TISSUES Text-mining Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

Description gene-tissue co-occurrence scores from text-mining biomedical abstracts
Measurement association by text-mining
Association protein-tissue associations from automated text-mining of biomedical literature
Category structural or functional annotations
Resource TISSUES
Citation(s)
Last Updated
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  1. 16184 genes
  2. 4187 tissues
  3. 1836577 gene-tissue associations

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tissue Gene Sets

4187 sets of proteins co-occuring with tissues in abstracts of biomedical publications from the TISSUES Text-mining Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores dataset.

Gene Set Description
microvascular endothelial cell
xylem A complex tissue in the vascular system of higher plants that consists of vessels, tracheids, or both usually together with wood fibers and parenchyma cells, functions chiefly in conduction of water and dissolved minerals but also in support and food storage, and typically constitutes the woody element.
neuroepithelioma cell A rare type of neuroepithelial tumor, usually found in the brain or retina, composed of primitive neuroepithelial cells lining the tubular spaces.
midgut cell line
buccal epithelial cell
mandible 1: The lower jaw of a vertebrate animal. 2: Either the upper or lower part of the beak in birds.
fat pad An accumulation of adipose tissue (fat cells) enclosed in fibrous tissue.
adrenal cortex The outer portion of the adrenal glands that produces several steroid hormones, including cortisol and aldosterone.
nugc-3 cell Human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line established from a 72-year-old male.
papillary thyroid cancer cell Cancer that forms in follicular cells in the thyroid and grows in small finger-like shapes. It grows slowly, is more common in women than in men, and often occurs before age 45. It is the most common type of thyroid cancer.
chondrosarcoma cell line
vena cava Any of the large veins by which in air-breathing vertebrates the blood is returned to the right atrium of the heart.
reh cell Human B cell precursor leukemia established from the peripheral blood of a 15-year-old North African girl with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, ALL at first relapse, in 1973.
hig-82 cell Oryctolagus cuniculus synoviocyte cell line derived from the intrarticular soft tissue from the knee joint of a 6-months-old female rabbit.
umbilical vein endothelium
thalamic nucleus
pnt-2 cell Human normal prostate epithelium cell line immortalized with SV40.
anterior visceral endoderm The anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) is an extra-embryonic tissue required for specifying anterior pattern in the mouse embryo.
oocyte The immature reproductive cell prior to fertilization; it is derived from an oogonium, and is called a primary oocyte prior to completion of the first maturation division, and a secondary oocyte between the first and second maturation division.
pharyngeal cell line
endometrial cancer cell line
anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell An aggressive (rapidly progressing) type of non-Hodgkins lymphoma that is usually of the T-cell type. The cancer cells express a marker called CD30 or Ki-1 on the surface, and may appear in the lymph nodes, skin, bones, soft tissues, lungs, or liver.
intersegmental muscle The short intersegmental muscle is located between the prothorax and the mesothorax.
carpel The female reproductive part of a flower, consisting of stigma, style, and ovary.
grx cell Immortalized murine hepatic stellate cell line.
chang cell Human normal hepatic cell line with epithelial-like morphology. Originally established from liver, HeLa-contaminated.
meningioma cell A cell of a slow-growing tumor of the meninges, occurring most often in adults.
tmk-1 cell Human gastric cancer cell line.
mda-mb-435s cell This cell line was originally described as a spindle shaped variant of the parental MDA-MB-435 strain isolated from the pleural effusion of a 31 year old female with metastatic, ductal adenocarcinoma of the breast. However, recent studies have reported that this line is cross-contaminated with is the M14 melanoma line.
cephalothorax The united head and thorax of an arachnid or higher crustacean.
h9 cell Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.
cervicovaginal fluid The fluid of the uterine cervix and the vagina.
bronchial bud An outgrowth from the stem bronchus giving rise to the air passages of its respective pulmonary lobe.
tby-2 cell BY-2 is a cell line of tobacco induced from a pith of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow No2 in 1968. This cell line was made by Dr. Kawashima at Hatano Tobacco Experimental Station of Japan Tobacco and Salt Public Cooporation.
spiral organ The organ, resting on the basilar membrane in the cochlear duct, that contains the special sensory receptors for hearing; it consists of neuroepithelial hair cells and several types of supporting cells, including the inner and outer pillar cells, inner and outer phalangeal cells, border cells, and Hensen's cells.
sf-539 cell Human glial tumor cell line; originated from grade IV human glioblastoma biopsy specimens.
glomerular epithelium The inner, or visceral, layer of the renal glomerular capsule, overlying the capillaries, composed of podocytes, and separated from the outer, or parietal, layer by the capsular, Bowman,s space.
osteoblast A cell from which bone develops; a bone-forming cell.
mcf-12f cell Nontumorigenic human mammary epithelial cell line.
acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia cell Acute leukemia distinguished from acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) by the morphology of the marrow and blood leukemic cells. Cytoplasmic granules are usually present and the nucleus is usually large and irregular. ANLL is more common in adults than ALL and occurs at any age.
t-98g cell Human brain glioblastoma multiforme cell line, established from a 61 years old caucasian male.
rh-28 cell Human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cell line.
nerve cord 1. The pair of closely united ventral longitudinal nerves with their segmental ganglia that is characteristic of many elongate invertebrates (as earthworms). 2. The dorsal tubular cord of nervous tissue above the notochord of a chordate that comprises or develops into the central nervous system.
metanephric adenoma cell A very rare benign renal tumor; only 80 well-documented cases have been reported to date. We have seen several renal tumors that were originally incorrectly diagnosed as metanephric adenoma.
um-scc-12 cell Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line.
promyelocytic leukemia cell line
cecal epithelium
culture filtrate
bc3h1 cell Mouse brain tumor cell line. Established from a mouse tumor induced by nitrosoethylurea with properties characteristic of muscle; cells were described to synthesize adenylate and creatine phosphokinases.
midgut epithelium For example the midgut epithelium of Wirenia argentea Odhner Mollusca, Solenogastres) is composed of two cell types: dorsal ciliary cells and digestive cells.
mesophyll The photosynthetic parenchyma between the epidermal layers of a foliage leaf.
semimembranosus A large muscle of the inner part and back of the thigh that arises by a thick tendon from the back part of the tuberosity of the ischium, is inserted into the medial condyle of the tibia, and acts to flex the leg and rotate it medially and to extend the thigh.
pith A usually continuous central strand of spongy tissue in the stems of most vascular plants that probably functions chiefly in storage.
c6 glioma cell The glial cell strain, C6, was cloned from a rat glial tumor induced by N-nitrosomethylurea by Benda et al after a series of alternate culture and animal passages. Tissue: brain; glial cell; glioma. Morphology: fibroblast.
sw-872 cell The SW 872 cell line was initiated in 1974 surgical specimen of a fibrosarcoma removed from a 36 year old male Caucasian. The histopathology evaluation reported an undifferentiated malignant tumor consistent with liposarcoma.
hn9.10e cell Embryonic hippocampal cell line.
a-375 cell Skin malignant melanoma cell line; established from a 54 year old human female.
yoshida ascites sarcoma cell
vascular cell A cell of the vascular system.
supporting cell Cells that serve to provide support and protection and perhaps contribute to the nutrition of principal or other cells of certain organs; such cells are found in the labyrinth of the inner ear, organ of Corti, olfactory epithelium, taste buds, and seminiferous tubules (Sertoli's cells).
accessory sex gland Male accessory glands in humans are the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands. In insects, male accessory glands produce products that mix with the sperm to protect and preserve them.
morris hepatoma 3924a cell Rat Morris hepatoma 3924A cell.
grey cell Canine osteosarcoma cell line.
urinary bladder endothelium
chondrocyte Cartilage cells. They make the structural components of cartilage.
pleura The delicate serous membrane that lines each half of the thorax of mammals and is folded back over the surface of the lung of the same side.
scgt1 cell Derived from the mouse hypothalamic cell line GT1, infected with mouse scrapie prions.
schwann cell Named after the German physiologist Theodor Schwann. Schwann cells are a variety of glial cell that keep peripheral nerve fibres (both myelinated and unmyelinated) alive.
rpmi-8226 cell Human multiple myeloma cell line; established from the peripheral blood of a 61-year-old man with multiple myeloma (IgG lambda-type) at diagnosis in 1966; described to produce and secrete only lambda light chains (but not heavy chains).
pg-cl3 cell Cloned PG cell subline.
kinetoplastid Pertaining or relating to protozoa of the order Kinetoplastida.
mda-mb-436 cell Human breast cancer cell line that expresses high levels of seprase as do the carcinoma cells in tumors of human breast cancer patients.
prepupa 1: An inactive stage just before the pupa in the development of certain insects. 2:The form of an insect in this stage.
anterior commissure A bundle of myelinated nerve fibers passing transversely through the lamina terminalis and connecting symmetrical parts of the two cerebral hemispheres; it consists of a smaller anterior part (pars anterior commissurae anterioris) and a larger posterior part (pars posterior commissurae anterioris).
nci-h661 cell Non-small cell lung cancer cell line.
nci-h209 cell Small cell lung cancer cell line.
agranular insular cortex The insular cortex has regions of variable cell structure or cytoarchitecture, changing from granular in the posterior portion to agranular in the anterior portion.
decidua 1: The part of the mucous membrane lining the uterus that in higher placental mammals undergoes special modifications in preparation for and during pregnancy and is cast off at parturition. 2: The part of the mucous membrane of the uterus cast off in the process of menstruation.
cend cell Human brain endothelial cell line cEND.
aristotles lantern Within the mouth of a sea urchin is an elaborate five-sided jaw structure called Aristotles lantern that can be partially extruded from the mouth. It is able to grind up calcareous exoskeletons of plants and animals.
sum-52 cell Human breast cancer cell line.
panc-1 cell Human, Caucasian, pancreas, carcinoma cell line. Established from a pancreatic carcinoma of ductal origin from a 56-year-old Caucasian male. Cells possess the type B phenotype for G6PD.
brain microvascular endothelial cell
thecoma cell A fibroidlike tumor of the ovary containing yellow areas of lipoid material derived from theca cells. It may be associated with excessive production of estrogen and have a tendency to cystic degeneration. These tumors are rarely composed entirely of theca cells; commonly both theca and granulosa cells are found.
sp2/0-ag14 cell SP2/0-AG14 is a hybrid between BALB/c spleen cells and the myeloma cell line P3X63AG8.
spinal column The series of articulated vertebrae, separated by intervertebral disks and held together by muscles and tendons, that extends from the cranium to the coccyx or the end of the tail, encasing the spinal cord and forming the supporting axis of the body; the spine.
ins-1 cell Pancreatic beta -cell line of rat origin.
calu-1 cell Human epidermoid lung carcinoma grade III cell line, established from a Caucasian male 47 years old.
female reproductive gland
brown adipose tissue A mammalian heat-producing tissue occurring especially in human newborns and in hibernators.
t-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell A type of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, ALL, a cancer of the lymphocyte-forming cells called lymphoblasts.
wart A horny projection on the skin usually of the extremities produced by proliferation of the skin papillae and caused by a papillomavirus.
rostral migratory stream In rodents, the anterior region of the SVZ produces neuroblasts that migrate in chain toward the olfactory bulb along the so-called rostral migratory stream (RMS).
seg-1 cell Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line.
snu-354 cell Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.
free-living state
macrophage cell line
t3m4 cell Human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line.
hgec cell Immortalized human glomerular endothelial cell line.
htc-4 cell Rat hepatoma cell line.
endothelium An epithelium of mesodermal origin composed of a single layer of thin flattened cells that lines internal body cavities.
er-1 cell The ER-1 weakly malignant clonal cell line was derived from a mammary adenocarcinoma that developed spontaneously in a female SHR rat.
beas-2b cell Epithelial cells were isolated from normal human bronchial epithelium obtained from autopsy of non-cancerous individuals.
iec-6 cell Rat normal small intestine cell line. Normal rat epithelial cells from the small intestine; cells were described to synthesize fibronectin and collagen.
floret 1. A small or reduced flower, especially one of the grasses and composite plants, such as a daisy. 2. Any of the tight, branched clusters of flower buds that together form a head of cauliflower or broccoli.
ml-1 cell Human acute myeloblastic leukaemia cell line from human peripheral blood. Morphology: Myoblast.
insect labium A mouthpart of insects.
bag cell neuron Cluster of electrically coupled neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia that are homogeneous, easily dissected out and release peptides that stimulate egg laying.
hl-1 cell A cardiac muscle cell line from the AT-1 mouse atrial cardiomyocyte tumor lineage; established from an adult female Jackson Laboratory-inbred C57BLy6J mouse.
pelvic fin One of the pair of fins positioned on the under-side of the body of a fish. Depending on the species, the pelvic fins can be found in a mid-ventral position underneath or just behind the pectoral fins or in front of the pectorals in the throat region.
psammoma body A psammoma body is a round collection of calcium, seen microscopically. The term is derived from the Greek word psammos meaning sand. Psammoma bodies are commonly seen in certain tumors.
pancreas A large lobulated gland of vertebrates that secretes digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon.
bc-2 cell PEL cell line carrying the Epstain-Barr virus (EBV) infection.
ut-scc-15 cell Human squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
tta-1 cell Human undifferentiated thyroid cancer cell line.
embryonic fibroblast cell line
theca cell Lutein cell derived from the theca interna.
cell property
conjunctiva The mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and is continued over the forepart of the eyeball.
ileal mucosa
p3x63ag8 cell Mouse BALB/c plasmacytoma B lymphocyte myeloma cell line. Morphology: lymphoblast. Species: mouse, BALB/c. Tumor: myeloma.
anterior chamber of the eye That portion of the aqueous-containing space between the cornea and the lens which is bounded in front by the cornea and part of the sclera, and behind by the iris, part of the ciliary body, and that part of the lens which presents through the pupil.
tepal A division of the perianth of a flower having a virtually indistinguishable calyx and corolla, as in tulips and lilies.
colo-206f cell
superior vena cava The venous trunk draining blood from the head, neck, upper extremities, and chest; it begins by union of the two brachiocephalic veins, passes directly downward, and empties into the right atrium of the heart.
immobilized cell Cells are immobilized by embedding them for example in Calcium-alginate.
hfob 1.19 cell Human fetal osteoblast cell line.
stomach smooth muscle
achene A small dry indehiscent one-seeded fruit (as of a sunflower) developing from a simple ovary and usually having a thin pericarp attached to the seed at only one point.
habenula A component of the epithalamus, being the small eminence on the dorsomedial surface of the thalamus, just in front of the dorsal commissure on the lateral edge of the habenular trigone.
colorectal cell line
vitellarium The female system is unusual in that it is separated into two structures: the ovaries and the vitellaria, often known as the vitelline glands or yolk glands. The cells of the vitellaria form yolk and eggshell components.
storage tissue
embryonic brain
branchial arch One of a series of bony or cartilaginous arches that develop in the walls of the mouth cavity and pharynx of a vertebrate embryo, consist typically of a curved segmented bar or rod on each side meeting the contralateral bar or rod at the ventral end, and correspond to the gill arches of fishes and amphibians.
dhl-9 cell Human histiocytic lymphoma cell line.
blast cell In the monophyletic theory, the least differentiated, totipotential blood cell without commitment as to its particular series, from which all blood cells are derived, preceding a stem cell.
ray floret Small flower with a flat strap-shaped corolla usually occupying the peripheral rings of a composite flower.
erythroblast Any of the nucleated cells normally found only in bone marrow that develop into erythrocytes.
peritoneal mesothelium
b-lymphocyte cell line
mucoepidermoid carcinoma cell Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is the most common primary salivary gland-type tumour of the lung. It arises from the excretory ducts of the bronchial mucosa.
vascular smooth muscle
gastric epithelium cell line
placental disc
ht-1080 cell Human fibrosarcoma cell line; established from the biopsy from a fibrosarcoma of a 35-year-old Caucasian man in 1972; patient did not receive any chemo- or radiotherapy.
cholangiocyte The epithelial cell that lines the bile ducts; Biliary epithelial cells or cholangiocytes line a complex tree-like 3-dimensional network of conduits within the liver that form the biliary tract.
ovcar-3 cell Human caucasian ovary adenocarcinoma cell line; established from a 60 years old caucasian female.
muscular coat An outer layer of smooth muscle surrounding a hollow or tubular organ as the bladder, esophagus, large intestine, small intestine, stomach, ureter, uterus, and vagina that often consists of an inner layer of circular fibers serving to narrow the lumen of the organ and an outer layer of longitudinal fibers serving to shorten its length.
lobular carcinoma cell A cell of an infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumours in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces.
dorsal fin The unpaired fin located on the back of both bony fish and sharks. It may be single and soft-rayed, as in trout, or double with the anterior dorsal fin supported by fin spines, as in perch. In some species, e.g. eels, the dorsal fin is confluent with the tail fin.
whole body The main part of an animal body especially as distinguished from limbs and head.
adipose-derived stromal cell Adipose-derived stromal cells have been shown to have multiple lineage differentiation properties and to be suitable for tissues regeneration in many degenerative processes.
chondrogenic cell
basophil Mammalian granulocyte with large heterochromatic basophilic granules that contain histamine bound to a protein and heparin-like mucopolysaccharide matrix. They are not phagocytic. Very similar to mast cells though it is not clear whether they have common lineage.
spike An elongated inflorescence similar to a raceme but having the flowers sessile on the main axis.
b-lymphoblast cell line
somatic cell One of the cells of the body that compose the tissues, organs, and parts of that individual other than the germ cells.
pr-mel cell Human melanoma cell line, deficient of mismatch repair genes MMR.
chemostat culture Culture using an apparatus in which the environment is so controlled that bacterial populations are maintained in a steady state of continuous cell division in a constant environment.
chago-k-1 cell Human lung bronchus carcinoma cell line, derived from a bronchogenic carcinoma of a 45-year-old male.
iose cell Nontumorigenic immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cell line.
j-96 cell Human, Caucasian, peripheral blood, subacute leukemia cell line.
henles loop cell line
conjunctival epithelium
vas efferens Any of a number of small ducts that carry semen from the testis to the epididymis.
right middle cerebral artery The left and right middle cerebral arteries rise from trifurcations of the internal carotid arteries and thus are connected to the anterior cerebral arteries and the posterior communicating arteries, which connect to the posterior cerebral arteries.
wi-26 cell Human lung fibroblast cell line.
a7r5 cell Rat embryonic thoracic aorta smooth muscle cell line. The cells exhibit an increase in activity of the enzymes myokinase and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) as the culture reaches stationary phase. Muscle type CPK is synthesized after cell division has ceased.
nasopharynx epithelium The nasopharynx is lined by stratified squamous epithelium and respiratory type epithelium.
adult Fully developed and mature: GROWN-UP.
hepatopancreas Digestive gland of crustaceans with functions approximately analogous to liver and pancreas of vertebrates - enzyme secretion, food absorption and storage.
posterior nuclear complex of thalamus Groups of nerve cells anterior to the pulvinar, forming an ill-defined complex that receives afferents from the spinothalamic tract and superior and inferior colliculi.
serous adenocarcinoma cell Adenocarcinoma from a serous gland producing and containing serous proteinaceous secretions.
meningothelial meningioma cell The most common type of syncytial meningioma, usually benign and lacking papillary whorls and psammoma bodies.
nci-h1915 cell Human non-small cell lung cancer cell line.
embryonic cerebral cortex
shoot A sending out of new growth or the growth sent out: as a stem or branch with its leaves and appendages especially when not yet mature.
portal vein A vein that conducts blood from the digestive organs, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver.
substantia nigra The substantia nigra is located in the mesencephalon (mid brain) region of the brain. It is part of the basal ganglia.
vas deferens A spermatic duct especially of a higher vertebrate that in the human male is a thick-walled tube about two feet (0.61 meters) long that begins at and is continuous with the tail of the epididymis and eventually joins the duct of the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct.
juxtaglomerular tumor cell A rare benign tumor cell of renal juxtaglomerular cells in young men, causing hyperreninemia.
mel888 cell Human melanoma cell line.
hyalocyte cell line
aortic smooth muscle cell
preosteoclast Precursors of an osteoclast.
myelocyte A bone-marrow cell: especially: a motile cell with cytoplasmic granules that gives rise to the blood granulocytes and occurs abnormally in the circulating blood (as in myelogenous leukemia).
pes anserinus The combined tendinous insertion on the medial aspect of the tuberosity of the tibia of the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus muscles.
junctional zone The murine placenta consists of two main fetally derived compartments: the labyrinthine zone and the junctional zone.
wro cell Follicular thyroid tumor cell line.
sk-n-sh cell Human, Caucasian, bone marrow, neuroblastoma cell line. Species: human, Caucasian female 4 years old; Tissue: bone marrow; Tumor: neuroblastoma.
sk-n-as cell Human, bone marrow, neuroblastoma cell line. Derived from a female patient with neuroblastoma from the metastasis of the bone marrow.
vocal fold Either of two pairs of folds of mucous membrane projecting into the larynx.
phycobiont Phycobionts are usually green algae, Chlorophyceae, yellow-green algae Xanthophyceae, and some other groups of algae.
root The usually underground part of a seed plant body that originates usually from the hypocotyl, functions as an organ of absorption, aeration, and food storage or as a means of anchorage and support, and differs from a stem especially in lacking nodes, buds, and leaves.
glomerular endothelial cell
muscle fibre An elongated contractile cell that forms the muscles of the body.
allantois A vascular fetal membrane of reptiles, birds, and mammals that is formed as a pouch from the hindgut and that in placental mammals is intimately associated with the chorion in formation of the placenta.
thyroid primordium In embryology, organ or tissue in its earliest recognizable stage of development. As, for example, the thyroid primordium.
tcmk-1 cell Mouse normal kidney cell line; SV-40 transfomed.
medium spiny neuron A special type of inhibitory cells representing approximately 90% of the neurons within the corpus striatum of the basal ganglia. They play a key role in initiating and controlling movements of the body, limbs and eyes.
gall bladder cancer cell
culture fluid The liquid culture medium, obtained after filtration of the cell culture.
rpmi-2650 cell Human nasal septum squamous cell carinoma cell line; established from the pleural effusion of a 52-year-old man with anaplastic squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal septum in 1962.
661w cell Retinal cell culture of murine 661W photoreceptor-derived cells.
osteocyte A cell that is characteristic of adult bone and is isolated in a lacuna of the bone substance.
ascites Accumulation of serous fluid in the spaces between tissues and organs in the cavity of the abdomen.
honey A sweet viscid material elaborated out of the nectar of flowers in the honey sac of various bees.
retinal microvascular endothelial cell
mammary gland The specialized accessory gland of the skin of female mammals that secretes milk. In the human female, it is a compound tubuloalveolar gland composed of 15 to 25 lobes arranged radially about the nipple and separated by connective and adipose tissue, each lobe having its own excretory (lactiferous) duct opening on the nipple. The lobes are subdivided into lobules, with the alveolar ducts and alveoli being the secretory portion of the gland.
