gene for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and for emphysema. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

SERPINE3 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E (nexin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1), member 3

SPINK2 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 2 (acrosin-trypsin inhibitor)

This gene encodes a member of the family of serine protease inhibitors of the Kazal type (SPINK). The encoded protein acts as a trypsin and acrosin inhibitor in the genital tract and is localized in the spermatozoa. The protein has been associated with the progression of lymphomas. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

TFPI Gene

tissue factor pathway inhibitor (lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor)

This gene encodes a protease inhibitor that regulates the tissue factor (TF)-dependent pathway of blood coagulation. The coagulation process initiates with the formation of a factor VIIa-TF complex, which proteolytically activates additional proteases (factors IX and X) and ultimately leads to the formation of a fibrin clot. The product of this gene inhibits the activated factor X and VIIa-TF proteases in an autoregulatory loop. The encoded protein is glycosylated and predominantly found in the vascular endothelium and plasma in both free forms and complexed with plasma lipoproteins. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been confirmed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SERPING1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade G (C1 inhibitor), member 1

This gene encodes a highly glycosylated plasma protein involved in the regulation of the complement cascade. Its protein inhibits activated C1r and C1s of the first complement component and thus regulates complement activation. Deficiency of this protein is associated with hereditary angioneurotic oedema (HANE). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ROS1 Gene

ROS proto-oncogene 1 , receptor tyrosine kinase

This proto-oncogene, highly-expressed in a variety of tumor cell lines, belongs to the sevenless subfamily of tyrosine kinase insulin receptor genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a type I integral membrane protein with tyrosine kinase activity. The protein may function as a growth or differentiation factor receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RYK Gene

receptor-like tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is an atypical member of the family of growth factor receptor protein tyrosine kinases, differing from other members at a number of conserved residues in the activation and nucleotide binding domains. This gene product belongs to a subfamily whose members do not appear to be regulated by phosphorylation in the activation segment. It has been suggested that mediation of biological activity by recruitment of a signaling-competent auxiliary protein may occur through an as yet uncharacterized mechanism. The encoded protein has a leucine-rich extracellular domain with a WIF-type Wnt binding region, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. This protein is involved in stimulating Wnt signaling pathways such as the regulation of axon pathfinding. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

ABL1 Gene

ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene is a protooncogene that encodes a protein tyrosine kinase involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell division, adhesion, differentiation, and response to stress. The activity of the protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, whereby deletion of the region encoding this domain results in an oncogene. The ubiquitously expressed protein has DNA-binding activity that is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function. This gene has been found fused to a variety of translocation partner genes in various leukemias, most notably the t(9;22) translocation that results in a fusion with the 5' end of the breakpoint cluster region gene (BCR; MIM:151410). Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants, which contain alternative first exons that are spliced to the remaining common exons. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]

ABL2 Gene

ABL proto-oncogene 2, non-receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a member of the Abelson family of nonreceptor tyrosine protein kinases. The protein is highly similar to the c-abl oncogene 1 protein, including the tyrosine kinase, SH2 and SH3 domains, and it plays a role in cytoskeletal rearrangements through its C-terminal F-actin- and microtubule-binding sequences. This gene is expressed in both normal and tumor cells, and is involved in translocation with the ets variant 6 gene in leukemia. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]

BMX Gene

BMX non-receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a non-receptor tyrosine kinase belonging to the Tec kinase family. The protein contains a PH-like domain, which mediates membrane targeting by binding to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3), and a SH2 domain that binds to tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins and functions in signal transduction. The protein is implicated in several signal transduction pathways including the Stat pathway, and regulates differentiation and tumorigenicity of several types of cancer cells. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

AXL Gene

AXL receptor tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. The encoded protein possesses an extracellular domain which is composed of two immunoglobulin-like motifs at the N-terminal, followed by two fibronectin type-III motifs. It transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding to the vitamin K-dependent protein growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6). This gene may be involved in several cellular functions including growth, migration, aggregation and anti-inflammation in multiple cell types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

MET Gene

MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase

The proto-oncogene MET product is the hepatocyte growth factor receptor and encodes tyrosine-kinase activity. The primary single chain precursor protein is post-translationally cleaved to produce the alpha and beta subunits, which are disulfide linked to form the mature receptor. Various mutations in the MET gene are associated with papillary renal carcinoma. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MUSK Gene

muscle, skeletal, receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a muscle-specific tyrosine kinase receptor. The encoded protein may play a role in clustering of the acetylcholine receptor in the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital myasthenic syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

DDR2 Gene

discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 2

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play a key role in the communication of cells with their microenvironment. These molecules are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. In several cases the biochemical mechanism by which RTKs transduce signals across the membrane has been shown to be ligand induced receptor oligomerization and subsequent intracellular phosphorylation. This autophosphorylation leads to phosphorylation of cytosolic targets as well as association with other molecules, which are involved in pleiotropic effects of signal transduction. RTKs have a tripartite structure with extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic regions. This gene encodes a member of a novel subclass of RTKs and contains a distinct extracellular region encompassing a factor VIII-like domain. Alternative splicing in the 5' UTR results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DDR1 Gene

discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 1

Receptor tyrosine kinases play a key role in the communication of cells with their microenvironment. These kinases are involved in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and metabolism. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a subfamily of tyrosine kinase receptors with homology to Dictyostelium discoideum protein discoidin I in their extracellular domain, and that are activated by various types of collagen. Expression of this protein is restricted to epithelial cells, particularly in the kidney, lung, gastrointestinal tract, and brain. In addition, it has been shown to be significantly overexpressed in several human tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

TNK2 Gene

tyrosine kinase, non-receptor, 2

This gene encodes a tyrosine kinase that binds Cdc42Hs in its GTP-bound form and inhibits both the intrinsic and GTPase-activating protein (GAP)-stimulated GTPase activity of Cdc42Hs. This binding is mediated by a unique sequence of 47 amino acids C-terminal to an SH3 domain. The protein may be involved in a regulatory mechanism that sustains the GTP-bound active form of Cdc42Hs and which is directly linked to a tyrosine phosphorylation signal transduction pathway. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified from this gene, but the full-length nature of only two transcript variants has been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TNK1 Gene

tyrosine kinase, non-receptor, 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the tyrosine protein kinase family. Tyrosine protein kinases are important regulators of intracellular signal transduction pathways, mediating cellular proliferation, survival, and development. This gene is highly expressed in fetal tissues and at lower levels in few adult tissues, thus may function in signaling pathways utilized broadly during fetal development, and more selectively in adult tissues. It plays a negative regulatory role in the Ras-Raf1-MAPK pathway, and knockout mice have been shown to develop spontaneous tumors, suggesting a role as a tumor suppressor gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

ALK Gene

anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily. This protein comprises an extracellular domain, an hydrophobic stretch corresponding to a single pass transmembrane region, and an intracellular kinase domain. It plays an important role in the development of the brain and exerts its effects on specific neurons in the nervous system. This gene has been found to be rearranged, mutated, or amplified in a series of tumours including anaplastic large cell lymphomas, neuroblastoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. The chromosomal rearrangements are the most common genetic alterations in this gene, which result in creation of multiple fusion genes in tumourigenesis, including ALK (chromosome 2)/EML4 (chromosome 2), ALK/RANBP2 (chromosome 2), ALK/ATIC (chromosome 2), ALK/TFG (chromosome 3), ALK/NPM1 (chromosome 5), ALK/SQSTM1 (chromosome 5), ALK/KIF5B (chromosome 10), ALK/CLTC (chromosome 17), ALK/TPM4 (chromosome 19), and ALK/MSN (chromosome X).[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]

SRC Gene

SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase

This gene is highly similar to the v-src gene of Rous sarcoma virus. This proto-oncogene may play a role in the regulation of embryonic development and cell growth. The protein encoded by this gene is a tyrosine-protein kinase whose activity can be inhibited by phosphorylation by c-SRC kinase. Mutations in this gene could be involved in the malignant progression of colon cancer. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RYKP1 Gene

receptor-like tyrosine kinase pseudogene 1

NTRK1 Gene

neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1

This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (NTKR) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. The presence of this kinase leads to cell differentiation and may play a role in specifying sensory neuron subtypes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital insensitivity to pain, anhidrosis, self-mutilating behavior, mental retardation and cancer. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been found, but only three have been characterized to date. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NTRK2 Gene

neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2

This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. Signalling through this kinase leads to cell differentiation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with obesity and mood disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

NTRK3 Gene

neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 3

This gene encodes a member of the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) family. This kinase is a membrane-bound receptor that, upon neurotrophin binding, phosphorylates itself and members of the MAPK pathway. Signalling through this kinase leads to cell differentiation and may play a role in the development of proprioceptive neurons that sense body position. Mutations in this gene have been associated with medulloblastomas, secretory breast carcinomas and other cancers. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

ERBB2 Gene

erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This protein has no ligand binding domain of its own and therefore cannot bind growth factors. However, it does bind tightly to other ligand-bound EGF receptor family members to form a heterodimer, stabilizing ligand binding and enhancing kinase-mediated activation of downstream signalling pathways, such as those involving mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase. Allelic variations at amino acid positions 654 and 655 of isoform a (positions 624 and 625 of isoform b) have been reported, with the most common allele, Ile654/Ile655, shown here. Amplification and/or overexpression of this gene has been reported in numerous cancers, including breast and ovarian tumors. Alternative splicing results in several additional transcript variants, some encoding different isoforms and others that have not been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ERBB3 Gene

erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This membrane-bound protein has a neuregulin binding domain but not an active kinase domain. It therefore can bind this ligand but not convey the signal into the cell through protein phosphorylation. However, it does form heterodimers with other EGF receptor family members which do have kinase activity. Heterodimerization leads to the activation of pathways which lead to cell proliferation or differentiation. Amplification of this gene and/or overexpression of its protein have been reported in numerous cancers, including prostate, bladder, and breast tumors. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. One isoform lacks the intermembrane region and is secreted outside the cell. This form acts to modulate the activity of the membrane-bound form. Additional splice variants have also been reported, but they have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ERBB4 Gene

erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4

This gene is a member of the Tyr protein kinase family and the epidermal growth factor receptor subfamily. It encodes a single-pass type I membrane protein with multiple cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, a tyrosine kinase domain, a phosphotidylinositol-3 kinase binding site and a PDZ domain binding motif. The protein binds to and is activated by neuregulins and other factors and induces a variety of cellular responses including mitogenesis and differentiation. Multiple proteolytic events allow for the release of a cytoplasmic fragment and an extracellular fragment. Mutations in this gene have been associated with cancer. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LTK Gene

leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ros/insulin receptor family of tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine-specific phosphorylation of proteins is a key to the control of diverse pathways leading to cell growth and differentiation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

MAP3K10 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 10

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase has been shown to activate MAPK8/JNK and MKK4/SEK1, and this kinase itself can be phoshorylated, and thus activated by JNK kinases. This kinase functions preferentially on the JNK signaling pathway, and is reported to be involved in nerve growth factor (NGF) induced neuronal apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K13 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 13

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase contains a dual leucine-zipper motif, and has been shown to form dimers/oligomers through its leucine-zipper motif. This kinase can phosphorylate and activate MAPK8/JNK, MAP2K7/MKK7, which suggests a role in the JNK signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K19 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 19

MAP3K11 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 11

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine kinase family. This kinase contains a SH3 domain and a leucine zipper-basic motif. This kinase preferentially activates MAPK8/JNK kinase, and functions as a positive regulator of JNK signaling pathway. This kinase can directly phosphorylate, and activates IkappaB kinase alpha and beta, and is found to be involved in the transcription activity of NF-kappaB mediated by Rho family GTPases and CDC42. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K12 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 12

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase contains a leucine-zipper domain and is predominately expressed in neuronal cells. The phosphorylation state of this kinase in synaptic terminals was shown to be regulated by membrane depolarization via calcineurin. This kinase forms heterodimers with leucine zipper containing transcription factors, such as cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) and MYC, and thus may play a regulatory role in PKA or retinoic acid induced neuronal differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different proteins have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

MAP3K15 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 15

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. These family members function in a protein kinase signal transduction cascade, where an activated MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K) phosphorylates and activates a specific MAPK kinase (MAP2K), which then activates a specific MAPK. This MAP3K protein plays an essential role in apoptotic cell death triggered by cellular stresses. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

MAP3K8 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 8

This gene is an oncogene that encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein localizes to the cytoplasm and can activate both the MAP kinase and JNK kinase pathways. This protein was shown to activate IkappaB kinases, and thus induce the nuclear production of NF-kappaB. This protein was also found to promote the production of TNF-alpha and IL-2 during T lymphocyte activation. This gene may also utilize a downstream in-frame translation start codon, and thus produce an isoform containing a shorter N-terminus. The shorter isoform has been shown to display weaker transforming activity. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

MAP3K9 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 9

MAP3K2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase preferentially activates other kinases involved in the MAP kinase signaling pathway. This kinase has been shown to directly phosphorylate and activate Ikappa B kinases, and thus plays a role in NF-kappa B signaling pathway. This kinase has also been found to bind and activate protein kinase C-related kinase 2, which suggests its involvement in a regulated signaling process. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3

This gene product is a 626-amino acid polypeptide that is 96.5% identical to mouse Mekk3. Its catalytic domain is closely related to those of several other kinases, including mouse Mekk2, tobacco NPK, and yeast Ste11. Northern blot analysis revealed a 4.6-kb transcript that appears to be ubiquitously expressed. This protein directly regulates the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathways by activating SEK and MEK1/2 respectively; it does not regulate the p38 pathway. In cotransfection assays, it enhanced transcription from a nuclear factor kappa-B (NFKB)-dependent reporter gene, consistent with a role in the SAPK pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase and is part of some signal transduction cascades, including the ERK and JNK kinase pathways as well as the NF-kappa-B pathway. The encoded protein is activated by autophosphorylation and requires magnesium as a cofactor in phosphorylating other proteins. This protein has E3 ligase activity conferred by a plant homeodomain (PHD) in its N-terminus and phospho-kinase activity conferred by a kinase domain in its C-terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

MAP3K7 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase mediates the signaling transduction induced by TGF beta and morphogenetic protein (BMP), and controls a variety of cell functions including transcription regulation and apoptosis. In response to IL-1, this protein forms a kinase complex including TRAF6, MAP3K7P1/TAB1 and MAP3K7P2/TAB2; this complex is required for the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. This kinase can also activate MAPK8/JNK, MAP2K4/MKK4, and thus plays a role in the cell response to environmental stresses. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4

The central core of each mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a conserved cascade of 3 protein kinases: an activated MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK) phosphorylates and activates a specific MAPK kinase (MAPKK), which then activates a specific MAPK. While the ERK MAPKs are activated by mitogenic stimulation, the CSBP2 and JNK MAPKs are activated by environmental stresses such as osmotic shock, UV irradiation, wound stress, and inflammatory factors. This gene encodes a MAPKKK, the MEKK4 protein, also called MTK1. This protein contains a protein kinase catalytic domain at the C terminus. The N-terminal nonkinase domain may contain a regulatory domain. Expression of MEKK4 in mammalian cells activated the CSBP2 and JNK MAPK pathways, but not the ERK pathway. In vitro kinase studies indicated that recombinant MEKK4 can specifically phosphorylate and activate PRKMK6 and SERK1, MAPKKs that activate CSBP2 and JNK, respectively but cannot phosphorylate PRKMK1, an MAPKK that activates ERKs. MEKK4 is a major mediator of environmental stresses that activate the CSBP2 MAPK pathway, and a minor mediator of the JNK pathway. Several alternatively spliced transcripts encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

MAP3K5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades include MAPK or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), MAPK kinase (MKK or MEK), and MAPK kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MEKK). MAPKK kinase/MEKK phosphorylates and activates its downstream protein kinase, MAPK kinase/MEK, which in turn activates MAPK. The kinases of these signaling cascades are highly conserved, and homologs exist in yeast, Drosophila, and mammalian cells. MAPKKK5 contains 1,374 amino acids with all 11 kinase subdomains. Northern blot analysis shows that MAPKKK5 transcript is abundantly expressed in human heart and pancreas. The MAPKKK5 protein phosphorylates and activates MKK4 (aliases SERK1, MAPKK4) in vitro, and activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) during transient expression in COS and 293 cells; MAPKKK5 does not activate MAPK/ERK. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP3K6 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 6

This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that forms a component of protein kinase-mediated signal transduction cascades. The encoded kinase participates in the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

MAP3K14 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14

This gene encodes mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14, which is a serine/threonine protein-kinase. This kinase binds to TRAF2 and stimulates NF-kappaB activity. It shares sequence similarity with several other MAPKK kinases. It participates in an NF-kappaB-inducing signalling cascade common to receptors of the tumour-necrosis/nerve-growth factor (TNF/NGF) family and to the interleukin-1 type-I receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LYN Gene

LYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a tyrosine protein kinase, which maybe involved in the regulation of mast cell degranulation, and erythroid differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

FGR Gene

FGR proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase

This gene is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). The encoded protein contains N-terminal sites for myristylation and palmitylation, a PTK domain, and SH2 and SH3 domains which are involved in mediating protein-protein interactions with phosphotyrosine-containing and proline-rich motifs, respectively. The protein localizes to plasma membrane ruffles, and functions as a negative regulator of cell migration and adhesion triggered by the beta-2 integrin signal transduction pathway. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus results in the overexpression of this gene. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

HCK Gene

HCK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Src family of tyrosine kinases. This protein is primarily hemopoietic, particularly in cells of the myeloid and B-lymphoid lineages. It may help couple the Fc receptor to the activation of the respiratory burst. In addition, it may play a role in neutrophil migration and in the degranulation of neutrophils. Multiple isoforms with different subcellular distributions are produced due to both alternative splicing and the use of alternative translation initiation codons, including a non-AUG (CUG) codon. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

FERP1 Gene

fer (fps/fes related) tyrosine kinase (phosphoprotein NCP94) pseudogene 1

LMTK3 Gene

lemur tyrosine kinase 3

LMTK2 Gene

lemur tyrosine kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein kinase superfamily and the protein tyrosine kinase family. It contains N-terminal transmembrane helices and a long C-terminal cytoplasmic tail with serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase activity. This protein interacts with several other proteins, such as Inhibitor-2 (Inh2), protein phosphatase-1 (PP1C), p35, and myosin VI. It phosporylates other proteins, and is itself also phosporylated when interacting with cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5)/p35 complex. This protein involves in nerve growth factor (NGF)-TrkA signalling, and also plays a critical role in endosomal membrane trafficking. Mouse studies suggested an essential role of this protein in spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

TYRO3 Gene

TYRO3 protein tyrosine kinase

The gene is part of a 3-member transmembrane receptor kinase receptor family with a processed pseudogene distal on chromosome 15. The encoded protein is activated by the products of the growth arrest-specific gene 6 and protein S genes and is involved in controlling cell survival and proliferation, spermatogenesis, immunoregulation and phagocytosis. The encoded protein has also been identified as a cell entry factor for Ebola and Marburg viruses. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

TYK2 Gene

tyrosine kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the tyrosine kinase and, more specifically, the Janus kinases (JAKs) protein families. This protein associates with the cytoplasmic domain of type I and type II cytokine receptors and promulgate cytokine signals by phosphorylating receptor subunits. It is also component of both the type I and type III interferon signaling pathways. As such, it may play a role in anti-viral immunity. A mutation in this gene has been associated with hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) - a primary immunodeficiency characterized by elevated serum immunoglobulin E. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FER Gene

fer (fps/fes related) tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the FPS/FES family of non-transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases. It regulates cell-cell adhesion and mediates signaling from the cell surface to the cytoskeleton via growth factor receptors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]

FES Gene

FES proto-oncogene, tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes the human cellular counterpart of a feline sarcoma retrovirus protein with transforming capabilities. The gene product has tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity and that activity is required for maintenance of cellular transformation. Its chromosomal location has linked it to a specific translocation event identified in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia but it is also involved in normal hematopoiesis as well as growth factor and cytokine receptor signaling. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding different isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

TXK Gene

TXK tyrosine kinase

DYRK3 Gene

dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 3

This gene product belongs to the DYRK family of dual-specificity protein kinases that catalyze autophosphorylation on serine/threonine and tyrosine residues. The members of this family share structural similarity, however, differ in their substrate specificity, suggesting their involvement in different cellular functions. The encoded protein has been shown to autophosphorylate on tyrosine residue and catalyze phosphorylation of histones H3 and H2B in vitro. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DYRK2 Gene

dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 2

DYRK2 belongs to a family of protein kinases whose members are presumed to be involved in cellular growth and/or development. The family is defined by structural similarity of their kinase domains and their capability to autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues. DYRK2 has demonstrated tyrosine autophosphorylation and catalyzed phosphorylation of histones H3 and H2B in vitro. Two isoforms of DYRK2 have been isolated. The predominant isoform, isoform 1, lacks a 5' terminal insert. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DYRK4 Gene

dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 4

This gene encodes an enzyme that belongs to a conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases. Members of this dual specificity kinase family are thought to function in the regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation, survival, and in development. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

FLT4 Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 4

This gene encodes a tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors C and D. The protein is thought to be involved in lymphangiogenesis and maintenance of the lymphatic endothelium. Mutations in this gene cause hereditary lymphedema type IA. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FLT1 Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) family. VEGFR family members are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) which contain an extracellular ligand-binding region with seven immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and a tyrosine kinase (TK) domain within the cytoplasmic domain. This protein binds to VEGFR-A, VEGFR-B and placental growth factor and plays an important role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Expression of this receptor is found in vascular endothelial cells, placental trophoblast cells and peripheral blood monocytes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Isoforms include a full-length transmembrane receptor isoform and shortened, soluble isoforms. The soluble isoforms are associated with the onset of pre-eclampsia.[provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

LCK Gene

LCK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase

This gene is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). The encoded protein is a key signaling molecule in the selection and maturation of developing T-cells. It contains N-terminal sites for myristylation and palmitylation, a PTK domain, and SH2 and SH3 domains which are involved in mediating protein-protein interactions with phosphotyrosine-containing and proline-rich motifs, respectively. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and pericentrosomal vesicles, and binds to cell surface receptors, including CD4 and CD8, and other signaling molecules. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TIE1 Gene

tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 1

This gene encodes a member of the tyrosine protein kinase family. The encoded protein plays a critical role in angiogenesis and blood vessel stability by inhibiting angiopoietin 1 signaling through the endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase Tie2. Ectodomain cleavage of the encoded protein relieves inhibition of Tie2 and is mediated by multiple factors including vascular endothelial growth factor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

