Name Zinc finger CCCH-type antiviral protein 1
Description Antiviral protein which inhibits the replication of viruses by recruiting the cellular RNA degradation machineries to degrade the viral mRNAs. Binds to a ZAP-responsive element (ZRE) present in the target viral mRNA, recruits cellular poly(A)-specific ribonuclease PARN to remove the poly(A) tail, and the 3'-5' exoribonuclease complex exosome to degrade the RNA body from the 3'-end. It also recruits the decapping complex DCP1-DCP2 through RNA helicase p72 (DDX17) to remove the cap structure of the viral mRNA to initiate its degradation from the 5'-end. Its target viruses belong to families which include retroviridae: human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), moloney and murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) and xenotropic MuLV-related virus (XMRV), filoviridae: ebola virus (EBOV) and marburg virus (MARV), togaviridae: sindbis virus (SINV) and Ross river virus (RRV). Specifically targets the multiply spliced but not unspliced or singly spliced HIV-1 mRNAs for degradation. Isoform 1 is a more potent viral inhibitor than isoform 2. Isoform 2 acts as a positive regulator of DDX58/RIG-I signaling resulting in activation of the downstream effector IRF3 leading to the expression of type I IFNs and IFN stimulated genes (ISGs).
UniProt ID Q7Z2W4
Gene ZC3HAV1