41-m cell Human ovary cancer cell line.
plantlet A small or young plant.
ventral nucleus of thalamus A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the internal capsule; it includes ventral anterior, ventral intermediate, ventral lateral, ventral medial, ventrobasal and other nuclei, which relay impulses to various specific areas of the cerebral cortex.
deutocerebrum The median lobes of the brain of an insect.
saphenous vein endothelial cell
myoblast cell line
dorsal striatum Those portions of the caudate nucleus and especially the putamen located generally superior to a plane representing the anterior commissure; also called the dorsal basal ganglia; may function in motor activities with cognitive origins.
morula A globular solid mass of blastomeres formed by cleavage of a zygote that typically precedes the blastula.
c81-61 cell Human melanoma cell line.
hac cell Human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line.
kg-1a cell The KG-1A cell line is derived from the KG-1 cell line and is almost identical.
rat-2 cell This line was derived from the a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine resistant strain of the Fischer rat fibroblast 3T3 like cell line, Rat1. Rat2 lacks detectable nuclear thymidine kinase, is highly transfectable by exogenous DNA and is phenotypically normal.
small intestine cell line
hepa 1-6 cell Mouse hepatoma cell line; derived from the BW7756 tumor that arose in a C57L mouse.
cytotrophoblast The cellular (inner) layer of the trophoblast.
blastomere A cell produced during cleavage of a fertilized egg.
non-small cell lung cancer cell line
hl60/adr cell Acute promyelocytic leukemia resistant to Adriamycin.
pachytene cell A cell in the third stage of prophase I of meiosis, during which the homologous chromosomes are closely paired and crossing-over takes place.
mesonephron The excretory organ of the embryo, arising caudal to the pronephros or pronephric rudiments and using its duct; it consists of a long tube in the lower part of the body cavity, running parallel with the vertebral axis and joined at right angles by a row of twisting tubes.
hca-7 cell HCA-7 cell line was originally derived from human colonic carcinoma.
cervical cancer cell line
sum-102 cell Non-inflammatory human breast cancer cell line.
cauda epididymis The tail of the epididymis.
cauline leaf Of, having, or growing on a stem. Used especially of leaves arising from the upper part of a stem.
gut epithelium
hair cell Hair cells are the sensory receptors of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in all vertebrates. In mammals, the auditory hair cells are located within the organ of Corti on a thin basilar membrane in the cochlea of the inner ear.
ring gland Hormonal cells involved in the production and release of ecdysone and juvenile hormone.
rhabdomyocyte Large single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of muscle tissue. They consist of a soft contractile substance enclosed in a tubular sheath.
ctll-2 cell Mouse, C57BL/6, T-lymphocyte cell line.
abdomen 1: The part of the body between the thorax and the pelvis; also: the cavity of this part of the trunk containing the chief viscera. 2: The posterior section of the body behind the thorax in an arthropod.
corneocyte The remains of a keratinocyte; it is shed by the stratum corneum.
retinoblastoma cell A malignant congenital blastoma, occurring in both hereditary and sporadic forms, composed of tumor cells arising from the retinoblasts, appearing in one or both eyes in children under 5 years of age, and usually diagnosed initially by a bright white or yellow pupillary reflex -leukokoria.
carotid artery endothelium
root culture Generally excised root is cultured in liquid medium. The techniques of root culture give certain important informations such as nutritional requirements, infection by Rhizobium and nodulation and physiological activities, for example, production of alkaloids and nicotine.
tail fin cell line
min-6 cell The murine insulinoma MIN6 cell line derived from in vivo immortalized insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells.
bw-5147.3 cell This line is a clone of the BW5147 cell line which was established from a spontaneous AKR/J thymoma.
cho-mg cell A mutant of CHO cells resistant to the drug, methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG).
midbrain The middle of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain.
adult t-cell lymphoma cell A cell of a malignancy of mature T lymphocytes with onset in adulthood, believed to be caused by human T-lymphotropic virus 1 and characterized by circulating pleomorphic malignant lymphocytes, skin lesions, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, hypercalcemia, and lytic bone lesions; its course may be subacute or chronic.
esophageal epithelium
t-lymphoblastic leukemia cell line
m cell A unique, relatively rare intestinal epithelial cell type specialized for transepithelial transport of macromolecules, particles, and microorganisms. M cells in many species, including humans can be identified by morphological features such as their flattened apical surfaces and intraepithelial pockets containing lymphoid cells.
cysticercus The larval form of any of the Taenia tapeworms.
sublingual gland Gland situated or administered under the tongue; the smallest of the three salivary glands, occurring in pairs, predominantly mucous in type, and draining into the oral cavity through 10 to 30 sublingual ducts.
3-ll cell Murine lewis lung carcinoma cell line.
t-rex 293 cell Human embryonic kidney cell line stably expressing the tetracycline (Tet) repressor.
prefrontal cortex The prefrontal cortex is the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, lying in front of the motor and premotor areas.
detroit 562 cell Human, Caucasian female, pharynx, carcinoma cell line.
perivascular astrocyte Astrocyte located around the blood vessels.
um-scc-1 cell Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line.
encysting cell A cell beeing in the process of forming a cyst or becoming enclosed in a capsule.
carotid body A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
circular smooth muscle The inner layer of the muscular coat.
serous acinar cell
wing 1: One of the movable feathered or membranous paired appendages by means of which a bird, bat, or insect is able to fly; also: such an appendage even though rudimentary if possessed by an animal belonging to a group characterized by the power of flight. 2: Any of various anatomical structures especially of a flying fish or flying lemur providing means of limited flight.
cerebral lobe The well defined areas of the cerebral cortex, demarcated by fissures, sulci, and arbitrary lines, including the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes.
fetus An unborn or unhatched vertebrate especially after attaining the basic structural plan of its kind; specifically: a developing human from usually three months after conception to birth.
angiomyolipoma cell line
sprout A young shoot (as from a seed or root).
floral meristem A meristem that gives rise to a flower.
pleural mesothelioma cell line
antheridium An organ in certain organisms that produces male gametes. Antheridia are found in many groups of organisms, including the bryophytes, ferns, ascomycete fungi, and some algae.
oe-21 cell Esophageal cancer cell line.
adrenal gland cancer cell Adrenal gland cancers are rare cancers occuring in the endocrine tissue of the adrenals. They are characterized by overproduction of adrenal gland hormones.
microglia The small, non-neural, interstitial cells of mesodermal origin that form part of the supporting structure of the central nervous system. They are of various forms and may have slender branched processes. They are migratory and act as phagocytes to waste products of nerve tissue.
mdck-2 cell Cell line was derived by cloning the parental cell line MDCK.
internal plexiform layer
blastema A group of cells that give rise to a new individual, in asexual reproduction, or to an organ or part, in either normal development or in regeneration.
bladder wall
neural stem cell Neural stem cells are the multipotent stem cells that generate nerve cells. However, since the early 1990s, neural stem cells have been isolated from the adult brain as well as fetal brain tissues. Stem cells in the adult brain are found in the areas called the subventricular zone and the ventricle zone. Another location of brain stem cells occurs in the hippocampus, a special structure of the cerebral cortex related to memory function. Stem cells isolated from these areas are able to divide and to give rise to nerve cells and neuron-supporting cell types in culture.
lymphoblast Often referred to as a blast cell. Unlike other usages of the suffix -blast a lymphoblast is a further differentiation of a lymphocyte, T- or B-, occasioned by an antigenic stimulus. The lymphoblast usually develops by enlargement of a lymphocyte, active re-entry to the S phase of the cell cycle, mitogenesis and production of much m-RNA and ribosomes.
pro-b-lymphocyte B cell differentiation and maturation occurs at the progression from pro-B to pre-B and into the mature B cell stages.
pos cell Canine osteosarcoma cell line.
prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia cell A premalignant change arising in the prostatic epithelium, regarded as the most important and most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The neoplasia takes the form of an intra-acinar or ductal proliferation of secretory cells with unequivocal nuclear anaplasia, which corresponds to nuclear grade 2 and 3 invasive prostate cancer.
oviductal ampulla The thin-walled, almost muscle-free, midregion of the uterine tube; its mucosa is greatly plicated.
fiddlehead The coiled young frond of any of various ferns, some of which are considered a delicacy when cooked.
adrenal gland Either of a pair of complex endocrine organs near the anterior medial border of the kidney consisting of a mesodermal cortex that produces glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and androgenic hormones and an ectodermal medulla that produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.
k6h6/b5 cell Mouse/human hybrid myeloma cell line. Heterohybridoma cell line.
adenoid cystic carcinoma cell A type of cancer that most often develops in the salivary glands of the head and neck. It may arise in other sites such as the skin, lacrimal gland, trachea, breast, cervix and prostate.
sacrospinalis A muscle that extends the length of the back and neck, that arises from the iliac crest, the sacrum, and the lumbar and two lower thoracic vertebrae, and that splits in the upper lumbar region into three divisions of which the lateral is made up of the three iliocostalis muscles, the intermediate is made up of the three longissimus muscles, and the medial is made up of the three spinalis muscles.
epipodite The outer branch of the legs in certain Crustacea.
promyelocytic leukemia cell A cell of a type of acute myeloid leukemia, a quickly progressing disease in which too many immature blood-forming cells are found in the blood and bone marrow.
colonic cancer cell line
renal inner medulla The inner part of the substance of the kidney, composed chiefly of collecting tubule elements, loops of Henle, and vasa recta, organized grossly into pyramids.
fin An external membranous process of an aquatic animal as a fish used in propelling or guiding the body.
ls174t-hm7 cell High-mucin variant cell line, derived from parental cell line LS174T.
plc-prf-5 cell Human malignant liver hepatoma cell line; established from a 24-years-old human male. The line was originally contaminated with mycoplasma, and was cured by treatment with BM-cycline. The cells secrete HBsAg.
cl1-4 cell Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
inner nuclear layer The layer of the retina composed of the cell bodies of bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and some of the cell bodies of amacrine cells.
ov-202 cell Human epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell line.
sf-295 cell Human glioblastoma cell line.
alphat3-1 cell Mouse pituitary tumor cell line.
meibomian gland One of the long sebaceous glands of the eyelids that discharge a fatty secretion which lubricates the eyelids.
g-292 cell Human osteosarcoma cell line.
ct-26 cell Murine colon carcinoma cell line.
corpus albicans White fibrous tissue that replaces the regressing corpus luteum in the human ovary in the latter half of pregnancy, or soon after ovulation when pregnancy does not supervene.
bradyzoite A small, comma-shaped form of Toxoplasma gondii, found in clusters enclosed by an irregular wall (pseudocyst) in the tissues, chiefly muscles and the brain, in chronic (latent) toxoplasmosis; considered to be the slow-growing form.
tentacle Any of various elongate flexible usually tactile or prehensile processes borne by animals and especially invertebrates chiefly on the head or about the mouth.
umbilical artery endothelial cell line
rfl-6 cell Rat fetal lung fibroblast cell line.
sf-188 cell Human glioma cell line.
nci-h358 cell Human non-small cell lung cancer cell line; established from bronchioalvealoar carcinoma of lung.
cerebral ganglion The cerebral ganglia are primarily sensual centres, that compute information from the eyes as well as from the tactile and position sensors (statocystes). Besides coordination they also serve the locational memory of a snail.
synovial fibroblast
salivary gland epithelium
burkitt lymphoma cell line
a-1207 cell
mgc-803 cell Human gastric cancer cell line.
neurilemoma cell line
saphenous vein Either of two main superficial veins of the leg, one larger than the other, that begin at the foot.
medial amygdaloid nucleus A nucleus in the corticomedial part of the amygdaloid body.
aorta endothelium Simple squamous epithelium which lines the lumen side of the blood vessel.
t-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell 2-5% of all chronic lymphoproliferative disorders in the West, and 5-6% in the Chinese population. Large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) with the nucleus of a small lymphocyte but abundant cytoplasm and fine or coarse azurophilic granules; ultrastructural examination may reveal characteristic parallel tubular arrays; the LGLs are often >2x109/L.
saphenous vein endothelium
merocrine gland One in which the secretory cells maintain their integrity throughout the secretory cycle.
bone The hard form of connective tissue that constitutes the majority of the skeleton of most vertebrates; it consists of an organic component (the cells and matrix) and an inorganic, or mineral, component; the matrix contains a framework of collagenous fibers and is impregnated with the mineral component, chiefly calcium phosphate (85 per cent) and calcium carbonate (10 per cent), which imparts the quality of rigidity to bone.
intestinal mucosa The surface lining of the intestines where the cells absorb nutrients.
peltate gland The monoterpene fraction of the lemon-scented sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) cv Sweet Dani consists mostly of citral (a mixture of geranial and neral), with lower levels of geraniol and nerol. These compounds are stored in the peltate glands found on the leaf epidermis. Younger leaves, which have a higher density of such glands, also have a higher content of monoterpenes than older leaves.
cne-2 cell Human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line.
colon ascendens The portion of the colon between the cecum and the right colic flexure.
prepuce A fold of skin that covers the glans of the penis.
ln-444 cell Human glioblastoma cell line.
macula lutea An irregular yellowish depression on the retina, about 3 degrees wide, lateral to and slightly below the optic disk; it is the site of absorption of short wavelengths of light, and it is thought that its variation in size, shape, and coloring may be related to variant types of color vision.
muscular system The bodily system that is composed of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue and functions in movement of the body or of materials through the body, maintenance of posture, and heat production.
colonic adenocarcinoma cell line
hindbrain The posterior of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain that includes the cerebellum, the medulla oblongata, and in mammals the pons and that controls autonomic functions and equilibrium.
zygote Diploid cell resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes at fertilization.
primary effusion lymphoma cell line Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a peculiar type of B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that has been recently recognized as an individual clinico-pathologic category based on the consistent infection of the tumor clone by human herpesvirus type-8 (HHV-8) and the distinctiveness of its clinical and biologic features. Although immunogenotypic studies have confirmed that PEL belongs in all cases to the B cell lineage, the overwhelming majority of cases exhibit a non-B, non-T (ie indeterminate) phenotype, lacking expression of surface immunoglobulins and common B cell associated antigens.
anococcygeus muscle The anococcygeus muscle (AcM) is one of a pair of thin sheets of smooth muscle inserting on the rectum, having a tendinous origin largely on sacral vertebrae.
human lung microvascular endothelial cell
hsc-2 cell Human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line; established from a 69-years-old man.
u-1285 cell Small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCC). The U-1285 line was derived from the classical small cell type of SCC.
mca-rh7777 cell Liver, hepatoma; Morris hepatoma 7777 cell line, established from a rattus norvegicus female.
hle-b3 cell Human lens epithelial cell line.
procyclic form African trypanosomes have a digenetic life cycle, which includes growth in the bloodstream and tissue spaces of a mammalian host and several distinct developmental stages, including the procyclic form, in an insect host, Glossina spp., tsetse fly.
tonsil The human palatine tonsils and the nasopharyngeal tonsil are lymphoepithelial tissues located in strategic areas of the oropharynx and nasopharynx, although most commonly, the term tonsils refers to the palatine tonsils that can be seen in the back of the throat.
hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line
neuroendocrine tumor cell line
right colon The proximal portion of the colon, extending from the ileocecal valve usually to a point proximal to the left colic flexure; it develops embryonically from the terminal portion of the midgut and functions in absorption.
prostate cancer cell line
hsc-t6 cell Immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line.
brain endothelium cell line
stratum corneum The horny outer layer of the epidermis, consisting mainly of dead or peeling cells.
shoot tip The terminal bud (0.1 - 1.0 mm) of a plant, which consists of the apical meristem (0.05 - 0.1 mm) and the immediate surrounding leaf primordia and developing leaves and adjacent stem tissue.
lateral septal area The lateral septal area; largest nuclear mass in this region, plays a pivotal role in various physiological processes, such as aggression, emotion, thermoregulation, water and food intake and sexual behaviour.
atrial appendage The ear-shaped appendage of either atrium of the heart.
p-388d1 cell Lymphoma cell line, established from mus musculus DBA/2. Tumors develop within 21 days at 100% frequency in nude mice inoculated subcutaneously with 10(7) cells.
gastrula An early metazoan embryo in which the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm are established either by invagination of the blastula (as in fish and amphibians) to form a multilayered cellular cup with a blastopore opening into the archenteron or by differentiation of the blastodisc (as in reptiles, birds, and mammals) and inward cellular migration.
hei-oc1 cell House Ear Institute-Organ of Corti 1 cell line.
carcass A dead body.
ovarian surface epithelial cell
bnl cl.2 cell Mus musculus BALB/c liver cell line; established from an embryo.
colonic epithelium cell line
tsu-pr1 cell Human prostate epithelial carcinoma cell line.
hsc-pq cell Immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line.
alimentary canal The mucous membrane-lined tube of the digestive system through which food passes, in which digestion takes place, and from which wastes are eliminated. It extends from the mouth to the anus and includes the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
ramos cell Human Caucasian Burkitt's lymphoma cell line. Derived from a Burkitt's lymphoma which does not possess the EBV genome.
retinal pigment epithelium cell line
sn-12c cell Human renal cell carcinoma cell line.
rt-2 cell Rat glioblastoma cell line.
3t6-swiss albino cell The 3T6 cell line is a collagen and hyaluronic acid secreting line established by G. Todaro and H. Green in 1963 from disaggregated Swiss mouse embryos.
large intestine The more terminal division of the vertebrate intestine that is wider and shorter than the small intestine, typically divided into cecum, colon, and rectum, and concerned especially with the resorption of water and the formation of feces.
brodmann area 26 In the human this area is called ectosplenial area 26. It is a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. It is a narrow band located in the isthmus of cingulate gyrus adjacent to the fasciolar gyrus internally. It is bounded externally by the granular retrolimbic area 29.
trophoblast A thin layer of ectoderm that forms the wall of many mammalian blastulas and functions in the nutrition and implantation of the embryo.
d-283med cell Human medulloblastoma cell line.
inferior mesenteric artery Origin: Abdominal aorta, branches, left colic, sigmoid, and superior rectal arteries. Distribution: descending colon, rectum.
mammary duct Channel conveying the milk secreted by the lobes of the breast to and through the nipples.
oviduct Either of a pair of slender ducts through which ova pass from the ovaries to the uterus in the female reproductive system of humans and higher mammals.
lewis lung carcinoma cell line
su.86.86 cell Homo sapiens (human) pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line. The line was developed from a wedge biosy of a liver metastasis of a pancreatic ductal carcinoma.
dental plaque A soft, thin film of food debris, mucin, and dead epithelial cells deposited on the teeth, providing the medium for the growth of various bacteria. The main inorganic components are calcium and phosphorus, with small amounts of magnesium, potassium, and sodium; the organic matrix consists of polysaccharides, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and other components. Plaque plays an important etiologic role in the development of dental caries and periodontal and gingival diseases and provides the base for the development of materia alba; calcified plaque forms dental calculus.
egg yolk The yellow spheroidal mass of stored food that forms the inner portion of the egg of a bird or reptile and is surrounded by the white.
myoma cell A cell of a benign tumor made up of muscular elements.
cell culture Cells taken from a living organism and grown under controlled conditions (in culture). Methods used to maintain cell lines or strains.
mantle muscle
megakaryocyte A large cell that has a lobulated nucleus, is found especially in the bone marrow, and is the source of blood platelets.
nd-1 cell Prostate carcinoma cell line.
anterior paraventricular nucleus The anterior of the two nuclei paraventriculares thalami.
plant ovary The enlarged rounded usually basal portion of the pistil or gynoecium of an angiospermous plant that bears the ovules and consists of one or more carpels.
jejunal epithelium
intestinal cancer cell
small intestine mucosa
testicular vein Either of the testicular veins.
zona incerta A narrow layer of gray matter extending throughout most of the diencephalon, ventral to and separated from the thalamus by the thalamic fasciculus and laterally continuous with the reticular nucleus of the thalamus.
monocytic leukemia cell A cell of leukemia characterized by the proliferation of monocytes and monoblasts in the blood.
coronary artery smooth muscle
nci-h322 cell Non-small cell lung cancer cell line.
colonocyte
nci-h660 cell Homo sapiens (human) lung; small cell lung cancer cell line, extrapulmonary origin; established from a 63 years adult caucasian male. Morphology: epithelial; cell type: neuroendocrine; Tumor stage E; derived from metastatic site: lymph node.
het-1a cell Human esophageal cell line; derived in 1986 from human esophageal autopsy tissue by transfection with plasmid pRSV-T consisting of the RSV-LTR promoter and the sequence encoding the simian virus 40 large T-antigen.
blastopore During gastrulation cells on the surface of the embryo move into the interior to form the mesoderm and endoderm. The opening formed by this invagination of cells is the blastopore. It is an opening from the archenteron, the primitive gut, to the exterior. In some animals this opening becomes the anus, whilst in others it closes up and the anus opens at the same spot or nearby.
leaf bud A bud that develops into a leafy shoot and does not produce flowers.
human cardiac microvascular endothelial cell HCMEC are isolated from heart ventricles from a single donor.
lymphoid dendritic cell Dendritic cells that develop from lymphoid precursors.
hoof A hoofed foot especially of a horse.
gastric corpus That part of the stomach between the fundus and the pyloric part.
wi-38 cell Human embryonic lung fibroblast cell line. The WI-38 human diploid cell line was derived by Leonard Hayflick from normal embryonic (3 months gestation) lung tissue.
hpac cell A pancreatic adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line derived in 1985 from a nude mouse xenograft of a primary tumor removed from the head of the pancreas of a woman with moderate to well differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma of ductal origin.
epiphyseal growth plate The disk or plate of cartilage interposed between the epiphysis and the shaft of the bone during the period of growth; by its growth the bone increases in length.
epiglottis Thin leaf-shaped cartilage, covered with mucous membrane, at the root of the tongue, which folds back over the entrance to the larynx, covering it, during the act of swallowing.
myc-cap cell Androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line.
cgr-8 cell Mouse embryonic stem cell line. The germ-line competent cell line CGR8 was established from the inner cell mass of a 3.5 day male pre-implantation mouse embryo; mus musculus, strain 129.
oral cancer cell Cancer within the mouth.
ventral posterior nucleus The region traditionally described as the ventroposterior nucleus (VP) is a composite of VP proper and parts of the ventroposterior inferior nucleus.
microvascular endothelial cell line
gut cavity
ma-1 cell Non-small cell lung cancer cell line.
osteogenic cell line
scaber cell Human urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma cell line; established from a 58 years old black men.
a-375p cell Human melanoma cell line.
seminal plasma The fluid portion of the semen, in which the spermatozoa are suspended.
hairy cell leukemia cell A form of chronic leukemia marked by splenomegaly and the large, mononuclear, villus-covered cells called hairy cells in the bone marrow, spleen, liver, and peripheral blood.
sympathetic ganglion Any of the aggregations of cell bodies of primarily adrenergic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system, including the ganglia of the sympathetic trunks, the intermediate ganglia, the prevertebral ganglia, and some ganglionic cells in the autonomic plexuses.
alveolar sac Each large alveolar sac is like a grape cluster which contains ten or more alveoli.
endothelial progenitor cell A controversial and hypothetical population of rare cells believed to circulate in the blood with the ability to differentiate into endothelial cells, the cells that make up the lining of blood vessels.
bv173 cell B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.
intestine The tubular part of the alimentary canal that extends from the stomach to the anus.
bony labyrinth The bony part of the internal ear.
goblet cell A unicellular mucous gland found in the epithelium of various mucous membranes, especially that of the respiratory passages and intestines. Droplets of mucigen collect in the upper part of the cell and distend it, while the basal end remains slender, and the cell assumes the shape of a goblet.
pancreatic cancer cell line
nci-h1703 cell Non-small cell lung cancer cell line.
velum The locomotory and feeding organ, found in the larval veliger stage of bivalves.
eccrine sweat gland An ordinary, or simple, sweat gland; they are of the merocrine type, unbranched, coiled, tubular glands that are distributed over almost all of the body surface, and promote cooling by evaporation of their secretion.
papilloma cell A cell of small benign epithelial tumor, such as a wart, consisting of an overgrowth of cells on a core of smooth connective tissue.
striated muscle cell An elongated contractile cell in striated muscle tissue.
stipule Either of a pair of appendages borne at the base of the leaf in many plants.
kb-v1 cell Human cervix carcinoma cell line resistant to vinblastine; a multidrug-resistant (mdr) subclone derived from KB-3-1.
motor trigeminal nucleus
inner hair cell Any of approximately 3,500 hair cells, situated in the organ of Corti, specialized as transducers of sound waves into nerve impulses and believed to encode information about the frequency of sound. So called because they are further from the outside of the cochlea than are the outer hair cells.
inferior olivary complex A folded band of gray matter that encloses a white core (hilum nuclei olivaris inferioris) and that produces the elevation called the oliva on the medulla oblongata. It is a nuclear complex that receives heavy projections from the spinal cord, mesencephalon, and cerebral cortex and projects fibers via the contralateral inferior cerebellar peduncle, mostly to the neocerebellum, with a few going to the vermis.