PTK2 Gene

protein tyrosine kinase 2

This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase which is found concentrated in the focal adhesions that form between cells growing in the presence of extracellular matrix constituents. The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases but lacks significant sequence similarity to kinases from other subfamilies. Activation of this gene may be an important early step in cell growth and intracellular signal transduction pathways triggered in response to certain neural peptides or to cell interactions with the extracellular matrix. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, but the full-length natures of only three of them have been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PTK7 Gene

protein tyrosine kinase 7 (inactive)

This gene encodes a member of the receptor protein tyrosine kinase family of proteins that transduce extracellular signals across the cell membrane. The encoded protein lacks detectable catalytic tyrosine kinase activity, is involved in the Wnt signaling pathway and plays a role in multiple cellular processes including polarity and adhesion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PTK6 Gene

protein tyrosine kinase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a cytoplasmic nonreceptor protein kinase which may function as an intracellular signal transducer in epithelial tissues. Overexpression of this gene in mammary epithelial cells leads to sensitization of the cells to epidermal growth factor and results in a partially transformed phenotype. Expression of this gene has been detected at low levels in some breast tumors but not in normal breast tissue. The encoded protein has been shown to undergo autophosphorylation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

MATK Gene

megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene has amino acid sequence similarity to Csk tyrosine kinase and has the structural features of the CSK subfamily: SRC homology SH2 and SH3 domains, a catalytic domain, a unique N terminus, lack of myristylation signals, lack of a negative regulatory phosphorylation site, and lack of an autophosphorylation site. This protein is thought to play a significant role in the signal transduction of hematopoietic cells. It is able to phosphorylate and inactivate Src family kinases, and may play an inhibitory role in the control of T-cell proliferation. This protein might be involved in signaling in some cases of breast cancer. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TEC Gene

tec protein tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Tec family of non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases containing a pleckstrin homology domain. Tec family kinases are involved in the intracellular signaling mechanisms of cytokine receptors, lymphocyte surface antigens, heterotrimeric G-protein coupled receptors, and integrin molecules. They are also key players in the regulation of the immune functions. Tec kinase is an integral component of T cell signaling and has a distinct role in T cell activation. This gene may be associated with myelodysplastic syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PKMYT1 Gene

protein kinase, membrane associated tyrosine/threonine 1

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein is a membrane-associated kinase that negatively regulates the G2/M transition of the cell cycle by phosphorylating and inactivating cyclin-dependent kinase 1. The activity of the encoded protein is regulated by polo-like kinase 1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

DSTYK Gene

dual serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase

This gene encodes a dual serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinase which is expressed in multiple tissues. It is thought to function as a regulator of cell death. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

BLK Gene

BLK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a nonreceptor tyrosine-kinase of the src family of proto-oncogenes that are typically involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. The protein has a role in B-cell receptor signaling and B-cell development. The protein also stimulates insulin synthesis and secretion in response to glucose and enhances the expression of several pancreatic beta-cell transcription factors. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

HGS Gene

hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate

The protein encoded by this gene regulates endosomal sorting and plays a critical role in the recycling and degradation of membrane receptors. The encoded protein sorts monoubiquitinated membrane proteins into the multivesicular body, targeting these proteins for lysosome-dependent degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

BTK Gene

Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene plays a crucial role in B-cell development. Mutations in this gene cause X-linked agammaglobulinemia type 1, which is an immunodeficiency characterized by the failure to produce mature B lymphocytes, and associated with a failure of Ig heavy chain rearrangement. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

DYRK1A Gene

dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A

This gene encodes a member of the Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase (DYRK) family. This member contains a nuclear targeting signal sequence, a protein kinase domain, a leucine zipper motif, and a highly conservative 13-consecutive-histidine repeat. It catalyzes its autophosphorylation on serine/threonine and tyrosine residues. It may play a significant role in a signaling pathway regulating cell proliferation and may be involved in brain development. This gene is a homolog of Drosophila mnb (minibrain) gene and rat Dyrk gene. It is localized in the Down syndrome critical region of chromosome 21, and is considered to be a strong candidate gene for learning defects associated with Down syndrome. Alternative splicing of this gene generates several transcript variants differing from each other either in the 5' UTR or in the 3' coding region. These variants encode at least five different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DYRK1B Gene

dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1B

This gene encodes a member of a family of nuclear-localized protein kinases. The encoded protein participates in the regulation of the cell cycle. Expression of this gene may be altered in tumor cells, and mutations in this gene were found to cause abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 3. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

MERTK Gene

MER proto-oncogene, tyrosine kinase

This gene is a member of the MER/AXL/TYRO3 receptor kinase family and encodes a transmembrane protein with two fibronectin type-III domains, two Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains, and one tyrosine kinase domain. Mutations in this gene have been associated with disruption of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) phagocytosis pathway and onset of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

YES1 Gene

YES proto-oncogene 1, Src family tyrosine kinase

This gene is the cellular homolog of the Yamaguchi sarcoma virus oncogene. The encoded protein has tyrosine kinase activity and belongs to the src family of proteins. This gene lies in close proximity to thymidylate synthase gene on chromosome 18, and a corresponding pseudogene has been found on chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NYAP1 Gene

neuronal tyrosine-phosphorylated phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor 1

NYAP2 Gene

neuronal tyrosine-phosphorylated phosphoinositide-3-kinase adaptor 2

SRMS Gene

src-related kinase lacking C-terminal regulatory tyrosine and N-terminal myristylation sites

FLT3 Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 3

This gene encodes a class III receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates hematopoiesis. This receptor is activated by binding of the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand to the extracellular domain, which induces homodimer formation in the plasma membrane leading to autophosphorylation of the receptor. The activated receptor kinase subsequently phosphorylates and activates multiple cytoplasmic effector molecules in pathways involved in apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells in bone marrow. Mutations that result in the constitutive activation of this receptor result in acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

FYN Gene

FYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase

This gene is a member of the protein-tyrosine kinase oncogene family. It encodes a membrane-associated tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in the control of cell growth. The protein associates with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and interacts with the fyn-binding protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TYRO3P Gene

TYRO3P protein tyrosine kinase pseudogene

STYK1 Gene

serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1

Receptor protein tyrosine kinases, like STYK1, play important roles in diverse cellular and developmental processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival (Liu et al., 2004 [PubMed 15150103]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

TEK Gene

TEK tyrosine kinase, endothelial

This gene encodes a receptor that belongs to the protein tyrosine kinase Tie2 family. The encoded protein possesses a unique extracellular region that contains two immunoglobulin-like domains, three epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains and three fibronectin type III repeats. The ligand angiopoietin-1 binds to this receptor and mediates a signaling pathway that functions in embryonic vascular development. Mutations in this gene are associated with inherited venous malformations of the skin and mucous membranes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

SYK Gene

spleen tyrosine kinase

This gene encodes a member of the family of non-receptor type Tyr protein kinases. This protein is widely expressed in hematopoietic cells and is involved in coupling activated immunoreceptors to downstream signaling events that mediate diverse cellular responses, including proliferation, differentiation, and phagocytosis. It is thought to be a modulator of epithelial cell growth and a potential tumour suppressor in human breast carcinomas. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

FLT3LG Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand

Dendritic cells (DCs) provide the key link between innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing pathogens and priming pathogen-specific immune responses. FLT3LG controls the development of DCs and is particularly important for plasmacytoid DCs and CD8 (see MIM 186910)-positive classical DCs and their CD103 (ITGAE; MIM 604682)-positive tissue counterparts (summary by Sathaliyawala et al., 2010 [PubMed 20933441]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]

FRK Gene

fyn-related Src family tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the TYR family of protein kinases. This tyrosine kinase is a nuclear protein and may function during G1 and S phase of the cell cycle and suppress growth. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FLT1P1 Gene

fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 pseudogene 1

PTK2B Gene

protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta

This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase which is involved in calcium-induced regulation of ion channels and activation of the map kinase signaling pathway. The encoded protein may represent an important signaling intermediate between neuropeptide-activated receptors or neurotransmitters that increase calcium flux and the downstream signals that regulate neuronal activity. The encoded protein undergoes rapid tyrosine phosphorylation and activation in response to increases in the intracellular calcium concentration, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation, membrane depolarization, or protein kinase C activation. This protein has been shown to bind CRK-associated substrate, nephrocystin, GTPase regulator associated with FAK, and the SH2 domain of GRB2. The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases but lacks significant sequence similarity to kinases from other subfamilies. Four transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CSK Gene

c-src tyrosine kinase

AATK Gene

apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene contains a tyrosine kinase domain at the N-terminus and a proline-rich domain at the C-terminus. This gene is induced during apoptosis, and expression of this gene may be a necessary pre-requisite for the induction of growth arrest and/or apoptosis of myeloid precursor cells. This gene has been shown to produce neuronal differentiation in a neuroblastoma cell line. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

DOK1 Gene

docking protein 1, 62kDa (downstream of tyrosine kinase 1)

The protein encoded by this gene is part of a signal transduction pathway downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. The encoded protein is a scaffold protein that helps form a platform for the assembly of multiprotein signaling complexes. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

TYROBP Gene

TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein

This gene encodes a transmembrane signaling polypeptide which contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in its cytoplasmic domain. The encoded protein may associate with the killer-cell inhibitory receptor (KIR) family of membrane glycoproteins and may act as an activating signal transduction element. This protein may bind zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa (ZAP-70) and spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and play a role in signal transduction, bone modeling, brain myelination, and inflammation. Mutations within this gene have been associated with polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy (PLOSL), also known as Nasu-Hakola disease. Its putative receptor, triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), also causes PLOSL. Multiple alternative transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

SRCIN1 Gene

SRC kinase signaling inhibitor 1

PKIG Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor gamma

This gene encodes a member of the protein kinase inhibitor family. Studies of a similar protein in mice suggest that this protein acts as a potent competitive cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor, and is a predominant form of inhibitor in various tissues. The encoded protein may be involved in osteogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PKIA Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor alpha

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor family. This protein was demonstrated to interact with and inhibit the activities of both C alpha and C beta catalytic subunits of the PKA. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PKIB Gene

protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor beta

This gene encodes a member of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor family. The encoded protein may play a role in the protein kinase A (PKA) pathway by interacting with the catalytic subunit of PKA, and overexpression of this gene may play a role in prostate cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CDKN3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the dual specificity protein phosphatase family. It was identified as a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, and has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate CDK2 kinase, thus prevent the activation of CDK2 kinase. This gene was reported to be deleted, mutated, or overexpressed in several kinds of cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

LOC400026 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene

IKBKAP Gene

inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase complex-associated protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a scaffold protein and a regulator for 3 different kinases involved in proinflammatory signaling. This encoded protein can bind NF-kappa-B-inducing kinase (NIK) and IKKs through separate domains and assemble them into an active kinase complex. Mutations in this gene have been associated with familial dysautonomia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IKBKG Gene

inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma

This gene encodes the regulatory subunit of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex, which activates NF-kappaB resulting in activation of genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and other pathways. Mutations in this gene result in incontinentia pigmenti, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and several other types of immunodeficiencies. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. A pseudogene highly similar to this locus is located in an adjacent region of the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

PRKRIR Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor)

LOC100131680 Gene

52 kDa repressor of the inhibitor of the protein kinase-like

CAMK2N2 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 2

This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the rat CaM-KII inhibitory protein, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII). CAMKII regulates numerous physiological functions, including neuronal synaptic plasticity through the phosphorylation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate (AMPA) receptors. Studies of the similar protein in rat suggest that this protein may function as a negative regulator of CaM-KII and may act to inhibit the phosphorylation of AMPA receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CAMK2N1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1

PRKRIRP8 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 8

PRKRIRP9 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 9

PRKRIRP1 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 1

PRKRIRP2 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 2

PRKRIRP3 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 3

PRKRIRP4 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 4

PRKRIRP5 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 5

PRKRIRP6 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 6

PRKRIRP7 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 7

CDKN1C Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (p57, Kip2)

This gene is imprinted, with preferential expression of the maternal allele. The encoded protein is a tight-binding, strong inhibitor of several G1 cyclin/Cdk complexes and a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are implicated in sporadic cancers and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndorome, suggesting that this gene is a tumor suppressor candidate. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

CDKN1B Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1)

This gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which shares a limited similarity with CDK inhibitor CDKN1A/p21. The encoded protein binds to and prevents the activation of cyclin E-CDK2 or cyclin D-CDK4 complexes, and thus controls the cell cycle progression at G1. The degradation of this protein, which is triggered by its CDK dependent phosphorylation and subsequent ubiquitination by SCF complexes, is required for the cellular transition from quiescence to the proliferative state. Mutations in this gene are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type IV (MEN4). [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

CDKN1A Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1)

This gene encodes a potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor. The encoded protein binds to and inhibits the activity of cyclin-CDK2 or -CDK4 complexes, and thus functions as a regulator of cell cycle progression at G1. The expression of this gene is tightly controlled by the tumor suppressor protein p53, through which this protein mediates the p53-dependent cell cycle G1 phase arrest in response to a variety of stress stimuli. This protein can interact with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase accessory factor, and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair. This protein was reported to be specifically cleaved by CASP3-like caspases, which thus leads to a dramatic activation of CDK2, and may be instrumental in the execution of apoptosis following caspase activation. Multiple alternatively spliced variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

CDKN2B Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (p15, inhibits CDK4)

This gene lies adjacent to the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A in a region that is frequently mutated and deleted in a wide variety of tumors. This gene encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which forms a complex with CDK4 or CDK6, and prevents the activation of the CDK kinases, thus the encoded protein functions as a cell growth regulator that controls cell cycle G1 progression. The expression of this gene was found to be dramatically induced by TGF beta, which suggested its role in the TGF beta induced growth inhibition. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKN2D Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2D (p19, inhibits CDK4)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been shown to form a stable complex with CDK4 or CDK6, and prevent the activation of the CDK kinases, thus function as a cell growth regulator that controls cell cycle G1 progression. The abundance of the transcript of this gene was found to oscillate in a cell-cycle dependent manner with the lowest expression at mid G1 and a maximal expression during S phase. The negative regulation of the cell cycle involved in this protein was shown to participate in repressing neuronal proliferation, as well as spermatogenesis. Two alternatively spliced variants of this gene, which encode an identical protein, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IKBKB Gene

inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase beta

The protein encoded by this gene phosphorylates the inhibitor in the inhibitor/NF-kappa-B complex, causing dissociation of the inhibitor and activation of NF-kappa-B. The encoded protein itself is found in a complex of proteins. Several transcript variants, some protein-coding and some not, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

IKBKE Gene

inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase epsilon

IKBKE is a noncanonical I-kappa-B (see MIM 164008) kinase (IKK) that is essential for regulating antiviral signaling pathways. IKBKE has also been identified as a breast cancer (MIM 114480) oncogene and is amplified and overexpressed in over 30% of breast carcinomas and breast cancer cell lines (Hutti et al., 2009 [PubMed 19481526]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]

LOC100533853 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene

CDKN2C Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18, inhibits CDK4)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. This protein has been shown to interact with CDK4 or CDK6, and prevent the activation of the CDK kinases, thus function as a cell growth regulator that controls cell cycle G1 progression. Ectopic expression of this gene was shown to suppress the growth of human cells in a manner that appears to correlate with the presence of a wild-type RB1 function. Studies in the knockout mice suggested the roles of this gene in regulating spermatogenesis, as well as in suppressing tumorigenesis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode an identical protein, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDKN2A Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A

This gene generates several transcript variants which differ in their first exons. At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported, two of which encode structurally related isoforms known to function as inhibitors of CDK4 kinase. The remaining transcript includes an alternate first exon located 20 Kb upstream of the remainder of the gene; this transcript contains an alternate open reading frame (ARF) that specifies a protein which is structurally unrelated to the products of the other variants. This ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53 as it can interact with, and sequester, the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. In spite of the structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in cell cycle G1 control. This gene is frequently mutated or deleted in a wide variety of tumors, and is known to be an important tumor suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

PRKRIRP10 Gene

protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor) pseudogene 10

IKBKGP1 Gene

inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma pseudogene 1

PTPN18 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 18 (brain-derived)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, the mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a PEST motif, which often serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may be related to protein intracellular half-live. This protein can differentially dephosphorylate autophosphorylated tyrosine kinases that are overexpressed in tumor tissues, and it appears to regulate HER2, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

PTPN13 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 13 (APO-1/CD95 (Fas)-associated phosphatase)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP is a large intracellular protein. It has a catalytic PTP domain at its C-terminus and two major structural domains: a region with five PDZ domains and a FERM domain that binds to plasma membrane and cytoskeletal elements. This PTP was found to interact with, and dephosphorylate, Fas receptor and IkappaBalpha through the PDZ domains. This suggests it has a role in Fas mediated programmed cell death. This PTP was also shown to interact with GTPase-activating protein, and thus may function as a regulator of Rho signaling pathways. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

PTPN12 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 12

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains a C-terminal PEST motif, which serves as a protein-protein interaction domain, and may regulate protein intracellular half-life. This PTP was found to bind and dephosphorylate the product of the oncogene c-ABL and thus may play a role in oncogenesis. This PTP was also shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate, various products related to cytoskeletal structure and cell adhesion, such as p130 (Cas), CAKbeta/PTK2B, PSTPIP1, and paxillin. This suggests it has a regulatory role in controlling cell shape and mobility. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

PTPN11 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains two tandem Src homology-2 domains, which function as phospho-tyrosine binding domains and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. This PTP is widely expressed in most tissues and plays a regulatory role in various cell signaling events that are important for a diversity of cell functions, such as mitogenic activation, metabolic control, transcription regulation, and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Noonan syndrome as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]

PTPN14 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 14

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal noncatalytic domain similar to that of band 4.1 superfamily cytoskeleton-associated proteins, which suggested the membrane or cytoskeleton localization of this protein. It appears to regulate lymphatic development in mammals, and a loss of function mutation has been found in a kindred with a lymphedema-choanal atresia. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

LOC105369264 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 20

PPFIA4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 4

PPFIA4, or liprin-alpha-4, belongs to the liprin-alpha gene family. See liprin-alpha-1 (LIP1, or PPFIA1; MIM 611054) for background on liprins.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC105379539 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 23-like

PTPN22 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 22 (lymphoid)

This gene encodes of member of the non-receptor class 4 subfamily of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. The encoded protein is a lymphoid-specific intracellular phosphatase that associates with the molecular adapter protein CBL and may be involved in regulating CBL function in the T-cell receptor signaling pathway. Mutations in this gene may be associated with a range of autoimmune disorders including Type 1 Diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and Graves' disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

PTPN23 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 23

PTPN20 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 20

The product of this gene belongs to the family of classical tyrosine-specific protein tyrosine phosphatases. Many protein tyrosine phosphatases have been shown to regulate fundamental cellular processes. The encoded protein appears to be targeted to sites of actin polymerization. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on chromosome 10. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

PTPN21 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 21

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal domain, similar to cytoskeletal- associated proteins including band 4.1, ezrin, merlin, and radixin. This PTP was shown to specially interact with BMX/ETK, a member of Tec tyrosine kinase family characterized by a multimodular structures including PH, SH3, and SH2 domains. The interaction of this PTP with BMX kinase was found to increase the activation of STAT3, but not STAT2 kinase. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested the possible roles of this PTP in liver regeneration and spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100422713 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

LOC100422710 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1 pseudogene

LOC442113 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

PTPRCAP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C-associated protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a transmembrane phosphoprotein specifically associated with tyrosine phosphatase PTPRC/CD45, a key regulator of T- and B-lymphocyte activation. The interaction with PTPRC may be required for the stable expression of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRZ2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 2

PTPRZ1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor-type, Z polypeptide 1

This gene encodes a member of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase family. Expression of this gene is restricted to the central nervous system (CNS), and it may be involved in the regulation of specific developmental processes in the CNS. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PTPN3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This protein contains a C-terminal PTP domain and an N-terminal domain homologous to the band 4.1 superfamily of cytoskeletal-associated proteins. P97, a cell cycle regulator involved in a variety of membrane related functions, has been shown to be a substrate of this PTP. This PTP was also found to interact with, and be regulated by adaptor protein 14-3-3 beta. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

LOC100422495 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (megakaryocyte) pseudogene

PTPN2P2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 pseudogene 2

LOC442263 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

PTPN9 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal domain that shares a significant similarity with yeast SEC14, which is a protein that has phosphatidylinositol transfer activity and is required for protein secretion through the Golgi complex in yeast. This PTP was found to be activated by polyphosphoinositide, and is thought to be involved in signaling events regulating phagocytosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPN2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. Members of the PTP family share a highly conserved catalytic motif, which is essential for the catalytic activity. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. Epidermal growth factor receptor and the adaptor protein Shc were reported to be substrates of this PTP, which suggested the roles in growth factor mediated cell signaling. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. Two highly related but distinctly processed pseudogenes that localize to chromosomes 1 and 13, respectively, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PTPN1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1

The protein encoded by this gene is the founding member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, which was isolated and identified based on its enzymatic activity and amino acid sequence. PTPs catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphate monoesters specifically on tyrosine residues. Members of the PTP family share a highly conserved catalytic motif, which is essential for the catalytic activity. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP has been shown to act as a negative regulator of insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the phosphotryosine residues of insulin receptor kinase. This PTP was also reported to dephosphorylate epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, as well as JAK2 and TYK2 kinases, which implicated the role of this PTP in cell growth control, and cell response to interferon stimulation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PTPN7 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This gene is preferentially expressed in a variety of hematopoietic cells, and is an early response gene in lymphokine stimulated cells. The non-catalytic N-terminus of this PTP can interact with MAP kinases and suppress the MAP kinase activities. This PTP was shown to be involved in the regulation of T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling, which was thought to function through dephosphorylating the molecules related to MAP kinase pathway. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PTPN6 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. N-terminal part of this PTP contains two tandem Src homolog (SH2) domains, which act as protein phospho-tyrosine binding domains, and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. This PTP is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells, and functions as an important regulator of multiple signaling pathways in hematopoietic cells. This PTP has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate a wide spectrum of phospho-proteins involved in hematopoietic cell signaling. Multiple alternatively spliced variants of this gene, which encode distinct isoforms, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPN5 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 5 (striatum-enriched)

