Apoptotic regulator capable of exerting proapoptotic and anti-apoptotic activities and plays crucial roles in apoptosis, cell proliferation, and cell cycle control. Its anti-apoptotic activity is mediated through the inhibition of CASP3, CASP7 and CASP9, as well as by its E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity. As it is a weak caspase inhibitor, its anti-apoptotic activity is thought to be due to its ability to ubiquitinate DIABLO/SMAC targeting it for degradation thereby promoting cell survival. May contribute to caspase inhibition, by blocking the ability of DIABLO/SMAC to disrupt XIAP/BIRC4-caspase interactions. Protects against apoptosis induced by TNF or by chemical agents such as adriamycin, etoposide or staurosporine. Suppression of apoptosis is mediated by activation of MAPK8/JNK1, and possibly also of MAPK9/JNK2. This activation depends on TAB1 and NR2C2/TAK1. In vitro, inhibits CASP3 and proteolytic activation of pro-CASP9. Isoform 1 blocks staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Isoform 2 blocks etoposide-induced apoptosis. Isoform 2 protects against natural killer (NK) cell killing whereas isoform 1 augments killing.