16-hbe14o cell Human bronchial epithelial cell line.
macroglia Neuroglial cells of ectodermal origin, i.e., the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes considered together. Originally, the term was used for the astrocytes alone.
ser-w3 cell Rat Sertoli cell line.
hb4a cell Mammary epithelial cell line; derived by the immortalization of highly-purified preparations of normal human mammary luminal epithelium.
hair follicle The tubular epithelial sheath that surrounds the lower part of the hair shaft and encloses at the bottom a vascular papilla supplying the growing basal part of the hair with nourishment.
cribriform plate The horizontal plate of the ethmoid bone perforated with numerous foramina for the passage of the olfactory nerve filaments from the nasal cavity.
photoreceptor A specialized cell type in a multicellular organism that is sensitive to light. This definition excludes single-celled organisms, but includes non-eye receptors, such as snake infra-red detectors or photosensitive pineal gland cells.
cavernous artery Any of several small branches of the internal carotid artery that supply the trigeminal ganglion and the walls of the cavernous and petrosal sinuses.
cambium A thin formative layer between the xylem and phloem of most vascular plants that gives rise to new cells and is responsible for secondary growth; A lateral meristem in vascular plants, including the vascular cambium and cork cambium, that forms parallel rows of cells resulting in secondary tissues.
urogenital system The urinary system and genital system considered together.
bed nucleus of stria terminalis Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of forebrain and brainstem areas including the hippocampus, the lateral hypothalamus, the tegmentum, and the amygdala. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
pc-1 cell Hamster pancreatic cancer cell line.
cl1-3 cell Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
h4 neuroglioma cell Human brain neuroglioma H4 cell line, established from a 37 years old caucasian male.
dc-3f cell Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line.
blm cell The human melanoma cell line BLM has been established from surgically removed melanoma metastases.
asynchronous muscle Asynchronous muscle is that type of muscle which, when turned on by neural input and resulting muscle action potentials, can contract in an oscillatory manner if attached to an appropriate, resonant load such as is offered in life by an insects wings and thorax. The frequency of the oscillatory contractions is different from, and typically much higher than, that of the activating neuronal impulses. Asynchronous muscle is so-named because during oscillation there is no direct correspondence between individual muscle contractions and muscle action potentials, which contrasts with synchronous muscle in which there is a 1:1 correspondence between muscle contractions and muscle action potentials or bursts of action potentials. Asynchronous muscle is only known to occur in insects. The muscles that power flight in dipteran flies, beetles, many of the true bugs and in some, but perhaps not all, bees and wasps are asynchronous muscles, as are the singing muscles of some cicadas.
pc-14 cell Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
mkn-45 cell Human gastric adenocarcinoma, established from the poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach (medullary type) of a 62-year-old woman.
ls-180 cell Human, Caucasian, colon, adenocarcinoma, colorectal, cell line. Morphology: epithelial; Species: human, Caucasian female 58 year old; Tissue: colon; Tumor: adenocarcinoma, colorectal.
tov-21g cell This cell line was initiated in October of 1991 from a patient of French-Canadian descent with no family history of ovarian cancer.
gastric epithelium Epithelium of the stomach.
colo-201 cell Human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line.
inferior vena cava The venous trunk for the lower extremities and for the pelvic and abdominal viscera; it begins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra by union of the common iliac veins, passes upward on the right of the aorta, and empties into the right atrium of the heart.
transitional cell carcinoma cell line
mgh-ui cell Human bladder tumor (transitional cell carcinoma) cell line.
anus The posterior opening of the alimentary canal.
nci-h82 cell Small cell lung cancer cell line.
thoracic leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. Many of the terms used for arthropod leg segments (called podomeres) are of Latin origin, and may be confused with terms for bones: coxa (meaning hip), trochanter, femur, tibia, tarsus, ischium, metatarsus, carpus, dactylus (meaning finger), patella. The typical thoracic leg of an adult insect is adapted for running, rather than for digging, leaping, swimming, predation or the like.
hk-1 cell EBV-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line.
mr-mel cell Human melanoma cell line, deficient of mismatch repair genes MMR.
lens fiber
mononuclear phagocyte Any cell of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, including macrophages, monocytes, and their precursors in the monocytic series.
seed A matured ovule containing an embryo and food supply and covered by a seed coat.
ventral anterior nucleus of thalamus A nucleus anteriorly located within the ventral nuclei of the thalamus, posterior to the reticular nucleus, anterior to the ventral lateral nucleus, and lateral and medial to the internal and external medullary laminae, respectively; it is subdivided into magnocellular and principal divisions.
b35 cell Rattus norvegicus (rat) central nervous system (CNS) neuroblastoma cell line. Rats were inoculated with N-nitrosoethylurea (NEU) 15 days after conception. Tumors found in the central nervous system (CNS) 4 to 10 months after birth were excised, minced, adapted to culture and cloned.
pc-346c cell Androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cell line.
meristem A formative plant tissue usually made up of small cells capable of dividing indefinitely and giving rise to similar cells or to cells that differentiate to produce the definitive tissues and organs.
zr-75-30 cell Human mammary gland ductal carcinoma cell line; derived from malignant ascites fluid from a 47-year-old premenopausal Black woman with infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
h9c2 cell Rat DB1X heart myoblast cell line.
plant primordium A cell or organ in its initial stage of development.
sgs cell Rat Galliera sarcoma cell line from a 2 months old rat Galliera; Tumor: sarcoma Viruses: contains SG-RaLV (Retrovirus type C).
sw-1736 cell Cell line derived from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
supportive connective tissue Classified as supportive connective tissue are bone, osseous tissue, that makes up virtually the entire skeleton in adult vertebrates and cartilage makes up virtually the entire skeleton in chondrichthyes. In most other vertebrates, it is found primarily in joints, where it provides cushioning.
parietal trophoblast giant cell
ht-29-mtx cell A colon carcinoma cell line. A subpopulation derived from the HT-29 cell line containing cells committed to differentiation into mucin-secreting cells (HT-29 MTX).
osteoclast stem cell
thoracic ganglion Any of the ganglia of the sympathetic chain in the thoracic region that occur in 12 or fewer pairs.
reticulopodium A filamentous pseudopodium with interconnected branches.
coelom The cavity within the body of all animals higher than the coelenterates and certain primitive worms, formed by the splitting of the embryonic mesoderm into two layers. In mammals it forms the peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial cavities.
aorta thoracica Thoracic part of aorta: the proximal portion of the descending aorta, which proceeds from the arch of the aorta and gives rise to the bronchial, esophageal, pericardiac, and mediastinal branches, and the superior phrenic, posterior intercostal III to XI, and subcostal arteries; it is continuous through the diaphragm with the abdominal aorta.
genital chamber A copulatory invagination. In females, sometimes forms a tubular vagina that is often developed to form a bursa copulatrix. In males, a ventral invagination containing the phallic organs.
tibia The shin bone: the inner and larger bone of the leg below the knee; it articulates with the femur and head of the fibula above and with the talus below.
globus pallidus The smaller and more medial part of the lentiform nucleus of the brain, separated from the putamen by the lateral medullary lamina. In official anatomic nomenclature, it is divided by the medial medullary lamina into two parts, lateral and medial, both of which have extensive connections with the corpus striatum, thalamus, and mesencephalon. The paleostriatum is the phylogenetically older part of the corpus striatum represented by the globus pallidus.
brain microvascular endothelial cell line
bloodstream form When living in the mammalian bloodstream T. brucei has neither a functional Krebs cycle nor oxidative phosphorylation nor does it store any carbohydrates. In the bloodstream form. Its metabolism is restricted to the glycolytic pathway alone.
erpp cell ER-1 cells converted into highly tumorigenic and metastatic cells, ERpP, by subcutaneous co-inoculation with plastic plates.
extraembryonic tissue The structure outside the embryonic body; e.g., those membranes involved with the embryos protection and nutrition which are discarded at birth without being incorporated in its body.
pituitary gland cell line
ectoplacental cone The thickened trophoblast of the blastocyst in rodents that becomes the fetal portion of the placenta.
meconium A dark greenish mass that accumulates in the bowel during fetal life and is discharged shortly after birth.
mouth The natural opening through which food passes into the body of an animal and which in vertebrates is typically bounded externally by the lips and internally by the pharynx and encloses the tongue, gums, and teeth.
vero c1008 cell This line is a clone of VERO 76.
neural retina Layer of nerve cells in the retina, embryologically part of the brain. The incoming light passes through nerve-fibres and intermediary nerve cells of the neural retina, before encountering the light-sensitive rods and cones at the interface between neural retina and the pigmented retinal epithelium.
ganglioglioma cell A ganglioneuroma in the central nervous system.
sarcomatoid carcinoma cell Sarcomatoid carcinoma (SARC) of the lung is defined in the most recent World Health Organization classification as poorly differentiated non-small cell carcinoma that contains a component of sarcoma or sarcoma-like elements. SARC tumors often occur as part of a heterogeneous lung tumor, rather than a tumor consisting of a pure cell type, and most pathologic series classify lung cancer as SARC when at least 10% of the tumor is composed of a sarcomatoid element based on histologic appearance and tissue marker studies.
pharyngeal muscle The muscular coat of the pharynx, consisting of The three constrictor muscles and the stylopharyngeal, salpingopharyngeal, and palatopharyngeal muscles.
keratinocyte Skin cell, of the keratinized layer of epidermis: its characteristic intermediate filament protein is cytokeratin. A cell of the stratum spinosum of the epidermis.
inferior frontal gyrus A gyrus of the frontal lobe of the human brain. Its superior border is the inferior frontal sulcus, its inferior border the lateral fissure, and its posterior border is the inferior precentral sulcus. Above it is the middle frontal gyrus, behind it the precentral gyrus.
l-428 cell Human Hodgkin's lymphoma, established from the pleural effusion of a 37-year-old woman with Hodgkin's lymphoma (stage IVB, nodular sclerosis, refractory, terminal) in 1978.
external iliac artery The outer branch of the common iliac artery on either side of the body that passes beneath the inguinal ligament to become the femoral artery.
mammary epithelial cell line
tissue culture Growing plant or animal tissues outside of the body, as in a nutrient medium in a laboratory; similar to cell culture, but cells are maintained in their structured, tissue form.
gametocyte A cell from which gametes develop by meiotic division, especially a spermatocyte or an oocyte.
metacyclic form The parasite (Leishmania or Trypanosoma) differentiates into its infective, but non-replicative, metacyclic form.
external male genital organ The external genitalia in the male, comprising the penis, scrotum, and urethra.
c-1300 cell Mouse neuroblastoma cell line.
cwr-22 cell Androgen-dependent human prostate cancer cell line.
46br.1g1 cell Human skin fibroblast cell line, SV40 T antigen transformed, derived from 46BR, a fibroblast from an individual with hypogammaglobulinaemia. The parent line was transformed with the plasmid pSV3gpt expressing SV40 T-antigen.
fast twitch muscle fiber Paler-colored muscle fibers of larger diameter than slow twitch fibers, and having less sarcoplasm and more prominent cross-striping; used for forceful and rapid contractions over short periods of time.
astroblast An embryonic astrocyte.
right colon mucosa
diffuse large b-cell lymphoma cell Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) accounting for about 2 in 5 of all cases. It is a cancer of the B-lymphocytes. Diffuse B-cell lymphoma can occur at any time between adolescence and old age. It is slightly more common in men than in women.
trigeminal nerve Either of the fifth pair of cranial nerves, having sensory and motor functions in the face, teeth, mouth, and nasal cavity.
anterior adductor muscle Two dorsal muscles, called adductors, extend transversely between the valves, one at the anterior end and the other at the posterior end.
parietal lobe The upper central lobe of the cerebral hemisphere, separated from the temporal lobe below by the lateral sulcus, but continuous at the posterior end of that sulcus, and separated from the frontal lobe by the central sulcus. Behind, it is continuous with the occipital lobe on the lateral surface, but separated from it by the parietooccipital sulcus on the medial surface.
pwr-1e cell Human prostatic epithelial cells, derived from a normal prostate with mild hyperplasia, were immortalized with an adenovirus 12-SV40 hybrid virus (Ad12-SV40). PWR-1E cell line was derived by single cell cloning of a non-producer cell.
pre-b acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell The most common subtype, consisting of small uniform lymphoblasts that do not synthesize complete functional immunoglobulins. The term has sometimes been restricted to the minority of the larger group that synthesize heavy chains of immunoglobulins.
mc3t3-e1 cell Mouse embryo/fetus calvaria fibroblasts; established from the calvaria of an embryo/fetus C57BL/6 mouse; described to differentiate to osteoblasts and to produce collagen.
interrenal cell Interrenal cells in elasmobranchs and bony fishes represent the equivalent of the mammalian adrenal cortex. The interrenal cells' appearance varies greatly in response to stress and reproduction. These cells produce corticosteroids with cortisol being the most quantitatively important.
myeloid leukemia cell line A cell line of leukemia characterized by proliferation of myeloid tissue (as of the bone marrow and spleen) and an abnormal increase in the number of granulocytes, myelocytes, and myeloblasts in the circulating blood.
bundle sheath Sheath of parenchyma or sclerenchyma cells surrounding the vascular bundles in leaves.
a-375sm cell Human melanoma cell line.
erythroid progenitor cell Committed, erythroid stem cells derived from myeloid stem cells. The progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (bfu-e) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (cfu-e). Bfu-e differentiate into cfu-e on stimulation by erythropoietin, and then further differentiate into erythroblasts when stimulated by other factors.
wb-311 cell Tumorigenic liver epithelial cell line, originally derived from the WB-F344 line.
mhcc97-h cell Clone of MHCC97 with high metastatic potential.
uterine fluid
posterior silk gland
bronchial cancer cell
kbv200 cell A multidrug-resistant clone of human oral epidermoid carcinoma KB cells was isolated by stepwise selection on exposure to increasing doses of vincristine. The final clone, KBv200, obtained after ethylmethane sulfonate mutagenesis showed 156-fold higher resistance to vincristine than KB cells. The cells were also cross-resistant to paclitaxel and adriamycin.
phellem The outermost layer of tissue in woody plants that is resistant to the passage of water vapor and gases and that becomes the bark. Cork is secondary tissue, formed on the outside of the tissue layer known as cork cambium. The cell walls of cork cells contain suberin. Once they mature, cork cells die.
ts-20 cell Ts20 is a temperature-sensitive mutant cell line derived from BALB/3T3 cells that is blocked at a step in DNA synthesis involving chain elongation.
huh-6 cell Human hepatoblastoma cell line.
cervical squamous cell carcinoma cell
alpha-motoneuron A large, heavily myelinated neuron found in the brainstem and spinal cord, responsible for the contraction of skeletal muscles.
snu-387 cell Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.
oligodendroglioma cell line A rare slow-growing type of brain tumor that begins in cells called oligodendrocytes, which provide support and nourishment for cells that transmit nerve impulses.
basophilic leukemia cell line
superior cervical ganglion The uppermost ganglion on the sympathetic trunk, lying behind the internal carotid artery and in front of the second and third cervical vertebrae; it gives rise to postganglionic fibers to the heart via cervical cardiac nerves, to the pharyngeal plexus and thence to the larynx and pharynx, and to the head via the external and internal carotid plexuses.
llc-rk1 cell New Zealand white rabbit kidney cell line.
dermatofibroma cell A slowly growing benign skin nodule consisting of poorly demarcated cellular fibrous tissue enclosing collapsed capillaries with scattered haemosiderin-pigmented and lipid macrophages. They are common, usually about 1 cm in diameter and occur in the dermis.
mewo cell Human skin malignant melanoma cell line.
rcc 786-o cell Human renal cell adenocarcinoma cell line, established from a 58 years old caucasian male.
invertebrate muscular system
msto-211h cell Human mesothelioma cell line; established from the pleural effusion of a 62-year-old Caucasian man with mesothelioma (malignant biphasic) who did not have any prior therapy.
respiratory mucosa The mucous membrane lining the respiratory tract.
gravid adult Containing a developing embryo, fetus, or unborn offspring within the body.
sieve tube Found in phloem tissue, sieve tubes lack a nucleus, and are thought to be responsible for the translocation of material across the phloem tissue.
posterior lobe The portion of the cerebellum separated from the anterior lobe by the primary fissure and from the flocculonodular lobe by the dorsolateral fissure; it comprises the declive, folium vermis, tuber vermis, pyramid, uvula, simple lobule, inferior and superior semilunar lobules, and tonsils.
sensillum trichodeum A sense organ bearing an elongate seta, articulated with the body wall by a membranous socket so that it is free to move; a mechanoreceptor or less often as a chemoreceptor.
nucleus taeniae
amelanotic melanoma cell line
amniotic cavity The space within the amnion.
abdominal ganglion The visceral sacs nerve knot is called visceral ganglion. In contrary to the mostly paired other ganglia this nerve knot is unpaired. The visceral ganglion innerves the pallial organs as well as the inner organs.
somatosensory cortex Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving general sensations. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
glioblastoma cell line
ht-1376 cell Human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line; established from a transurethral resection of invasive, moderately pleomorphic (grade 3) bladder transitional cell carcinoma of a 58-year-old Caucasian woman who had not received chemo- or radiotherapy.
snu-216 cell Gastric cancer cell line.
spongiotrophoblast The junctional zone of the mouse placenta consists of two main trophoblast populations, spongiotrophoblasts and glycogen cells (GCs), but the development and function of both cell types are unknown.
gastroesophageal junction The junction between the stomach and the esophagus; the place where the esophagus connects to the stomach.
nrp-154 cell Rat prostate carcinoma cell line.
raji cell Human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, established from the left maxilla of a 12-year-old African boy with Burkitt's lymphoma in 1963; first continuous human hematopoietic cell line; classified as risk category 1 according to the German Central Commission for Biological Safety ZKBS.
ccl-39 cell Cricetulus griseus (chinese hamster) lung fibroblast cell line.
median eminence 1. A raised area in the floor of the third ventricle of the brain produced by the infundibulum of the hypothalamus. 2. The median eminence is sometimes classified as part of the neurohypophysis. It serves as a reservoir for the hypothalamic neurohormones vasopressin, oxytocin, and the neurophysins, releasing them as needed. It originates in the embryo as an evagination from the floor of the diencephalon.
anterior visceral ectoderm The anterior visceral ectoderm is an extra-embryonic tissue in the early mouse embryo that is involved in inducing anterior regions of the embryo.
abductor Any muscle used to pull a body part away from the midline of the body. For example, the abductor muscles of the legs spread the legs away from the midline and away from one another. An abductor muscle opposes an adductor muscle.
stinger A sharp organ (as of a bee, scorpion, or stingray) that is usually connected with a poison gland or otherwise adapted to wound by piercing and injecting a poison.
hm-1 es cell Murine embryonic stem cell line.
bgc-823 cell Human gastric cancer cell line.
olfactory tubercle A small area of gray matter behind the olfactory trigone that is noted for receiving dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra and the reticular formation which have been implicated in schizoaffective disorders.
pc-3 cell Human prostate carcinoma cell line; established from the bone marrow metastasis isolated post-mortem from a 62-year-old Caucasian man with grade IV prostate cancer, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, after androgen suppression therapy; described to form tumors in nude mice, to grow in soft agar, and to be unresponsive to androgen treatment.
nt2-n cell Human neuronal (NT2N) cells derive from an NT2 human teratocarcinoma cell line.
neural tube A dorsal tubular structure in the vertebrate embryo formed by longitudinal folding of the neural plate and differentiating into the brain and spinal cord.
periodontium The tissues that invest or help to invest and support the teeth, including the periodontal ligament, gingivae, cementum, and alveolar and supporting bone.
n1e-115 cell Mus musculus (mouse) brain; neuroblast; neuroblastoma cell line. The N1E-115 cell line was established in 1971 by T. Amano, E. Richelson, and M. Nirenberg by cloning the C-1300 spontaneous mouse neuroblastoma tumor, C-1300.
palisade parenchyma A layer of columnar cells rich in chloroplasts found beneath the upper epidermis of foliage leaves.
bt-20 cell Human, Caucasian, breast, carcinoma cell line. Morphology: epithelial-like; species: human, Caucasian female 74 years old; tissue: breast; tumor: carcinoma.
pectoral muscle Any of the muscles which connect the ventral walls of the chest with the bones of the upper arm and shoulder and of which there are two on each side of the human body.
walker carcinoma 256 cell A cell of a transplantable carcinoma of the rat that originally appeared spontaneously in the mammary gland of a pregnant albino rat, and which now resembles a carcinoma in young transplants and a sarcoma in older transplants.
dendritic cell A special type of cell that is a key regulator of the immune system, acting as a professional antigen-presenting cell, APC, capable of activating naive T cells and stimulating the growth and differentiation of B cells. Dendritic cells are found, for example, in the lymph nodes and spleen. As an APC, a dendritic cell can retain antigen for long periods on its surface, present the antigen to a T or B cell and so influence their behavior.
hypodermal seam cell A group of hypodermal cells in worms that lie along the apical midline of the hypodermis, at the extreme left and right sides between nose and tail.
tc-71 cell Human Ewing's sarcoma cell line; established from the tumor of a 22-year-old man with metastatic Ewing's sarcoma that arose in the humerus; cell line was derived in 1981 from a biopsy of recurrent tumor at the primary site.
hcc-1937 cell A primary ductal breast carcinoma cell line, initiated from a primary ductal carcinoma on October 13, 1995. The tumor was classified as TNM Stage IIB, grade 3.
lacquer Any of various durable natural varnishes; especially: a varnish obtained from an Asian sumac (Rhus verniciflua).
oci-m2 cell Human acute myelocytic leukemia cell line; established in 1984 from the leukemic cells of a 56-year-old patient with erythroleukemia, AML-M6, representing the end stage of a previously identified myelodysplastic syndrome.
lens epithelium Cuboidal epithelium covering the lens.
mueller cell Mueller cells are astrocyte-like radial glial cells that extend vertically throughout the retina, although their nuclei are usually in the middle of the inner nuclear layer.
ventral septal area
epithelium A membranous cellular tissue that covers a free surface or lines a tube or cavity of an animal body and serves especially to enclose and protect the other parts of the body, to produce secretions and excretions, and to function in assimilation.
lateral entorhinal cortex The entorhinal cortex (EC) is an important memory center in the brain. In rodents, the EC is located at the caudal end of the temporal lobe. In primates it is located at the rostral end of the temporal lobe and stretches dorsolaterally. It is usually divided into medial and lateral regions with three bands with distinct properties and connectivity running perpendicular across the whole area.
hairy root culture A relatively new type of plant culture, which consists of highly branched roots of a plant, covered with a mass of tiny root hairs.
pronephros 1. The primordial kidney; a vestigial excretory structure or its rudiments developing in the embryo at four weeks, before the mesonephros. Although nonfunctional, its duct is later used by the mesonephros, which arises caudal to it. 2. The definitive excretory organ of primitive fishes.
gastric adenocarcinoma cell A cell of any of a group of common stomach cancers, usually located in the antrum; it may present as a bulky mass with central ulceration invading the wall, a mass that narrows the antral lumen, a polypoid lesion, or a tumor that spreads superficially over the mucosal surface. It is common in Japan, Chile, Iceland, and Finland but the incidence is decreasing in North America and elsewhere. There may be links to certain dietary substances such as nitrosamines and benzpyrene.
ccd-25lu cell Human normal lung fibroblast cell line established from a caucasian 7-years-old human male. The line was established from the lung of a patient who died of glioma of the brain stem.
megakaryotic cell line
finger Any of the five terminating members of the hand, a digit of the forelimb.
idioblast A plant cell committed to develop into a cell type that differs from the surrounding tissue.
flagellate A flagellate protozoan or alga.
yolk sac A membranous sac that is attached to an embryo and encloses food yolk, that is continuous in most forms through the yolk stalk with the intestinal cavity of the embryo, that being abundantly supplied with blood vessels is throughout embryonic life and in some forms later the chief organ of nutrition, and that in placental mammals is nearly vestigial and functions chiefly prior to the elaboration of the placenta.
pancreatic beta cell line
l6e9 cell Rat myoblast cell line.
great saphenous vein The great saphenous vein goes from the foot all the way up to the saphenous opening, an oval aperture in the broad fascia of the thigh, a fibrous membrane through which the vein passes.
rt-112 cell Human urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma established from the transitional cell carcinoma histological grade G2 excised from a female patient with untreated primary urinary bladder carcinoma in 1973.
bone marrow-derived macrophage Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) are primary macrophage cells, derived from bone marrow cells in vitro in the presence of growth factors.
ma-10 cell MA-10 cells are a clonal strain of mouse Leydig tumor cells.
hepatoblastoma cell A malignant intrahepatic tumor occurring in infants and young children and consisting chiefly of embryonic hepatic tissue.
breast fibroadenoma cell A common benign (not malignant) tumor of the breast. Usually called simply a fibroadenoma.
renal cell carcinoma cell line
bronchial mucosa The mucous lining of the bronchial tubes.
lymphocyte Any of the colorless weakly motile cells originating from stem cells and differentiating in lymphoid tissue (as of the thymus or bone marrow) that are the typical cellular elements of lymph, include the cellular mediators of immunity, and constitute 20 to 30 percent of the white blood cells of normal human blood.