PTPN4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (megakaryocyte)

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This protein contains a C-terminal PTP domain and an N-terminal domain homologous to the band 4.1 superfamily of cytoskeletal-associated proteins. This PTP has been shown to interact with glutamate receptor delta 2 and epsilon subunits, and is thought to play a role in signalling downstream of the glutamate receptors through tyrosine dephosphorylation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC344593 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

LOC100129526 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, D pseudogene

LOC102725179 Gene

tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 20-like

LOC391771 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

PTPN2P1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 2 pseudogene 1

PPFIA2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. It has been proposed that liprins are multivalent proteins that form complex structures and act as scaffolds for the recruitment and anchoring of LAR family of tyrosine phosphatases. This protein has been shown to bind the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family) protein (also known as CASK) and proposed to regulate higher-order brain functions in mammals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

PPFIA3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. Liprin family protein has been shown to localize phosphatase LAR to cell focal adhesions and may be involved in the molecular organization of presynaptic active zones. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPFIA1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. This protein binds to the intracellular membrane-distal phosphatase domain of tyrosine phosphatase LAR, and appears to localize LAR to cell focal adhesions. This interaction may regulate the disassembly of focal adhesion and thus help orchestrate cell-matrix interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRVP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, V, pseudogene

PTPRR Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, R

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and a single intracellular catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. Silencing of this gene has been associated with colorectal cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. This gene shares a symbol (PTPRQ) with another gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, Q (GeneID 374462), which is also located on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PTPRU Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, U

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracellular catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP (MAM) domain, Ig-like and fibronectin type III-like repeats. This PTP was thought to play roles in cell-cell recognition and adhesion. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested the role of this PTP in early neural development. The expression of this gene was reported to be regulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or calcium ionophore in Jurkat T lymphoma cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

PTPRT Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, T

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracellular catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP (MAM) domain, Ig-like and fibronectin type III-like repeats. The protein domain structure and the expression pattern of the mouse counterpart of this PTP suggest its roles in both signal transduction and cellular adhesion in the central nervous system. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRS Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, S

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular region, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region of this protein is composed of multiple Ig-like and fibronectin type III-like domains. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested that this PTP may be involved in cell-cell interaction, primary axonogenesis, and axon guidance during embryogenesis. This PTP has been also implicated in the molecular control of adult nerve repair. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRQ Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, Q

This locus encodes a member of the type III receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. The encoded protein catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine and phosphatidylinositol and plays roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Mutations at this locus have been linked to autosomal recessive deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

PTPRG Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, G

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region of this PTP contains a carbonic anhydrase-like (CAH) domain, which is also found in the extracellular region of PTPRBETA/ZETA. This gene is located in a chromosomal region that is frequently deleted in renal cell carcinoma and lung carcinoma, thus is thought to be a candidate tumor suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRF Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, F

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains three Ig-like domains, and nine non-Ig like domains similar to that of neural-cell adhesion molecule. This PTP was shown to function in the regulation of epithelial cell-cell contacts at adherents junctions, as well as in the control of beta-catenin signaling. An increased expression level of this protein was found in the insulin-responsive tissue of obese, insulin-resistant individuals, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene, which encode distinct proteins, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRE Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, E

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported, one of which encodes a receptor-type PTP that possesses a short extracellular domain, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains; Another one encodes a PTP that contains a distinct hydrophilic N-terminus, and thus represents a nonreceptor-type isoform of this PTP. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested the regulatory roles of this PTP in RAS related signal transduction pathways, cytokines induced SATA signaling, as well as the activation of voltage-gated K+ channels. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRD Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, D

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular region, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region of this protein is composed of three Ig-like and eight fibronectin type III-like domains. Studies of the similar genes in chicken and fly suggest the role of this PTP is in promoting neurite growth, and regulating neurons axon guidance. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]

PTPRC Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitosis, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus is classified as a receptor type PTP. This PTP has been shown to be an essential regulator of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. It functions through either direct interaction with components of the antigen receptor complexes, or by activating various Src family kinases required for the antigen receptor signaling. This PTP also suppresses JAK kinases, and thus functions as a regulator of cytokine receptor signaling. Alternatively spliced transcripts variants of this gene, which encode distinct isoforms, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

PTPRB Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, B

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment and one intracytoplasmic catalytic domain, thus belongs to receptor type PTP. The extracellular region of this PTP is composed of multiple fibronectin type_III repeats, which was shown to interact with neuronal receptor and cell adhesion molecules, such as contactin and tenascin C. This protein was also found to interact with sodium channels, and thus may regulate sodium channels by altering tyrosine phosphorylation status. The functions of the interaction partners of this protein implicate the roles of this PTP in cell adhesion, neurite growth, and neuronal differentiation. Alternate transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PTPRA Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, A

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. This PTP has been shown to dephosphorylate and activate Src family tyrosine kinases, and is implicated in the regulation of integrin signaling, cell adhesion and proliferation. Three alternatively spliced variants of this gene, which encode two distinct isoforms, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRO Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, O

This gene encodes a member of the R3 subtype family of receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatases. These proteins are localized to the apical surface of polarized cells and may have tissue-specific functions through activation of Src family kinases. This gene contains two distinct promoters, and alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed. The encoded proteins may have multiple isoform-specific and tissue-specific functions, including the regulation of osteoclast production and activity, inhibition of cell proliferation and facilitation of apoptosis. This gene is a candidate tumor suppressor, and decreased expression of this gene has been observed in several types of cancer. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PTPRN Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, N

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and a single catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. This PTP was found to be an autoantigen that is reactive with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patient sera, and thus may be a potential target of autoimmunity in diabetes mellitus. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PTPRM Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, M

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP mu (MAM) domain, an Ig-like domain and four fibronectin type III-like repeats. This PTP has been shown to mediate cell-cell aggregation through the interaction with another molecule of this PTP on an adjacent cell. This PTP can interact with scaffolding protein RACK1/GNB2L1, which may be necessary for the downstream signaling in response to cell-cell adhesion. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcripts encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRK Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, K

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP mu (MAM) domain, an Ig-like domain and four fibronectin type III-like repeats. This PTP was shown to mediate homophilic intercellular interaction, possibly through the interaction with beta- and gamma-catenin at adherens junctions. Expression of this gene was found to be stimulated by TGF-beta 1, which may be important for the inhibition of keratinocyte proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRJ Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, J

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region containing five fibronectin type III repeats, a single transmembrane region, and a single intracytoplasmic catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. This protein is present in all hematopoietic lineages, and was shown to negatively regulate T cell receptor signaling possibly through interfering with the phosphorylation of Phospholipase C Gamma 1 and Linker for Activation of T Cells. This protein can also dephosphorylate the PDGF beta receptor, and may be involved in UV-induced signal transduction. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PTPRH Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, H

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and a single intracytoplasmic catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains eight fibronectin type III-like repeats and multiple N-glycosylation sites. The gene was shown to be expressed primarily in brain and liver, and at a lower level in heart and stomach. It was also found to be expressed in several cancer cell lines, but not in the corresponding normal tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

PTPRN2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, N polypeptide 2

This gene encodes a protein with sequence similarity to receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases. However, tyrosine phosphatase activity has not been experimentally validated for this protein. Studies of the rat ortholog suggest that the encoded protein may instead function as a phosphatidylinositol phosphatase with the ability to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate, and this function may be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. This protein has been identified as an autoantigen in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]

PTPN20CP Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 20C, pseudogene

LOC100421822 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 pseudogene

DBI Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein)

This gene encodes diazepam binding inhibitor, a protein that is regulated by hormones and is involved in lipid metabolism and the displacement of beta-carbolines and benzodiazepines, which modulate signal transduction at type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors located in brain synapses. The protein is conserved from yeast to mammals, with the most highly conserved domain consisting of seven contiguous residues that constitute the hydrophobic binding site for medium- and long-chain acyl-Coenzyme A esters. Diazepam binding inhibitor is also known to mediate the feedback regulation of pancreatic secretion and the postprandial release of cholecystokinin, in addition to its role as a mediator in corticotropin-dependent adrenal steroidogenesis. Three pseudogenes located on chromosomes 6, 8 and 16 have been identified. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DBIP2 Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein) pseudogene 2

DBIP3 Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein) pseudogene 3

DBIP1 Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-CoA binding protein) pseudogene 1

PTGFRN Gene

prostaglandin F2 receptor inhibitor

ERRFI1 Gene

ERBB receptor feedback inhibitor 1

ERRFI1 is a cytoplasmic protein whose expression is upregulated with cell growth (Wick et al., 1995 [PubMed 7641805]). It shares significant homology with the protein product of rat gene-33, which is induced during cell stress and mediates cell signaling (Makkinje et al., 2000 [PubMed 10749885]; Fiorentino et al., 2000 [PubMed 11003669]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

CAMKK2 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, beta

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. The major isoform of this gene plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade by phosphorylating the downstream kinases CaMK1 and CaMK4. Protein products of this gene also phosphorylate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This gene has its strongest expression in the brain and influences signalling cascades involved with learning and memory, neuronal differentiation and migration, neurite outgrowth, and synapse formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. The identified isoforms differ in their ability to undergo autophosphorylation and to phosphorylate downstream kinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CAMKK1 Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This protein plays a role in the calcium/calmodulin-dependent (CaM) kinase cascade. Three transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NUCKS1 Gene

nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1

This gene encodes a nuclear protein that is highly conserved in vertebrates. The conserved regions of the protein contain several consensus phosphorylation sites for casein kinase II and cyclin-dependent kinases, two putative nuclear localization signals, and a basic DNA-binding domain. It is phosphorylated in vivo by Cdk1 during mitosis of the cell cycle. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

MKNK2 Gene

MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMK) Ser/Thr protein kinase family, which belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. This protein contains conserved DLG (asp-leu-gly) and ENIL (glu-asn-ile-leu) motifs, and an N-terminal polybasic region which binds importin A and the translation factor scaffold protein eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G). This protein is one of the downstream kinases activated by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. It phosphorylates the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), thus playing important roles in the initiation of mRNA translation, oncogenic transformation and malignant cell proliferation. In addition to eIF4E, this protein also interacts with von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL), ring-box 1 (Rbx1) and Cullin2 (Cul2), which are all components of the CBC(VHL) ubiquitin ligase E3 complex. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but the full-length nature and biological activity of only two variants are determined. These two variants encode distinct isoforms which differ in activity and regulation, and in subcellular localization. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

MKNK1 Gene

MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 1

This gene encodes a Ser/Thr protein kinase that interacts with, and is activated by ERK1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, and thus may play a role in the response to environmental stress and cytokines. This kinase may also regulate transcription by phosphorylating eIF4E via interaction with the C-terminal region of eIF4G. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]

MAPKAPK5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a tumor suppressor and member of the serine/threonine kinase family. In response to cellular stress and proinflammatory cytokines, this kinase is activated through its phosphorylation by MAP kinases including MAPK1/ERK, MAPK14/p38-alpha, and MAPK11/p38-beta. The encoded protein is found in the nucleus but translocates to the cytoplasm upon phosphorylation and activation. This kinase phosphorylates heat shock protein HSP27 at its physiologically relevant sites. Two alternately spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]

MAPKAPK3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase functions as a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase)- activated protein kinase. MAP kinases are also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This kinase was shown to be activated by growth inducers and stress stimulation of cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that ERK, p38 MAP kinase and Jun N-terminal kinase were all able to phosphorylate and activate this kinase, which suggested the role of this kinase as an integrative element of signaling in both mitogen and stress responses. This kinase was reported to interact with, phosphorylate and repress the activity of E47, which is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor known to be involved in the regulation of tissue-specific gene expression and cell differentiation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

MAPKAPK2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This kinase is regulated through direct phosphorylation by p38 MAP kinase. In conjunction with p38 MAP kinase, this kinase is known to be involved in many cellular processes including stress and inflammatory responses, nuclear export, gene expression regulation and cell proliferation. Heat shock protein HSP27 was shown to be one of the substrates of this kinase in vivo. Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100996792 Gene

dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3

SMG1 Gene

SMG1 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase

This gene encodes a protein involved in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) as part of the mRNA surveillance complex. The protein has kinase activity and is thought to function in NMD by phosphorylating the regulator of nonsense transcripts 1 protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their full-length nature has yet to be determined. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]

MAP2K4P1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 pseudogene 1

MAP2K3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is activated by mitogenic and environmental stress, and participates in the MAP kinase-mediated signaling cascade. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK14/p38-MAPK. This kinase can be activated by insulin, and is necessary for the expression of glucose transporter. Expression of RAS oncogene is found to result in the accumulation of the active form of this kinase, which thus leads to the constitutive activation of MAPK14, and confers oncogenic transformation of primary cells. The inhibition of this kinase is involved in the pathogenesis of Yersina pseudotuberculosis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode distinct isoforms have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK2/ERK3. The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. Mutations in this gene cause cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC syndrome), a disease characterized by heart defects, mental retardation, and distinctive facial features similar to those found in Noonan syndrome. The inhibition or degradation of this kinase is also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of Yersinia and anthrax. A pseudogene, which is located on chromosome 7, has been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon wide variety of extra- and intracellular signals. As an essential component of MAP kinase signal transduction pathway, this kinase is involved in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K7 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase specifically activates MAPK8/JNK1 and MAPK9/JNK2, and this kinase itself is phosphorylated and activated by MAP kinase kinase kinases including MAP3K1/MEKK1, MAP3K2/MEKK2,MAP3K3/MEKK5, and MAP4K2/GCK. This kinase is involved in the signal transduction mediating the cell responses to proinflammatory cytokines, and environmental stresses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

MAP2K6 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6

This gene encodes a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which functions as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein phosphorylates and activates p38 MAP kinase in response to inflammatory cytokines or environmental stress. As an essential component of p38 MAP kinase mediated signal transduction pathway, this gene is involved in many cellular processes such as stress induced cell cycle arrest, transcription activation and apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K5 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase specifically interacts with and activates MAPK7/ERK5. This kinase itself can be phosphorylated and activated by MAP3K3/MEKK3, as well as by atypical protein kinase C isoforms (aPKCs). The signal cascade mediated by this kinase is involved in growth factor stimulated cell proliferation and muscle cell differentiation. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

MAP2K4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4

This gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. Members of this family act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation, and development. They form a three-tiered signaling module composed of MAPKKKs, MAPKKs, and MAPKs. This protein is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues by MAPKKKs and subsequently phosphorylates downstream MAPK targets at threonine and tyrosine residues. A similar protein in mouse has been reported to play a role in liver organogenesis. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome X. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

MKNK2P1 Gene

MAP kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 pseudogene 1

LOC100422438 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 pseudogene

MAPKAPK5P1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5 pseudogene 1

LOC100422558 Gene

SMG1 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase pseudogene

DTYMK Gene

deoxythymidylate kinase (thymidylate kinase)

PACSIN1 Gene

protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 1

PACSIN3 Gene

protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 3

This gene is a member of the protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons family. The encoded protein is involved in linking the actin cytoskeleton with vesicle formation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PACSIN2 Gene

protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons 2

This gene is a member of the protein kinase C and casein kinase substrate in neurons family. The encoded protein is involved in linking the actin cytoskeleton with vesicle formation by regulating tubulin polymerization. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

CDKL1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 1 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

CDKL2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (CDC2-related kinase)

This gene product is a member of a large family of CDC2-related serine/threonine protein kinases. It accumulates primarily in the cytoplasm, with lower levels in the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAP2K1P1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 pseudogene 1

LOC407835 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 pseudogene

PTPMT1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase, mitochondrial 1

TRNAY-GUA Gene

transfer RNA tyrosine (anticodon GUA)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

YWHAQ Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 99% identical to the mouse and rat orthologs. This gene is upregulated in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It contains in its 5' UTR a 6 bp tandem repeat sequence which is polymorphic, however, there is no correlation between the repeat number and the disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

YWHAH Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, eta

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 99% identical to the mouse, rat and bovine orthologs. This gene contains a 7 bp repeat sequence in its 5' UTR, and changes in the number of this repeat have been associated with early-onset schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

YWHAB Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the 14-3-3 family of proteins, members of which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals. The encoded protein has been shown to interact with RAF1 and CDC25 phosphatases, suggesting that it may play a role in linking mitogenic signaling and the cell cycle machinery. Two transcript variants, which encode the same protein, have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

YWHAG Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, gamma

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 100% identical to the rat ortholog. It is induced by growth factors in human vascular smooth muscle cells, and is also highly expressed in skeletal and heart muscles, suggesting an important role for this protein in muscle tissue. It has been shown to interact with RAF1 and protein kinase C, proteins involved in various signal transduction pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

YWHAE Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 100% identical to the mouse ortholog. It interacts with CDC25 phosphatases, RAF1 and IRS1 proteins, suggesting its role in diverse biochemical activities related to signal transduction, such as cell division and regulation of insulin sensitivity. It has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of small cell lung cancer. Two transcript variants, one protein-coding and the other non-protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]

TH Gene

tyrosine hydroxylase

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the conversion of tyrosine to dopamine. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, hence plays a key role in the physiology of adrenergic neurons. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal recessive Segawa syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CYYR1-AS1 Gene

cysteine/tyrosine-rich 1 antisense RNA 1

TAT Gene

tyrosine aminotransferase

This nuclear gene encodes a mitochondrial protein tyrosine aminotransferase which is present in the liver and catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine into p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Mutations in this gene cause tyrosinemia (type II, Richner-Hanhart syndrome), a disorder accompanied by major skin and corneal lesions, with possible mental retardation. A regulator gene for tyrosine aminotransferase is X-linked. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CABYRP1 Gene

calcium binding tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated pseudogene 1

TRNAY-AUA Gene

transfer RNA tyrosine (anticodon AUA)

This record serves to anchor the annotations of this class of tRNAs at multiple locations on the human genome. The placements are predicted using tRNAscan-SE (Lowe, T.M. and Eddy, S.R. 1997. Nucleic Acids Res. 25:955-964, PubMed 9023104).

TTLL11 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 11

TTLL10 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 10

TTLL12 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 12

YWHAZP8 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 8

YWHAZP9 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 9

YWHAZP2 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 2

YWHAZP3 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 3

YWHAZP1 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 1

YWHAZP6 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 6

YWHAZP5 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 5

TTLL13P Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 13, pseudogene

LOC158781 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide pseudogene

STYXL1 Gene

serine/threonine/tyrosine interacting-like 1

PTP4A1P2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 2

PTP4A1P3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 3

PTP4A1P1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 1

PTP4A1P6 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 6

PTP4A1P7 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 7

PTP4A1P4 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 4

PTP4A1P5 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1 pseudogene 5

TTLL5 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 5

This gene encodes a member of the tubulin tyrosine ligase like protein family. This protein interacts with two glucocorticoid receptor coactivators, transcriptional intermediary factor 2 and steroid receptor coactivator 1. This protein may function as a coregulator of glucocorticoid receptor mediated gene induction and repression. This protein may also function as an alpha tubulin polyglutamylase.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

TTLL4 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 4

TTLL7 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 7

TTLL6 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 6

TTLL1 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 1

TTLL3 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 3

TTLL2 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 2

TTLL9 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 9

TTLL8 Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family member 8

LOC100422669 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide pseudogene

YWHAZ Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta

This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 99% identical to the mouse, rat and sheep orthologs. The encoded protein interacts with IRS1 protein, suggesting a role in regulating insulin sensitivity. Several transcript variants that differ in the 5' UTR but that encode the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

YWHAZP7 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 7

YWHAZP4 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta pseudogene 4

TTL Gene

tubulin tyrosine ligase

TTL is a cytosolic enzyme involved in the posttranslational modification of alpha-tubulin (see MIM 602529). Alpha-tubulin within assembled microtubules is detyrosinated over time at the C terminus. After microtubule disassembly, TTL restores the tyrosine residues and consequently participates in a cycle of tubulin detyrosination and tyrosination (Erck et al., 2003 [PubMed 14571137]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

PTP4A2P1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 2 pseudogene 1

PTP4A2P2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 2 pseudogene 2

LOC100128076 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase pseudogene

LOC100130210 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon polypeptide pseudogene

YWHAEP5 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon pseudogene 5

YWHAEP7 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon pseudogene 7

YWHAEP1 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon pseudogene 1

PTP4A1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 1

This gene encodes a member of a small class of prenylated protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which contain a PTP domain and a characteristic C-terminal prenylation motif. The encoded protein is a cell signaling molecule that plays regulatory roles in a variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation and migration. The protein may also be involved in cancer development and metastasis. This tyrosine phosphatase is a nuclear protein, but may associate with plasma membrane by means of its prenylation motif. Pseudogenes related to this gene are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 7, 11 and X. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

PTP4A3 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 3

This gene encodes a member of the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. Protein tyrosine phosphatases are cell signaling molecules that play regulatory roles in a variety of cellular processes. Studies of this class of protein tyrosine phosphatase in mice demonstrates that they are prenylated in vivo, suggesting their association with cell plasma membrane. The encoded protein may enhance cell proliferation, and overexpression of this gene has been implicated in tumor metastasis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PTP4A2 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase type IVA, member 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a small class of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are cell signaling molecules that play regulatory roles in a variety of cellular processes. PTPs in this class contain a protein tyrosine phosphatase catalytic domain and a characteristic C-terminal prenylation motif. This PTP has been shown to primarily associate with plasmic and endosomal membrane through its C-terminal prenylation. This PTP was found to interact with the beta-subunit of Rab geranylgeranyltransferase II (beta GGT II), and thus may function as a regulator of GGT II activity. Overexpression of this gene in mammalian cells conferred a transformed phenotype, which suggested its role in tumorigenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. Related pseudogenes exist on chromosomes 11, 12 and 17. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

CABYR Gene

calcium binding tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated

To reach fertilization competence, spermatozoa undergo a series of morphological and molecular maturational processes, termed capacitation, involving protein tyrosine phosphorylation and increased intracellular calcium. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the principal piece of the sperm flagellum in association with the fibrous sheath and exhibits calcium-binding when phosphorylated during capacitation. A pseudogene on chromosome 3 has been identified for this gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

CYYR1 Gene

cysteine/tyrosine-rich 1

STYX Gene

serine/threonine/tyrosine interacting protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a pseudophosphatase, able to bind potential substrates but lacking an active catalytic loop. The encoded protein may be involved in spermiogenesis. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for these genes. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