temporomandibular joint The joint that connects the lower jaw to the skull.
ovarian surface epithelium
larynx The modified upper part of the trachea of air-breathing vertebrates that in humans, most other mammals, and a few lower forms contains the vocal cords.
nci/adr-res cell The recent study shows that NCI/ADR-RES cells are derived from OVCAR-8 ovarian adenocarcinoma cells. The multidrug-resistant MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells originally named MCF-7/AdrR cells and later re-designated NCI/ADR-RES have served as an important and widely used research tool during the last two decades. The case of NCI/ADR-RES cells highlights a wide-spread problem of cell line cross-contamination and misidentification.
nci-h292 cell Mucoepidermoid human lung carcinoma cell line; established from a black female 32 years old; Morphology: epithelial.
fo-1 cell Human melanoma cell line.
bj cell Human normal foreskin fibroblast cell line.
basal ganglion Any of four deeply placed masses of gray matter (as the amygdala) in each cerebral hemisphere. Location: The basal ganglion is located deep within the cerebral hemispheres in the telencephalon region of the brain. It consists of the corpus stratium, subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra.
pulmonary artery endothelium
inflorescence A flower cluster with a definite arrangement.
neuroepithelium 1: Simple columnar epithelium made up of cells specialized to serve as sensory cells for the reception of external stimuli, as the sensory cells of the cochlea, vestibule, nasal mucosa, and tongue. 2: The epithelium of the ectoderm, from which the central nervous system is developed.
uterine leiomyosarcoma cell A rare type of uterine cancer that forms in muscle or other tissues of the uterus. It usually occurs after menopause. The two main types are leiomyosarcoma (cancer that begins in smooth muscle cells) and endometrial stromal sarcoma (cancer that begins in connective tissue cells).
renal glomerulus Globular tufts of capillaries, one projecting into the expanded end or capsule of each of the uriniferous tubules, which together with its surrounding capsule (glomerular capsule) constitute the renal corpuscle.
dentate gyrus A serrated strip of gray matter under the medial border of the hippocampus and in its depths; it is an archaeocortex which develops along the edge of the hippocampal fissure and which consists of molecular, granular, and polymorphic layers.
optic cup The optic vesicle after invaginating to form a 2-layered cup from which the retina and pigmented layer of the eye will develop.
adenosquamous carcinoma cell A type of cancer that contains two types of cells: squamous cells (thin, flat cells that line certain organs) and gland-like cells.
pulmonary artery endothelial cell line
sw-620 cell Human, Caucasian, colon, adenocarcinoma cell line, established from the tissue of a 51-year-old Caucasian male.
ovarian theca-interstitial cell
cob The central axis/core of the ear (distal end of the lateral branch/ear shoot) upon which the kernels (caryopses) are borne. The cob is similar to the central spike of the tassel (male inflorescence) in that it produces multiple rows of paired spikelets (polystichous phyllotaxy).
other source Other sources of an enzyme as cell culture or commercial preparation, not related to a specific tissue.
cal-27 cell Human tongue squamous cell carcinoma established from the poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue removed from a 56-year-old man before treatment in 1982.
cartilage A specialized, fibrous connective tissue, forming most of the temporary skeleton of the embryo, providing a model in which most of the bones develop, and constituting an important part of the growth mechanism of the organism. It exists in several types, the most important of which are hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, and fibrocartilage. Also used as a general term to designate a mass of such tissue in a particular site in the body.
myotube A developmental stage of a muscle fiber composed of a syncytium formed by fusion of myoblasts.
l-5178-y cell Mouse T cell lymphoma, established from an 8-month-old female DBA/2 mouse with T cell lymphoma in 1985.
ureteric bud An outgrowth of the mesonephric duct that gives rise to all but the nephrons of the permanent kidney.
ht-2 cell This murine T-helper cell-derived CD35(+) cell line of BALB/c origin does not express CD4 or CD8.
superior mesenteric vein The superior (upper) mesenteric vein joins the splenic vein to create the portal vein which goes to the liver.
u-1810 cell Non-small-cell lung cancer cell line.
te-671 cell Human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line. In the original publication and in the ATCC catalogue this cell line is described as medulloblastoma; recent studies and the characterization carried out at the DSMZ indicated that TE-671 are muscle cells, most likely identical to the rhabdomyosarcoma cell line RD (also known as TE32 or 130T).
nci-h295 cell Pluripotent adrenocortical carcinoma cell line.
iliopsoas muscle Two muscles that lie together low down in the rear of the abdomen; A compound muscle, consisting of the iliacus musculus and psoas major musculus.
astroglial cell Neuroglia tissue made up of astrocytes.
epididymal fluid The fluid from the epididymis.
rind A tough outer covering such as bark or the skin of some fruits.
p493-6 cell Human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line.
olfactory gland The secretion of this serous glands traps and dissolves odor-producing particles in the nasal cavity to allow for new smells to be detected.
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia cell Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is the potentially premalignant transformation and abnormal growth (dysplasia) of squamous cells on the surface of the cervix. CIN is not cancer, and is usually curable. Most cases of CIN remain stable, or are eliminated by the host's immune system without intervention. However a small percentage of cases progress to become cervical cancer, usually cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), if left untreated.
keloid A tough heaped-up scar that rises quite abruptly above the rest of the skin. It is irregularly shaped and tends to enlarge progressively. Keloids arise when there is too much collagen formed in the dermis during the repair of connective tissue.
fadu cell Human squamous cell carcinoma cell line of the hypopharynx.
gh3 cell Rat pituitary tumor, derived in 1965 from a pituitary tumor induced in a female Wistar/Furth rat ollowing repeated transplantation with the MtT/W5 tumor (originally induced in a female F/Fu rat by cranial X-irradiation).
es-d3 cell Mus musculus pluripotent embryonic stem cell line.
hair follicle outer root sheath It surrounds the hair follicle like a sleeve all the way to the bulb. The outer root sheath is essentially a stratified epithelium that is contiguous with the epidermis.
rec-1 cell Human mantle cell lymphoma (B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) cell line.
tr-146 cell Human neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
daltons lymphoma ascites
stria terminalis A bundle of nerve fibers that passes from the amygdala along the demarcation between the thalamus and caudate nucleus mostly to the anterior part of the hypothalamus with a few fibers crossing the anterior commissure to the amygdala on the opposite side.
pancreatic cancer cell Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells are found in the tissues of the pancreas.
hbl-3 cell Precursor B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line.
htert-rpe1 cell The hTERT-immortalized retinal pigment epithelial cell line, hTERT RPE-1, was derived by transfecting the RPE-340 cell line with the pGRN145 hTERT-expressing plasmid.
rle-6tn cell Rat type II alveolar epithelial cell line.
thyroid nodule Pathological nodule in the thyroid gland, often filled with colloid; some are indicative of adenoma or carcinoma.
nurse cell Cells accessory to egg and/or sperm formation in a wide variety of organisms. Usually thought to synthesize special substances and to export these to the developing gamete.
htr-8/svneo cell Human trophoblast cell line; derived from first trimester of pregnancy extravillous trophoblast.
thoracico-abdominal ganglion
pedal ganglion The pedal ganglia mainly are necessary for coordination of locomotion of a snail.
sk-mel-30 cell Human melanoma derived from tumor tissue (subcutis metastasis) of a 67-year-old Caucasian man with malignant melanoma in 1975.
sk-mel cell Human metastatic melanoma cell line.
breast hyperplasia cell Hyperplasia or hypergenesis means abnormal cell proliferation of cells. It may result in the gross enlargement of an organ and the term is sometimes mixed with benign neoplasia/ benign tumor.
sinusoidal trophoblast giant cell
brl cell Buffalo rat liver cell line.
testicular cancer cell line
chela A pincerlike claw of a crustacean or arachnid, such as a lobster, crab, or scorpion.
spermatozoon A motile male gamete of an animal usually with rounded or elongate head and a long posterior flagellum.
l-1210 cell Mouse lymphocytic leukemia established from the methylcholanthrene-induced tumor in a DBA strain mouse (subline 212, 8-month-old female) in 1949; the cells were propagated by heterotransplantation into DBA/2 mice; an in-vitro suspension culture was first reported in 1966; cells are used for cytotoxicity studies.
mesenchyme The part of the embryonic mesoderm, consisting of loosely packed, unspecialized cells set in a gelatinous ground substance, from which connective tissue, bone, cartilage, and the circulatory and lymphatic systems develop.
vero cell The Vero cell line was initiated from the kidney of a normal adult African green monkey on March 27, 1962, by Y. Yasumura and Y. Kawakita at the Chiba University in Chiba, Japan.
dami cell Human megakaryocytic cell line.
apical hook Hook-like structure which develops at the apical part of the hypocotyl in dark-grown seedlings in dicots.
pc3-mm2 cell Human prostate cancer cell line.
bladder A membranous sac in animals that serves as the receptacle of a liquid or contains gas.
glc-4 cell Human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line.
fibroblast A connective-tissue cell of mesenchymal origin that secretes proteins and especially molecular collagen from which the extracellular fibrillar matrix of connective tissue forms.
bone marrow stromal stem cell Bone marrow stromal stem cells are known to be able to transform into liver, nerve, muscle and kidney cells.
lox cell Human amelanotic malignant melanoma cell line.
ewing's family tumor cell The Ewing's family of tumors includes Ewing's tumor of bone, extraosseus Ewing's sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and Askin's tumor. All of these tumors are derived from the same primordial stem cell, the primitive nerve cell.
intestine-407 cell Human Caucasian embryonic intestine, HeLa characteristics.
ramos (ra.1) cell Human Caucasian Burkitt's lymphoma cell line. This cell line is EBV-genome-negative but expresses EBV receptors and can be converted into a permanent EBV-positive line.
pars intermedia The intermediate part of adenohypophysis: an ill-defined region between the two lobes of the hypophysis; some systems of nomenclature consider it part of the neurohypophysis. In humans a defined structure develops during embryogenesis, but only scattered cells are retained when the gland matures.
npc-tw01 cell Human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line.
anterior spinal root The motor division of each spinal nerve, attached centrally to the spinal cord and joining peripherally with the corresponding posterior (sensory) root to form the nerve before it emerges through the intervertebral foramen. It conveys motor fibers to skeletal muscle and contains preganglionic autonomic fibers at thoracolumbar and sacral levels. There are 31 anterior and 31 posterior roots: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Called also ventral or motor root of spinal nerve, root ventralis nervi spinalis, and root motoria nervi spinalis.
colon-26 cell Poorly differentiated murine colon adenocarcinoma cell line.
cho-k1 cell Chinese hamster ovary cells, subclone from parental CHO cell line that was initiated from an ovary biopsy of an adult Chinese hamster in 1957.
glossopharyngeal nerve The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth (IX) of twelve pairs of cranial nerves. It exits the brainstem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just rostral (closer to the nose) to the vagus nerve.
hair shaft The non-growing portion of a hair which protrudes from the skin, i.e., from the follicle.
bc-3 cell EBV negative PEL cell line.
nasal polyp Focal accumulations of edema fluid in the mucosa of the nose, with hyperplasia of the associated submucosal connective tissue.
callus culture The callus culture is a technique of tissue culture, it is usually carried out on solidified gel medium in the presence of growth regulators and initiated by inoculation of small explants or sections from established organ or other cultures (the inocula). Plant cell calluses may be made to differentiate into the specialized tissues of a whole new plant, with the addition of a number of hormones or enzymes. This is an ability known as totipotency. Callus cultures can be indefinitely maintained through regular sub-culturing.
thymic medulla Histologically, the thymus can be divided into a central medulla and a peripheral cortex which is surrounded by an outer capsule. The cortex and medulla play different roles in the development of T cells. Cells in the thymus can be divided into thymic stromal cells and cells of hematopoietic origin.
cervical ganglion Any of three sympathetic ganglia on each side of the neck.
ventral striatum Those portions of the striatum located generally inferior to a plane representing the anterior commissure; includes the nucleus accumbens and some nuclei of the olfactory tubercle; may function in motor activities with emotional or motivational origins.
mkn-1 cell Human gastric adenosquamous carcinoma cell line.
lim1215 cell Colonic cancer cell line.
diaphragm The thin muscle below the lungs and heart that separates the chest from the abdomen.
male cone In conifers, the reproductive parts are housed within the cones. A conifer has two kinds of cones, the pollen, or male, cone is the small and soft. A pollen cone has many tiny sporangia that produce pollen grains. The wind usually delivers the pollen grains from the pollen cone to the seed cone, this is the yellow haze often seen in the spring in coniferous forest areas.
t-hsc/cl-6 cell Immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line.
ureter The tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder.
myelinating schwann cell A variety of glial cell that keep myelinated peripheral nerve fibres alive.
fl cell Human amnion epithelial cell line.
abdominal muscle Muscles forming the wall of the abdomen including rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis.
ampulla The constant contraction of ampulla (to extend and retract the tube feet) helps to move a starfish. The ampullae are teeth like structures surrounding the radial canal.
gastric gland Any of various glands in the walls of the stomach that secrete gastric juice.
as-30d cell Rat hepatoma cell line; established from the hepatoma of a 16-month-old SD-female rat in 1988.
lymphoblastoid cell line Human cell line from tissue infected with Epstein-Barr virus, resembling a lymphoblast.
kyse-150 cell Human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line; established from the poorly differentiated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma resected from upper (cervical) esophagus of a 49-year-old Japanese woman after receiving radiotherapy.
internal female genital organ The various organs in the female that are concerned with reproduction, including the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina.
mammary myoepithelial cell The human breast epithelium is a branching ductal system composed of an inner layer of polarized luminal epithelial cells and an outer layer of myoepithelial cells that terminate in distally located terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs).
cerebrovascular endothelium
tail bud The rapidly proliferating mass of cells at the caudal extremity of the embryo; remnant of the primitive node.
maxillary nerve One of the three terminal divisions of the trigeminal nerve, passing through the foramen rotundum, and entering the pterygopalatine fossa. Origin, trigeminal ganglion; branches, meningeal ramus, zygomatic nerve, posterior superior alveolar rami, infraorbital nerve, pterygopalatine nerves, and, indirectly, the branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion; distribution, extensive distribution to skin of face and scalp, mucous membrane of maxillary sinus and nasal cavity, and teeth.
mandibular ramus A bony process extending like a branch from a larger bone, especially the ascending part of the lower jaw that makes a joint at the temple.
external carotid artery In human anatomy, the external carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. It arises from the common carotid artery when it bifurcates into the external and internal carotid artery.
primary oocyte The immature reproductive cell prior to fertilization; it is derived from an oogonium, and is called a primary oocyte prior to completion of the first maturation division, and a secondary oocyte between the first and second maturation division.
scapula Either of a pair of large triangular bones lying one in each dorsal lateral scapula: part of the thorax, being the principal bone of the corresponding half of the shoulder girdle, and articulating with the corresponding clavicle or coracoid.
embryonic brain cell line
ovca-8 cell Ovarian human cancer cell line.
nt2/d1 cell Testis; metastatic site: lung malignant pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cell line. The NTERA-2 cl.D1 cell line is a pluripotent human testicular embryonal carcinoma cell line derived by cloning the NTERA-2 cell line.
tooth enamel The hard, calcareous substance covering the exposed portion of a tooth.
axillary bud The axillary bud is a bud that develops in the axil of a plant.
soft tissue sarcoma cell line
premonocyte An immature monocyte not normally present in the blood.
hct-116 cell Human colon colorectal carcinoma cell line from a male organism. Human colon carcinoma cell line; established from the primary colon carcinoma of an adult man.
spinal nerve Any of the paired nerves which leave the spinal cord of a craniate vertebrate, supply muscles of the trunk and limbs, and connect with the nerves of the sympathetic nervous system, which arise by a short motor ventral root and a short sensory dorsal root, and of which there are 31 pairs in humans classified according to the part of the spinal cord from which they arise into 8 cervical pairs, 12 thoracic pairs, 5 lumbar pairs, 5 sacral pairs, and one coccygeal pair.
hand 1. The terminal part of the vertebrate forelimb when modified, as in humans, as a grasping organ. 2. A part serving the function of or resembling a hand as the hind foot of an ape or the chela of a crustacean.
superficial temporal vein The superficial temporal vein is a vein of the side of the head.
dt-40 cell Chicken B cell line; established in 1985 from a bursal lymphoma, which was induced by infection of a 1 day old chicken with Rous-associated virus type 1 (RAV-1), an avian leukosis retrovirus carrying no cell-derived oncogene.
g cell Endocrine cells found in the pyloric gland mucosa (antral mucosa) of the stomach and responsible for the secretion of gastrin.
cystadenoma cell Adenoma characterized by epithelium-lined cystic masses that contain secreted material, usually serous or mucinous; it generally occurs in the ovary, salivary glands, or pancreas.
b-50 cell A rat neuronal cell line.
retinal pigment epithelium cell A cell of the pigment cell layer that nourishes the retinal cells; located just outside the retina and attached to the choroid.
scleral lamina cribrosa The perforated part of the sclera through which pass the axons of the retinal ganglion cells.
hpk1a cell Established human keratinocyte cell line.
tassel The terminal male inflorescence of some plants and especially Indian corn.
emt-6 cell EMT6 is a transplantable mouse mammary tumor cell line.
choanomastigote A term, in the series used to describe developmental stages of the parasitic flagellates, denoting the barleycorn form of the flagellate in the genus Crithidia characterised by a collarlike extension surrounding the anterior and through which the single flagellum emerges.
telson muscle
mv3 cell Highly tumorigenic and metastatic human melanoma cell line.
hek-293ft cell The 293FT cell line is a fast-growing, highly transfectable clonal isolate derived from human embryonal kidney cells transformed with the SV40 large T antigen.
hbe cell Human bronchial epithelial cell line.
globus pallidus lateralis Globus pallidus lateral segment: the larger, lateral part of the globus pallidus, separated from the putamen by the lateral medullary lamina and from the smaller, medial part of the globus pallidus by the medial medullary lamina.
sk-n-mc-ixc cell This is a twice cloned subline of the neuroepithelioma cell line SK-N-MC which was established in September of 1971 from a metastatic tumor mass.
osphradium The osphradium is the olfactory organ in certain molluscs, linked with the respiration organ. The main function of this is to test incoming water for silt and other possible food particles. It is used by all members of the Genus Conus.
mcf-10f cell Normal breast epithelial cell line.
hct-8 cell Human colonic cancer cell line.
nci-h187 cell Small cell lung cancer cell line.
vero-76 cell Monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) kidney endothelial cell line. It is a derivative of the original VERO.
llc-wrc 256 cell Rat breast carcinoma cell line, established from the Walker 256 rat tumor that has been maintained in vivo for over 60 years.
renal cortex Cortex of kidney.
fibrillar flight muscle Insect flight muscle responsible for indirect flight. A single nerve impulse results in many cycles of flight muscle contraction and relaxation.
lignifying cell A lignifying cell deposits lignin in its cell wall. Lignifying cells are localized in different plant tissues.
endothelial cell The main type of cell found in the inside lining of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and the heart.
spermatid One of the haploid cells that are formed by division of the secondary spermatocytes and that differentiate into spermatozoa.
head capsule The insect's head is sometimes referred to as the head-capsule, and is the insect's feeding and sensory centre. It supports the eyes, antennae and jaws of the insect.
n18tg2 cell Mouse neuroblastoma 6-thioguanine resistant mutant of cell line N18 that was established from a mouse of strain A/Jax with neuroblastoma C1300; cells were described to form cAMP in response to prostaglandin E1 and to be aneuploid (modal chromosome number of 81).
trigeminal nucleus One of the nuclei of the trigeminal nerve, consisting of a slender column of cells in the lateral central gray matter of the superior part of the fourth ventral and cerebral aqueduct. It is the only central nervous system site of primary sensory neurons; its cells resemble posterior root ganglion cells. The peripheral processes of the cells, which form the mesencephalic tract, carry proprioceptive impulses; the central processes have widespread cerebellar and brain stem connections, including the motor nucleus of the trigeminal nerve.
n-9 cell Murine microglial cell line.
reproductive system In women, the organs that are directly involved in producing eggs and in conceiving and carrying babies. In men, the organs directly involved in creating, storing, and delivering sperm to fertilize an egg.
daudi cell Human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line; established from the Burkitt's lymphoma (left orbital biopsy) of a 16-year-old African boy in 1967; cells were described to be EBV-positive and to express mRNA for proto-oncogene bcl-2.
hep-3b cell Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line; established from the tumor tissue of an 8-year-old black boy in 1976; description: cells contain integrated hepatitis B virus genome; cells were described to produce a variety of proteins, e.g. alpha-fetoprotein, albumin, transferrin, alpha2-macroglobulin, alpha1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin and others.
filament Part of the stamen in a flower that supports the anther. A chainlike series of cells, as in many algae.
trophoblast giant cell Trophoblast giant cells in the rodent placenta form the outermost layer of the extraembryonic compartment.
molt-13 cell Human T cell leukemia cell line; established from the bone marrow of a 2-year-old girl with T-ALL (T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, FAB L2) at relapse in 1983.
biliary epithelium Epithelium of the gallbladder and the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts.
lung epithelium cell line
fd-2 cell Farber disease dermal fibroblast cell line.
vitreous chamber of the eye The space in the eyeball enclosing the vitreous humor, bounded anteriorly by the lens and ciliary body and posteriorly by the posterior wall of the eyeball.
adenocarcinoma cell line
protoscolex The scolex of a larval stage of the hydatid tapeworm. Morphologically it resembles the adult scolex.
s-16 cell Rat immortilized Schwann cell line.
renal proximal tubule The convoluted portion of the vertebrate nephron that lies between Bowman's capsule and the loop of Henle and functions especially in the resorption of sugar, sodium and chloride ions, and water from the glomerular filtrate.
arterial system The arterial system is the higher-pressure portion of the circulatory system.
peritubular cell Seminiferous tubules are made up of Sertoli cells and germ cells and they are surrounded by peritubular and myoid cells.
a-875 cell Human melanoma cell line.
spinal ganglion A ganglion on the dorsal root of each spinal nerve that is one of a series of ganglia lodging cell bodies of sensory neurons.
skeletal muscle cell
bundle sheath cell Cells surrounding the vascular bundle in C4 plants.
major vestibular gland Either of two small reddish yellow bodies in the vestibular bulbs, one on each side of the vaginal orifice; they are homologues of the bulbourethral glands in the male.
fruit capsule A simple fruit that develops from a compound ovary with two or more carpels; capsules dehisce in many ways, example: cotton.
visceral hump Mollusks have three distinct divisions of their body. The head contains the sensory equipment (eyes, antennae, etc) and the primitive brain. The visceral hump, which is the main body, contains most of the organs, including a complete digestive and excretory tract as well as the reproductive organs. The visceral hump also includes the two external flaps of tissue, which are known as the mantle.
growth phase culture The characteristic periods in the growth of a bacterial culture, as indicated by the shape of a graph of viable cell number versus time.
postcentral gyrus A gyrus of the parietal lobe located just posterior to the central sulcus, lying parallel to the precentral gyrus of the temporal lobe, and comprising the somatosensory cortex.
adventitious root culture Leaf and stem explants cultured on MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium supplemented with various auxins.
foam cell A swollen vacuolated phagocytic cell filled with lipid inclusions that often accummulates along arterial walls and is characteristic of some conditions of disturbed lipid metabolism.
cerebral giant cell A pair of symmetrical, giant, serotonin-containing neurones have been found in the cerebral ganglia of the pulmonate molluscs Limax, Ariolimax, Helix, Planorbis and Helisoma and the opisthobranch molluscs Aplysia, Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea and in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis.
scrotum The pouch that contains the testes and their accessory organs. It is composed of skin, the tunica dartos, the spermatic, cremasteric, and infundibuliform fasciae, and the tunica vaginalis testis.
vestibular labyrinth The part of the membranous labyrinth that includes the utricle and saccule lodged within the vestibule and the semicircular ducts lodged eccentrically in the corresponding canals.
tongue cell line
imcd cell Renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cell line.
rwleu-4 cell RWLeu4 is a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line.
stria vascularis The upper part of the spiral ligament of the scala media that contains numerous small blood vessels; A layer of vascular tissue consisting of epithelial cells, mesothelial cells, and probably some neuroectoderm; it covers the outer wall of the cochlear duct and is thought to secrete the endolymph.