YWHABP2 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta pseudogene 2

YWHABP1 Gene

tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta pseudogene 1

PTPDC1 Gene

protein tyrosine phosphatase domain containing 1

The protein encoded by this gene contains a characteristic motif of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). PTPs regulate activities of phosphoproteins through dephosphorylation. They are signaling molecules involved in the regulation of a wide variety of biological processes. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PPP1R1AP2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1A pseudogene 2

DKK1 Gene

dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 1

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. It is a secreted protein with two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its inhibition of the WNT signaling pathway. Elevated levels of DKK1 in bone marrow plasma and peripheral blood is associated with the presence of osteolytic bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TIMP1 Gene

TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1

This gene belongs to the TIMP gene family. The proteins encoded by this gene family are natural inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a group of peptidases involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix. In addition to its inhibitory role against most of the known MMPs, the encoded protein is able to promote cell proliferation in a wide range of cell types, and may also have an anti-apoptotic function. Transcription of this gene is highly inducible in response to many cytokines and hormones. In addition, the expression from some but not all inactive X chromosomes suggests that this gene inactivation is polymorphic in human females. This gene is located within intron 6 of the synapsin I gene and is transcribed in the opposite direction. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SERPINB9 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 9

This gene encodes a member of the serine protease inhibitor family which are also known as serpins. The encoded protein belongs to a subfamily of intracellular serpins. This protein inhibits the activity of the effector molecule granzyme B. Overexpression of this protein may prevent cytotoxic T-lymphocytes from eliminating certain tumor cells. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]

SERPINB8 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 8

The superfamily of high molecular weight serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) regulate a diverse set of intracellular and extracellular processes such as complement activation, fibrinolysis, coagulation, cellular differentiation, tumor suppression, apoptosis, and cell migration. Serpins are characterized by well-conserved a tertiary structure that consists of 3 beta sheets and 8 or 9 alpha helices (Huber and Carrell, 1989 [PubMed 2690952]). A critical portion of the molecule, the reactive center loop connects beta sheets A and C. Protease inhibitor-8 (PI8; SERPINB8) is a member of the ov-serpin subfamily, which, relative to the archetypal serpin PI1 (MIM 107400), is characterized by a high degree of homology to chicken ovalbumin, lack of N- and C-terminal extensions, absence of a signal peptide, and a serine rather than an asparagine residue at the penultimate position (summary by Bartuski et al., 1997 [PubMed 9268635]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2010]

SERPINB1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serpin family of proteinase inhibitors. Members of this family maintain homeostasis by neutralizing overexpressed proteinase activity through their function as suicide substrates. This protein inhibits the neutrophil-derived proteinases neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 and thus protects tissues from damage at inflammatory sites. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

SERPINB3 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 3

SERPINB2 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 2

SERPINB5 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 5

SERPINB4 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 4

SERPINB7 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 7

This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins which function as protease inhibitors. Expression of this gene is upregulated in IgA nephropathy and mutations have been found to cause palmoplantar keratoderma, Nagashima type. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

SERPINB6 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serpin (serine proteinase inhibitor) superfamily, and ovalbumin(ov)-serpin subfamily. It was originally discovered as a placental thrombin inhibitor. The mouse homolog was found to be expressed in the hair cells of the inner ear. Mutations in this gene are associated with nonsyndromic progressive hearing loss, suggesting that this serpin plays an important role in the inner ear in the protection against leakage of lysosomal content during stress, and that loss of this protection results in cell death and sensorineural hearing loss. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

GDI2 Gene

GDP dissociation inhibitor 2

GDP dissociation inhibitors are proteins that regulate the GDP-GTP exchange reaction of members of the rab family, small GTP-binding proteins of the ras superfamily, that are involved in vesicular trafficking of molecules between cellular organelles. GDIs slow the rate of dissociation of GDP from rab proteins and release GDP from membrane-bound rabs. GDI2 is ubiquitously expressed. The GDI2 gene contains many repetitive elements indicating that it may be prone to inversion/deletion rearrangements. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GDI1 Gene

GDP dissociation inhibitor 1

GDP dissociation inhibitors are proteins that regulate the GDP-GTP exchange reaction of members of the rab family, small GTP-binding proteins of the ras superfamily, that are involved in vesicular trafficking of molecules between cellular organelles. GDIs slow the rate of dissociation of GDP from rab proteins and release GDP from membrane-bound rabs. GDI1 is expressed primarily in neural and sensory tissues. Mutations in GDI1 have been linked to X-linked nonspecific mental retardation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AZIN1 Gene

antizyme inhibitor 1

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the antizyme inhibitor family, which plays a role in cell growth and proliferation by maintaining polyamine homeostasis within the cell. Antizyme inhibitors are homologs of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, the key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis) that have lost the ability to decarboxylase ornithine; however, retain the ability to bind to antizymes. Antizymes negatively regulate intracellular polyamine levels by binding to ODC and targeting it for degradation, as well as by inhibiting polyamine uptake. Antizyme inhibitors function as positive regulators of polyamine levels by sequestering antizymes and neutralizing their effect. This gene encodes antizyme inhibitor 1, the first member of this gene family that is ubiquitously expressed, and is localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Overexpression of antizyme inhibitor 1 gene has been associated with increased proliferation, cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. Gene knockout studies showed that homozygous mutant mice lacking functional antizyme inhibitor 1 gene died at birth with abnormal liver morphology. RNA editing of this gene, predominantly in the liver tissue, has been linked to the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

SERPINB8P1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B8 (ovalbumin) pseudogene 1

NKIRAS2 Gene

NFKB inhibitor interacting Ras-like 2

NKIRAS1 Gene

NFKB inhibitor interacting Ras-like 1

DND1 Gene

DND microRNA-mediated repression inhibitor 1

This gene encodes a protein that binds to microRNA-targeting sequences of mRNAs, inhibiting microRNA-mediated repression. Reduced expression of this gene has been implicated in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Two pseudogenes of this gene are located on the long arm of chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

INCA1 Gene

inhibitor of CDK, cyclin A1 interacting protein 1

SERPINH1P1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade H1, pseudogene 1

NFKBIB Gene

nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the NF-kappa-B inhibitor family, which inhibit NF-kappa-B by complexing with, and trapping it in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of serine residues on these proteins by kinases marks them for destruction via the ubiquitination pathway, thereby allowing activation of the NF-kappa-B, which translocates to the nucleus to function as a transcription factor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

NFKBID Gene

nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, delta

NFKBIE Gene

nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, epsilon

The protein encoded by this gene binds to components of NF-kappa-B, trapping the complex in the cytoplasm and preventing it from activating genes in the nucleus. Phosphorylation of the encoded protein targets it for destruction by the ubiquitin pathway, which activates NF-kappa-B by making it available to translocate to the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

NFKBIZ Gene

nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, zeta

This gene is a member of the ankyrin-repeat family and is induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The C-terminal portion of the encoded product which contains the ankyrin repeats, shares high sequence similarity with the I kappa B family of proteins. The latter are known to play a role in inflammatory responses to LPS by their interaction with NF-B proteins through ankyrin-repeat domains. Studies in mouse indicate that this gene product is one of the nuclear I kappa B proteins and an activator of IL-6 production. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DRAIC Gene

downregulated RNA in cancer, inhibitor of cell invasion and migration

PI3 Gene

peptidase inhibitor 3, skin-derived

This gene encodes an elastase-specific inhibitor that functions as an antimicrobial peptide against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungal pathogens. The protein contains a WAP-type four-disulfide core (WFDC) domain, and is thus a member of the WFDC domain family. Most WFDC gene members are localized to chromosome 20q12-q13 in two clusters: centromeric and telomeric. This gene belongs to the centromeric cluster. Expression of this gene is upgulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides and cytokines. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

SERPINI1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade I (neuroserpin), member 1

This gene encodes a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. The protein is primarily secreted by axons in the brain, and preferentially reacts with and inhibits tissue-type plasminogen activator. It is thought to play a role in the regulation of axonal growth and the development of synaptic plasticity. Mutations in this gene result in familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies (FENIB), which is a dominantly inherited form of familial encephalopathy and epilepsy characterized by the accumulation of mutant neuroserpin polymers. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SERPINI2 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade I (pancpin), member 2

The gene encodes a member of a family of proteins that acts as inhibitors of serine proteases. These proteins function in the regulation of a variety of physiological processes, including coagulation, fibrinolysis, development, malignancy, and inflammation. Expression of the encoded protein may be downregulated during pancreatic carcinogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

PPP1R14D Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14D

Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1; see MIM 176875) is a major cellular phosphatase that reverses serine/threonine protein phosphorylation. PPP1R14D is a PP1 inhibitor that itself is regulated by phosphorylation (Liu et al., 2004 [PubMed 12974676]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

PPP1R14B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B

PPP1R14C Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14C

The degree of protein phosphorylation is regulated by a balance of protein kinase and phosphatase activities. Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1; see MIM 176875) is a signal-transducing phosphatase that influences neuronal activity, protein synthesis, metabolism, muscle contraction, and cell division. PPP1R14C is an inhibitor of PP1 (Liu et al., 2002 [PubMed 11812771]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

PPP1R14A Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14A

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) inhibitor family. This protein is an inhibitor of smooth muscle myosin phosphatase, and has higher inhibitory activity when phosphorylated. Inhibition of myosin phosphatase leads to increased myosin phosphorylation and enhanced smooth muscle contraction. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PINX1 Gene

PIN2/TERF1 interacting, telomerase inhibitor 1

SERPINA2 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 2 (gene/pseudogene)

This gene encodes a member of the serpin family of proteins, a group of proteins that inhibit serine proteases. The encoded intracellular glycoprotein is localized at the endoplasmic reticulum. This gene is a polymorphic pseudogene, with the non-functional allele being predominant in some populations. Some individuals, as represented by the reference genome allele, contain a 2kb coding region deletion and a start code mutation. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

SERPINA3 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma protease inhibitor and member of the serine protease inhibitor class. Polymorphisms in this protein appear to be tissue specific and influence protease targeting. Variations in this protein's sequence have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, and deficiency of this protein has been associated with liver disease. Mutations have been identified in patients with Parkinson disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SERPINA4 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 4

SERPINA5 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 5

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serpin family of proteins, a group of proteins that inhibit serine proteases. This gene is one in a cluster of serpin genes located on the q arm of chromosome 14. This family member is a glycoprotein that can inhibit several serine proteases, including protein C and various plasminogen activators and kallikreins, and it thus plays diverse roles in hemostasis and thrombosis in multiple organs. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

SERPINA6 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 6

This gene encodes an alpha-globulin protein with corticosteroid-binding properties. This is the major transport protein for glucorticoids and progestins in the blood of most vertebrates. The gene localizes to a chromosomal region containing several closely related serine protease inhibitors which may have evolved by duplication events. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SERPINA9 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 9

TMBIM6 Gene

transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 6

TMBIM4 Gene

transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 4

TMBIM1 Gene

transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 1

ERICD Gene

E2F1-regulated inhibitor of cell death (non-protein coding)

SPINK9 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 9

SPINK8 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 8 (putative)

KAZALD1 Gene

Kazal-type serine peptidase inhibitor domain 1

This gene encodes a secreted member of the insulin growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP) superfamily. It contains an N-terminal insulin growth factor-binding domain, a central Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor and follistatin-like domain, and a C-terminal immunoglobulin-like domain. Studies of the mouse ortholog suggest that this gene product may have a function in bone development and bone regeneration. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]

SERPINB11 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 11 (gene/pseudogene)

SERPINB10 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 10

The superfamily of high molecular weight serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) regulate a diverse set of intracellular and extracellular processes such as complement activation, fibrinolysis, coagulation, cellular differentiation, tumor suppression, apoptosis, and cell migration. Serpins are characterized by a well-conserved tertiary structure that consists of 3 beta sheets and 8 or 9 alpha helices (Huber and Carrell, 1989 [PubMed 2690952]). A critical portion of the molecule, the reactive center loop connects beta sheets A and C. Protease inhibitor-10 (PI10; SERPINB10) is a member of the ov-serpin subfamily, which, relative to the archetypal serpin PI1 (MIM 107400), is characterized by a high degree of homology to chicken ovalbumin, lack of N- and C-terminal extensions, absence of a signal peptide, and a serine rather than an asparagine residue at the penultimate position (summary by Bartuski et al., 1997 [PubMed 9268635]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2010]

SERPINB13 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 13

SERPINB12 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 12

DKK4 Gene

dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 4

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. The secreted protein contains two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its interactions with the Wnt signaling pathway. Activity of this protein is modulated by binding to the Wnt co-receptor and the co-factor kremen 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DKK3 Gene

dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 3

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. The secreted protein contains two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its interactions with the Wnt signaling pathway. The expression of this gene is decreased in a variety of cancer cell lines and it may function as a tumor suppressor gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DBIL5P Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor-like 5, pseudogene

SERPINA7P1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 7 pseudogene 1

EID2B Gene

EP300 interacting inhibitor of differentiation 2B

CIAPIN1P Gene

cytokine induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 pseudogene

SERPIND1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade D (heparin cofactor), member 1

The product encoded by this gene is a serine proteinase inhibitor which rapidly inhibits thrombin in the presence of dermatan sulfate or heparin. The gene contains five exons and four introns. This protein shares homology with antithrombin III and other members of the alpha 1-antitrypsin superfamily. Mutations in this gene are associated with heparin cofactor II deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PDCD4 Gene

programmed cell death 4 (neoplastic transformation inhibitor)

This gene is a tumor suppressor and encodes a protein that binds to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A1 and inhibits its function by preventing RNA binding. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

SERPINB9P1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 9, pseudogene 1

GDI2P2 Gene

GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 pseudogene 2

GDI2P1 Gene

GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 pseudogene 1

AZIN2 Gene

antizyme inhibitor 2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the antizyme inhibitor family, which plays a role in cell growth and proliferation by maintaining polyamine homeostasis within the cell. Antizyme inhibitors are homologs of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, the key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis) that have lost the ability to decarboxylase ornithine; however, retain the ability to bind to antizymes. Antizymes negatively regulate intracellular polyamine levels by binding to ODC and targeting it for degradation, as well as by inhibiting polyamine uptake. Antizyme inhibitors function as positive regulators of polyamine levels by sequestering antizymes and neutralizing their effect. This gene encodes antizyme inhibitor 2, the second member of this gene family. Like antizyme inhibitor 1, antizyme inhibitor 2 interacts with all 3 antizymes and stimulates ODC activity and polyamine uptake. However, unlike antizyme inhibitor 1, which is ubiquitously expressed and localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm, antizyme inhibitor 2 is predominantly expressed in the brain and testis and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum-golgi intermediate compartment. Recent studies indicate that antizyme inhibitor 2 is also expressed in specific cell types in ovaries, adrenal glands and pancreas, and in mast cells. The exact function of this gene is not known, however, available data suggest its role in cell growth, spermiogenesis, vesicular trafficking and secretion. Accumulation of antizyme inhibitor 2 has also been observed in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. There has been confusion in literature and databases over the nomenclature of this gene, stemming from an earlier report that a human cDNA clone (identical to ODCp/AZIN2) had arginine decarboxylase (ADC) activity (PMID:14738999). Subsequent studies in human and mouse showed that antizyme inhibitor 2 was devoid of arginine decarboxylase activity (PMID:19956990). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]

TIMP4 Gene

TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 4

This gene belongs to the TIMP gene family. The proteins encoded by this gene family are inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases, a group of peptidases involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix. The secreted, netrin domain-containing protein encoded by this gene is involved in regulation of platelet aggregation and recruitment and may play role in hormonal regulation and endometrial tissue remodeling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TIMP3 Gene

TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 3

This gene belongs to the TIMP gene family. The proteins encoded by this gene family are inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases, a group of peptidases involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Expression of this gene is induced in response to mitogenic stimulation and this netrin domain-containing protein is localized to the ECM. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the autosomal dominant disorder Sorsby's fundus dystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TIMP2 Gene

TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 2

This gene is a member of the TIMP gene family. The proteins encoded by this gene family are natural inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases, a group of peptidases involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix. In addition to an inhibitory role against metalloproteinases, the encoded protein has a unique role among TIMP family members in its ability to directly suppress the proliferation of endothelial cells. As a result, the encoded protein may be critical to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by suppressing the proliferation of quiescent tissues in response to angiogenic factors, and by inhibiting protease activity in tissues undergoing remodelling of the extracellular matrix. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

VTCN1 Gene

V-set domain containing T cell activation inhibitor 1

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the B7 costimulatory protein family. Proteins in this family are present on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and interact with ligand bound to receptors on the surface of T cells. Studies have shown that high levels of the encoded protein has been correlated with tumor progression. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 20. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

ID2B Gene

inhibitor of DNA binding 2B, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein (pseudogene)

XIAP Gene

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a family of apoptotic suppressor proteins. Members of this family share a conserved motif termed, baculovirus IAP repeat, which is necessary for their anti-apoptotic function. This protein functions through binding to tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors TRAF1 and TRAF2 and inhibits apoptosis induced by menadione, a potent inducer of free radicals, and interleukin 1-beta converting enzyme. This protein also inhibits at least two members of the caspase family of cell-death proteases, caspase-3 and caspase-7. Mutations in this gene are the cause of X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 2 and 11.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

PPP1R14BP5 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 5

LOC390760 Gene

protein phosphatase inhibitor 2-like

PIAS2 Gene

protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 2

This gene encodes a member of the protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family. PIAS proteins function as SUMO E3 ligases and play important roles in many cellular processes by mediating the sumoylation of target proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. Isoforms of the encoded protein enhance the sumoylation of specific target proteins including the p53 tumor suppressor protein, c-Jun, and the androgen receptor. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 4. The symbol MIZ1 has also been associated with ZBTB17 which is a different gene located on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

PIAS3 Gene

protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 3

This gene encodes a member of the PIAS [protein inhibitor of activated STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription)] family of transcriptional modulators. The protein functions as a SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier)-E3 ligase which catalyzes the covalent attachment of a SUMO protein to specific target substrates. It directly binds to several transcription factors and either blocks or enhances their activity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been identified, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIAS1 Gene

protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 1

This gene encodes a member of the mammalian PIAS [protein inhibitor of activated STAT-1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription-1)] family. This member contains a putative zinc-binding motif and a highly acidic region. It inhibits STAT1-mediated gene activation and the DNA binding activity, binds to Gu protein/RNA helicase II/DEAD box polypeptide 21, and interacts with androgen receptor (AR). It functions in testis as a nuclear receptor transcriptional coregulator and may have a role in AR initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIAS4 Gene

protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 4

PPP1R14BP4 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 4

PPP1R14BP2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 2

PPP1R14BP3 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 3

PPP1R14BP1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 14B pseudogene 1

BAMBI Gene

BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor

This gene encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein related to the type I receptors of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family, whose members play important roles in signal transduction in many developmental and pathological processes. The encoded protein however is a pseudoreceptor, lacking an intracellular serine/threonine kinase domain required for signaling. Similar proteins in frog, mouse and zebrafish function as negative regulators of TGF-beta, which has led to the suggestion that the encoded protein may function to limit the signaling range of the TGF-beta family during early embryogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SERPINC1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade C (antithrombin), member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma protease inhibitor and a member of the serpin superfamily. This protein inhibits thrombin as well as other activated serine proteases of the coagulation system, and it regulates the blood coagulation cascade. The protein includes two functional domains: the heparin binding-domain at the N-terminus of the mature protein, and the reactive site domain at the C-terminus. The inhibitory activity is enhanced by the presence of heparin. More than 120 mutations have been identified for this gene, many of which are known to cause antithrombin-III deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

LOC391239 Gene

V-set domain containing T cell activation inhibitor 1 pseudogene

DKK2 Gene

dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor 2

This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the dickkopf family. The secreted protein contains two cysteine rich regions and is involved in embryonic development through its interactions with the Wnt signaling pathway. It can act as either an agonist or antagonist of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling, depending on the cellular context and the presence of the co-factor kremen 2. Activity of this protein is also modulated by binding to the Wnt co-receptor LDL-receptor related protein 6 (LRP6). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPINT2 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type, 2

This gene encodes a transmembrane protein with two extracellular Kunitz domains that inhibits a variety of serine proteases. The protein inhibits HGF activator which prevents the formation of active hepatocyte growth factor. This gene is a putative tumor suppressor, and mutations in this gene result in congenital sodium diarrhea. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

SPINT1 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Kunitz family of serine protease inhibitors. The protein is a potent inhibitor specific for HGF activator and is thought to be involved in the regulation of the proteolytic activation of HGF in injured tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPINT4 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 4

LOC105372412 Gene

phospholipase A2 inhibitor and Ly6/PLAUR domain-containing protein-like

MDFI Gene

MyoD family inhibitor

This protein is a transcription factor that negatively regulates other myogenic family proteins. Studies of the mouse homolog, I-mf, show that it interferes with myogenic factor function by masking nuclear localization signals and preventing DNA binding. Knockout mouse studies show defects in the formation of vertebrae and ribs that also involve cartilage formation in these structures. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ITIH1 Gene

inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 1

The protein encoded by this gene is the heavy chain of a serine protease inhibitor that may serve to carry hyaluronan in plasma. This gene is part of a cluster of similar genes on chromosome 3. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

ITIH3 Gene

inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 3

The inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitors (ITI) are a family of structurally related plasma serine protease inhibitors involved in extracellular matrix stabilization and in prevention of tumor metastasis. The ITI family contains multiple proteins made up of a light chain (see MIM 176870) and a variable number of heavy chains (Salier et al., 1987 [PubMed 2446322]; Himmelfarb et al., 2004 [PubMed 14744536]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2009]

ITIH2 Gene

inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 2

The inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitors (ITI) are a family of structurally related plasma serine protease inhibitors involved in extracellular matrix stabilization and in prevention of tumor metastasis. The ITI family contains multiple proteins made up of a light chain (see MIM 176870) and a variable number of heavy chains (Salier et al., 1987 [PubMed 2446322]; Himmelfarb et al., 2004 [PubMed 14744536]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2009]