gastrocnemius The largest and most superficial muscle of the calf of the leg arising by two heads from the condyles of the femur and attaching to a tendon that becomes part of the Achilles tendon.
glc-4/adr cell Subline of human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line (GLC4) with in vitro acquired resistance to adriamycin (GLC4/ADR).
tear gland An acinous gland that is about the size and shape of an almond, secretes tears, and is situated laterally and superiorly to the bulb of the eye in a shallow depression on the inner surface of the frontal bone.
nhk cell Normal human keratinocyte cell line.
rh-30 cell Human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cell line.
choriodecidua A fetal membrane.
mg-63 cell Homo sapiens (human) bone, osteosarcoma cell line; established from a 14 year old caucasian male.
peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor cell One of a remarkable group of tumors that originate in cells from the primitive neural crest and share the same reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 11 and 22 and the same patterns of biochemical and oncogene expression. Some primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) occur in the brain while others (the peripheral PNETs) occur in sites outside the brain such as in the extremities, pelvis, and the chest wall.
ommatidium One of the elements corresponding to a small simple eye that make up the compound eye of an arthropod.
nci-h1975 cell Human non-small cell lung cancer cell line.
prostate gland stromal cell
occipital lobe This lobe is located at the back of the head and is involved in vision and reading.
cfsc cell Immortalized rat hepatic stellate cell line.
leaf lamina The blade or flat part of a leaf.
larynx squamous cell carcinoma cell line
colonic cell line
a7 cell Immortalized murine hepatic stellate cell line.
balb/3t3 cell The BALB/3T3 clone A31 is one of several cell lines (see BALB/3T12) developed in 1968 from disaggregated 14- to 17-day-old BALB/c mouse embryos.
uacc-903 cell Human melanoma cell line.
neuroectodermal tumor cell A neuroectodermal tumor is a tumor of the central or peripheral nervous system.
glioblastoma cell Glioblastoma is a general term for malignant forms of astrocytoma.
vagus nerve Either of the 10th pair of cranial nerves that arise from the medulla and supply chiefly the viscera especially with autonomic sensory and motor fibers.
rmc-1 cell Retinal rat Mueller cell line.
cranial nerve Any of several nerves that arise in pairs from the brainstem and reach the periphery through openings in the skull. There are 12 such pairs in mammals, birds, and reptiles and usually 10 pairs in amphibians and fish.
ccd-8lu cell Human normal lung fibroblast cell line established from a caucasian 48-years-old human male. Derived from normal tissue from patient who died of cerebral thrombosis.
au-565 cell The AU565 cell line was derived from a pleural effusion of a patient with breast adenocarcinoma. This cell line was established from the same patient as SK-BR-3. The patient, a White, Caucasian female, age 43, blood type A+, had been treated with radiation, steroids, cytoxan and 5-fluorouracil.
nci-h526 cell Human small cell lung cancer cell line; established from a 55 years old caucasian male.
retinal ganglion cell line
laryngeal cancer cell Cancer or tumor cell of the larynx or any of its parts: the glottis, epiglottis, laryngeal cartilages, laryngeal muscles, and vocal cords.
medial dorsal nucleus of thalamus The largest of the medial nuclei of the thalamus, having a rostral magnocellular part and a caudolateral parvocellular part, both of which make extensive intrathalamic connections with most of the other thalamic nuclei.
kms-6 cell Human embryonic fibroblast cell line; established from a 9-weeks-old embryo of Homo sapiens. Normal fibroblasts. Finite lifespan.
atherosclerotic plaque A buildup of cholesterol and fatty material within a blood vessel due to the effects of atherosclerosis. A fatty deposit in the intima (inner lining) of an artery, resulting from atherosclerosis.
atrium In the heart, the atrium is an upper chamber found on both sides of the heart. The left atrium receives red, oxygenated blood from the lungs by way of the pulmonary veins. The right atrium receives dark red blood from the other parts of the body.
secretory cell Cell specialised for secretion, usually epithelial. Those that secrete proteins characteristically have well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, whereas conspicuous smooth endoplasmic reticulum is typical of cells that secrete lipid or lipid derived products (e.g. Steroids).
longissimus lumborum Lumbar muscle that extends and rotates the vertebral column.
rag cell Mouse, BALB/cd, kidney, adenocarcinoma cell line. Derived from the original Renal-2a BALB/cd renal adenocarcinoma. Cells produce the unique kidney specific esterase ES-2 and have been used in somatic cell hybridisation studies because of their azaguanine resistant properties.
atrial gland The atrial gland is an exocrine organ that secretes into the oviduct of Aplysia californica and expresses three homologous genes belonging to the egg-laying hormone gene family.
neuroendocrine tumor cell A cell of any of a diverse group of tumors containing neurosecretory cells that cause endocrine dysfunction, most are carcinoids or carcinomas. They occur most often in the gastrointestinal tract, in bronchial and tracheal mucous membranes, and in teratoid ovarian tumors.
kasumi-1 cell Human acute myelocytic leukemia cell line; derived from the peripheral blood of a 7-year-old japanese boy with acute myelocytic leukemia in relapse after bone marrow transplantation.
theca externa The outer, fibrous layer of the theca folliculi.
neurilemoma cell A tumor of a neurilemma, the most common type of neurogenic tumor, usually isolated and encapsulated. Most are benign but occasionally they become malignant.
nci-h128 cell Small cell lung cancer cell line.
ntera-2 cell Human embryonal carcinoma (teratocarcinoma). NTERA-2 was cloned from cell line TERA-2 which was derived from a metastatic teratocarcinoma of a 22-year-old Caucasian male.
schizont A multinucleate sporozoan (as a malaria parasite) that reproduces by schizogony.
navicular bone The ovoid-shaped tarsal bone that is situated between the talus and the three cuneiform bones.
3t3-l1 cell L1 is a continuous substrain of 3T3 Swiss albino developed through clonal isolation. Cells undergo a pre-adipose to adipose like conversion as they progress from a rapidly dividing to a confluent and contact inhibited state. A high serum content in the medium enhances fat accumulation.
rheumatoid arthritis disease specific synovial tissue Chronic inflammatory disease in which there is destruction of joints. Considered by some to be an autoimmune disorder in which immune complexes are formed in joints and excite an inflammatory response (complex mediated hypersensitivity). Cell-mediated (type IV) hypersensitivity also occurs and macrophages accumulate. This in turn leads to the destruction of the synovial lining.
vegetative cell 1: Growing or having the power of growing. 2: Of, relating to, or engaged in nutritive and growth functions as contrasted with reproductive functions.
skeletal muscle cell line
daltons lymphoma cell Spontaneous T cell lymphoma.
insulinoma cell A cell of a usually benign tumor of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas.
lovo-li cell Colorectal cancer cell line.
mrc-5 cell Homo sapiens (human) lung; fibroblast; normal cell line. The MRC-5 cell line was derived from normal lung tissue of a 14-week-old male fetus by J.P. Jacobs in September of 1966.
anaplastic thyroid cancer cell Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is an aggressive form of cancer of the thyroid gland.
im-9 cell Human B lymphoblastoid cell line (from patient with multiple myeloma); established from the bone marrow of a woman with multiple myeloma in 1967. Although derived from the blood of a patient with multiple myeloma, this line has been shown to be an EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell line.
sk-mel-5 cell Human caucasian skin melanoma cell line; established from a 24 year old Caucasian female. Derived from: axillary node.
serous adenocarcinoma cell line
burkitt lymphoma cell Malignant tumour cell of lymphoblasts derived from B-lymphocytes. Most commonly affects children in tropical Africa: both Epstein-Barr virus and immunosuppression due to malarial infection are involved.
mcf-7 cell Human breast adenocarcinoma, established from the pleural effusion of a 69-year-old caucasian woman with metastatic mammary carcinoma (after radio- and hormone therapy) in 1970. Cells were described of being positive for cytoplasmic estrogen receptors and having the capability to form domes.
corm A rounded thick modified underground stem base bearing membranous or scaly leaves and buds and acting as a vegetative reproductive structure.
cell suspension culture Particles floating in (not necessarily on) a liquid medium, or the mix of particles and liquid itself.
amacrine cell An unipolar nerve cell found in the retina, in the olfactory bulb, and in close connection with the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum.
s2 cell The hybridoma line S2 has been obtained by fusion of the myeloma P3x63 Ag6.653 and spleen cells from (C57 BL/6 x BALB/c) F1 female mice after a single injection of lymphoblastoid cells.
j-774a.1 cell Mouse monocytes-macrophages, established from a tumor in a female BALB/c mouse in 1968; cells were described to synthesize lysozyme and interleukin-1 and to have receptors for immunoglobulin and complement.
odontoblast Any of the elongated radially arranged cells on the surface of the dental pulp that secrete dentin.
vascular smooth muscle cell Vascular smooth muscle refers to the particular type of smooth muscle found within, and composing the majority of the wall of blood vessels.
promastigote Any of the bodies representing the morphological leptomonad stage in the life cycle of certain trypanosomatid protozoa resembling the typical adult form of members of the genus Leptomonas, in which the elongate or pear-shaped cell has a central nucleus and at the anterior end a kinetoplast and a basal body from which arises a single long, slender flagellum.
mesocarp The middle layer of a pericarp.
hyperpallium apicale
left atrium The left atrium receives oxygenated blood back from the lungs and pumps it down into the left ventricle for relatively high-pressure delivery to the body.
headfoot The head-foot is the part you see most easily in slugs and snails. It is mostly a muscular organ covered in cilia and rich in mucous cells, which the mollusc uses to move around, it normally tapers to a tail at one end and has a head incorporated in the front. The head includes a mouth, eyes and tentacles, the last two may be much reduced or even absent. In those species with shells the head-foot can be drawn into the shell.
colo-699 cell Non-small cell lung cancer cell line.
yolk sac erythroid cell
synovia A transparent viscid lubricating fluid secreted by a membrane of an articulation, bursa, or tendon sheath.
larval integument
embryonic kidney cell line
flower bud A bud that will develop into a flower.
fruit juice Juice produced by squeezing or crushing fruit.
endogenous progenitor cell Circulating endogenous progenitor cells are isolated from human peripheral blood and are capable of vascular repair.
adipose-derived stem cell Most adult stem cells are lineage-restricted (multipotent) and are generally referred to by their tissue origin e.g. adipose-derived stem cell.
ej-1 cell Human urinary bladder cancer cell line.
astrocyte A star-shaped cell, especially a neuroglial cell of nervous tissue.
stele The usually cylindrical central vascular portion of the axis of a vascular plant.
alveolar wall The alveolar walls contain capillaries and a very small interstitial space. In some alveolar walls there are pores between alveoli. There are two major alveolar cell types in the alveolar wall: 1. Flat Type I cells forming the structure of a alveolar wall. 2. Type II cells which secrete surfactant which lowers the surface tension and divide to produce Type I cells.
alveolar epithelium Epithelia of lung alveoli. The layer of cells covering the lining of the tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles.
colo-678 cell
intercalated cell Each component of the collecting duct system contains two cell types, intercalated cells and a segment-specific cell type.
trophosome tissue Various chemolithotrophs have been found to live in symbiotic association with animals of the thermal vents. For example the 2-m-long tube worms lack a mouth, gut or anus but contain a modified gastrointestinal tract consisting of spongy tissue called the trophosome. Making up about 50% of the weight of the worm, trophosome tissue is loaded with sulfur granules and large numbers of symbiotic prokaryotic cells (average of 4 X 109 cells per g of trophosome tissue). Trophosome tissue also shows activity of the enzyme RubisCO and other enzymes of the Calvin cycle, the pathway by which most autotrophic organisms fix CO2 into cellular material.
tail fin A fin at the posterior part of the body of a fish, crustacean, whale, or other aquatic animal.
hsc-4 cell Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line.
nerve Any of the filamentous bands of nervous tissue that connect parts of the nervous system with the other organs, conduct nervous impulses, and are made up of axons and dendrites together with protective and supportive structures.
xc cell Rat XC sarcoma cell line, derived from a Rous sarcoma virus-induced Wistar strain rat tumor. XC forms syncytia when cultured in the presence of murine leukemia virus-producing mouse cells. However, one XC cell culture (designated as XC-v cells), found to produce type C virus particles, fails to form syncytia in the presence of murine leukemia virus-producing mouse cells.
mantle A fold or lobe or pair of lobes of the body wall of a mollusk or brachiopod that in shell-bearing forms lines the shell and bears shell-secreting glands.
foreign-body giant cell Syncytium formed by the fusion of macrophages in response to an indigestible particle too large to be phagocytosed for example talc, silica or asbestos fibres. Multinucleated cells (fused macrophages), characteristic of granulomatous inflammation, which form around exogenous material in the skin. They are similar in appearance to Langhans giant cells, but foreign-body giant cells have more abundant chromatin and their nuclei are scattered in an irregular pattern in the cytoplasm.
foot muscle
meynert's basal nucleus A group of neurons in the basal forebrain that has wide projections to the neocortex and is rich in acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase. It undergoes degeneration in paralysis agitans and Alzheimer's disease.
hgf cell Human gingival stroma cell line.
stolon A horizontal branch from the base of a plant that produces new plants from buds at its tip or nodes (as in the strawberry).
loin The part of a human being or quadruped on each side of the spinal column between the hipbone and the false ribs.
umr-106-01 cell Rat osteosarcoma osteoblastlike cell line.
aorta smooth muscle cell line
cerebral gyrus One of the convolutions of the surface of the cerebral hemispheres caused by infolding of the cortex.
spikelet A small or secondary spike, specifically one of the small few-flowered bracted spikes that make up the compound inflorescence of a grass or sedge.
pc-12d cell A cell line which originated from a pheochromocytoma in rat adrenal medulla.
lung fibroblast cell line
mt-4 cell Human T cell Lymphotropic Virus-I (HTLV-I) carrying human T cell line.
resting cell A cell that is not actively in the process of dividing.
wax gland Any gland which secretes a wax product in a scale, string or powder. Coccidae: the circumgenital and parastigmatic glands. Hymenoptera: Apoidea, abdominal glands that produce beeswax. Neuroptera (Coniopterygidae): glands on head, thorax and abdomen which produce a meal-like wax. Wax glands have been identified on all tagmata and appendages.
hs-68 cell Hs68 is one of a series of human foreskin fibroblast lines developed at the Naval Biosciences Laboratory (NBL) in Oakland, CA. The material was obtained from an apparently normal Caucasian newborn male in February, 1969.
lymphatic endothelial cell The main type of cell found in the inside lining of lymph vessels.
guard cell One of the two crescent-shaped epidermal cells that border and open and close a plant stoma.
cx-1 cell Human colon adenocarcinoma cell line; established from the tumor tissue of a 44-year-old woman with well-differentiated colon adenocarcinoma in 1984; cell line is a subclone of cell line HT-29.
sk-br-3 cell Human breast adenocarcinoma cell line; established from a caucasian female 43 years old. Morphology: epithelial-like.
decidua basalis The area of endometrium between the implanted chorionic vesicle and the myometrium, which develops into the maternal part of the placenta.
lateral ventricle An internal cavity in each cerebral hemisphere that consists of a central body and three cornua including an anterior one curving forward and outward, a posterior one curving backward, and an inferior one curving downward.
chondrocyte cell line
mrc5-sv cell This cell line is derived by simian virus 40 transformation of MRC5 fibroblasts.
hc-11 cell Mouse mammary epithelial cell line.
pheochromocytoma cell Pheochromocytoma is a rare tumor that arises from tissue in the adrenal gland. The tumor increases production of adrenaline and noradrenaline, which raises blood pressure and heart rate.
neonate A newborn child; especially: a child less than a month old.
head The upper or anterior division of the animal body that contains the brain, the chief sense organs, and the mouth.
pancreatic beta cell One of the cells that compose the bulk of the islets of Langerhans and secrete insulin.
pro-b-lymphocyte cell line
daltons lymphoma ascites cell
pleural fluid Your body produces pleural fluid in small amounts to lubricate the surfaces of the pleura, the thin membrane that lines the chest cavity and surrounds the lungs.
u-937 cell Human histiocytic lymphoma established from the pleural effusion of a 37-year-old man with generalized diffuse histiocytic lymphoma in 1974. Cells were described to express markers and properties of monocytes; Human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell line.
synovial cell Fibroblast-like cells that form 1-6 epithelioid layers in the synovial membrane of joints; believed to contribute proteoglycans and hyaluronate to the synovial fluid.
f9-12 cell The yeast genomic DNA from the strain F9 was transferred to the established mouse fibroblast cell line L A-9 by fusion with yeast spheroplasts followed by selection with G418 to select for cells which had taken up yeast DNA. Seventeen independent cell lines, called F9-1 to F9-17, were grown up from colonies on separate plates.
bulbil A small bulb that develops from an aerial bud. Bulbils are easily detached and function as a means of vegetative propagation. They may form from lateral buds, as in the lesser celandine (Ranunculus ficaria), or develop in place of flowers, as in many species of Allium. Certain forms of apomixis give rise to bulbils, as seen in the lesser bulbous saxifrage (Saxifraga cernua). The term is also applied to various outgrowths formed by lower plants that become detached and develop into new plants. For example, the fern Asplenium bulbiferum produces bulbils on the upper surface of its fronds and Lycopodium selago has bulbils in the axils of the uppermost leaves.
adult stem cell line
cuboid bone The cuboid bone.
juxtaglomerular cell One of the three cellular components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. Juxtaglomerular cells are not granular cells but are granulated as they release renin.
eosinophilic leukemia cell line A form of granulocytic leukemia cell line characterized by abnormal numbers of or a predomination of eosinophilic granulocytes in the tissues and blood.
be(2)-m17 cell Human caucasian neuroblastoma cell line. The cell line BE(2)-M17 was isolated from SK-N-BE(2) by limiting dilution.
cardiac muscle The principal muscle tissue of the vertebrate heart made up of striated fibers that appear to be separated from each other under the electron microscope but that function in long-term rhythmic contraction as if in protoplasmic continuity.
glottis The middle part of the larynx; the area where the vocal cords are located.
hscc cell Human squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
hypanthium The ringlike, cup-shaped, or tubular structure of a flower on which the sepals, petals, and stamens are borne, as in the flowers of the rose or cherry.
tad-2 cell Immortalized normal thyroid cell line.
urophysis This is a neurosecretory organ found on the ventral aspect of the distal end of the spinal cord in fishes. These bodies are composed of unmyelinated axons terminating on a capillary wall. The function of the urophysis is unknown.
cerebral granule cell Granule cells found within the layer 4 of cerebral cortex.
respiratory epithelium cell line
acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Lymphocytic leukemia cell line that is marked by an abnormal increase in the number of lymphoblasts, that is characterized by rapid onset and progression of symptoms which include fever, anemia, pallor, fatigue, appetite loss, bleeding, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, bone and joint pain, and enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen, and that occurs chiefly during childhood.
ben-men-1 cell Human benign meningioma cell line; established in 2003 from the meningothelial meningioma grade I attached to the parietal falx of a 68-year-old woman after surgical tumor resection; cells were immortalized by retroviral transduction with human telomerase reverse transcriptase.
nci-h441 cell Homo sapiens lung papillary adenocarcinoma cell line. The NCI-H441 cell line was derived in 1982 from the pericardial fluid of a patient with papillary adenocarcinoma of the lung.
radular muscle
epidermal cell line
lbetat2 cell Murine pituitary gonadotrope cell line.
spindle cell A fusiform cell, such as those in the deeper layers of the cerebral cortex.
larval ventral ganglion Abdominal neuromere of the larva. The larval ventral ganglion is less complex than the brain, consists of a smaller number of neurons and shows in general a homomeric composition. Despite its reduced complexity, the larval ventral ganglion possesses peptidergic interneurons as well as neurosecretory cells producing peptide hormones, and receives sensory inputs of different modalities.
ecc-1 cell An established epithelial cell line derived from an adenocarcinoma of human endometrial lining.
juvenile Physiologically immature or undeveloped stage.
regio parietalis capitis The surface region of the head corresponding to the outlines of the underlying parietal bone.
aorta The great arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body.
brain endothelial cell
digestive juice
jb6 cell Mouse epidermal cell line.
fl-318 cell Cell line established from effusion cells of two Japanese patients manifesting the transformed histology of follicular lymphoma.
femoral artery The main artery of the thigh, supplying blood to the groin and lower extremity.
m-1 myeloid leukemia cell Mouse myeloid leukemia cell line. Origin: bone marrow from SL mouse with spontaneous myeloid leukemia was injected into isogenic mice and the cell line was established from the ensuing hyperplastic lymph nodes 14 days later by recloning on soft agar; homotransplantable and forms colonies on soft agar (granulocytic/macrophage differentation inducible by IL-3, LPS or dexamethasone).
oil secretion
neural arch One of the cartilaginous structures surrounding the embryonic spinal cord, formed by the dorsal growth of the dorsolateral arcualia; it is the primordium of the vertebral arch.
epiphysis A part or process of a bone that ossifies separately and later becomes ankylosed to the main part of the bone; especially: an end of a long bone.
uterine leiomyoma cell A benign tumor of the smooth muscle fibers of the uterus.
hbl-2 cell Human diffuse large B cell lymphoma cell line.
rie-1 cell Rat intestinal epithelial cell line.
hallux The first digit of the foot.
adrenocortical carcinoma cell line
ebv-lcl cell Human B-lymphoblastoid cell line transformed by Epstein-Barr (EBV-LCLs) Virus.
iec-18 cell A nontransformed rat small intestine cell line.
chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell Cell of a neoplastic disease of middle or old age, characterized by excessive numbers of circulating lymphocytes of normal, mature appearance, usually B-lymphocytes; presumably a neoplastic transformation of lymphoid stem cells.
intestinal muscle
m14 cell The human melanoma cell line M14 has been established from surgically removed melanoma metastases.
cw-2 cell Human colorectal adenocarcinoma tumor cell line.
nb-1 cell Human neuroblastoma cell line.
air pouch An air pouch is produced by subcutaneous injection of sterile air into the back of a mouse or rat. With the air pouch model large volumes of inflammatory exudates can be collected with relative ease. Injection of carrageenan solution or other inflammatory irritant (i.e. LPS, bradykinin), into the air pouch causes an inflammatory reaction.
final leaf The last leaf to emerge in a determinate plant, also referred to as the flag leaf in cereal crops.
ger cell Human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line.
alveolar mucosa The mucous membrane apical to the attached gingiva.
nci-h146 cell Small cell lung cancer cell line.
endometrial stromal cell
pituitary gland tumor cell A benign tumor of the pituitary, the master gland that controls other glands and influences numerous body functions including growth. Although the tumor itself is not cancerous, it may affect pituitary function, and therefore may need to be removed.
chronic myeloid leukemia cell line
k-562 cell Human chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis established from the pleural effusion of a 53-year-old woman with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in blast crisis in 1970.
giant cell carcinoma cell A poorly differentiated, highly malignant, epithelial neoplasm containing numerous very large, multinucleated tumor cells, such as occurs in the lungs.
mcf-12a cell Human mammary epithelial cell line.
myometrial cell
gynoecium The female reproductive organs of a flower; the pistil or pistils considered as a group.
neural lobe The expanded distal portion of the neurohypophysis.
foot sole The underside of the foot.
ku-812 cell Human chronic myeloid leukemia in myeloid blast crisis, established from the peripheral blood of a 38-year-old man with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in myeloid blast crisis; described to express basophilic features.
nci-n87 cell NCI-N87 is a gastric carcinoma cell line derived in 1976 by A. Gazdar and associates at the National Cancer Institute from a liver metastasis of a well differentiated carcinoma of the stomach taken prior to cytotoxic therapy. The tumor was passaged as a xenograft in athymic nude mice for three passages before the cell line was established.
kurloff cell Cells found in the blood and organs of guinea pigs that contain large secretory granules but are of unknown function.
hl60/dnr cell Acute promyelocytic leukemia resistant to daunorubicin.
peritoneal cavity The potential space of capillary thinness between the parietal and the visceral peritoneum, which is normally empty except for a thin serous fluid that keeps the surfaces moist.
nucleus pulposus An elastic pulpy mass lying in the center of each intervertebral fibrocartilage and regarded as a remnant of the notochord.
angioblast The mesenchymal tissue of the embryo from which the blood cells and blood vessels differentiate.
cem-adr5000 cell Doxorubicin-resistant human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia cell line CEM/ADR5000.