ITIH5 Gene

inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain family, member 5

This gene encodes a heavy chain component of one of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor (ITI) family members. ITI proteins are involved in extracellular matrix stabilization and in the prevention of tumor metastasis. They are also structurally related plasma serine protease inhibitors and are composed of a light chain and varying numbers of heavy chains. This family member is thought to function as a tumor suppressor in breast and thyroid cancers. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ITIH4 Gene

inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain family, member 4

The protein encoded by this gene is secreted into the blood, where it is cleaved by plasma kallikrein into two smaller forms. Expression of this gene has been detected only in liver, and it seems to be upregulated during surgical trauma. This gene is part of a cluster of similar genes on chromosome 3. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

ITIH6 Gene

inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain family, member 6

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the interalpha trypsin inhibitor heavy chain (ITIH) family. Interalpha trypsin inhibitor (ITI) is composed of two heavy chains (containing VWA domain) and one light chain. The light chain confers the protease-inhibitor function, while the heavy chains are involved in mediating protein-protein interactions with the components of the extracellular matrix. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

PSMF1 Gene

proteasome (prosome, macropain) inhibitor subunit 1 (PI31)

The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a protein that inhibits the activation of the proteasome by the 11S and 19S regulators. Alternative transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KLLN Gene

killin, p53-regulated DNA replication inhibitor

The protein encoded by this intronless gene is found in the nucleus, where it can inhibit DNA synthesis and promote S phase arrest coupled to apoptosis. The expression of this DNA binding protein is upregulated by transcription factor p53. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

PPP1R1AP1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1A pseudogene 1

TRIAP1P1 Gene

TP53 regulated inhibitor of apoptosis 1 pseudogene 1

API5 Gene

apoptosis inhibitor 5

This gene encodes an apoptosis inhibitory protein whose expression prevents apoptosis after growth factor deprivation. This protein suppresses the transcription factor E2F1-induced apoptosis and also interacts with, and negatively regulates Acinus, a nuclear factor involved in apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Its depletion enhances the cytotoxic action of the chemotherapeutic drugs. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

PPP1R2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2

TCAIM Gene

T cell activation inhibitor, mitochondrial

SPINK14 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 14 (putative)

SPINK13 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 13 (putative)

LOC100420509 Gene

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

GMNN Gene

geminin, DNA replication inhibitor

This gene encodes a protein that plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation. The encoded protein inhibits DNA replication by binding to DNA replication factor Cdt1, preventing the incorporation of minichromosome maintenance proteins into the pre-replication complex. The encoded protein is expressed during the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle and is degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex during the metaphase-anaphase transition. Increased expression of this gene may play a role in several malignancies including colon, rectal and breast cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and two pseudogenes of this gene are located on the short arm of chromosome 16. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

SERPINA13P Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 13, pseudogene

CAAP1 Gene

caspase activity and apoptosis inhibitor 1

SERPINF1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade F (alpha-2 antiplasmin, pigment epithelium derived factor), member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serpin family, although it does not display the serine protease inhibitory activity shown by many of the other serpin family members. The encoded protein is secreted and strongly inhibits angiogenesis. In addition, this protein is a neurotrophic factor involved in neuronal differentiation in retinoblastoma cells.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

SERPINF2 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade F (alpha-2 antiplasmin, pigment epithelium derived factor), member 2

This gene encodes a member of the serpin family of serine protease inhibitors. The protein is a major inhibitor of plasmin, which degrades fibrin and various other proteins. Consequently, the proper function of this gene has a major role in regulating the blood clotting pathway. Mutations in this gene result in alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor deficiency, which is characterized by severe hemorrhagic diathesis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

MDFIC Gene

MyoD family inhibitor domain containing

This gene product is a member of a family of proteins characterized by a specific cysteine-rich C-terminal domain, which is involved in transcriptional regulation of viral genome expression. Alternative translation initiation from an upstream non-AUG (GUG), and an in-frame, downstream AUG codon, results in the production of two isoforms, p40 and p32, respectively, which have different subcellular localization; p32 is mainly found in the cytoplasm, whereas p40 is targeted to the nucleolus. Both isoforms have transcriptional regulatory activity that is attributable to the cysteine-rich C-terminal domain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

NFKBIL1 Gene

nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-like 1

This gene encodes a divergent member of the I-kappa-B family of proteins. Its function has not been determined. The gene lies within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region on chromosome 6. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]

ARPIN Gene

actin-related protein 2/3 complex inhibitor

SPINT3 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type, 3

TFPI2 Gene

tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2

This gene encodes a member of the Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor family. The protein can inhibit a variety of serine proteases including factor VIIa/tissue factor, factor Xa, plasmin, trypsin, chymotryspin and plasma kallikrein. This gene has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene in several types of cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

MEI1 Gene

meiosis inhibitor 1

LOC100418682 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene

LOC100418683 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene

LOC100418684 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene

AVEN Gene

apoptosis, caspase activation inhibitor

PPP1R1A Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1A

PPP1R1C Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1C

Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) is a major serine/threonine phosphatase that regulates a variety of cellular functions. PP1 consists of a catalytic subunit (see PPP1CA; MIM 176875) and regulatory subunits that determine the subcellular localization of PP1 or regulate its function. PPP1R1C belongs to a group of PP1 inhibitory subunits that are themselves regulated by phosphorylation (Wang et al., 2008 [PubMed 18310074]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]

PPP1R1B Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1B

This gene encodes a bifunctional signal transduction molecule. Dopaminergic and glutamatergic receptor stimulation regulates its phosphorylation and function as a kinase or phosphatase inhibitor. As a target for dopamine, this gene may serve as a therapeutic target for neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

PPP1R11 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 11

This gene encodes a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) with a differential sensitivity toward the metal-independent and metal-dependent forms of PP1. The gene is located within the major histocompatibility complex class I region on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

API5P1 Gene

apoptosis inhibitor 5 pseudogene 1

OSGIN2 Gene

oxidative stress induced growth inhibitor family member 2

OSGIN1 Gene

oxidative stress induced growth inhibitor 1

This gene encodes an oxidative stress response protein that regulates cell death. Expression of the gene is regulated by p53 and is induced by DNA damage. The protein regulates apoptosis by inducing cytochrome c release from mitochondria. It also appears to be a key regulator of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules. The loss of this protein correlates with uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation. Naturally occurring read-through transcription exists between this gene and the neighboring upstream malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MLYCD) gene, but the read-through transcripts are unlikely to produce a protein product. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

EPPIN Gene

epididymal peptidase inhibitor

This gene encodes an epididymal protease inhibitor, which contains both kunitz-type and WAP-type four-disulfide core (WFDC) protease inhibitor consensus sequences. Most WFDC genes are localized to chromosome 20q12-q13 in two clusters: centromeric and telomeric. This gene is a member of the WFDC gene family and belongs to the telomeric cluster. The protein can inhibit human sperm motility and exhibits antimicrobial activity against E. coli, and polymorphisms in this gene are associated with male infertility. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the downstream WFDC6 (WAP four-disulfide core domain 6) gene. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

PPP1R2P3 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 3

ISM1 Gene

isthmin 1, angiogenesis inhibitor

SPINK7 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 7 (putative)

SPINK6 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor that acts on kallikrein-related peptidases in the skin. Two transcript variants the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]

SPINK5 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 5

This gene encodes a multidomain serine protease inhibitor that contains 15 potential inhibitory domains. The inhibitor may play a role in skin and hair morphogenesis and anti-inflammatory and/or antimicrobial protection of mucous epithelia. Mutations may result in Netherton syndrome, a disorder characterized by ichthyosis, defective cornification, and atopy. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SPINK4 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 4

SPINK1 Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a trypsin inhibitor, which is secreted from pancreatic acinar cells into pancreatic juice. It is thought to function in the prevention of trypsin-catalyzed premature activation of zymogens within the pancreas and the pancreatic duct. Mutations in this gene are associated with hereditary pancreatitis and tropical calcific pancreatitis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]

LOC100133127 Gene

geminin, DNA replication inhibitor pseudogene 1

SERPINA12 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 12

SERPINA10 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 10

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the serpin family. It is predominantly expressed in the liver and secreted in plasma. It inhibits the activity of coagulation factors Xa and XIa in the presence of protein Z, calcium and phospholipid. Mutations in this gene are associated with venous thrombosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

SERPINA11 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 11

PI16 Gene

peptidase inhibitor 16

PI15 Gene

peptidase inhibitor 15

This gene encodes a trypsin inhibitor. The protein shares similarity to insect venom allergens, mammalian testis-specific proteins and plant pathogenesis-related proteins. It is frequently expressed in human neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines, and thus may play a role in the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RNH1 Gene

ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor 1

Placental ribonuclease inhibitor (PRI) is a member of a family of proteinaceous cytoplasmic RNase inhibitors that occur in many tissues and bind to both intracellular and extracellular RNases (summarized by Lee et al., 1988 [PubMed 3219362]). In addition to control of intracellular RNases, the inhibitor may have a role in the regulation of angiogenin (MIM 105850). Ribonuclease inhibitor, of 50,000 Da, binds to ribonucleases and holds them in a latent form. Since neutral and alkaline ribonucleases probably play a critical role in the turnover of RNA in eukaryotic cells, RNH may be essential for control of mRNA turnover; the interaction of eukaryotic cells with ribonuclease may be reversible in vivo.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]

TRIAP1 Gene

TP53 regulated inhibitor of apoptosis 1

LOC100128413 Gene

X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase pseudogene

SERPINH1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade H (heat shock protein 47), member 1, (collagen binding protein 1)

This gene encodes a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. The encoded protein is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and plays a role in collagen biosynthesis as a collagen-specific molecular chaperone. Autoantibodies to the encoded protein have been found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Expression of this gene may be a marker for cancer, and nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with preterm birth caused by preterm premature rupture of membranes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

ARHGDIG Gene

Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) gamma

The GDP-dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) play a primary role in modulating the activation of GTPases by inhibiting the exchange of GDP for GTP. See ARHGDIB (MIM 602843).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

ARHGDIB Gene

Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) beta

Members of the Rho (or ARH) protein family (see MIM 165390) and other Ras-related small GTP-binding proteins (see MIM 179520) are involved in diverse cellular events, including cell signaling, proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and secretion. The GTP-binding proteins are active only in the GTP-bound state. At least 3 classes of proteins tightly regulate cycling between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound states: GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), guanine nucleotide-releasing factors (GRFs), and GDP-dissociation inhibitors (GDIs). The GDIs, including ARHGDIB, decrease the rate of GDP dissociation from Ras-like GTPases (summary by Scherle et al., 1993 [PubMed 8356058]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2010]

ARHGDIA Gene

Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) alpha

This gene encodes a protein that plays a key role in the regulation of signaling through Rho GTPases. The encoded protein inhibits the disassociation of Rho family members from GDP (guanine diphosphate), thereby maintaining these factors in an inactive state. Activity of this protein is important in a variety of cellular processes, and expression of this gene may be altered in tumors. Mutations in this gene have been found in individuals with nephrotic syndrome, type 8. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

PPP1R2P1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 1

PPP1R2P2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 2

PPP1R2P5 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 5

PPP1R2P4 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 4

PPP1R2P6 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 6

PPP1R2P9 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 9

PPP1R2P8 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 8

AGT Gene

angiotensinogen (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 8)

The protein encoded by this gene, pre-angiotensinogen or angiotensinogen precursor, is expressed in the liver and is cleaved by the enzyme renin in response to lowered blood pressure. The resulting product, angiotensin I, is then cleaved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to generate the physiologically active enzyme angiotensin II. The protein is involved in maintaining blood pressure and in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension and preeclampsia. Mutations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to essential hypertension, and can cause renal tubular dysgenesis, a severe disorder of renal tubular development. Defects in this gene have also been associated with non-familial structural atrial fibrillation, and inflammatory bowel disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC390600 Gene

cytokine induced apoptosis inhibitor 1 pseudogene

SPINT5P Gene

serine peptidase inhibitor, Kunitz type 5, pseudogene

SLPI Gene

secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor

This gene encodes a secreted inhibitor which protects epithelial tissues from serine proteases. It is found in various secretions including seminal plasma, cervical mucus, and bronchial secretions, and has affinity for trypsin, leukocyte elastase, and cathepsin G. Its inhibitory effect contributes to the immune response by protecting epithelial surfaces from attack by endogenous proteolytic enzymes. This antimicrobial protein has antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]

CIAPIN1 Gene

cytokine induced apoptosis inhibitor 1

CIAPIN1 is a cytokine-induced inhibitor of apoptosis with no relation to apoptosis regulatory molecules of the BCL2 (MIM 151430) or CASP (see MIM 147678) families. Expression of CIAPIN1 is dependent on growth factor stimulation (Shibayama et al., 2004 [PubMed 14970183]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

INGX Gene

inhibitor of growth family, X-linked, pseudogene

ING4 Gene

inhibitor of growth family, member 4

This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein that contains a PHD-finger, which is a common motif in proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. This protein can bind TP53 and EP300/p300, a component of the histone acetyl transferase complex, suggesting its involvement in the TP53-dependent regulatory pathway. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed that encode distinct proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ING5 Gene

inhibitor of growth family, member 5

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to ING1, a tumor suppressor protein that can interact with TP53, inhibit cell growth, and induce apoptosis. This protein contains a PHD-finger, which is a common motif in proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. This protein can bind TP53 and EP300/p300, a component of the histone acetyl transferase complex, suggesting its involvement in TP53-dependent regulatory pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ING1 Gene

inhibitor of growth family, member 1

This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein that can induce cell growth arrest and apoptosis. The encoded protein is a nuclear protein that physically interacts with the tumor suppressor protein TP53 and is a component of the p53 signaling pathway. Reduced expression and rearrangement of this gene have been detected in various cancers. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ING2 Gene

inhibitor of growth family, member 2

This gene is a member of the inhibitor of growth (ING) family. Members of the ING family associate with and modulate the activity of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) complexes and function in DNA repair and apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

ING3 Gene

inhibitor of growth family, member 3

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to ING1, a tumor suppressor protein that can interact with TP53, inhibit cell growth, and induce apoptosis. This protein contains a PHD-finger, which is a common motif in proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. This gene can activate p53 trans-activated promoters, including promoters of p21/waf1 and bax. Overexpression of this gene has been shown to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. Allelic loss and reduced expression of this gene were detected in head and neck cancers. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RERG Gene

RAS-like, estrogen-regulated, growth inhibitor

RERG, a member of the RAS superfamily of GTPases, inhibits cell proliferation and tumor formation (Finlin et al., 2001 [PubMed 11533059]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2009]

SYVN1 Gene

synovial apoptosis inhibitor 1, synoviolin

This gene encodes a protein involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation. The encoded protein removes unfolded proteins, accumulated during ER stress, by retrograde transport to the cytosol from the ER. This protein also uses the ubiquitin-proteasome system for additional degradation of unfolded proteins. Sequence analysis identified two transcript variants that encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

PPP1R11P2 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 11 pseudogene 2

PPP1R11P1 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 11 pseudogene 1

EID2 Gene

EP300 interacting inhibitor of differentiation 2

EID3 Gene

EP300 interacting inhibitor of differentiation 3

EID1 Gene

EP300 interacting inhibitor of differentiation 1

CRIPAK Gene

cysteine-rich PAK1 inhibitor

CRIPAK is a negative regulator of PAK1 (MIM 602590) that is upregulated by estrogen (Talukder et al., 2006 [PubMed 16278681]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

ID4 Gene

inhibitor of DNA binding 4, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein

This gene encodes a member of the inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) protein family. These proteins are basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors which can act as tumor suppressors but lack DNA binding activity. Consequently, the activity of the encoded protein depends on the protein binding partner. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

ID2 Gene

inhibitor of DNA binding 2, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the inhibitor of DNA binding family, members of which are transcriptional regulators that contain a helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain but not a basic domain. Members of the inhibitor of DNA binding family inhibit the functions of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in a dominant-negative manner by suppressing their heterodimerization partners through the HLH domains. This protein may play a role in negatively regulating cell differentiation. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ID3 Gene

inhibitor of DNA binding 3, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that can form heterodimers with other HLH proteins. However, the encoded protein lacks a basic DNA-binding domain and therefore inhibits the DNA binding of any HLH protein with which it interacts. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

ID1 Gene

inhibitor of DNA binding 1, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein

The protein encoded by this gene is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that can form heterodimers with members of the basic HLH family of transcription factors. The encoded protein has no DNA binding activity and therefore can inhibit the DNA binding and transcriptional activation ability of basic HLH proteins with which it interacts. This protein may play a role in cell growth, senescence, and differentiation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100128588 Gene

PIN2/TERF1 interacting, telomerase inhibitor 1 pseudogene

LOC105375396 Gene

bax inhibitor 1-like

SERPINA15P Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 15, pseudogene

NFKBIA Gene

nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha

This gene encodes a member of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor family, which contain multiple ankrin repeat domains. The encoded protein interacts with REL dimers to inhibit NF-kappa-B/REL complexes which are involved in inflammatory responses. The encoded protein moves between the cytoplasm and the nucleus via a nuclear localization signal and CRM1-mediated nuclear export. Mutations in this gene have been found in ectodermal dysplasia anhidrotic with T-cell immunodeficiency autosomal dominant disease. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

HIF1AN Gene

hypoxia inducible factor 1, alpha subunit inhibitor

PINLYP Gene

phospholipase A2 inhibitor and LY6/PLAUR domain containing

PCSK1N Gene

proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 inhibitor

The protein encoded by this gene functions as an inhibitor of prohormone convertase 1, which regulates the proteolytic cleavage of neuroendocrine peptide precursors. The proprotein is further processed into multiple short peptides. A polymorphism within this gene may be associated with obesity. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]

LOC100133137 Gene

geminin, DNA replication inhibitor pseudogene 2

SERPINA1 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 1

The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a serine protease inhibitor whose targets include elastase, plasmin, thrombin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and plasminogen activator. Defects in this gene can cause emphysema or liver disease. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SERPINA7 Gene

serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 7

There are three proteins including thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), transthyretin and albumin responsible for carrying the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in the bloodstream. This gene encodes the major thyroid hormone transport protein, TBG, in serum. It belongs to the serpin family in genomics, but the protein has no inhibitory function like many other members of the serpin family. Mutations in this gene result in TGB deficiency, which has been classified as partial deficiency, complete deficiency, and excess, based on the level of serum TBG. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found, but the full-length nature of these variants has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]

PPP1R2P10 Gene

protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 2 pseudogene 10

LOC100533708 Gene

protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 2 pseudogene

LOC100132831 Gene

A20-binding inhibitor of NF-kappaB activation 2 pseudogene

DBIL5P2 Gene

diazepam binding inhibitor-like 5 pseudogene 2

API5P2 Gene

apoptosis inhibitor 5 pseudogene 2

RIPK1 Gene

receptor (TNFRSF)-interacting serine-threonine kinase 1

RIPK3 Gene

receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 3

The product of this gene is a member of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and contains a C-terminal domain unique from other RIP family members. The encoded protein is predominantly localized to the cytoplasm, and can undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling dependent on novel nuclear localization and export signals. It is a component of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-I signaling complex, and can induce apoptosis and weakly activate the NF-kappaB transcription factor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RIPK2 Gene

receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the receptor-interacting protein (RIP) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein contains a C-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD), and is a component of signaling complexes in both the innate and adaptive immune pathways. It is a potent activator of NF-kappaB and inducer of apoptosis in response to various stimuli. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IRAK1BP1 Gene

interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 binding protein 1

LOC105378176 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK2

STRAP Gene

serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein

GRK6 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors thus initiating their deactivation. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRK7 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 7

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. It is specifically expressed in the retina and the encoded protein has been shown to phosphorylate cone opsins and initiate their deactivation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRK4 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors thus initiating its deactivation. This gene has been linked to both genetic and acquired hypertension. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]

GRK5 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors thus initiating their deactivation. It has also been shown to play a role in regulating the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

GRK1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor kinase subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. The protein phosphorylates rhodopsin and initiates its deactivation. Defects in GRK1 are known to cause Oguchi disease 2 (also known as stationary night blindness Oguchi type-2). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADRBK1 Gene

adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 1

The product of this gene phosphorylates the beta-2-adrenergic receptor and appears to mediate agonist-specific desensitization observed at high agonist concentrations. This protein is an ubiquitous cytosolic enzyme that specifically phosphorylates the activated form of the beta-adrenergic and related G-protein-coupled receptors. Abnormal coupling of beta-adrenergic receptor to G protein is involved in the pathogenesis of the failing heart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ADRBK2 Gene

adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 2

The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G protein-coupled receptors. Overall, the beta adrenergic receptor kinase 2 has 85% amino acid similarity with beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1, with the protein kinase catalytic domain having 95% similarity. These data suggest the existence of a family of receptor kinases which may serve broadly to regulate receptor function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC105379534 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK2

GIT1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting ArfGAP 1

GIT2 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting ArfGAP 2

This gene encodes a member of the GIT protein family, which interact with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and possess ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. GIT proteins traffic between cytoplasmic complexes, focal adhesions, and the cell periphery, and interact with Pak interacting exchange factor beta (PIX) to form large oligomeric complexes that transiently recruit other proteins. GIT proteins regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and participate in receptor internalization and membrane trafficking. This gene has been shown to repress lamellipodial extension and focal adhesion turnover, and is thought to regulate cell motility. This gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing to generate multiple isoforms, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. The various isoforms have functional differences, with respect to ARF GAP activity and to G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 binding. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

GRK6P1 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor kinase 6 pseudogene 1

IRAK2 Gene

interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2

IRAK2 encodes the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 2, one of two putative serine/threonine kinases that become associated with the interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) upon stimulation. IRAK2 is reported to participate in the IL1-induced upregulation of NF-kappaB. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IRAK3 Gene

interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase protein family. Members of this family are essential components of the Toll/IL-R immune signal transduction pathways. This protein is primarily expressed in monocytes and macrophages and functions as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling. Mutations in this gene are associated with a susceptibility to asthma. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

IRAK1 Gene

interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1

This gene encodes the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1, one of two putative serine/threonine kinases that become associated with the interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) upon stimulation. This gene is partially responsible for IL1-induced upregulation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IRAK4 Gene

interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4

This gene encodes a kinase that activates NF-kappaB in both the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathways. The protein is essential for most innate immune responses. Mutations in this gene result in IRAK4 deficiency and recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]