median nucleus of thalamus Small groups of nonspecific nerve cells scattered in the periventricular gray substance, separating the medial part of the thalamus from the ependyma of the third ventricle, and partly forming the interthalamic adhesion; included in the group are the anterior and posterior paraventricular nuclei, nucleus parataenialis, nucleus commissuralis rhomboidalis, and nucleus reuniens.
rn-46a cell Rat raphe-nuclei derived neuronal cell line.
faza cell Rat hepatoma cell line.
corpus cardiacum A pair of neurohemal organs located on the walls of the aorta just behind the brain. The corpora cardiaca release their store of PTTH only after they receive a signal from neurosecretory cells in the brain.
skin fibroblast cell line
interventricular septum The partition that separates the left ventricle from the right ventricle, consisting of a muscular and a membranous part.
colorectal adenoma cell
osteoblast cell line
hek-293-trkb cell HEK-TrkB cells are derived from HEK-293 cells, engineered to express the brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor, TrkB.
colo-38 cell Human melanoma cell line.
jhu-022 cell Human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line.
ln-308 cell Human glioblastoma cell line.
hyalocyte A cell occurring in the peripheral part of the vitreous body that may be responsible for production of hyaluronic acid and possibly of collagen.
mv-522 cell Human non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell line. This cell line is of high metastatic potential. It is a high metastatic variant of UCP-3.
hk-2 cell An immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney.
vastus medialis One of the four muscles of the quadriceps femoris group, situated in the medial part of the thigh. The muscle functions in combination with other parts of the quadriceps femoris to extend the leg.
suprachiasmatic nucleus A small group of neurons situated immediately dorsal to the optic chiasma in the anterior hypothalamus.
brain cell line
mammary epithelium The human breast epithelium is a branching ductal system composed of an inner layer of polarized luminal epithelial cells and an outer layer of myoepithelial cells that terminate in distally located terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs).
seminiferous tubule One of two or three twisted, curved tubules in each lobule of the testis in which spermatozoa develop.
inner medullary collecting duct
quadriceps The greater extensor muscle of the front of the thigh that is divided into four parts: rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
f-9 cell Mouse embryonal carcinoma, initiated from a testicular teratocarcinoma of a strain 129 mouse.
human bone marrow endothelial cell line
bursa copulatrix A thin fan or bell-shaped expansion of the cuticle of the tail of many male nematode worms that functions as a copulatory structure.
urinary system The organs and passageways concerned with the production and excretion of urine, including the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
c-127 cell Murine mammary tumor line from a female mus musculus.
skin The integument of an animal (as a fur-bearing mammal or a bird) separated from the body usually with its hair or feathers.
connective tissue The tissue which binds together and is the support of the various structures of the body. It is made up of fibroblasts, fibroglia, collagen fibrils, and elastic fibrils. It is derived from the mesoderm and in a broad sense includes the collagenous, elastic, mucous, reticular, osseous, and cartilaginous tissue. Some also include the blood in this group of tissues. Connective tissue is classified according to concentration of fibers as loose (areolar) and dense, the latter having more abundant fibers than the former.
hs-294t cell Human melanoma cell line.
neurofibroma cell A usually benign tumor of peripheral nerves caused by abnormal proliferation of Schwann cells.
thymic epithelium
skin cancer cell The two most common forms of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Together, these two are also referred to as nonmelanoma skin cancer. Melanoma is generally the most serious form of skin cancer because it tends to spread (metastasize) throughout the body quickly.
inferior cervical ganglion An inconstant ganglion formed in place of the usual cervicothoracic ganglion by fusion of the lower two cervical ganglia in instances where the first thoracic ganglion remains separate.
b6tert-1 cell Immortalized normal human cytotrophoblast (CT) cell line.
embryonic stem cell line
skw6.4 cell Human B-lymphoblastoid cell line.
bt-474 cell Human breast ductal carcinoma cell line; established from a solid, invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast; obtained from a 60-year-old woman; cells were reportedly tumorigenic in athymic mice and were found to be susceptible to mouse mammary tumor virus.
vcap cell Human prostate cancer cell line.
dorsum The back; especially : the entire dorsal surface of an animal.
parenchyma The tissue characteristic of an organ, as distinguished from associated connective or supporting tissues.
palpus A segmented usually tactile or gustatory process on an arthropod mouthpart.
wm-115 cell Human melanoma cell line. The WM-115 cell line was derived from the primary tumor of a 58 years old female.
blood cancer cell The major forms of blood cancer are lymphoma, leukemia and multiple myeloma. They affect the way a body makes blood and provides immunity from other diseases.
n-38 cell TCAP-1-responsive mouse hypothalamic cell line.
endomesoderm An embryonic blastomere or cell layer not yet differentiated into mesoderm and endoderm but destined to give rise to both.
parahippocampal gyrus A long convolution on the medial surface of the temporal lobe, forming the lower part of the fornicate gyrus, extending from behind the splenium corporis callosi forward along the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus from which it is demarcated by the hippocampal fissure. The anterior extreme of the gyrus curves back upon itself, forming the uncus, the major location of the olfactory cortex.
normoblast A nucleated red blood cell, the immediate precursor of a normal red blood cell in humans.
snu-398 cell Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.
gastrointestinal smooth muscle
cerebellum A large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum , and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe.
cystadenocarcinoma cell A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognised.
septum pellucidum The septum pellucidum is made up of two thin sheets of mostly glial-like elements that abut each other in the midline and have a potential space between them. Those sheets also separate the left and right lateral ventricles from each other. At the base of the sheets rostrally, however, are the septal nuclei, which are important components of the limbic system.
khos-240s cell Human osteosarcoma cell line; this line is a revertant of KHOS/NP (R-970-5) cell line that no longer has a rescuable Kirsten murine sarcoma virus genome.
rth-149 cell Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, hepatoma cell line.
genital mucosa
satellite cell 1. Glial cells that cluster about a neuron. 2. Free nuclei that accumulate around cells in certain diseases. 3. Elongated cells that are closely associated with a muscle fiber; they either are flattened against the fiber or occupy shallow depressions in its surface.
respiratory smooth muscle
colo-357 cell Human pancreatic cancer cell line.
renal vein
soft tissue sarcoma cell A malignant tumor that begins in the muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or other soft supporting tissues of the body. Soft tissue sarcomas do not originate in bone or cartilage.
archenteron The cavity of a gastrula forming a primitive gut.
endocervix 1. The mucous membrane lining the canal of the cervix uteri. 2. The region of the opening of the uterine cervix into the uterine cavity.
human lens epithelial cell line Human lens epithelial cell line.
tunica intima vasorum The inner coat of the blood vessels, made up of endothelial cells surrounded by longitudinal elastic fibers and connective tissue.
salivary gland cancer cell Cancer of the salivary gland is a malignant tumor of the tissues that produce saliva.
cce cell CCE is a mouse embryonic stem cell line derived from 129/Sv mouse strain and has been provided for research use only.
d17 cell Canine osteosarcoma cell line.
brodmann area 36 Ectorhinal area 36 is a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined temporal region of cerebral cortex. With its medial boundary corresponding approximately to the rhinal sulcus it is located primarily in the fusiform gyrus.
brain myelin
biceps A muscle having two heads: as a: the large flexor muscle of the front of the upper arm b: the large flexor muscle of the back of the upper leg.
feather vane The flattened part of the feather that is attached on either side of the rachis. Each feather has two vanes.
nectar A sweet liquid that is secreted by the nectaries of a plant and is the chief raw material of honey.
pleural ganglion The pallial cavity's nerve knots are called pleural ganglia. They innerve primarily the mantle or a snail.
cclp1 cell Human cholangiocarcinoma cell line.
tear A drop of clear saline fluid secreted by the lacrimal gland and diffused between the eye and eyelids to moisten the parts and facilitate their motion.
initial collecting tubule The initial collecting tubule is a segment with a constitution similar as the collecting duct, but before the convergence with other tubules.
bic-1 cell Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line.
human iliac artery endothelial cell Human arterial endothelial cells, HAECs, are isolated from adult human iliac arteries of transplant donors by mechanically removing the endothelial layer and are cultured.
enamel organ A circumscribed knoblike mass of ectodermal cells arising from the dental lamina; it produces the enamel cap from which the dental enamel develops.
second instar larva Instar: a stage in the life of an arthropod (as an insect) between two successive molts.
gut 1: The alimentary canal or a portion thereof, especially the intestine or stomach. 2: The embryonic digestive tube, consisting of the foregut, the midgut, and the hindgut.
sensillum A simple epithelial sense organ of an invertebrate (as an insect) usually in the form of a spine, plate, rod, cone, or peg that is composed of one or a few cells with a nerve connection.
annulus fibrosus disci intervertebralis The ring of fibrocartilage and fibrous tissue forming the circumference of the intervertebral disc; surrounds the nucleus pulposus, which is prone to herniation when the annulus fibrosus is compromised.
calu-6 cell Human anaplastic carcinoma cell line, probably from lung. Established from a 62-years-old caucasian female.
sk-n-be(2)c cell Human neuroblastoma cell line.
distal tip The reproductive tract in the hermaphroditic nematode has two equivalent gonad arms. As it grows longer, that portion lying closer to the gonopore (vulva or cloaca) is termed the proximal arm, while the distal arm lies further away with the extreme end named the distal tip.
brain ventricle Any of the system of communicating cavities in the brain that are continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord.
jj012 cell Human chondrosarcoma cell line.
184a1n4 cell The 184A1N4 and 184B5 cell lines are nontumorigenic cell lines derived from primary cultures of HMECs that were immortalized with benzo(a)pyrene.
tuberous root A thick fleshy storage root like a tuber but lacking buds or scale leaves.
true leaf A leaf typical of a plant that appears subsequent to the cotyledons.
cos cell A cell line derived from the african green monkey and used for transfection and cloning. The cells are simian fibroblasts (cv 1 cells) transformed by sv40 that is deficient in the origin of replication region. They express large t antigen constitutively and if transfected with a vector containing a normal sv40 origin have all the other early viral genes necessary to generate multiple copies of the vector and thus to give very high levels of expression.
uterine serous carcinoma cell Uterine serous carcinoma is an uncommon form of endometrial cancer that typically arises in postmenopausal women.
theca interna Internal coat of theca folliculi: the inner, vascular layer of secretory cells of the theca folliculi.
interdigitating reticulum cell An antigen-presenting cell in the paracortex of lymph nodes, interacting with T lymphocytes.
choriocarcinoma cell A cell of an epithelial malignancy of trophoblastic cells, formed by the abnormal proliferation of cuboidal and syncytial cells of the placental epithelium, without the production of chorionic villi. Almost all cases arise in the uterus, developing from hydatidiform mole, following abortion, or during normal pregnancy. The remainder occur in ectopic pregnancies and genital (ovarian and testicular) and extragenital teratomas.
companion cell A specialized parenchyma cell, located in the phloem of flowering plants and closely associated in development and function with a sieve-tube element.
mpct-g cell Murine renal proximal (MPCT-G) tubular epithelial cell line.
32d cell Mouse bone marrow cell line; established from long-term bone marrow cultures of C3H/HeJ mice infected with the Friend murine leukemia virus.
gingival epithelium A stratified squamous epithelium consisting of a basal layer; it is keratinized or parakeratinized.
tibialis posterior A deeply situated muscle that arises from the tibia and fibula, interosseous membrane, and intermuscular septa, that is inserted by a tendon passing under the medial malleolus into the navicular and first cuneiform bones, and that flexes the foot in the direction of the sole and tends to invert it.
wm-793 cell Primary human melanoma cell line; derived from a vertical growth phase primary melanoma in a patient who did not have a recurrence during 10-year clinical follow-up.
cnidoblast A cell in the epidermis of coelenterates in which a nematocyst is developed.
cerebellar granule cell Granule cells found within the granular layer of the cerebellum.
umbilical cord A cord arising from the navel that connects the fetus with the placenta.
intramuscular adipose tissue Adipose tissue which is located throughout skeletal muscle and is responsible for the marbling seen in certain cuts of beef. In humans, excess accumulation of intramuscular fat is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
villus Any of the small, slender, vascular projections that increase the surface area of a membrane. Important villous membranes include the placenta and the mucous-membrane coating of the small intestine. Each villus has a central core composed of one artery and one vein, a strand of muscle, a centrally located lymphatic capillary, and connective tissue that adds support to the structures. Covering the core of a villus is the surface mucous-membrane layer. This is mainly composed of two cell types: tall, narrow, columnar cells and goblet cells.
posterior hypothalamic nucleus A nucleus of nerve cells in the posterior hypothalamic region, above the lateral and medial nuclei of the mammillary body; it has major brain stem connections via periventricular fibers and the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus.
myeloid cell line
nhdf cell Normal human dermal fibroblast cell line.
jurkat cell Human T cell leukemia, established from the peripheral blood of a 14-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at first relapse in 1976; often this cell line is called JM (JURKAT and JM are derived from the same patient and are sister clones), occasionally JM may be a subclone with somewhat divergent features.
bone marrow cell line
raw-264.7 cell Mouse ascites macrophage cell line; established from a tumor induced by Abelson murine leukemia virus.
anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line Cells to a more primitive or undifferentiated form of thyroid cancer.
wound fluid
peritoneal fluid A liquid that is made in the abdominal cavity to lubricate the surface of the tissue that lines the abdominal wall and pelvic cavity and covers most of the organs in the abdomen.
aortic endothelial cell
rpaec cell Rat pulmonary artery endothelial cell line.
hypophysis A small oval endocrine organ that is attached to the infundibulum of the brain, consists of an epithelial anterior lobe joined by an intermediate part to a posterior lobe of nervous origin, and produces various internal secretions directly or indirectly impinging on most basic body functions.
nalm-6 cell Human B cell precursor leukemia cell line; established from the peripheral blood of a 19-year-old man with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in relapse in 1976.
primary culture Freshly isolated cultures from mammalian tissues are known as primary cultures until sub-cultured. At this stage, cells are usually heterogeneous but still closely represent the parent cell types as well as in the expression of tissue specific properties. After several sub-cultures onto fresh media, the cell line will either die out or transform to become a continuous cell line. Such cell lines show many alterations from the primary cultures including change in morphology, chromosomal variation and increase in capacity to give rise to tumors in hosts with week immune systems.
corn silk The styles and stigmas that appear as a silky tuft or tassel at the tip of an ear of corn, used as a diuretic in herbal medicine.
c-10 cell A line of murine alveolar type II lung epithelial cells.
macrophage foam cell Cells in an atheroma derived from macrophages which have engulfed low-density lipoproteins by endocytosis.
hatching liquid
bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell Cancer that forms in transitional cells in the lining of the bladder.
hpaec cell Human pulmonary artery endothelial cell line.
fungus form
oe-e6/e7 cell Immortalized human oviductal epithelial cell line.
primary cell line
seed coat The outer layer of a seed that is developed from the integuments of the ovule.
lung endothelium
nerve trunk The main stem of a nerve, consisting of a bundle of nerve fibers bound together by a tough sheet of connective tissue.
sessile cell A permanently attached or established cell: not free to move about.
osteoclastoma cell An osteolytic tumor cell affecting the metaphyses and epiphyses of long bones, composed of a stroma of spindle cells containing dispersed multinucleate giant cells, and usually being benign but sometimes malignant.
mel-ho cell Human melanoma; established from the primary tumor of a woman with melanoma in 1976; cells express mRNA of the oncogene c-myc.
rostral ventrolateral medulla
cl1-5 cell Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
hepatic cecum A ventral evagination extending anteriorly in the mid-portion of the intestine in Amphioxi probably homologous with the liver of other chordates.
snu-16 cell Gastric carcinoma cell line; derived in 1987 by J. Park and associates from ascites of a patient with poorly differentiated carcinoma of the stomach.
peptonephridium Organs opening into the buccal cavity of pharynx (supposedly modified nephridia) of invertebrates.
malignant peripheral nerve sheath cancer cell A malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor is a cancerous peripheral nerve sheath tumor.
stem cortex The outermost rows of cells in a cross section of the stem.
cyst A body resembling a cyst: as a 1: capsule formed about a minute organism going into a resting or spore stage; also: this capsule with its contents. 2: a resistant cover about a parasite produced by the parasite or the host.
m-07e cell A subline of the M-07 human megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line.
submerged culture A method for growing pure cultures of aerobic bacteria in which microorganisms are incubated in a liquid medium subjected to continuous, vigorous agitation.
sarcocarp The fleshy part of a stone fruit, situated between the skin, or epicarp, and the stone, or endocarp, as in a peach. The term has also been used to denote, any fruit which is fleshy throughout.
superior frontal gyrus It makes up about one-third of the frontal lobe of the human brain. It is bounded laterally by the superior frontal sulcus. The superior frontal gyrus, like the inferior frontal gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus, is more of a region than a true gyrus.
entorhinal area The inferior and posterior parts of the piriform area, including the caudal part of the parahippocampal gyrus.
lens nucleus The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.
wehi-7.2 cell Glucocorticoid sensitive murine T cell lymphoma cell line.
hepatic primordium
hb1.f3 cell Human neural stem cell line.
blood vessel endothelium
sebum Fatty lubricant matter secreted by sebaceous glands of the skin.
nci-h23 cell Human lung adenocarcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer cell line.
area postrema A small, elevated area in the lateral wall of the inferior recess of the fourth ventricle; one of the few loci in the brain where the blood-brain barrier is lacking; a chemoreceptor area associated with vomiting. A tongue-shaped structure in the caudal region of the fourth ventricle of the brain.
coronary artery endothelial cell
li90 cell Immortalized human hepatic stellate cell line.
perineurium The connective-tissue sheath that surrounds a bundle of nerve fibers.
sertoli cell line
cervical cell line
haca-4 cell Mouse skin squamous carcinoma cell line.
bl-70 cell Human Burkitt lymphoma cell line; established from the tumor tissue at relapse of a 16-year-old Caucasian boy with Burkitt lymphoma.
gingiva The tissue that surrounds the necks of teeth and covers the alveolar parts of the jaws; broadly: the alveolar portion of a jaw with its enveloping soft tissues.
umbilical cord cell line
chorion frondosum The part of the chorion where the villi persist, forming the foetal part of the placenta.
human brain microvascular endothelial cell
nucleus reuniens One of the median nuclei of the thalamus; it is situated near the interthalamic adhesion, bordering the third ventricle, ventral to the central medial nucleus.
hos cell Homo sapiens bone osteosarcoma cell line; established from a 13-years-old caucasian female.
ovotestis A hermaphrodite gonad (as in some scale insects).
psammomatous meningioma cell A firm fibrous neoplasm of meninges of the brain and spinal cord characterized by psammona bodies.
deep inguinal lymph node One of several small inconstant lymph nodes, proximal, intermediate and distal deep to the fascia lata and medial to the femoral vein; they receive lymph from the deep structures of the lower limb, from the glans penis and from superficial inguinal nodes; efferents pass to the external iliac nodes.
hep-g2/c3a cell Cultured hepatoma cells derived from Hep-G2.
hep-3 cell Human epidermoid-carcinoma cell line that expresses urokinase-type plasminogen activator u-PA and u-PAR.
ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell Mouse cancer cell.
gt1 cell GT1 cells belong to an immortalized line of mouse hypothalamic GnRH secreting neurons that exhibit a pulsatile secretion of GnRH.
hairy root A phase of crown gall (especially in apples) during which there is abnormal development of fine fibrous roots.
right atrium The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body through the vena cava and pumps it into the right ventricle which then sends it to the lungs.
giant cell tumor cell line Human fibrous histiocytoma cell line, established from a 29 years old male.
embryoid body Embryoid bodies are structures resembling embryos, occurring in several types of germ cell tumors.
middle frontal gyrus It makes up about one-third of the frontal lobe of the human brain. A gyrus is one of the prominent bumps or ridges on the surface of the human brain. The middle frontal gyrus, like the inferior frontal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus, is more of a region than a true gyrus. The borders of the middle frontal gyrus are the inferior frontal sulcus below; the superior frontal sulcus above; and the precentral sulcus behind.
hpb-all cell Human T cell leukemia cell line; established from the peripheral blood of a 14-year-old Japanese boy with ALL and thymoma at diagnosis in 1973.
clitoris A small erectile organ at the anterior or ventral part of the vulva homologous to the penis.
ov-90 cell Human ovary malignant papillary serous adenocarcinoma cell line; derived from metastatic site: ascites.
sebaceous gland cell line
hypopharyngeal carcinoma cell line
pons A broad mass of chiefly transverse nerve fibers conspicuous on the ventral surface of the brain of man and lower mammals at the anterior end of the medulla oblongata.
prostate gland A firm partly muscular partly glandular body that is situated about the base of the mammalian male urethra and secretes an alkaline viscid fluid which is a major constituent of the ejaculatory fluid.
sporozoite A usually motile infective form of some sporozoans that is a product of sporogony and initiates an asexual cycle in the new host.
memory t-lymphocyte A T-cell that bears receptors for a specific foreign antigen encountered during a prior infection or vaccination. After an infection or a vaccination, some of the T-cells that participated in the response remain as memory T-cells, which can rapidly mobilize and clone themselves should the same antigen be re-encountered during a second infection at a later time.
laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell
oliva A part of each pyramid of the medulla oblongata, between the ventrolateral and dorsolateral sulci; it is formed by an irregular mass of gray substance (nucleus olivaris caudalis) located just beneath its surface and is linked by fiber systems to the pons and cerebellum.
dorsal nerve cord The dorsal tubular cord of nervous tissue above the notochord of a chordate that comprises or develops into the central nervous system.
myoepithelium A specialized type of epithelium that has contractile qualities.
amniocyte A cell of fetal origin obtained in an amniotic fluid specimen.
pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell
submandibular lymph node The three to six nodes alongside the submandibular gland, through which lymph drains from the adjacent skin and mucous membrane.
pleopod One of the paired abdominal appendages of certain aquatic crustaceans, such as shrimp, lobsters, and isopods, that function primarily for carrying the eggs in females and are usually adapted for swimming.
bile ductule One of the fine terminal elements of the bile duct system, leaving the portal canal, and pursuing a course at the periphery of a lobule of the liver. Rarely called bile capillary.
nsc-34 cell NSC-34 is a hybrid cell line, produced by fusion of motor neuron enriched, embryonic mouse spinal cord cells with mouse neuroblastoma.
interrenal gland Structures in fishes homologous to the cortical tissue of the mammalian adrenal gland; they are in close proximity to or imbedded in the kidney.
alpha-tc1.9 cell Glucagon-releasing mouse cell line.
heart 1: A hollow muscular organ of vertebrate animals that by its rhythmic contraction acts as a force pump maintaining the circulation of the blood. 2: A structure in an invertebrate animal functionally analogous to the vertebrate heart.
i-cell An abnormal fibroblast containing a large number of dark inclusions that fill the central part of the cytoplasm except for the juxtanuclear zone; seen in mucolipidosis II.
plant cuticle A thin continuous fatty or waxy film on the external surface of many higher plants that consists chiefly of cutin.
midgut secretion
muscle stem cell
larval brain
geo cell Human colon cancer cell line.
cardia The opening of the esophagus into the stomach; also: the part of the stomach adjoining this opening.
nrk-52e cell Rat kidney epithelial-like cells. Cell line was cloned from a mixed culture of normal rat kidney cells as was NRK-49F the two cell lines were described to be distinct in growth properties and in transforming abilities; NRK-52E is supposed to be much more stable.
sympathetic chain Either of the pair of ganglionated longitudinal cords of the sympathetic nervous system of which one is situated on each side of the spinal column.
tibialis anterior A muscle arising chiefly from the lateral condyle and part of the shaft of the tibia, inserting by a long tendon into the first cuneiform and first metatarsal bones, and acting to flex the foot dorsally and to invert it.
hybridoma cell A cell hybrid in which a tumour cell forms one of the original source cells. In practice, confined to hybrids between T- or B-lymphocytes and appropriate myeloma cell lines.
serum 1: The watery portion of an animal fluid remaining after coagulation: a (1): blood serum (2): antiserum b: whey c: a normal or pathological serous fluid (as in a blister). 2: The watery part of a plant fluid.
periglomerular cell The glomerular layer is the most superficial layer, consisting of mitral cell dendritic arborizations (glomeruli), olfactory nerve fibers, and periglomerular cells. Periglomerular cells contact multiple mitral cell dendrites within the glomeruli and provide lateral inhibition of neighboring glomeruli while allowing excitation of a specific mitral cell dendritic tree.