LOC105371179 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK2

LOC105375252 Gene

serine-threonine kinase receptor-associated protein pseudogene

LOC344382 Gene

serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein pseudogene

BMPR2 Gene

bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase)

This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. The ligands of this receptor are BMPs, which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. BMPs are involved in endochondral bone formation and embryogenesis. These proteins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes of two different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in the absence of type I receptors, but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II receptors for ligand binding. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary pulmonary hypertension, both familial and fenfluramine-associated, and with pulmonary venoocclusive disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

KDR Gene

kinase insert domain receptor

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major growth factor for endothelial cells. This gene encodes one of the two receptors of the VEGF. This receptor, known as kinase insert domain receptor, is a type III receptor tyrosine kinase. It functions as the main mediator of VEGF-induced endothelial proliferation, survival, migration, tubular morphogenesis and sprouting. The signalling and trafficking of this receptor are regulated by multiple factors, including Rab GTPase, P2Y purine nucleotide receptor, integrin alphaVbeta3, T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase, etc.. Mutations of this gene are implicated in infantile capillary hemangiomas. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]

LOC102724064 Gene

proline-rich receptor-like protein kinase PERK13

RIPK4 Gene

receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 4

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase that interacts with protein kinase C-delta. The encoded protein can also activate NFkappaB and is required for keratinocyte differentiation. This kinase undergoes autophosphorylation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LRP8 Gene

low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8, apolipoprotein e receptor

This gene encodes a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Low density lipoprotein receptors are cell surface proteins that play roles in both signal transduction and receptor-mediated endocytosis of specific ligands for lysosomal degradation. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the migration of neurons during development by mediating Reelin signaling, and also functions as a receptor for the cholesterol transport protein apolipoprotein E. Expression of this gene may be a marker for major depressive disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

NR3C1 Gene

nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor)

This gene encodes glucocorticoid receptor, which can function both as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements in the promoters of glucocorticoid responsive genes to activate their transcription, and as a regulator of other transcription factors. This receptor is typically found in the cytoplasm, but upon ligand binding, is transported into the nucleus. It is involved in inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation, and differentiation in target tissues. Mutations in this gene are associated with generalized glucocorticoid resistance. Alternative splicing of this gene results in transcript variants encoding either the same or different isoforms. Additional isoforms resulting from the use of alternate in-frame translation initiation sites have also been described, and shown to be functional, displaying diverse cytoplasm-to-nucleus trafficking patterns and distinct transcriptional activities (PMID:15866175). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

MC1R Gene

melanocortin 1 receptor (alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor)

This intronless gene encodes the receptor protein for melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). The encoded protein, a seven pass transmembrane G protein coupled receptor, controls melanogenesis. Two types of melanin exist: red pheomelanin and black eumelanin. Gene mutations that lead to a loss in function are associated with increased pheomelanin production, which leads to lighter skin and hair color. Eumelanin is photoprotective but pheomelanin may contribute to UV-induced skin damage by generating free radicals upon UV radiation. Binding of MSH to its receptor activates the receptor and stimulates eumelanin synthesis. This receptor is a major determining factor in sun sensitivity and is a genetic risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Over 30 variant alleles have been identified which correlate with skin and hair color, providing evidence that this gene is an important component in determining normal human pigment variation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

INSRR Gene

insulin receptor-related receptor

GPR37 Gene

G protein-coupled receptor 37 (endothelin receptor type B-like)

This gene is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family. The encoded protein contains seven transmembrane domains and is found in cell and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. G protein-coupled receptors are involved in translating outside signals into G protein mediated intracellular effects. This gene product interacts with Parkin and is involved in juvenile Parkinson disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]

CKS1B Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B

CKS1B protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. The CKS1B mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects a specialized role for the encoded protein. At least two transcript variants have been identified for this gene, and it appears that only one of them encodes a protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

CLK2P1 Gene

CDC-like kinase 2, pseudogene 1

PRKAR2A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKAR2B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) in activated T cells. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this subunit may play an important role in regulating energy balance and adiposity. The studies also suggest that this subunit may mediate the gene induction and cataleptic behavior induced by haloperidol. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CALM2 Gene

calmodulin 2 (phosphorylase kinase, delta)

This gene is a member of the calmodulin gene family. There are three distinct calmodulin genes dispersed throughout the genome that encode the identical protein, but differ at the nucleotide level. Calmodulin is a calcium binding protein that plays a role in signaling pathways, cell cycle progression and proliferation. Several infants with severe forms of long-QT syndrome (LQTS) who displayed life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias together with delayed neurodevelopment and epilepsy were found to have mutations in either this gene or another member of the calmodulin gene family (PMID:23388215). Mutations in this gene have also been identified in patients with less severe forms of LQTS (PMID:24917665), while mutations in another calmodulin gene family member have been associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT)(PMID:23040497), a rare disorder thought to be the cause of a significant fraction of sudden cardiac deaths in young individuals. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 10, 13, and 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]

CALM3 Gene

calmodulin 3 (phosphorylase kinase, delta)

CALM1 Gene

calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta)

This gene encodes a member of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein family. It is one of three genes which encode an identical calcium binding protein which is one of the four subunits of phosphorylase kinase. Two pseudogenes have been identified on chromosome 7 and X. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]

LOC105378950 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 7-like

PDK1 Gene

pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 1

Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and is one of the major enzymes responsible for the regulation of homeostasis of carbohydrate fuels in mammals. The enzymatic activity is regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle. Phosphorylation of PDH by a specific pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) results in inactivation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

PDK3 Gene

pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 3

The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2). It provides the primary link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and thus is one of the major enzymes responsible for the regulation of glucose metabolism. The enzymatic activity of PDH is regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle, and phosphorylation results in inactivation of PDH. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the three pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases that inhibits the PDH complex by phosphorylation of the E1 alpha subunit. This gene is predominantly expressed in the heart and skeletal muscles. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

PDK2 Gene

pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 2

This gene encodes a member of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase family. The encoded protein phosphorylates pyruvate dehydrogenase, down-regulating the activity of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Overexpression of this gene may play a role in both cancer and diabetes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

PDK4 Gene

pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4

This gene is a member of the PDK/BCKDK protein kinase family and encodes a mitochondrial protein with a histidine kinase domain. This protein is located in the matrix of the mitrochondria and inhibits the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by phosphorylating one of its subunits, thereby contributing to the regulation of glucose metabolism. Expression of this gene is regulated by glucocorticoids, retinoic acid and insulin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SH3KBP1 Gene

SH3-domain kinase binding protein 1

This gene encodes an adapter protein that contains three N-terminal Src homology domains, a proline rich region and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. The encoded protein facilitates protein-protein interactions and has been implicated in numerous cellular processes including apoptosis, cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell adhesion and in the regulation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LOC100129843 Gene

pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 1 pseudogene

KIDINS220 Gene

kinase D-interacting substrate, 220kDa

LOC642490 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 pseudogene

CSNK1G1 Gene

casein kinase 1, gamma 1

This gene encodes a member of the casein kinase I gene family. The encoded protein is a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins, and participates in pathways for cell growth. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

CSNK1A1L Gene

casein kinase 1, alpha 1-like

LOC731755 Gene

eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 1 pseudogene

LOC646012 Gene

aurora kinase A interacting protein 1 pseudogene

PDXK Gene

pyridoxal (pyridoxine, vitamin B6) kinase

The protein encoded by this gene phosphorylates vitamin B6, a step required for the conversion of vitamin B6 to pyridoxal-5-phosphate, an important cofactor in intermediary metabolism. The encoded protein is cytoplasmic and probably acts as a homodimer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SLK Gene

STE20-like kinase

MARK4 Gene

MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 4

This gene encodes a member of the microtubule affinity-regulating kinase family. These protein kinases phosphorylate microtubule-associated proteins and regulate the transition between stable and dynamic microtubules. The encoded protein is associated with the centrosome throughout mitosis and may be involved in cell cycle control. Expression of this gene is a potential marker for cancer, and the encoded protein may also play a role in Alzheimer's disease. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on both the short and long arm of chromosome 3. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

MARK1 Gene

MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 1

MARK2 Gene

MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the Par-1 family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The protein is an important regulator of cell polarity in epithelial and neuronal cells, and also controls the stability of microtubules through phosphorylation and inactivation of several microtubule-associating proteins. The protein localizes to cell membranes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]

MARK3 Gene

MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is activated by phosphorylation and in turn is involved in the phosphorylation of tau proteins MAP2 and MAP4. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

MYLK4 Gene

myosin light chain kinase family, member 4

MYLK2 Gene

myosin light chain kinase 2

This gene encodes a myosin light chain kinase, a calcium/calmodulin dependent enzyme, that is exclusively expressed in adult skeletal muscle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MYLK3 Gene

myosin light chain kinase 3

Phosphorylation of cardiac myosin heavy chains (see MYH7B, MIM 609928) and light chains (see MYL2, MIM 160781) by a kinase, such as MYLK3, potentiates the force and rate of cross-bridge recruitment in cardiac myocytes (Chan et al., 2008 [PubMed 18202317]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2008]

MOB2 Gene

MOB kinase activator 2

DCK Gene

deoxycytidine kinase

Deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) is required for the phosphorylation of several deoxyribonucleosides and their nucleoside analogs. Deficiency of DCK is associated with resistance to antiviral and anticancer chemotherapeutic agents. Conversely, increased deoxycytidine kinase activity is associated with increased activation of these compounds to cytotoxic nucleoside triphosphate derivatives. DCK is clinically important because of its relationship to drug resistance and sensitivity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MOK Gene

MOK protein kinase

This gene belongs to the MAP kinase superfamily. The gene was found to be regulated by caudal type transcription factor 2 (Cdx2) protein. The encoded protein, which is localized to epithelial cells in the intestinal crypt, may play a role in growth arrest and differentiation of cells of upper crypt and lower villus regions. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

CKMT2 Gene

creatine kinase, mitochondrial 2 (sarcomeric)

Mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine. It belongs to the creatine kinase isoenzyme family. It exists as two isoenzymes, sarcomeric MtCK and ubiquitous MtCK, encoded by separate genes. Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively dimeric cytosolic creatine kinase isoenzymes. Sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase. This gene contains sequences homologous to several motifs that are shared among some nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins and thus may be essential for the coordinated activation of these genes during mitochondrial biogenesis. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK2AP1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) -associated protein which is thought to negatively regulate CDK2 activity by sequestering monomeric CDK2, and targeting CDK2 for proteolysis. This protein was found to also interact with DNA polymerase alpha/primase and mediate the phosphorylation of the large p180 subunit, which suggests a regulatory role in DNA replication during the S-phase of the cell cycle. This protein also forms a core subunit of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation (NURD) complex that epigenetically regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation. This gene thus plays a role in both cell-cycle and epigenetic regulation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CDK2AP2 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2

This gene encodes a protein that interacts with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 1. Pseudogenes associated with this gene are located on chromosomes 7 and 9. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

CKMT1A Gene

creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1A

Mitochondrial creatine (MtCK) kinase is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine. It belongs to the creatine kinase isoenzyme family. It exists as two isoenzymes, sarcomeric MtCK and ubiquitous MtCK, encoded by separate genes. Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively dimeric cytosolic creatine kinase isoenzymes. Many malignant cancers with poor prognosis have shown overexpression of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase; this may be related to high energy turnover and failure to eliminate cancer cells via apoptosis. Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. Two genes located near each other on chromosome 15 have been identified which encode identical mitochondrial creatine kinase proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CKMT1B Gene

creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1B

Mitochondrial creatine (MtCK) kinase is responsible for the transfer of high energy phosphate from mitochondria to the cytosolic carrier, creatine. It belongs to the creatine kinase isoenzyme family. It exists as two isoenzymes, sarcomeric MtCK and ubiquitous MtCK, encoded by separate genes. Mitochondrial creatine kinase occurs in two different oligomeric forms: dimers and octamers, in contrast to the exclusively dimeric cytosolic creatine kinase isoenzymes. Many malignant cancers with poor prognosis have shown overexpression of ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase; this may be related to high energy turnover and failure to eliminate cancer cells via apoptosis. Ubiquitous mitochondrial creatine kinase has 80% homology with the coding exons of sarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase. Two genes located near each other on chromosome 15 have been identified which encode identical mitochondrial creatine kinase proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NADK2 Gene

NAD kinase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a mitochondrial kinase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of NAD to yield NADP. Mutations in this gene result in 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]

TAB3P1 Gene

TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 3 pseudogene 1

GNE Gene

glucosamine (UDP-N-acetyl)-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a bifunctional enzyme that initiates and regulates the biosynthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc), a precursor of sialic acids. It is a rate-limiting enzyme in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway. Sialic acid modification of cell surface molecules is crucial for their function in many biologic processes, including cell adhesion and signal transduction. Differential sialylation of cell surface molecules is also implicated in the tumorigenicity and metastatic behavior of malignant cells. Mutations in this gene are associated with sialuria, autosomal recessive inclusion body myopathy, and Nonaka myopathy. Alternative splicing of this gene results in transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PDPK2P Gene

3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 2, pseudogene

IP6K3 Gene

inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 3

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the inositol phosphokinase (IPK) family. This protein is likely responsible for the conversion of inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) to diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (InsP7/PP-InsP5). It may also convert 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (InsP5) to PP-InsP4. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

IP6K2 Gene

inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 2

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the inositol phosphokinase (IPK) family. This protein is likely responsible for the conversion of inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) to diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (InsP7/PP-InsP5). It may also convert 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (InsP5) to PP-InsP4 and affect the growth suppressive and apoptotic activities of interferon-beta in some ovarian cancers. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

IP6K1 Gene

inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the inositol phosphokinase family. The encoded protein may be responsible for the conversion of inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) to diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (InsP7/PP-InsP5). It may also convert 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (InsP5) to PP-InsP4. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

LOC101929421 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 pseudogene

LOC101929483 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2-associated protein 1 pseudogene

LOC644172 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1 pseudogene

ROCK1 Gene

Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1

This gene encodes a protein serine/threonine kinase that is activated when bound to the GTP-bound form of Rho. The small GTPase Rho regulates formation of focal adhesions and stress fibers of fibroblasts, as well as adhesion and aggregation of platelets and lymphocytes by shuttling between the inactive GDP-bound form and the active GTP-bound form. Rho is also essential in cytokinesis and plays a role in transcriptional activation by serum response factor. This protein, a downstream effector of Rho, phosphorylates and activates LIM kinase, which in turn, phosphorylates cofilin, inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

ROCK2 Gene

Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cytokinesis, smooth muscle contraction, the formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions, and the activation of the c-fos serum response element. This protein, which is an isozyme of ROCK1 is a target for the small GTPase Rho. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

WNK3 Gene

WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 3

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the 'with no lysine' family of serine-threonine protein kinases. These family members lack the catalytic lysine in subdomain II, and instead have a conserved lysine in subdomain I. This family member functions as a positive regulator of the transcellular Ca2+ transport pathway, and it plays a role in the increase of cell survival in a caspase-3-dependent pathway. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

MOB1A Gene

MOB kinase activator 1A

MOB1B Gene

MOB kinase activator 1B

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to the yeast Mob1 protein. Yeast Mob1 binds Mps1p, a protein kinase essential for spindle pole body duplication and mitotic checkpoint regulation. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

CDK7PS Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 7 pseudogene

AGKP1 Gene

acylglycerol kinase pseudogene 1

ZAK Gene

sterile alpha motif and leucine zipper containing kinase AZK

This gene is a member of the MAPKKK family of signal transduction molecules and encodes a protein with an N-terminal kinase catalytic domain, followed by a leucine zipper motif and a sterile-alpha motif (SAM). This magnesium-binding protein forms homodimers and is located in the cytoplasm. The protein mediates gamma radiation signaling leading to cell cycle arrest and activity of this protein plays a role in cell cycle checkpoint regulation in cells. The protein also has pro-apoptotic activity. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC101060637 Gene

nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1-like

MOB3C Gene

MOB kinase activator 3C

The protein encoded by this gene is similar to the yeast Mob1 protein. Yeast Mob1 binds Mps1p, a protein kinase essential for spindle pole body duplication and mitotic checkpoint regulation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LRRK1 Gene

leucine-rich repeat kinase 1

LRRK2 Gene

leucine-rich repeat kinase 2

This gene is a member of the leucine-rich repeat kinase family and encodes a protein with an ankryin repeat region, a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, a kinase domain, a DFG-like motif, a RAS domain, a GTPase domain, a MLK-like domain, and a WD40 domain. The protein is present largely in the cytoplasm but also associates with the mitochondrial outer membrane. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Parkinson disease-8. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC392543 Gene

acylglycerol kinase pseudogene

CHKA Gene

choline kinase alpha

The major pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine occurs via the CDP-choline pathway. The protein encoded by this gene is the initial enzyme in the sequence and may play a regulatory role. The encoded protein also catalyzes the phosphorylation of ethanolamine. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CHKB Gene

choline kinase beta

Choline kinase (CK) and ethanolamine kinase (EK) catalyze the phosphorylation of choline/ethanolamine to phosphocholine/phosphoethanolamine. This is the first enzyme in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine in all animal cells. The highly purified CKs from mammalian sources and their recombinant gene products have been shown to have EK activity also, indicating that both activities reside on the same protein. The choline kinase-like protein encoded by CHKL belongs to the choline/ethanolamine kinase family; however, its exact function is not known. Read-through transcripts are expressed from this locus that include exons from the downstream CPT1B locus. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

MAPK1IP1L Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1-like

CERK Gene

ceramide kinase

CERK converts ceramide to ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P), a sphingolipid metabolite. Both CERK and C1P have been implicated in various cellular processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, phagocytosis, and inflammation (Kim et al., 2006 [PubMed 16488390]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]

LOC100419356 Gene

ethanolamine kinase 1 pseudogene

CDK20 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 20

The protein encoded by this gene contains a kinase domain most closely related to the cyclin-dependent protein kinases. The encoded kinase may activate cyclin-dependent kinase 2 and is involved in cell growth. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

MAPK3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act in a signaling cascade that regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals. This kinase is activated by upstream kinases, resulting in its translocation to the nucleus where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The activation of this kinase requires its phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Upon activation, this kinase translocates to the nucleus of the stimulated cells, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. One study also suggests that this protein acts as a transcriptional repressor independent of its kinase activity. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein, but differing in the UTRs, have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

MAPK6 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and is most closely related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases). MAP kinases also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), are activated through protein phosphorylation cascades and act as integration points for multiple biochemical signals. This kinase is localized in the nucleus, and has been reported to be activated in fibroblasts upon treatment with serum or phorbol esters. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK4 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 4

Mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. Tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors activate mitogen-activated protein kinases which then translocate into the nucleus and phosphorylate nuclear targets. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

MAPK8 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various cell stimuli, and targets specific transcription factors, and thus mediates immediate-early gene expression in response to cell stimuli. The activation of this kinase by tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is found to be required for TNF-alpha induced apoptosis. This kinase is also involved in UV radiation induced apoptosis, which is thought to be related to cytochrom c-mediated cell death pathway. Studies of the mouse counterpart of this gene suggested that this kinase play a key role in T cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Five alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]

MAPK9 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 9

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase targets specific transcription factors, and thus mediates immediate-early gene expression in response to various cell stimuli. It is most closely related to MAPK8, both of which are involved in UV radiation induced apoptosis, thought to be related to the cytochrome c-mediated cell death pathway. This gene and MAPK8 are also known as c-Jun N-terminal kinases. This kinase blocks the ubiquitination of tumor suppressor p53, and thus it increases the stability of p53 in nonstressed cells. Studies of this gene's mouse counterpart suggest a key role in T-cell differentiation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

BUB1 Gene

BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase

This gene encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase that play a central role in mitosis. The encoded protein functions in part by phosphorylating members of the mitotic checkpoint complex and activating the spindle checkpoint. This protein also plays a role in inhibiting the activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome. This protein may also function in the DNA damage response. Mutations in this gene have been associated with aneuploidy and several forms of cancer. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

RPS6KB3 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 3

LOC102723727 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 7-like

PSKH2 Gene

protein serine kinase H2

PSKH1 Gene

protein serine kinase H1

LOC100996361 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1 pseudogene

CKS2 Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2

CKS2 protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. The CKS2 mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects specialized role for the encoded protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

FASTK Gene

Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase was shown to be activated rapidly during Fas-mediated apoptosis in Jurkat cells. In response to Fas receptor ligation, it phosphorylates TIA1, an apoptosis-promoting nuclear RNA-binding protein. The encoded protein is a strong inducer of lymphocyte apoptosis. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Other variants exist, but their full-length natures have not yet been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PGK2 Gene

phosphoglycerate kinase 2

This gene is intronless, arose via retrotransposition of the phosphoglycerate kinase 1 gene, and is expressed specifically in the testis. Initially assumed to be a pseudogene, the encoded protein is actually a functional phosphoglycerate kinase that catalyzes the reversible conversion of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate, during the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway of glycolysis, in the later stages of spermatogenesis.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

PGK1 Gene

phosphoglycerate kinase 1

The protein encoded by this gene is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate. The encoded protein may also act as a cofactor for polymerase alpha. Additionally, this protein is secreted by tumor cells where it participates in angiogenesis by functioning to reduce disulfide bonds in the serine protease, plasmin, which consequently leads to the release of the tumor blood vessel inhibitor angiostatin. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. Deficiency of the enzyme is associated with a wide range of clinical phenotypes hemolytic anemia and neurological impairment. Pseudogenes of this gene have been defined on chromosomes 19, 21 and the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

TNNI3K Gene

TNNI3 interacting kinase

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) family of protein kinases. The protein contains ankyrin repeat, protein kinase and serine-rich domains and is thought to play a role in cardiac physiology. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2012]

LOC100421425 Gene

calmodulin 2 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) pseudogene

HIPK2 Gene

homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2

This gene encodes a conserved serine/threonine kinase that is a member of the homeodomain-interacting protein kinase family. The encoded protein interacts with homeodomain transcription factors and many other transcription factors such as p53, and can function as both a corepressor and a coactivator depending on the transcription factor and its subcellular localization. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]

CARKD Gene

carbohydrate kinase domain containing

LOC100130466 Gene

nuclear ubiquitous casein and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1-like

PINK1 Gene

PTEN induced putative kinase 1

This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase that localizes to mitochondria. It is thought to protect cells from stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Mutations in this gene cause one form of autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