swim bladder The air bladder of a fish.
b-16 cell Mouse melanoma tumor cell.
tendon sheath A synovial sheath covering a tendon (as in the hand or foot).
sw-1353 cell Human bone chondrosarcoma cell line. The SW 1353 cell line was initiated by A. Leibovitz at the Scott and White Clinic, Temple, Texas in 1977 from a primary grade II chondrosarcoma of the right humerus obtained from a 72 year old female Caucasian.
colonic epithelial cell
ectoderm The outer of the three germ layers of the embryo (the other two being mesoderm and endoderm). Ectoderm gives rise to epidermis and neural tissue.
teratocarcinoma cell A malignant tumor cell of the testis composed of teratoma and embryonal carcinoma.
tracheobronchial epithelial cell Normal tracheo-bronchial epithelial cell.
sertoli cell Any of the elongated, striated cells of the seminiferous tubules of the testis, to which spermatids attach for nourishment during spermatogenesis.
cag cell CAG cell line; established from a bone marrow aspirate of a patient with myeloma.
corpus cavernosum penis One of the columns of erectile tissue forming the dorsum and sides of the penis.
endocarp The inner layer of the pericarp of a fruit (as an apple or orange) when it consists of two or more layers of different texture or consistency.
zr-75-1 cell Human Caucasian breast carcinoma cell line; derived from a malignant ascitic effusion in a 63 year old female Caucasian with infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
peritoneal macrophage Macrophage found in peritoneum and that can be obtained by lavage.
endocuticle The inner layer of the procuticle in certain crustaceans and arthropods, which is almost entirely composed of protein and chitin.
myeloma cell line
chorioallantois A vascular fetal membrane composed of the fused chorion and adjacent wall of the allantois that in the hen's egg is used as a living culture medium for viruses and for tissues.
vmrc-rcw cell Human renal carcinoma cell line.
amnion epithelial cell line
hodgkin lymphoma cell A disease of the lymph nodes named after the English physician Thomas Hodgkin.
capan-2 cell Human pancreas adenocarcinoma cell line; established from the tumor of a 56-year-old Caucasian man with pancreas adenocarcinoma in 1975.
neuroendocrine cell Neuroendocrine cells are cells that receive neuronal input (neurotransmitters released by nerve cells) and, as a consequence of this input, release message molecules (hormones) to the blood. An example of a neuroendocrine cell is the cell of the adrenal medulla which releases adrenalin to the blood. The major center of neuroendocrine integration in the body is found in the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. Here hypothalamic neurosecretory cells release factors to the blood.
cardiac muscle cell line
osteogenic cell One of the cell's in the inner layer of the periosteum that forms osseous tissue.
hmc cell Human mesangial cell line.
cervical spine That portion of the spine comprising the cervical vertebrae. The neck area of the spine.
dorsal raphe nucleus A large raphe nucleus extending from the anterior part of the pons through the mesencephalon; its neurons are serotoninergic.
umbilical cord blood cell The blood from the umbilical cord of a newborn baby contains high concentrations of stem cells (cells from which all blood cells develop).
stolon tip
zygotene cell A cell in the stage of meiotic prophase which immediately follows the leptotene and during which synapsis of homologous chromosomes occurs.
shac cell Human fibrosarcoma cell line.
wing bud A swelling on the trunk of an avian embryo that gives rise to a wing.
cfpac-1 cell This line was derived from a pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (liver metastasis) from a patient with cystic fibrosis.
posterior cardinal vein Any of the major drainage channels from the caudal part of an embryo.
oligodendrocytic cell line
nucleus isthmo-opticus
urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma cell line
ulcer tissue A lesion of the skin or of a mucous membrane, such as the one lining the stomach or duodenum, that is accompanied by formation of pus and necrosis of surrounding tissue, usually resulting from inflammation or ischemia.
neck The part of an animal that connects the head with the body.
inr1g9 cell InR1G9 cells are glucagon-producing islet cells, derived from a hamster glucagonoma.
pro-5 cell Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) ovary cell line from a female. This line is a derivative of the original CHO cell line and is the parental line for several glycosylation mutants.
allantoic fluid The fluid contained in the allantois.
psoas major A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint. Psoas is derived from the Greek psoa, the plural meaning muscles of the loin.
aleurone layer A group of cells rich in protein granules and located as the outer layer of the endosperm of many grain seeds.
fourth ventricle The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. The fourth ventricle extends from the cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of Sylvius) to the obex, and is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The fourth ventricle has a characteristic diamond shape in cross-sections of the human brain. It is located within the pons or in the upper part of the medulla.
crown gall A disease that affects many species of plants and is caused by a bacterium (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) which forms tumorous enlargements just below the ground on the stem.
nhm cell Normal human melanocyte cell line.
uterine gland Simple or branched, tubular gland extending into the lamina propria-submucosa, secreting mucus, lipids, glycogen, protein.
peripheral blood mononuclear cell A mixture of monocytes and lymphocytes; blood leucocytes from which granulocytes have been separated and removed.
gluteal muscle Any one of three large skeletal muscles that form the buttock and move the thigh.
nb-39 cell Human neuroblastoma cell line.
astrocytoma cell A tumor cell composed of astrocytes; it is the most common type of primary brain tumor and is also found throughout the central nervous system. One classification groups astrocytomas according to their histologic appearance and distinguishes pilocytic, protoplasmic, gemistocytic, and fibrillary types. Another classification groups them in order of increasing malignancy as Grade I, Grade II, Grade III, and Grade IV types.
5637 cell Human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line; established from the primary bladder carcinoma of a 68-year-old man in 1974.
vascular smooth muscle cell line
inner ear The essential organ of hearing and equilibrium that is located in the temporal bone, is innervated by the auditory nerve, and includes the vestibule, the semicircular canals, and the cochlea.
rootlet A small root.
tongue muscle
hair follicle inner root sheath The cells of the inner root sheath are interlocked with those of the cuticle of the hair, firmly anchoring the hair in the follicle. The inner root sheath must grow at the same rate as the hair, or faster as it molds and guides the shaft in its passage outward.
a2780-dx3 cell Doxorubicin-resistant ovarian-cancer cell line.
mammary gland tumor cell line
brain 1: The portion of the vertebrate central nervous system that constitutes the organ of thought and neural coordination, includes all the higher nervous centers receiving stimuli from the sense organs and interpreting and correlating them to formulate the motor impulses, is made up of neurons and supporting and nutritive structures, is enclosed within the skull, and is continuous with the spinal cord through the foramen magnum. Also named encephalon. 2: A nervous center in invertebrates comparable in position and function to the vertebrate brain.
thymic cortex Histologically, the thymus can be divided into a central medulla and a peripheral cortex which is surrounded by an outer capsule. The cortex and medulla play different roles in the development of T cells. Cells in the thymus can be divided into thymic stromal cells and cells of hematopoietic origin.
kidney cell line
carapace A bony or chitinous case or shield covering the back or part of the back of an animal (as a turtle or crab).
lim1863 cell Colon carcinoma cell line.
hpec cell Vascular endothelial cell line from human placenta.
urinary tract The organs of the body that produce and discharge urine. These include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
nymph Any of various immature insects; especially: a larva of an insect (as a grasshopper, true bug, or mayfly) with incomplete metamorphosis that differs from the imago especially in size and in its incompletely developed wings and genitalia.
corpus cavernosum clitoridis A column of erectile tissue on either side (right and left), the two fusing to form the body of the clitoris.
molt cell A model cell line for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
lacrimal gland acinar cell
capillary pericyte A cell with several slender processes that embraces the capillary wall in amphibia.
th1 cell Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
ovary cancer cell line
follicular fluid Follicular fluid is a liquid which fills the follicular antrum and surrounds the ovum in an ovarian follicle. This fluid is rich in hyaluronic acid.
respiratory mucus
mn-9d cell The MN9D murine dopaminergic cell line was generated by fusion of rostral mesencephalic neurons from embryonic C57BL/6J (embryonic day 14) mice with N18TG2 neuroblastoma cells.
nci-h125 cell Human lung adenocarcinoma non-small cell lung cancer cell line.
wm-793b cell The WM793B line was established from skin taken from the primary melanoma of a vertical growth phase lesion taken from the sternum of a patient.
gizzard 1: The muscular enlargement of the alimentary canal of birds that has usually thick muscular walls and a tough horny lining for grinding the food and when the crop is present follows it and the proventriculus. 2: A thickened part of the alimentary canal in some animals (as an insect or an earthworm) that is similar in function to the crop of a bird.
periventricular nucleus of hypothalamus A small nucleus at the base of the hypothalamus, adjacent to the arcuate nucleus.
basis pedunculi cerebri The large bundle of nerve fiber tracts forming the anterior part of the cerebral peduncles, which consists of corticospinal, corticonuclear, corticopontine, parietotemporopontine, and frontopontine fibers descending from the cerebral cortex and terminating in the pons and spinal cord.
pharynx The part of the vertebrate alimentary canal between the cavity of the mouth and the esophagus. The pharynx of Nematodes is an efficient pump and forces food into the intestines.
endopeduncular nucleus A small nucleus in the internal capsule of the hypothalamus adjacent to the medial edge of the globus pallidus.
epithelial stem cell Epithelial stem cells in the lining of the digestive tract occur in deep crypts and give rise to several cell types: absorptive cells, goblet cells, paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells.
m-1 collecting duct cell Mouse collecting duct cell line; established from normal renal tissue taken from a mouse transgenic for the SV40 early region. The cells retain many characteristics of cortical collecting duct cells including morphology and CCD antigens.
gastrinoma cell A tumor cell that secretes gastrin; most are islet cell tumors of non-beta cells in the pancreas, but some are found at sites such as the antrum of the stomach, the hilus of the spleen, or regional lymph nodes. This is the usual cause of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
glomerular layer The glomerular layer is the most superficial layer, consisting of mitral cell dendritic arborizations (glomeruli), olfactory nerve fibers, and periglomerular cells. Periglomerular cells contact multiple mitral cell dendrites within the glomeruli and provide lateral inhibition of neighboring glomeruli while allowing excitation of a specific mitral cell dendritic tree. Each mitral cell is contacted by at least 1000 olfactory nerve fibers.
beta-tc6 cell Mouse insulinoma cell line.
mastocytoma cell A nodule of mast cells. Mastocytomas can involve the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and sometimes muscle.
ring stage The early trophozoite in the erythrocytic stage of the life cycle of hemosporian protozoa, which after Romanovsky staining has blue cytoplasm surrounding a clear zone with a red nucleus at one side, giving the cell the appearance of a signet ring.
megakaryocyte cell line
temporomandibular articular disk The fibrocartilaginous plate that separates the joint into upper and lower cavities.
ch-1 cell Human ovarian carcinoma cell line.
balb/3t3-t cell 3T3 T proadipocyte cell line; derived from the clone A31 BALB/3T3 cell line.
hfob cell Immortalized human fetal osteoblastic cell line.
rba cell Rattus norvegicus (rat) mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell line.
coronary artery endothelial cell line
npa cell Papillary thyroid tumor cell line.
blood serum The cell-free portion of the blood from which the fibrinogen has been separated in the process of clotting.
solid substrate culture Cell culture on a solid material.
lx-2 cell Immortalized human hepatic stellate cell line.
corolla Collective term for the petals of a flower.
thymus A glandular structure of largely lymphoid tissue that functions especially in the development of the body's immune system, is present in the young of most vertebrates typically in the upper anterior chest or at the base of the neck, and tends to atrophy in the adult.
du-145 cell Human prostate carcinoma, established from the tumor tissue removed from the metastatic central nervous system lesion of a 69-year-old man with prostate carcinoma in 1975.
sepal One of the modified leaves comprising a calyx.
erythrocytic stage Merozoites from the liver infect red blood cells and replicate asexually through schizogony. This is the erythrocytic stage.
cement gland Typical barnacles, common name of the sedentary crustacean marine animals constituting the subclass Cirripedia, attach to the substrate by means of an exceedingly adhesive cement, produced by a cement gland, and secrete a shell, or carapace, of calcareous (limestone) plates, around themselves.
lateral geniculate nucleus The lateral geniculate nucleus is the primary processing center for visual information received from the retina of the eye. The LGN is found inside the thalamus of the brain, and is thus part of the central nervous system.
ecv-304 cell Human urinary bladder carcinoma (derivative of T-24); described as being spontaneously immortalized from the umbilical cord vein of a new-born Japanese boy in 1984; cells were described to have a high proliferative potential in the absence of any growth factors; however, DNA fingerprinting at DSMZ showed clearly that this cell line is in reality a derivative of human urinary bladder carcinoma cell line T-24.
serosal mast cell
secondary root The main root of a plant is called the primary root; others are called secondary roots.
twitch muscle Striated muscle innervated by a single motoneuron and having an electrically excitable membrane that exhibits an all or none response; in mammals almost all skeletal muscles are twitch muscles.
caput epididymis The head of the epididymis.
medial geniculate body The medial group of a pair of prominent cell groups in the posteroinferior aspects of the thalamus, serving as the last of a series of processing stations along the auditory conduction pathway to the cerebral cortex.
eyelid Either of the movable folds of skin and muscle that can be closed over the eyeball.
cholinergic neuron Nerves which synthesize the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in their terminals; they include alpha-motor neurons of the spinal cord, cranial nerves innervating skeletal muscle, preganglionic sympathetic and postganglionic parasympathetic neurons.
mesopallium
mkn-28 cell Well differentiated human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line.
pheromone gland
mhcc97-l cell Clone of MHCC97 with low metastatic potential.
basal cell carcinoma cell Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer and accounts for more than 90 percent of all skin cancer in the U.S. These cancers almost never spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. They can, however, cause damage by growing and invading surrounding tissue.
rnk-16 cell Rat natural killer cell line.
extraglomerular mesangial cell One of the three cellular components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus.
kk-47 cell Human bladder tumor (transitional cell carcinoma) cell line.
uterine adenocarcinoma cell The most common form of endometrial carcinoma, containing tumor cells differentiated into glandular tissue with little or no stroma.
cal-72 cell Human osteosarcoma cell line, established from a chemotherapy-resistant tumor sample obtained from the left knee of a 10-year-old boy with anaplastic osteoblastic sarcoma (Rosen grade IIB) in 1989.
neuroblastoma cell line
cornu ammonis One of the two interlocking gyri composing the hippocampus, the other being the dentate gyrus.
subcutaneous tissue The layer of loose connective tissue directly under the skin.
digitum minimus pedis The fifth, and smallest, digit of the foot.
amnion A thin, tough, membranous sac that encloses the embryo or fetus of a mammal, bird, or reptile. It is filled with a serous fluid in which the embryo is suspended.
lymphoid cell Any of the cells responsible for the production of immunity mediated by cells or antibodies and including lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells. Cells derived from stem cells of the lymphoid lineage: large and small lymphocytes, plasma cells.
p-19 cell Mouse embryonal carcinoma cell line, established from the teratocarcinoma induced in a C3H/He strain mouse.
eue cell Human embryonic epithelial cell line.
leiomyoma cell A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle, most commonly of the uterus.
prostate gland intraepithelial neoplasia cell line Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) is a microscopic lesion in the prostate which is thought to be a precursor to prostate cancer.
kbm-5 cell Leukemic cell line derived from a patient in the blastic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia.
deciduoma cell 1: A cell of a mass of tissue formed in the uterus following pregnancy that contains remnants of chorionic or decidual tissue. 2: A cell of decidual tissue induced in the uterus (as by trauma) in the absence of pregnancy.
neuroepithelioma cell line
auditory cortex The region of the cerebral cortex that receives auditory data from the medial geniculate body.
lymphoid follicle A small collection of lymphoid tissue found in such organs as the intestines.
temporal lobe One of the two parietal lobes of the brain located behind the frontal lobe at the top of the brain. Parietal Lobe, Right - Damage to this area can cause visuo-spatial deficits (for example, the patient may have difficulty finding their way around new, or even familiar, places). Parietal Lobe, Left - Damage to this area may disrupt a patient's ability to understand spoken and/or written language. The parietal lobes contain the primary sensory cortex which controls sensation (touch, pressure). Behind the primary sensory cortex is a large association area that controls fine sensation (judgment of texture, weight, size, shape).
alevin A young fish; especially: a newly hatched salmon when still attached to the yolk sac.
b16-bl6 cell Mouse melanoma cell line.
embryonic hippocampal cell line
nci-h510 cell Small cell lung cancer cell line.
alva-31 cell Human primary prostate tumor cell line.
l-6 myoblast cell Rattus norvegicus skeletal muscle myoblast cell line. The L6 myogenic line was isolated from primary cultures of rat thigh muscle maintained for the first two passages in the presence of methyl cholanthrene.
aortic valve One of the four valves in the heart, this valve is situated at exit of the left ventricle of the heart where the aorta begins. The aortic valve lets blood from the left ventricle be pumped up into the aorta but prevents blood once it is in the aorta from returning to the heart.
photophore A light-emitting organ; especially: one of the luminous spots on various marine mostly deep-sea fishes.
epididymal clear cell Cell with empty-appearing cytoplasm; seen normally in the sweat glands, the parathyroid glands, the collecting tubules of the kidneys, and the epididymis; they also appear in some types of cancer.
thymic carcinoma cell Thymic carcinoma is a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the tissues of the thymus. Thymic carcinoma is difficult to treat and generally spreads to other parts of the body. People with thymoma often have other diseases of the immune system, most commonly myasthenia gravis, a disease in which the muscles become weak.
cochlear ganglion The sensory ganglion located within the spiral canal of the modiolus. It consists of bipolar cells that send fibers peripherally through the foramina nervosa to the spiral organ and centrally through the internal acoustic meatus to the cochlear nuclei of the brain stem.
sciatic nerve The largest nerve of the body: origin, sacral plexus-L4-S3; it leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen; branches, divides into the tibial and common peroneal nerves, usually in lower third of thigh; distribution-see individual branches, in this table; modality, general sensory and motor.
thymocyte Lymphocyte within the thymus; term usually applied to an immature lymphocyte.
cardiac stomach In starfishes the cardiac stomach is connected to a pyloric stomach which is located above it. Food can be brought into the stomach through the mouth or, in many species, the cardiac stomach can be extended out through the mouth to digest food outside the body. Suspension-feeding starfish use their tube feet to pass food to the mouth.
dx-3 cell Human melanoma cell line.
piriform area An area in the rhinencephalon, pear-shaped in some species but not in humans; it includes the lateral olfactory process or gyrus, the limen insulae, the uncus, and part of the parahippocampal gyrus; subdivided into the prepiriform area, the periamygdaloid area, and the entorhinal area.
osteosarcoma cell line Cell line of a malignant neoplasm of the bone-forming tissues.
fungus Any of a major group (Fungi) of saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing organisms including molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts.
leukemic stem cell A normal stem or progenitor cell undergoes a mutation, giving rise to an entity that is functionally defined as a leukemic stem cell. The mutated stem cells differentiate into the hematopoietic lineage carrying the defect/s or can remain as immature progenitor cells, the blast cells.
root nodule Gall-like structures on the roots of legumes that contain symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
laterodorsal tegmental nucleus A nucleus situated in the brainstem, spanning the midbrain tegmentum and the pontine tegmentum.
olfactory receptor neuron Neurons in the olfactory epithelium with proteins that bind, and thus detect, odorants. Olfactory receptor neurons are bipolar. Unlike other neurons, they can be generated from precursor cells in adults.
skin fibroblast
sporocarp A structure (as in red algae, fungi, or mosses) in or on which spores are produced.
ba/f3 cell Mouse pro B cell line. IL-3 dependent murine pro B cell line established from peripheral blood; apparently derived from BALB/c mouse.
a-704 cell Human kidney adenocarcinoma cell line, established from a 78 years old male.
mda-mb-361 cell Human mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell line; established from a 40-year-old caucasian female.
tc-32 cell Human Ewing's sarcoma cell line.
esophageal cancer cell Tumor cell or cancer cell of the esophagus.
bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell line
trypanosomoid form Any of a genus (Trypanosoma) of parasitic flagellate protozoans that infest the blood of various vertebrates including humans, are usually transmitted by the bite of an insect, and include some that cause serious disease (as sleeping sickness).
cervical epithelium
interneuron A neuron that conveys impulses from one neuron to another.
gastroduodenal mucosa
lm3 cell Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.
j-774 cell Mouse macrophage cell line.
scn2a cell Scrapie-infected mouse neuroblastoma N2a cell line.
subdural space A narrow fluid-containing space, often only a potential space, between the dura mater and the arachnoid.
tzm-bl cell TZM-bl cells are HeLa-cell derivatives that express high levels of CD4 and both co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5, and are stably transduced carrying a LTR-driven firefly luciferase as well as a LTR-driven beta-galactosidase cassette.
erythrocyte Any of the hemoglobin-containing cells that carry oxygen to the tissues and are responsible for the red color of vertebrate blood.
non-hodgkin lymphoma cell A heterogeneous group of malignant lymphomas, the only common feature being an absence of the giant Reed-Sternberg cells characteristic of Hodgkin's disease. They arise from the lymphoid components of the immune system, and present a clinical picture broadly similar to that of Hodgkin's disease except the disease is initially more widespread, with the most common manifestation being painless enlargement of one or more peripheral lymph nodes.
umr-108 cell The UMR-108 cell line is a clonal derivative of a transplantable rat osteosarcoma that had been induced by injection of radiophosphorous (32P).
pharyngeal cancer cell line
rectal sac The enlarged anterior part of the rectum, sometimes produced into a large rectal caecum.
superior mesenteric artery Origin: abdominal aorta; branches, inferior pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, ileal, ileocolic, right colic, and middle colic arteries; distribution: small intestine, proximal half of colon.
vascular system The vessels of the body, especially the blood vessels.
iliac artery endothelium
eoma cell Mus musculus hemangioendothelioma cell line. The EOMA cell line was originally derived in 1980 from a mixed hemangioendothelioma arising in an adult mouse.
spermatogonium An undifferentiated germ cell of a male, originating in a seminiferous tubule and dividing into two primary spermatocytes.
ma-104 cell Widely used continuous monkey kidney cell line.
pancreatic delta cell A type of cell in the pancreatic islets that secretes somatostatin.
optic ganglion
psoas Either of two muscles of the loin that rotate the hip joint and flex the spine.
ramos-aw cell Human Caucasian Burkitt's lymphoma. Derived by in vitro infection of Ramos cells with EBV. The line is EBV positive.
nucleus solitarius Gray matter located in the dorsomedial part of the medulla oblongata associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of autonomic nervous system regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of homeostasis. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of neurotransmitters which are found therein.
stomodeum The embryonic anterior ectodermal part of the alimentary canal or tract.