RPS6KB1 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1

This gene encodes a member of the ribosomal S6 kinase family of serine/threonine kinases. The encoded protein responds to mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling to promote protein synthesis, cell growth, and cell proliferation. Activity of this gene has been associated with human cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed. The use of alternative translation start sites results in isoforms with longer or shorter N-termini which may differ in their subcellular localizations. There are two pseudogenes for this gene on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

RPS6KB2 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 2

This gene encodes a member of the RSK (ribosomal S6 kinase) family of serine/threonine kinases. This kinase contains a kinase catalytic domain and phosphorylates the S6 ribosomal protein and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B). Phosphorylation of S6 leads to an increase in protein synthesis and cell proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

CDK11A Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 11A

This gene encodes a member of the p34Cdc2 protein kinase family. p34Cdc2 kinase family members are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. This gene is in close proximity to CDC2L1, a nearly identical gene in the same chromosomal region. The gene loci including this gene, CDC2L1, as well as metalloprotease MMP21/22, consist of two identical, tandemly linked genomic regions, which are thought to be a part of the larger region that has been duplicated. This gene and CDC2L1 were shown to be deleted or altered frequently in neuroblastoma with amplified MYCN genes. The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. Many transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene, but the full-length nature of only two have been determined so far. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CDK11B Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 11B

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. Members of this kinase family are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. Due to a segmental duplication, this gene shares very high sequence identity with a neighboring gene. These two genes are frequently deleted or altered in neuroblastoma. The protein kinase encoded by this gene can be cleaved by caspases and may play a role in cell apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]

LOC100130664 Gene

cytidine monophosphate (UMP-CMP) kinase 1, cytosolic pseudogene

PHKG1P2 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 pseudogene 2

CAMK2D Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a delta chain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Distinct isoforms of this chain have different expression patterns.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

CAMK2G Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma

The product of this gene is one of the four subunits of an enzyme which belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a gamma chain. Many alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described but the full-length nature of all the variants has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]

CAMK2A Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinases family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. This calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The alpha chain encoded by this gene is required for hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial learning. In addition to its calcium-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent activity, this protein can undergo autophosphorylation, resulting in CaM-independent activity. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

CAMK2B Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta

The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a beta chain. It is possible that distinct isoforms of this chain have different cellular localizations and interact differently with calmodulin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]

JAK2 Gene

Janus kinase 2

This gene product is a protein tyrosine kinase involved in a specific subset of cytokine receptor signaling pathways. It has been found to be constituitively associated with the prolactin receptor and is required for responses to gamma interferon. Mice that do not express an active protein for this gene exhibit embryonic lethality associated with the absence of definitive erythropoiesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

JAK3 Gene

Janus kinase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Janus kinase (JAK) family of tyrosine kinases involved in cytokine receptor-mediated intracellular signal transduction. It is predominantly expressed in immune cells and transduces a signal in response to its activation via tyrosine phosphorylation by interleukin receptors. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency disease). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

JAK1 Gene

Janus kinase 1

Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), is a member of a new class of protein-tyrosine kinases (PTK) characterized by the presence of a second phosphotransferase-related domain immediately N-terminal to the PTK domain. The second phosphotransferase domain bears all the hallmarks of a protein kinase, although its structure differs significantly from that of the PTK and threonine/serine kinase family members. JAK1 is a large, widely expressed membrane-associated phosphoprotein. JAK1 is involved in the interferon-alpha/beta and -gamma signal transduction pathways. The reciprocal interdependence between JAK1 and TYK2 activities in the interferon-alpha pathway, and between JAK1 and JAK2 in the interferon-gamma pathway, may reflect a requirement for these kinases in the correct assembly of interferon receptor complexes. These kinases couple cytokine ligand binding to tyrosine phosphorylation of various known signaling proteins and of a unique family of transcription factors termed the signal transducers and activators of transcription, or STATs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKDC Gene

protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide

This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). It functions with the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer protein in DNA double strand break repair and recombination. The protein encoded is a member of the PI3/PI4-kinase family.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]

PRKAR1AP Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha pseudogene

PBK Gene

PDZ binding kinase

This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase related to the dual specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) family. Evidence suggests that mitotic phosphorylation is required for its catalytic activity. The encoded protein may be involved in the activation of lymphoid cells and support testicular functions, with a suggested role in the process of spermatogenesis. Overexpression of this gene has been implicated in tumorigenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]

PRKD1 Gene

protein kinase D1

PRKD1 is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates a variety of cellular functions, including membrane receptor signaling, transport at the Golgi, protection from oxidative stress at the mitochondria, gene transcription, and regulation of cell shape, motility, and adhesion (summary by Eiseler et al., 2009 [PubMed 19329994]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]

PRKD2 Gene

protein kinase D2

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein kinase D (PKD) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. This kinase can be activated by phorbol esters as well as by gastrin via the cholecystokinin B receptor (CCKBR) in gastric cancer cells. It can bind to diacylglycerol (DAG) in the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and may regulate basolateral membrane protein exit from TGN. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKD3 Gene

protein kinase D3

This gene belongs to the multigene protein kinase D family of serine/threonine kinases, which bind diacylglycerol and phorbol esters. Members of this family are characterized by an N-terminal regulatory domain comprised of a tandem repeat of cysteine-rich zinc-finger motifs and a pleckstrin domain. The C-terminal region contains the catalytic domain and is distantly related to calcium-regulated kinases. Catalytic activity of this enzyme promotes its nuclear localization. This protein has been implicated in a variety of functions including negative regulation of human airway epithelial barrier formation, growth regulation of breast and prostate cancer cells, and vesicle trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

JAKMIP3 Gene

Janus kinase and microtubule interacting protein 3

JAKMIP2 Gene

janus kinase and microtubule interacting protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is reported to be a component of the Golgi matrix. It may act as a golgin protein by negatively regulating transit of secretory cargo and by acting as a structural scaffold of the Golgi. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]

JAKMIP1 Gene

janus kinase and microtubule interacting protein 1

NRK Gene

Nik related kinase

The mouse ortholog of this gene encodes a protein kinase required for JNK activation. The encoded protein may be involved in the induction of actin polymerization in late embryogenesis.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]

LOC646801 Gene

pantothenate kinase 3 pseudogene

LOC100420990 Gene

aurora kinase A interacting protein 1 pseudogene

CDK2AP2P1 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene 1

CDK2AP2P3 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene 3

DCLK1 Gene

doublecortin-like kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the protein kinase superfamily and the doublecortin family. The protein encoded by this gene contains two N-terminal doublecortin domains, which bind microtubules and regulate microtubule polymerization, a C-terminal serine/threonine protein kinase domain, which shows substantial homology to Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and a serine/proline-rich domain in between the doublecortin and the protein kinase domains, which mediates multiple protein-protein interactions. The microtubule-polymerizing activity of the encoded protein is independent of its protein kinase activity. The encoded protein is involved in several different cellular processes, including neuronal migration, retrograde transport, neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis. This gene is up-regulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and associated with memory and general cognitive abilities. Multiple transcript variants generated by two alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing have been reported, but the full-length nature and biological validity of some variants have not been defined. These variants encode different isoforms, which are differentially expressed and have different kinase activities.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

DCLK3 Gene

doublecortin-like kinase 3

DCLK2 Gene

doublecortin-like kinase 2

This gene encodes a member of the protein kinase superfamily and the doublecortin family. The protein encoded by this gene contains two N-terminal doublecortin domains, which bind microtubules and regulate microtubule polymerization, a C-terminal serine/threonine protein kinase domain, which shows substantial homology to Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, and a serine/proline-rich domain in between the doublecortin and the protein kinase domains, which mediates multiple protein-protein interactions. The microtubule-polymerizing activity of the encoded protein is independent of its protein kinase activity. Mouse studies show that the DCX gene, another family member, and this gene share function in the establishment of hippocampal organization and that their absence results in a severe epileptic phenotype and lethality, as described in human patients with lissencephaly. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]

CNKSR1 Gene

connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras 1

This gene encodes a protein containing several motifs involved in protein-protein interaction, including PDZ, PH (Pleckstrin homology), and SAM (sterile alpha motif) domains. The encoded protein acts as a scaffold component for receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and may mediate crosstalk between different signaling pathways. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

CNKSR2 Gene

connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras 2

This gene encodes a multidomain protein that functions as a scaffold protein to mediate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways downstream from Ras. This gene product is induced by vitamin D and inhibits apoptosis in certain cancer cells. It may also play a role in ternary complex assembly of synaptic proteins at the postsynaptic membrane and coupling of signal transduction to membrane/cytoskeletal remodeling. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]

PHKG1P4 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 pseudogene 4

STK38L Gene

serine/threonine kinase 38 like

PHKG1P1 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 pseudogene 1

PHKG1P3 Gene

phosphorylase kinase, gamma 1 pseudogene 3

PRKRAP1 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene 1

MAPKBP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase binding protein 1

DAPK3 Gene

death-associated protein kinase 3

Death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK3) induces morphological changes in apoptosis when overexpressed in mammalian cells. These results suggest that DAPK3 may play a role in the induction of apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DAPK2 Gene

death-associated protein kinase 2

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This protein contains a N-terminal protein kinase domain followed by a conserved calmodulin-binding domain with significant similarity to that of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), a positive regulator of programmed cell death. Overexpression of this gene was shown to induce cell apoptosis. It uses multiple polyadenylation sites. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

DAPK1 Gene

death-associated protein kinase 1

Death-associated protein kinase 1 is a positive mediator of gamma-interferon induced programmed cell death. DAPK1 encodes a structurally unique 160-kD calmodulin dependent serine-threonine kinase that carries 8 ankyrin repeats and 2 putative P-loop consensus sites. It is a tumor suppressor candidate. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]

ULK2 Gene

unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 2

This gene encodes a protein that is similar to a serine/threonine kinase in C. elegans which is involved in axonal elongation. The structure of this protein is similar to the C. elegans protein in that both proteins have an N-terminal kinase domain, a central proline/serine rich (PS) domain, and a C-terminal (C) domain. The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]

ULK3 Gene

unc-51 like kinase 3

ULK1 Gene

unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1

ULK4 Gene

unc-51 like kinase 4

STK19 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 19

This gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase which localizes predominantly to the nucleus. Its specific function is unknown; it is possible that phosphorylation of this protein is involved in transcriptional regulation. This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6 and expresses two transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK10 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 10

This gene encodes a member of the Ste20 family of serine/threonine protein kinases, and is similar to several known polo-like kinase kinases. The protein can associate with and phosphorylate polo-like kinase 1, and overexpression of a kinase-dead version of the protein interferes with normal cell cycle progression. The kinase can also negatively regulate interleukin 2 expression in T-cells via the mitogen activated protein kinase kinase 1 pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK11 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 11

This gene, which encodes a member of the serine/threonine kinase family, regulates cell polarity and functions as a tumor suppressor. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the growth of polyps in the gastrointestinal tract, pigmented macules on the skin and mouth, and other neoplasms. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of this gene have been observed but have not been thoroughly characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK16 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 16

LOC100736408 Gene

NAD kinase 2, mitochondrial pseudogene

PRKCSH Gene

protein kinase C substrate 80K-H

This gene encodes the beta-subunit of glucosidase II, an N-linked glycan-processing enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum. The encoded protein is an acidic phosphoprotein known to be a substrate for protein kinase C. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

CERKL Gene

ceramide kinase-like

This gene was initially identified as a locus (RP26) associated with an autosomal recessive form of retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) disease. This gene encodes a protein with ceramide kinase-like domains, however, the protein does not phosphorylate ceramide and its target substrate is currently unknown. This protein may be a negative regulator of apoptosis in photoreceptor cells. Mutations in this gene cause a form of retinitis pigmentosa characterized by autosomal recessive cone and rod dystrophy (arCRD). Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms and non-coding transcripts.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]

LOC105370944 Gene

inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate kinase 1-like

MAPK8IPP Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein, pseudogene

PI4KAP2 Gene

phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, catalytic, alpha pseudogene 2

PHKB Gene

phosphorylase kinase, beta

Phosphorylase kinase is a polymer of 16 subunits, four each of alpha, beta, gamma and delta. The alpha subunit includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, encoded by two different genes. The beta subunit is the same in both the muscle and hepatic isoforms, encoded by this gene, which is a member of the phosphorylase b kinase regulatory subunit family. The gamma subunit also includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, encoded by two different genes. The delta subunit is a calmodulin and can be encoded by three different genes. The gamma subunits contain the active site of the enzyme, whereas the alpha and beta subunits have regulatory functions controlled by phosphorylation. The delta subunit mediates the dependence of the enzyme on calcium concentration. Mutations in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type 9B, also known as phosphorylase kinase deficiency of liver and muscle. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified in this gene. Two pseudogenes have been found on chromosomes 14 and 20, respectively.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]

LOC100421536 Gene

diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase 2 pseudogene

PIK3IP1 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase interacting protein 1

LOC100421494 Gene

MAP/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase 2 pseudogene

NIM1K Gene

NIM1 serine/threonine protein kinase

CSNK1G2 Gene

casein kinase 1, gamma 2

CSNK1G3 Gene

casein kinase 1, gamma 3

This gene encodes a member of a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that phosphorylate caseins and other acidic proteins. A related protein in the African clawed frog participates in the transmission of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

PRKACG Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) consists of two catalytic subunits and a regulatory subunit dimer. This gene encodes the gamma form of its catalytic subunit. The gene is intronless and is thought to be a retrotransposon derived from the gene for the alpha form of the PKA catalytic subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKACA Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha

This gene encodes one of the catalytic subunits of protein kinase A, which exists as a tetrameric holoenzyme with two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits, in its inactive form. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinase A is important to many cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Constitutive activation of this gene caused either by somatic mutations, or genomic duplications of regions that include this gene, have been associated with hyperplasias and adenomas of the adrenal cortex and are linked to corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Tissue-specific isoforms that differ at the N-terminus have been described, and these isoforms may differ in the post-translational modifications that occur at the N-terminus of some isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

PRKACB Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein is a catalytic subunit of cAMP (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase, which mediates signalling though cAMP. cAMP signaling is important to a number of processes, including cell proliferaton and differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]

LOC100418693 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene

LOC100418694 Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator pseudogene

ALPK1 Gene

alpha-kinase 1

This gene encodes an alpha kinase. Mice which were homozygous for disrupted copies of this gene exhibited coordination defects (PMID: 21208416). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]

ALPK3 Gene

alpha-kinase 3

CSNK1A1 Gene

casein kinase 1, alpha 1

PRKCDBP Gene

protein kinase C, delta binding protein

The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a binding protein of the protein kinase C, delta (PRKCD). The expression of this gene in cultured cell lines is strongly induced by serum starvation. The expression of this protein was found to be down-regulated in various cancer cell lines, suggesting the possible tumor suppressor function of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SKP1P3 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 pseudogene 3

SKP1P2 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 pseudogene 2

LOC101154643 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 2 associated protein 2 pseudogene

MARCKS Gene

myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate

The protein encoded by this gene is a substrate for protein kinase C. It is localized to the plasma membrane and is an actin filament crosslinking protein. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C or binding to calcium-calmodulin inhibits its association with actin and with the plasma membrane, leading to its presence in the cytoplasm. The protein is thought to be involved in cell motility, phagocytosis, membrane trafficking and mitogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLK3P1 Gene

CDC-like kinase 3 pseudogene 1

CSNK1A1P3 Gene

casein kinase 1, alpha 1 pseudogene 3

CSNK1A1P2 Gene

casein kinase 1, alpha 1 pseudogene 2

CSNK1A1P1 Gene

casein kinase 1, alpha 1 pseudogene 1

LOC100313968 Gene

riboflavin kinase pseudogene

TTBK2 Gene

tau tubulin kinase 2

This gene encodes a serine-threonine kinase that putatively phosphorylates tau and tubulin proteins. Mutations in this gene cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 11 (SCA11); a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive ataxia and atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]

TTBK1 Gene

tau tubulin kinase 1

NEK6 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 6

The protein encoded by this gene is a kinase required for progression through the metaphase portion of mitosis. Inhibition of the encoded protein can lead to apoptosis. This protein also can enhance tumorigenesis by suppressing tumor cell senescence. Several transcript variants encoding a few different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

NEK7 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 7

NIMA-related kinases share high amino acid sequence identity with the gene product of the Aspergillus nidulans 'never in mitosis A' gene, which controls initiation of mitosis.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]

NEK4 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 4

NEK5 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 5

NEK2 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 2

This gene encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase that is involved in mitotic regulation. This protein is localized to the centrosome, and undetectable during G1 phase, but accumulates progressively throughout the S phase, reaching maximal levels in late G2 phase. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms with distinct C-termini have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

NEK3 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 3

This gene encodes a member of the NimA (never in mitosis A) family of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein differs from other NimA family members in that it is not cell cycle regulated and is found primarily in the cytoplasm. The kinase is activated by prolactin stimulation, leading to phosphorylation of VAV2 guanine nucleotide exchange factor, paxillin, and activation of the RAC1 GTPase. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]

NEK8 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 8

This gene encodes a member of the serine/threionine protein kinase family related to NIMA (never in mitosis, gene A) of Aspergillus nidulans. The encoded protein may play a role in cell cycle progression from G2 to M phase. Mutations in the related mouse gene are associated with a disease phenotype that closely parallels the juvenile autosomal recessive form of polycystic kidney disease in humans. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NEK9 Gene

NIMA-related kinase 9

AK2P2 Gene

adenylate kinase 2 pseudogene 2

AURKA Gene

aurora kinase A

The protein encoded by this gene is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that appears to be involved in microtubule formation and/or stabilization at the spindle pole during chromosome segregation. The encoded protein is found at the centrosome in interphase cells and at the spindle poles in mitosis. This gene may play a role in tumor development and progression. A processed pseudogene of this gene has been found on chromosome 1, and an unprocessed pseudogene has been found on chromosome 10. Multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AURKB Gene

aurora kinase B

This gene encodes a member of the aurora kinase subfamily of serine/threonine kinases. The genes encoding the other two members of this subfamily are located on chromosomes 19 and 20. These kinases participate in the regulation of segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis through association with microtubules. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 8. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

AURKC Gene

aurora kinase C

This gene encodes a member of the Aurora subfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein is a chromosomal passenger protein that forms complexes with Aurora-B and inner centromere proteins and may play a role in organizing microtubules in relation to centrosome/spindle function during mitosis. This gene is overexpressed in several cancer cell lines, suggesting an involvement in oncogenic signal transduction. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

SKAP2 Gene

src kinase associated phosphoprotein 2

The protein encoded by this gene shares homology with Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 1, and is a substrate of Src family kinases. It is an adaptor protein that is thought to play an essential role in the Src signaling pathway, and in regulating proper activation of the immune system. This protein contains an amino terminal coiled-coil domain for self-dimerization, a plecskstrin homology (PH) domain required for interactions with lipids at the membrane, and a Src homology (SH3) domain at the carboxy terminus. Some reports indicate that this protein inhibits actin polymerization through interactions with actin assembly factors, and might negatively regulate the invasiveness of tumors by modulating actin assembly. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]

SKAP1 Gene

src kinase associated phosphoprotein 1

This gene encodes a T cell adaptor protein, a class of intracellular molecules with modular domains capable of recruiting additional proteins but that exhibit no intrinsic enzymatic activity. The encoded protein contains a unique N-terminal region followed by a PH domain and C-terminal SH3 domain. Along with the adhesion and degranulation-promoting adaptor protein, the encoded protein plays a critical role in inside-out signaling by coupling T-cell antigen receptor stimulation to the activation of integrins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK11IP Gene

serine/threonine kinase 11 interacting protein

TBK1 Gene

TANK-binding kinase 1

The NF-kappa-B (NFKB) complex of proteins is inhibited by I-kappa-B (IKB) proteins, which inactivate NFKB by trapping it in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of serine residues on the IKB proteins by IKB kinases marks them for destruction via the ubiquitination pathway, thereby allowing activation and nuclear translocation of the NFKB complex. The protein encoded by this gene is similar to IKB kinases and can mediate NFKB activation in response to certain growth factors. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]

PKLR Gene

pyruvate kinase, liver and RBC

The protein encoded by this gene is a pyruvate kinase that catalyzes the transphosphorylation of phohsphoenolpyruvate into pyruvate and ATP, which is the rate-limiting step of glycolysis. Defects in this enzyme, due to gene mutations or genetic variations, are the common cause of chronic hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA or HNSHA). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TLK2P1 Gene

tousled-like kinase 2 pseudogene 1

MYLKP1 Gene

myosin light chain kinase pseudogene 1 (functional)

CLK1 Gene

CDC-like kinase 1

This gene encodes a member of the CDC2-like (or LAMMER) family of dual specificity protein kinases. In the nucleus, the encoded protein phosphorylates serine/arginine-rich proteins involved in pre-mRNA processing, releasing them into the nucleoplasm. The choice of splice sites during pre-mRNA processing may be regulated by the concentration of transacting factors, including serine/arginine rich proteins. Therefore, the encoded protein may play an indirect role in governing splice site selection. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]

CLK2 Gene

CDC-like kinase 2

This gene encodes a dual specificity protein kinase that phosphorylates serine/threonine and tyrosine-containing substrates. Activity of this protein regulates serine- and arginine-rich (SR) proteins of the spliceosomal complex, thereby influencing alternative transcript splicing. Chromosomal translocations have been characterized between this locus and the PAFAH1B3 (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase 1b, catalytic subunit 3 (29kDa)) gene on chromosome 19, resulting in the production of a fusion protein. Note that this gene is distinct from the TELO2 gene (GeneID:9894), which shares the CLK2 alias, but encodes a protein that is involved in telomere length regulation. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 7. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]

CLK3 Gene

CDC-like kinase 3

This gene encodes a protein belonging to the serine/threonine type protein kinase family. This protein is a nuclear dual-specificity kinase that regulates the intranuclear distribution of the serine/arginine-rich (SR) family of splicing factors. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Related pseudogenes are located on chromosomes 1 and 9. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

CLK4 Gene

CDC-like kinase 4

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CDC2-like protein kinase (CLK) family. This protein kinase can interact with and phosphorylate the serine- and arginine-rich (SR) proteins, which are known to play an important role in the formation of spliceosomes, and thus may be involved in the regulation of alternative splicing. Studies in the Israeli sand rat Psammomys obesus suggested that the ubiquitin-like 5 (UBL5/BEACON), a highly conserved ubiquitin-like protein, may interact with and regulate the activity of this kinase. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed, but the full-length natures of which have not yet been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MTOR Gene

mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase)

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of phosphatidylinositol kinase-related kinases. These kinases mediate cellular responses to stresses such as DNA damage and nutrient deprivation. This protein acts as the target for the cell-cycle arrest and immunosuppressive effects of the FKBP12-rapamycin complex. The ANGPTL7 gene is located in an intron of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]

LOC100420035 Gene

phosphoglycerate kinase 1 pseudogene

STRADBP1 Gene

STE20-related kinase adaptor beta pseudogene 1

PIP4K2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, alpha

Phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate, the precursor to second messengers of the phosphoinositide signal transduction pathways, is thought to be involved in the regulation of secretion, cell proliferation, differentiation, and motility. The protein encoded by this gene is one of a family of enzymes capable of catalyzing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate on the fourth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring to form phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate. The amino acid sequence of this enzyme does not show homology to other kinases, but the recombinant protein does exhibit kinase activity. This gene is a member of the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIP4K2C Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, gamma

PIP4K2B Gene

phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase, type II, beta

The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate on the fourth hydroxyl of the myo-inositol ring to form phosphatidylinositol-5,4-bisphosphate. This gene is a member of the phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase family. The encoded protein sequence does not show similarity to other kinases, but the protein does exhibit kinase activity. Additionally, the encoded protein interacts with p55 TNF receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PRKG1 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I

Mammals have three different isoforms of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (Ialpha, Ibeta, and II). These PRKG isoforms act as key mediators of the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway and are important components of many signal transduction processes in diverse cell types. This PRKG1 gene on human chromosome 10 encodes the soluble Ialpha and Ibeta isoforms of PRKG by alternative transcript splicing. A separate gene on human chromosome 4, PRKG2, encodes the membrane-bound PRKG isoform II. The PRKG1 proteins play a central role in regulating cardiovascular and neuronal functions in addition to relaxing smooth muscle tone, preventing platelet aggregation, and modulating cell growth. This gene is most strongly expressed in all types of smooth muscle, platelets, cerebellar Purkinje cells, hippocampal neurons, and the lateral amygdala. Isoforms Ialpha and Ibeta have identical cGMP-binding and catalytic domains but differ in their leucine/isoleucine zipper and autoinhibitory sequences and therefore differ in their dimerization substrates and kinase enzyme activity. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]

PRKG2 Gene

protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type II

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family of proteins. The encoded protein plays a role in the regulation of fluid balance in the intestine. A similar protein in mouse is thought to regulate differentiation and proliferation of cells in the colon. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]

LOC100418961 Gene

aurora kinase A pseudogene

CALM1P1 Gene

calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) pseudogene 1

CALM1P2 Gene

calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) pseudogene 2

PEAK1 Gene

pseudopodium-enriched atypical kinase 1

This gene encodes a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is a member of the new kinase family three (NFK3) family. In migrating cells, the encoded protein is associated with the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions and promotes developing focal adhesion elongation. This protein may play a role in the regulation of cell migration, proliferation and cancer metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

LOC648774 Gene

polo-like kinase 1 (Drosophila) pseudogene

AKAP11 Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 11

The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is expressed at high levels throughout spermatogenesis and in mature sperm. It binds the RI and RII subunits of PKA in testis. It may serve a function in cell cycle control of both somatic cells and germ cells in addition to its putative role in spermatogenesis and sperm function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK14 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 14

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase is activated by various environmental stresses and proinflammatory cytokines. The activation requires its phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinases (MKKs), or its autophosphorylation triggered by the interaction of MAP3K7IP1/TAB1 protein with this kinase. The substrates of this kinase include transcription regulator ATF2, MEF2C, and MAX, cell cycle regulator CDC25B, and tumor suppressor p53, which suggest the roles of this kinase in stress related transcription and cell cycle regulation, as well as in genotoxic stress response. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK15 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 15

MAPK10 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 10

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This protein is a neuronal-specific form of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs). Through its phosphorylation and nuclear localization, this kinase plays regulatory roles in the signaling pathways during neuronal apoptosis. Beta-arrestin 2, a receptor-regulated MAP kinase scaffold protein, is found to interact with, and stimulate the phosphorylation of this kinase by MAP kinase kinase 4 (MKK4). Cyclin-dependent kianse 5 can phosphorylate, and inhibit the activity of this kinase, which may be important in preventing neuronal apoptosis. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK11 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 11

This gene encodes a member of a family of protein kinases that are involved in the integration of biochemical signals for a wide variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, transcriptional regulation, and development. The encoded protein can be activated by proinflammatory cytokines and environmental stresses through phosphorylation by mitogen activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

MAPK12 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 12

Activation of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family is a major mechanism for transduction of extracellular signals. Stress-activated protein kinases are one subclass of MAP kinases. The protein encoded by this gene functions as a signal transducer during differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK13 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 13

This gene encodes a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The encoded protein is a p38 MAP kinase and is activated by proinflammatory cytokines and cellular stress. Substrates of the encoded protein include the transcription factor ATF2 and the microtubule dynamics regulator stathmin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]

CKS1BP4 Gene

CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B pseudogene 4

AK9 Gene

adenylate kinase 9

AK8 Gene

adenylate kinase 8

TBCK Gene

TBC1 domain containing kinase

This gene encodes a protein that contains a protein kinase domain, a Rhodanase-like domain and the Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC) domain. The encoded protein is thought to play a role in actin organization, cell growth and cell proliferation by regulating the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. This protein may also be involved in the transcriptional regulation of the components of the mTOR complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]

AK3 Gene

adenylate kinase 3

The protein encoded by this gene is a GTP:ATP phosphotransferase that is found in the mitochondrial matrix. Several transcript variants encoding a few different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]

AK2 Gene

adenylate kinase 2

Adenylate kinases are involved in regulating the adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate groups among adenine nucleotides. Three isozymes of adenylate kinase, namely 1, 2, and 3, have been identified in vertebrates; this gene encodes isozyme 2. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. Isozyme 2 is localized in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and may play a role in apoptosis. Mutations in this gene are the cause of reticular dysgenesis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1 and 2.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

AK1 Gene

adenylate kinase 1

Adenylate kinase is an enzyme involved in regulating the adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate group among adinine nucleotides. Three isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates, adenylate isozyme 1 (AK1), 2 (AK2) and 3 (AK3). AK1 is found in the cytosol of skeletal muscle, brain and erythrocytes, whereas AK2 and AK3 are found in the mitochondria of other tissues including liver and heart. AK1 was identified because of its association with a rare genetic disorder causing nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia where a mutation in the AK1 gene was found to reduce the catalytic activity of the enzyme. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

AK4 Gene

adenylate kinase 4

This gene encodes a member of the adenylate kinase family of enzymes. The encoded protein is localized to the mitochondrial matrix. Adenylate kinases regulate the adenine and guanine nucleotide compositions within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate group among these nucleotides. Five isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. A pseudogene for this gene has been located on chromosome 17. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. Sequence alignment suggests that the gene defined by NM_013410, NM_203464, and NM_001005353 is located on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC100419916 Gene

cyclin-dependent kinase 8 pseudogene

BCKDK Gene

branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase

The branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD) is an important regulator of the valine, leucine, and isoleucine catabolic pathways. The protein encoded by this gene is found in the mitochondrion, where it phosphorylates and inactivates BCKD. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

SKP2 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase

This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbls class; in addition to an F-box, this protein contains 10 tandem leucine-rich repeats. This protein is an essential element of the cyclin A-CDK2 S-phase kinase. It specifically recognizes phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B, also referred to as p27 or KIP1) predominantly in S phase and interacts with S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1 or p19). In addition, this gene is established as a protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. Alternative splicing of this gene generates three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]

SKP1 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 1

This gene encodes a component of SCF complexes, which are composed of this protein, cullin 1, a ring-box protein, and one member of the F-box family of proteins. This protein binds directly to the F-box motif found in F-box proteins. SCF complexes are involved in the regulated ubiquitination of specific protein substrates, which targets them for degradation by the proteosome. Specific F-box proteins recognize different target protein(s), and many specific SCF substrates have been identified including regulators of cell cycle progression and development. Studies have also characterized the protein as an RNA polymerase II elongation factor. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

BMP2K Gene

BMP2 inducible kinase

This gene is the human homolog of mouse BMP-2-inducible kinase. Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play a key role in skeletal development and patterning. Expression of the mouse gene is increased during BMP-2 induced differentiation and the gene product is a putative serine/threonine protein kinase containing a nuclear localization signal. Therefore, the protein encoded by this human homolog is thought to be a protein kinase with a putative regulatory role in attenuating the program of osteoblast differentiation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

NME2P1 Gene

NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 pseudogene 1

CMPK1 Gene

cytidine monophosphate (UMP-CMP) kinase 1, cytosolic

This gene encodes one of the enzymes required for cellular nucleic acid biosynthesis. This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to CMP, UMP, or dCMP, to form the corresponding diphosphate nucleotide. Alternate splicing results in both coding and non-coding transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

CMPK2 Gene

cytidine monophosphate (UMP-CMP) kinase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes one of the enzymes in the nucleotide synthesis salvage pathway that may participate in terminal differentiation of monocytic cells. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]

PIK3C2B Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 beta

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is sensitive to low nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmanin. The C2 domain of this protein was shown to bind phospholipids but not Ca2+, which suggests that this enzyme may function in a calcium-independent manner. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2A Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 alpha

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. The PI3-kinase activity of this protein is not sensitive to nanomolar levels of the inhibitor wortmanin. This protein was shown to be able to be activated by insulin and may be involved in integrin-dependent signaling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PIK3C2G Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 2 gamma

The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family. PI3-kinases play roles in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell survival, cell migration, and intracellular protein trafficking. This protein contains a lipid kinase catalytic domain as well as a C-terminal C2 domain, a characteristic of class II PI3-kinases. C2 domains act as calcium-dependent phospholipid binding motifs that mediate translocation of proteins to membranes, and may also mediate protein-protein interactions. This gene may play a role in several diseases, including type II diabetes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]

PRKRA Gene

protein kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator

This gene encodes a protein kinase activated by double-stranded RNA which mediates the effects of interferon in response to viral infection. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dystonia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]

PIP5K1P1 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, pseudogene 1

PIP5K1P2 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase, type I, pseudogene 2

LOC100288125 Gene

NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 pseudogene

LOC728098 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 interacting protein 1-like pseudogene

LOC100499399 Gene

adenylate kinase 3 pseudogene

AK6P2 Gene

adenylate kinase 6 pseudogene 2

AK6P1 Gene

adenylate kinase 6 pseudogene 1

GSK3A Gene

glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha

This gene encodes a multifunctional Ser/Thr protein kinase that is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins including glycogen synthase, and transcription factors, such as JUN. It also plays a role in the WNT and PI3K signaling pathways, as well as regulates the production of beta-amyloid peptides associated with Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

GSK3B Gene

glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta

The protein encoded by this gene is a serine-threonine kinase, belonging to the glycogen synthase kinase subfamily. It is involved in energy metabolism, neuronal cell development, and body pattern formation. Polymorphisms in this gene have been implicated in modifying risk of Parkinson disease, and studies in mice show that overexpression of this gene may be relevant to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

LOC102724428 Gene

serine/threonine-protein kinase SIK1

RFKP1 Gene

riboflavin kinase pseudogene 1

LOC100129948 Gene

riboflavin kinase pseudogene

TESK1 Gene

testis-specific kinase 1

This gene product is a serine/threonine protein kinase that contains an N-terminal protein kinase domain and a C-terminal proline-rich domain. Its protein kinase domain is most closely related to those of the LIM motif-containing protein kinases (LIMKs). The encoded protein can phosphorylate myelin basic protein and histone in vitro. The testicular germ cell-specific expression and developmental pattern of expression of the mouse gene suggests that this gene plays an important role at and after the meiotic phase of spermatogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

TESK2 Gene

testis-specific kinase 2

This gene product is a serine/threonine protein kinase that contains an N-terminal protein kinase domain that is structurally similar to the kinase domains of testis-specific protein kinase-1 and the LIM motif-containing protein kinases (LIMKs). Its overall structure is most related to the former, indicating that it belongs to the TESK subgroup of the LIMK/TESK family of protein kinases. This gene is predominantly expressed in testis and prostate. The developmental expression pattern of the rat gene in testis suggests an important role for this gene in meitoic stages and/or early stages of spermiogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

STK25P1 Gene

serine/threonine kinase 25 pseudogene 1

ITPKA Gene

inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase A

Regulates inositol phosphate metabolism by phosphorylation of second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. The activity of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase is responsible for regulating the levels of a large number of inositol polyphosphates that are important in cellular signaling. Both calcium/calmodulin and protein phosphorylation mechanisms control its activity. It is also a substrate for the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, calcium/calmodulin- dependent protein kinase II, and protein kinase C in vitro.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]

ITPKC Gene

inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase C

This gene encodes a member of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P(3)] 3-kinase family of enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. The encoded protein is localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm and has both nuclear import and nuclear export activity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are associated with Kawasaki disease.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]

ITPKB Gene

inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase B

The protein encoded by this protein regulates inositol phosphate metabolism by phosphorylation of second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. The activity of this encoded protein is responsible for regulating the levels of a large number of inositol polyphosphates that are important in cellular signaling. Both calcium/calmodulin and protein phosphorylation mechanisms control its activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

PKM Gene

pyruvate kinase, muscle

This gene encodes a protein involved in glycolysis. The encoded protein is a pyruvate kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP, generating ATP and pyruvate. This protein has been shown to interact with thyroid hormone and may mediate cellular metabolic effects induced by thyroid hormones. This protein has been found to bind Opa protein, a bacterial outer membrane protein involved in gonococcal adherence to and invasion of human cells, suggesting a role of this protein in bacterial pathogenesis. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding a few distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

ITPK1 Gene

inositol-tetrakisphosphate 1-kinase

LOC642355 Gene

nucleoside diphosphate kinase, mitochondrial-like

LIMK2 Gene

LIM domain kinase 2

There are approximately 40 known eukaryotic LIM proteins, so named for the LIM domains they contain. LIM domains are highly conserved cysteine-rich structures containing 2 zinc fingers. Although zinc fingers usually function by binding to DNA or RNA, the LIM motif probably mediates protein-protein interactions. LIM kinase-1 and LIM kinase-2 belong to a small subfamily with a unique combination of 2 N-terminal LIM motifs and a C-terminal protein kinase domain. The protein encoded by this gene is phosphorylated and activated by ROCK, a downstream effector of Rho, and the encoded protein, in turn, phosphorylates cofilin, inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. It is thought that this pathway contributes to Rho-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. At least three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LIMK1 Gene

LIM domain kinase 1

There are approximately 40 known eukaryotic LIM proteins, so named for the LIM domains they contain. LIM domains are highly conserved cysteine-rich structures containing 2 zinc fingers. Although zinc fingers usually function by binding to DNA or RNA, the LIM motif probably mediates protein-protein interactions. LIM kinase-1 and LIM kinase-2 belong to a small subfamily with a unique combination of 2 N-terminal LIM motifs and a C-terminal protein kinase domain. LIMK1 is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates actin polymerization via phosphorylation and inactivation of the actin binding factor cofilin. This protein is ubiquitously expressed during development and plays a role in many cellular processes associated with cytoskeletal structure. This protein also stimulates axon growth and may play a role in brain development. LIMK1 hemizygosity is implicated in the impaired visuospatial constructive cognition of Williams syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]

LOC100289315 Gene

NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 pseudogene

PIK3R6 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 6

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma is a lipid kinase that produces the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. The kinase is composed of a catalytic subunit and one of several regulatory subunits, and is chiefly activated by G protein-coupled receptors. This gene encodes a regulatory subunit, and is distantly related to the phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 5 gene which is located adjacent to this gene on chromosome 7. The orthologous protein in the mouse binds to both the catalytic subunit and to G(beta/gamma), and mediates activation of the kinase subunit downstream of G protein-coupled receptors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

PIK3R5 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 5

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) phosphorylate the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol at the 3-prime position, and play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, survival and intracellular trafficking. The PI3Ks are divided into three classes: I, II and III, and only the class I PI3Ks are involved in oncogenesis. This gene encodes the 101 kD regulatory subunit of the class I PI3K gamma complex, which is a dimeric enzyme, consisting of a 110 kD catalytic subunit gamma and a regulatory subunit of either 55, 87 or 101 kD. This protein recruits the catalytic subunit from the cytosol to the plasma membrane through high-affinity interaction with G-beta-gamma proteins. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]

PIK3R4 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 4

PIK3R3 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 3 (gamma)

PIK3R2 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 2 (beta)

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is a lipid kinase that phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol and similar compounds, creating second messengers important in growth signaling pathways. PI3K functions as a heterodimer of a regulatory and a catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory component of PI3K. Two transcript variants, one protein coding and the other non-protein coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

PIK3R1 Gene

phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha)

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase phosphorylates the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol at the 3-prime position. The enzyme comprises a 110 kD catalytic subunit and a regulatory subunit of either 85, 55, or 50 kD. This gene encodes the 85 kD regulatory subunit. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase plays an important role in the metabolic actions of insulin, and a mutation in this gene has been associated with insulin resistance. Alternative splicing of this gene results in four transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]

TSKS Gene

testis-specific serine kinase substrate

This gene may play a role in testicular physiology, spermatogenesis or spermiogenesis. Expression of the encoded protein is highest in the testis and down-regulated in testicular cancer. The gene is localized to the region 19q13.3 among the related RAS viral oncogene homolog (RRAS) and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) genes, which are both involved in tumorigenesis pathways and progression. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

MAPK8IP1 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 1

This gene encodes a regulator of the pancreatic beta-cell function. It is highly similar to JIP-1, a mouse protein known to be a regulator of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (Mapk8). This protein has been shown to prevent MAPK8 mediated activation of transcription factors, and to decrease IL-1 beta and MAP kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) induced apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells. This protein also functions as a DNA-binding transactivator of the glucose transporter GLUT2. RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is reported to repress the expression of this gene in insulin-secreting beta cells. This gene is found to be mutated in a type 2 diabetes family, and thus is thought to be a susceptibility gene for type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]

MAPK8IP2 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 2

The protein encoded by this gene is closely related to MAPK8IP1/IB1/JIP-1, a scaffold protein that is involved in the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase signaling pathway. This protein is expressed in brain and pancreatic cells. It has been shown to interact with, and regulate the activity of MAPK8/JNK1, and MAP2K7/MKK7 kinases. This protein thus is thought to function as a regulator of signal transduction by protein kinase cascade in brain and pancreatic beta-cells. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]

MAPK8IP3 Gene

mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 3

The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the product of Drosophila syd gene, required for the functional interaction of kinesin I with axonal cargo. Studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that this protein may interact with, and regulate the activity of numerous protein kinases of the JNK signaling pathway, and thus function as a scaffold protein in neuronal cells. The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport possibly by integrating JNK signaling and kinesin-1 transport. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]

LOC158948 Gene

protein kinase C, iota pseudogene

PRKAR1A Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha

cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. This gene encodes one of the regulatory subunits. This protein was found to be a tissue-specific extinguisher that down-regulates the expression of seven liver genes in hepatoma x fibroblast hybrids. Mutations in this gene cause Carney complex (CNC). This gene can fuse to the RET protooncogene by gene rearrangement and form the thyroid tumor-specific chimeric oncogene known as PTC2. A nonconventional nuclear localization sequence (NLS) has been found for this protein which suggests a role in DNA replication via the protein serving as a nuclear transport protein for the second subunit of the Replication Factor C (RFC40). Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]

PRKAR1B Gene

protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, beta

Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is an essential enzyme in the signaling pathway of the second messenger cAMP. Through phosphorylation of target proteins, PKA controls many biochemical events in the cell including regulation of metabolism, ion transport, and gene transcription. The PKA holoenzyme is composed of 2 regulatory and 2 catalytic subunits and dissociates from the regulatory subunits upon binding of cAMP.[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]

DCAKD Gene

dephospho-CoA kinase domain containing

SKP1P1 Gene

S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 pseudogene 1

TK2 Gene

thymidine kinase 2, mitochondrial

This gene encodes a deoxyribonucleoside kinase that specifically phosphorylates thymidine, deoxycytidine, and deoxyuridine. The encoded enzyme localizes to the mitochondria and is required for mitochondrial DNA synthesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with a myopathic form of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms, some of which lack transit peptide, so are not localized to mitochondria. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]

TK1 Gene

thymidine kinase 1, soluble

IPPK Gene

inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase

The protein encoded by this gene is a kinase that phosphorylates position 2 of inositol-1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate to form inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate (InsP6). InsP6 has a variety of functions, including stimulation of DNA repair, endocytosis, and mRNA export. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]

RPS6KL1 Gene

ribosomal protein S6 kinase-like 1

LOC100422375 Gene

phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha pseudogene

AKAP8L Gene

A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8-like

NAMA Gene

non-protein coding RNA, associated with MAP kinase pathway and growth arrest

MLKL Gene

mixed lineage kinase domain-like

MOB1AP2 Gene

MOB kinase activator 1A pseudogene 2

MOB1AP1 Gene

MOB kinase activator 1A pseudogene 1

CASK Gene

calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family)

This gene encodes a calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase. The encoded protein is a MAGUK (membrane-associated guanylate kinase) protein family member. These proteins are scaffold proteins and the encoded protein is located at synapses in the brain. Mutations in this gene are associated with FG syndrome 4, mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia, and a form of X-linked mental retardation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]

HUNK Gene

hormonally up-regulated Neu-associated kinase

SBK1 Gene

SH3 domain binding kinase 1

STRADB Gene

STE20-related kinase adaptor beta

This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase STE20 subfamily. One of the active site residues in the protein kinase domain of this protein is altered, and it is thus a pseudokinase. This protein is a component of a complex involved in the activation of serine/threonine kinase 11, a master kinase that regulates cell polarity and energy-generating metabolism. This complex regulates the relocation of this kinase from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and it is essential for G1 cell cycle arrest mediated by this kinase. The protein encoded by this gene can also interact with the X chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, and this interaction enhances the anti-apoptotic activity of this protein via the JNK1 signal transduction pathway. Two pseudogenes, located on chromosomes 1 and 7, have been fo