253j-p cell Human transitional cell carcinoma cell line, poorly tumorigenic and nonmetastatic.
tergal gland A gland on the dorsal part or plate of a segment of an arthropod. Tergal glands play a key role in German cockroach precopulatory behavior.
cho cell Chinese hamster ovary cell line, that was initiated from an ovary biopsy of an adult Chinese hamster in 1957.
vascular cancer cell
acute myeloid leukemia cell line
hce cell Human corneal epithelial cell line.
gt1-7 cell Immortalized female rat hypothalamus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons.
fb-1 cell A human anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line, derived from a 68-year-old woman who underwent surgery for anaplastic thyroid cancer.
exoskeleton Exoskeleton or shell, including those of mollusks, turtles, insects and crustaceans.
periurethral tissue Tissue around the urethra.
plant reproductive system Any of the systems, sexual or asexual, by which plants reproduce.
connecting tubule With respect to the renal corpuscle, the connecting tubule is the most proximal part of the collecting duct system. It is adjacent to the distal convoluted tubule, the most distal segment of the renal tubule. Connecting tubules from several adjacent nephrons merge to form cortical collecting tubules, and these may join to form cortical collecting ducts. Connecting tubules of some juxtamedullary nephrons may arch upward, forming an arcade. The connecting tubule derives from the metanephric blastema, but the rest of the system derives from the ureteric bud. Because of this, some sources group the connecting tubule as part of the nephron, rather than grouping it with the collecting duct system.
vertebral ganglion Any of a group of sympathetic ganglia which form two chains extending from the base of the skull to the coccyx along the sides of the spinal column.
um-scc-5 cell Human supraglottic larynx squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
disc The central part of the flower head of a typical composite made up of closely packed tubular flowers.
eosinophilic myelocyte Myelocytes are further distinguished according to the type of granules that develop, i.e., neutrophilic myelocyte (60%), eosinophilic myelocyte, basophilic myelocyte (3%).
primary cell A cell taken directly from a living organism, which is not immortalized.
renal artery A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
renal papilla The apex of a renal pyramid which projects into the lumen of a calyx of the kidney and through which collecting tubules discharge urine.
ingluvial ganglion (Arthropoda: Insecta) Paired ganglion of the stomodeal nervous system at the posterior end of the foregut. The ingluvial ganglion, a major component of the stomatogastric nervous system, is known to innervate the foregut and anterior midgut.
plasmacytoid t-lymphocyte These cells constitute a population of medium-sized mononuclear cells with plasmacytoid features in the T-cell zones of human lymphoid tissues, and in the thymus and lymph nodes of patients with various inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. They have been shown to express several antigens expressed on myelomonocytes, monocytes, and macrophages but lack markers for B-cells and plasma cells.
blastodisc The embryo-forming portion of an egg with discoidal cleavage usually appearing as a small disc on the upper surface of the yolk mass.
cochlear labyrinth The part of the membranous labyrinth that includes the perilymphatic space and the cochlear duct.
renal cell carcinoma cell Carcinoma cell of the renal parenchyma usually occurring in middle age or later and composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements; symptoms depend on extent of invasion.
corticotropic cell A small, irregularly stellate, acidophilic cell of the adenohypophysis, having small, sparsely distributed secretory granules and secreting corticotropin and beta-endorphin, which are cleaved from a large prohormone called pro-opiomelanocortin.
lymph vessel A vessel that contains or conveys lymph, that originates as an interfibrillar or intercellular cleft or space in a tissue or organ, and that if small has no distinct walls or walls composed only of endothelial cells and if large resembles a vein in structure.
thymic medullary epithelial cell Thymic stromal cells include thymic cortical epithelial cells, thymic medullary epithelial cells, and dendritic cells.
pre-t-lymphocyte
efo-27 cell Human ovary adenocarcinoma cell line; established from the solid omental metastasis of a mucinous papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary of a 36-year-old woman in 1979.
anal sac In carnivores, either of two sacs found between the internal and external anal sphincters, lined with sebaceous glands and in some species with apocrine glands.
osrga cell Rat osteosarcoma cell line.
molt-16 cell Human T cell leukemia cell line; established from the peripheral blood of a 5-year-old girl with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) at relapse in 1984.
prostate adenocarcinoma cell
trichome A filamentous outgrowth; especially: an epidermal hair structure on a plant.
monocytic leukemia cell line
nauplius A crustacean larva in usually the first stage after leaving the egg and with three pairs of appendages, a median eye, and little or no segmentation.
gill arch The endochondral skeletal support of the gill which bears the gill filaments and the gill rakers. Consists of pharyngobranchials, epibranchials, ceratobranchials and hypobranchials. Usually 4 in teleosts, can be as many as 16 in some Cyclostomata.
caco-2/bbe cell The C2BBe1 (brush border expressing) cell line was cloned in 1988 from the Caco-2 cell line by limiting dilution.
telson The terminal segment of the body of an arthropod or segmented worm; especially: that of a crustacean forming the middle lobe of the tail.
posterior cingulate cortex Brain region involved with memory storage and retrieval.
intraparietal sulcus A horizontal sulcus extending back from the postcentral sulcus over some distance, then dividing perpendicularly into two branches so as to form, with the postcentral sulcus, a figure H. It divides the parietal lobe into superior and inferior parietal lobules.
saos-2 cell Human osteogenic sarcoma, established from the primary osteogenic sarcoma of an 11-year-old Caucasian woman in 1973.
merozoite A protozoan cell that arises from the schizogony of a parent sporozoan and may enter either the asexual or sexual phase of the life cycle.
te-1 cell Human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
hs-578bst cell Human breast epithelial cell line from normal breast tissue of an 74 years-old caucasian female peripheral to an infiltrating ductal carcinoma which was the source for Hs 578T cell line.
myoepithelial cell Modified smooth muscle cells, contractile in nature, believed to be of ectodermal origin, located around the secretory units of certain glands (salivary, mammary, sweat, and lacrimal glands) between the gland cells and basement membrane, having long dendritic interweaving cytoplasmic processes, and containing myofilaments. It is assumed that contraction of these cells functions to help express secretion from the gland.
cingulate cortex A part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex. It is extended from the corpus callosum below to the cingulate sulcus above, at least anteriorly.
gastric cancer cell Gastric cancer is a cancer of the stomach.
chloronema The primary photosynthetic part of the moss protonema, typically green, having numerous chloroplasts and consisting of short cells with perpendicular end walls.
theca folliculi An envelope of condensed connective tissue surrounding a vesicular ovarian follicle, comprising an internal vascular layer (tunica interna) and an external fibrous layer (tunica externa).
hog cell Human oligodendroglioma cell line.
cord blood stem cell Blood from the placenta and umbilical cord that are left over after birth is one source of adult stem cells.
uterine epithelium
tongue cancer cell line
bronchial smooth muscle Smooth muscle that is present continuously around the bronchi.
mbn-2 cell Drosophila melanogaster haemocyte cell line.
stigma The usually apical part of the pistil of a flower which receives the pollen grains and on which they germinate.
ovca-429 cell Human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line.
arcopallium The arcopallium refers to regions of the avian brain which partially overlap regions homologous to the amygdala of mammals. These regions have formerly been referred to as archistriatum, and before this epistriatum or amygdaloid complex, and a recent change of nomenclature has divided the region into the arcopallium and posterior pallial amygdala.
duodenal adenocarcinoma cell Malignant neoplasms of the duodenum account for only 0.3-0.4% of tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. 25-45% of malignant neoplasms within the small bowel occur within the duodenum. Duodenal adenocarcinomas are usually located in the periampullary and intraampullary regions; they very rarely involve the duodenal bulb. There is an association of duodenal adenocarcinoma with Gardner's syndrome, Peutz-Jegher's syndrome, celiac disease, and Crohn's disease.
albedo The spongy white tissue on the inside of the rind of citrus fruit.
central amygdaloid nucleus A nucleus in the corticomedial part of the amygdaloid body, providing the major relay for projections from the amygdala to the brainstem and also receiving numerous return projections.
myeloid progenitor cell One of the two stem cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells, the other being the lymphoid progenitor cell. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the erythroid progenitor cells and the myeloid cells.
adenocarcinoma cell A cell of a cancer that begins in cells that line certain internal organs and that have glandular (secretory) properties.
op-9 cell Mouse fibroblast bone marrow stromal cell line, established from newborn op/op mouse calvaria.
plasma cell A terminally differentiated cell of the B lymphocyte lineage that produces antibodies; plasma cells are oval or round with extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum, a well-developed Golgi apparatus, and a round nucleus having a characteristic cartwheel heterochromatin pattern.
pars recta Proximal straight tubule: part of the descending limb of the renal tubule, extending from the proximal convoluted tubule to the thin tubule.
gill raker One of a series of variously shaped bony or cartilaginous projections on the inner side of the branchial arch. The rakers have epithelial denticles and both their gross and fine structure serves to retain food particles in the mouth. The gill raker count normally includes all rakers, even the rudiments, and is made on the front half of the first arch. Upper and lower gill raker counts may be presented as the upper and the lower (including the central raker), e.g. 9 + 17; or as upper rakers, central raker, and lower rakers, e.g. 9 + 1 + 16. The most anterior and posterior rakers are often small and delicate, easily torn or lost if the arch is removed. Plankton feeders have numerous, crowded, elongate and fine rakers while predators have few, separated, short and stubby rakers.
hek-293h cell 293-H cell line is derived from 293 cell line.
eosinophilic leukemia cell A form of granulocytic leukemia cell line characterized by abnormal numbers of or a predomination of eosinophilic granulocytes in the tissues and blood.
glial cell line
nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell A cell of a disease in which cancer (malignant) cells are found in the tissues of the nasopharynx.
rs4-11 cell Human B cell precursor leukemia cell line; established from the bone marrow of a 32-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL L2) in first relapse.
hematopoietic cell line
skin stem cell Skin stem cells occur in the basal layer of the epidermis and at the base of hair follicles.
cos-7 cell African green monkey kidney derived from CV-1, a simian cell line (cercopithecus aethiops), by transformation with an origin-defective mutant of SV-40; cells were described to support the growth of SV-40 viruses.
pulvinar Large mass of nuclei forming the most caudal portion of the thalamus and overhanging the geniculate bodies and the dorsolateral surface of the midbrain. It is divided into four parts: the lateral, medial, inferior, and oral pulvinar nuclei.
adrenocortical carcinoma cell A malignant adrenal cortical tumor that can cause endocrine disorders such as Cushing's syndrome or adrenogenital syndrome.
jar cell Human choriocarcinomacell line; established from the trophoblastic tumor of the placenta of a 24-year-old Caucasian woman.
prothallium A small, flat, delicate structure produced by a germinating spore and bearing sex organs. It is the gametophyte of ferns and some other plants.
marrow cell Any of the immature blood cells that develop in the bone marrow, such as those involved in hematopoiesis.
trophectoderm Trophoblast: esp : the outer layer of the mammalian blastocyst after differentiation of the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm when the outer layer is continuous with the ectoderm of the embryo.
balb/3t12-3 cell Derived from a 14-17 day old BALB/c mouse embryo. The cells are tumorigenic, are insensitive to contact inhibition and are susceptible to transformation with SV40 virus.
pleural cavity The space enclosed by the pleura, which is a thin layer of tissue that covers the lungs and lines the interior wall of the chest cavity.
regulatory t-lymphocyte Regulatory T cells are a specialized subpopulation of T cells that act to suppress activation of the immune system and thereby maintain immune system homeostasis and tolerance to self-antigens.
km-h2 cell Human Hodgkin lymphoma cell line, established from the pleural effusion of a 37-year-old man with Hodgkin lymphoma (mixed cellularity progressing to lymphocyte depletion; stage IV at relapse) in 1974.
p12-ichikawa cell Human T cell leukemia; established from the peripheral blood of a 7-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
basal telencephalon The region of the telencephalon lying deep in the cerebral hemispheres.
posterior chamber of the eye That portion of the aqueous-containing space between the cornea and the lens which is bounded in front by the iris, and behind by the lens and ciliary zonule.
commercial preparation
knee 1: A joint in the middle part of the human leg that is the articulation between the femur, tibia, and patella; also: the part of the leg that includes this joint. 2a: The joint in the hind leg of a four-footed vertebrate that corresponds to the human knee. 2b: The carpal joint of the foreleg of a four-footed vertebrate. 2c: The tarsal joint of a bird. 2d: The joint between the femur and tibia of an insect.
pogrs-1 cell Immortalized cell line of primary granulosa cells, isolated from 25-day-old immature rats and transfected with SV40 DNA and Ha-ras oncogene.
palate The roof of the mouth separating the mouth from the nasal cavity.
duodenum The first part of the small intestine extending from the pylorus to the jejunum.
latex A milky usually white fluid that is produced by cells of various seed plants (as of the milkweed, spurge, and poppy families) and is the source of rubber, gutta-percha, chicle, and balata.
tendon A tough cord or band of dense white fibrous connective tissue that unites a muscle with some other part (as a bone) and transmits the force which the muscle exerts.
retinal cell line
crystalline style The crystalline style, a gelatinous rod, projects into the stomach and stirs the contents as well as produces digestive enzymes to aid digestion.
cad cell A CNS catecholaminergic cell line.
clear cell adenocarcinoma cell A rare malignant tumor of the female genital tract, resembling a renal cell carcinoma and containing tubules or small cysts with some cells that are hobnail-shaped and others whose cytoplasm is clear, containing abundant glycogen and inconspicuous stroma. It may occur in the ovary, uterus, cervix, or vagina.
plant bud A small lateral or terminal protuberance on the stem of a plant that may develop into a flower, leaf, or shoot.
ht-29 cell Human colon adenocarcinoma, established from the primary tumor of a 44-year-old Caucasian woman with colon adenocarcinoma in 1964; described to be heterotransplantable forming well-differentiated grade I tumors.
mammary ductal carcinoma cell The most common type of breast cancer in women. It comes in two forms: invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), an infiltrating, malignant and abnormal proliferation of neoplastic cells in the breast tissue, or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a noninvasive, possibly malignant, neoplasm that is still confined to the milk ducts (lactiferous ducts), where breast cancer most often originates.
u-1752 cell Continuous lung squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
tooth 1: One of the hard bony appendages that are borne on the jaws or in many of the lower vertebrates on other bones in the walls of the mouth or pharynx and serve especially for the prehension and mastication of food and as weapons of offense and defense. 2: Any of various usually hard and sharp processes especially about the mouth of an invertebrate.
anaplastic oligodendroglioma cell There are two types of oligodendroglioma: the well-differentiated tumor, which grows relatively slowly and in a defined shape; and the anaplastic oligodendroglioma, which grows much more rapidly and does not have a well-defined shape. Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas are much less common than well-differentiated oligodendrogliomas.
c-28/i2 cell Immortalized human chondrocyte cell line.
barrett's epithelial cell line
ns-0 cell Mouse myeloma cell line.
gall bladder A small, pear-shaped muscular sac, located under the right lobe of the liver, in which bile secreted by the liver is stored until needed by the body for digestion.
ovca-420 cell Human epithelial ovarian cancer cell line.
chloragocyte A chloragogen cell.
outer dental epithelium External enamel epithelium, the cuboidal cells of the outer layer of the odontogenic organ of a developing tooth.
antropyloric mucosa Mucosa pertaining to or affecting the pyloric part of the stomach, including its antrum.
inferior vestibular nucleus The one of the four vestibular nuclei on each side of the medulla oblongata that is situated between the medial vestibular nucleus and the inferior cerebellar peduncle and that sends fibers down both sides of the spinal cord to synapse with motor neurons of the ventral roots.
internal carotid artery In human anatomy, the internal carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck that helps supply blood to the brain.
b-lymphoblast
nci-h596 cell Human lung adenosquamous carcinoma cell line; derived in 1983 from a tumor mass in the chest wall of a patient with adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung.
renal pyramid One of a number of pyramidal masses seen on longitudinal section of the kidney; collectively, they constitute the renal medulla, and contain part of the secreting tubules and the collecting tubules.
cornea The transparent part of the coat of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light to the interior.
krebs ii ascites cell
hek-293a cell The QBI-HEK 293A cell line is an immortalized line of primary human embryonic kidney cells transformed by sheared human Ad5 DNA. QBI-HEK 293A cell line is a superior sub-clone of HEK 293 cells and strongly adheres to plastic dishes.
femur The bone that extends from the pelvis to the knee, being the longest and largest bone in the body; its head articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone, and distally, the femur, along with the patella and tibia, forms the knee joint.
arteriole A small branch of an artery (a vessel that carries blood high in oxygen away from the heart to the body) leading to a capillary. The oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin) makes the blood in arteries and arterioles look bright red.
colorectal adenocarcinoma cell Adenocarcinoma cell related to the colon and/or rectum.
forelimb muscle A muscle of a limb (as an arm, wing, fin, or leg) that is situated anteriorly.
ho-1 cell Human melanoma cell line.
pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell line
arpe-19 cell ARPE-19 is a spontaneously arising retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) cell line derived in 1986 by Amy Aotaki-Keen from the normal eyes of a 19-year-old male who died from head trauma in a motor vehicle accident.
mesothelioma cell A cell from a tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium); both benign and malignant varieties exist. Malignant varieties are often the result of excessive exposure to asbestos.
wb-f344 cell Non-tumorigenic rat liver epithelial cell line. Adult liver stem cell line; established from a single cloned nonparenchymal epithelial cell isolated from a normal male adult rat liver.
pituicyte One of the pigmented more or less fusiform cells of the stalk and posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that are usually considered to be derived from glial cells.
testis A typically paired male reproductive gland that produces sperm and that in most mammals is contained within the scrotum at sexual maturity.
anaplastic astrocytoma cell Moderately malignant astrocytomas, including most anaplastic astrocytomas and sometimes including the less malignant of the glioblastoma multiforme group.
lymphoid cell line
placental membrane The membrane separating the fetal from the maternal blood in the placenta; sometimes inappropriately called the placental barrier.
ccd-13lu cell Human normal lung fibroblast cell line established from a black 71-years-old human male. Derived from normal tissue from a patient with pancreatic carcinoma.
plume Organisms as Riftia pachyptila end with a deep red fan-like structure (plume) which extends into the water and which absorbs H2S and O2 for the bacteria, and also absorbs CO2 for use as synthetic raw material. An animal structure having a main shaft bearing many hairs or filamentous parts; especially: a full bushy tail.
fpmi-cf-203 cell The FPMI-CF-203 cell line, was developed from spruce budworm midgut tissues.
myelin sheath The cylindrical covering on the axons of some neurons; it consists of concentric layers of myelin, formed in the peripheral nervous system by the plasma membrane of Schwann cells, and in the central nervous system by oligodendrocytes. It is interrupted at intervals along its length by gaps known as nodes of Ranvier. Myelin is an electrical insulator that serves to speed the conduction of nerve impulses.
adductor longus Adductor arising from the superior ramus of the pubis and inserted into the middle third of the linea aspera.
hacat cell HaCaT is a spontaneously immortalized human keratinocyte cell line.
megasporangium The central and chief part of a plant ovule that encloses the female gametophyte.
corn ear The ears are female inflorescences, tightly covered over by several layers of leaves, and so closed-in by them to the stem that they do not show themselves easily until the emergence of the pale yellow silks from the leaf whorl at the end of the ear, e.g. by Zea mays.
mgso-3 cell Cell line established from human primary breast cancer based on differential centrifugation, followed by growth in culture for over 70 passages.
molecular layer 1. The outer layer of the cortex of the cerebellum and cerebrum consisting of a mass of unmyelinated fibers rich in synapses. 2. Either of the two plexiform layers of the retina.
osteochondroma cell A benign tumor consisting of projecting adult bone capped by cartilage projecting from the lateral contours of endochondral bones.
frontal gland In Isoptera, a large median gland beneath the integument of the head in certain soldier-termites, opening through the fontanelle or frontal pore, which produces secretions.
seed vessel The ripened and variously modified walls of a plant ovary.
axenic culture A situation in which only one species is present. Thus an axenic culture is uncontaminated by organisms of other species, an axenic organism does not have commensal organisms in the gut etc. Some organisms have obligate symbionts and cannot be grown axenically.
sk-mel-110 cell Human melanoma cell line.
d-407 cell Human retinal pigment epithelial cell line.
t-lymphocyte Any of several lymphocytes (as a helper T cell) that differentiate in the thymus, possess highly specific cell-surface antigen receptors, and include some that control the initiation or suppression of cell-mediated and humoral immunity (as by the regulation of T and B cell maturation and proliferation) and others that lyse antigen-bearing cells.
gonocyte The primordial germ cell.
bursa of fabricius A lymphoid organ that opens into the cloaca of birds and functions in B-cell production.
capan-1 cell Human pancreas adenocarcinoma cell line; established from the liver metastasis of a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a 40-year-old Caucasian man in 1974.
peripheral blood stem cell Stem cells found in the peripheral blood rather than the bone marrow; their numbers can be artificially increased by exposure to hematopoietic growth factors so that they can be extracted before myeloablative chemotherapy and later infused as an autologous bone marrow transplantation.
fto-2b cell Rat hepatoma cell line.
apocrine sweat gland A type of large, branched, specialized sudoriferous gland (glandula sudorifera) that empties into the upper portion of a hair follicle instead of directly onto the skin surface; found only on certain areas of the body, such as around the anus and in the axilla; after puberty they produce a viscous secretion that is acted on by bacteria to produce a characteristic acrid odor.
ekvx cell Non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
siha cell HPV16 cervical cancer cell line.
stoma The epidermal complex consisting of two guard cells and the pore between them.
tail muscle A muscle of the tail.
ccf-sttg1 cell Human brain grade IV astrocytoma cell line; established from a 68-years-old caucasian female.
embryonic structure An anatomical structure that exists only before the organism is fully formed. In mammals, for example, a structure that exists only prior to the birth of the organism. This structure may be normal or abnormal.
cal-51 cell Human breast carcinoma established from the pleural effusion metastasis of a 45-year-old woman with progressive breast adenocarcinoma (after radio-, chemotherapy and surgery) in 1985; rare example of tumor cell line with normal karyotype.
carcinoid cell A cell of a benign or malignant tumor arising especially from the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract.
ependymocyte An ependymal cell, the cells of the ependyma.
regulatory dendritic cell
rk-13 cell Rabbit renal epithlium cell line.
female reproductive system The internal and external reproductive organs in the female.
saliva A slightly alkaline secretion of water, mucin, protein, salts, and often a starch-splitting enzyme, as ptyalin, that is secreted into the mouth by salivary glands, lubricates ingested food, and often begins the breakdown of starches.
medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line
postlarva The final juvenile stage. It is the only time in a lobster's life that it can swim forward.
cochlea A division of the bony labyrinth of the inner ear of higher vertebrates that is usually coiled like a snail shell and is the seat of the hearing organ.
protocerebrum The anterior part of the arthropod brain.
uroepithelium The epithelium of the urinary tract. The lining of the ureters, bladder, and urethra.
alva-41 cell Human prostate cancer cell line.
tibialis Either of two muscles of the calf of the leg.
pre-b-lymphocyte
compound eye An eye (as of an insect) made up of many separate visual units.
pccl-3 cell Normal rat thyroid cell line.
mammary epithelial cell
chondroblastoma cell Any cell of a usually benign tumor derived from immature cartilage cells, occurring primarily in the epiphyses of adolescents; it is characterized by fine, matrix-like calcifications arranged hexagonally, often resembling chicken wire, around closely packed cells.
hypodermis The outer cellular layer of the body of invertebrates which secretes the cuticular exoskeleton.
hepatoma ascites cell
sporangiophore A stalk or similar structure bearing sporangia in plants and fungi.
vitreous humor The clear colorless transparent jelly that fills the eyeball posterior to the lens.
ar4-2j cell Rattus norvegicus (rat), tumor cell line of exocrine pancreas.
macrogamete The larger and usually female gamete of a heterogamous organism.
calo cell HPV18 positive human uterine cervix carcinoma cell line; established from stage IIB squamous cell cervical carcinoma explants from Mexican female at the National University of Mexico.
sporangium A structure in which spores are produced.
petiole A slender stem that supports the blade of a foliage leaf.
tracheal mucosa The tracheal mucosa is columnar and ciliated. It is closely applied to the tracheal cartilages and to the interannular tissues between them. Mucous glands are liberally present.
dov-13 cell Ovarian carcinoma cell line.
incisor A tooth adapted for cutting or gnawing, located at the front of the mouth along the apex of the dental arch.
ovarian serous adenocarcinoma cell line
pharyngeal gland Racemose mucous glands beneath the mucous membrane of the pharynx.
plant vascular cell Plant vascular cells originate from procambial cells, which are vascular stem cells.
pleural mesothelium Mesothelium: the layer of flat cells, derived from the mesoderm, that line the coelom or body cavity of the embryo. In the adult, it forms the simple squamous epithelium that covers all true serous membranes (peritoneum, pericardium, pleura).
henles loop The long U-shaped part of the renal tubule, extending through the medulla from the end of the proximal convoluted tubule. It begins with a descending limb comprising the proximal straight tubule and the thin tubule, followed by the ascending limb the distal straight tubule, and ending at the distal convoluted tubule.
superior vestibular nucleus The one of the four vestibular nuclei on each side of the medulla oblongata that is situated dorsal to the lateral vestibular nucleus at the junction of the floor and lateral wall of the fourth ventricle and that sends ascending fibers to the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei in the cerebrum on the same side of the brain.
3d5 cell Human B-cell line.
shg-44 cell Human glioma cell line.
hemolymph The circulatory fluid of various invertebrate animals that is functionally comparable to the blood and lymph of vertebrates.
odontoclast A large multinuclear cell associated with the absorption and removal of bone. It is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in cementum resorption.
brain microvessel endothelial cell
embryonic neural stem cell Neural stem cells are the multipotent stem cells that generate nerve cells. However, since the early 1990s, neural stem cells have been isolated from the adult brain as well as fetal brain tissues. Stem cells in the adult brain are found in the areas called the subventricular zone and the ventricle zone. Another location of brain stem cells occurs in the hippocampus, a special structure of the cerebral cortex related to memory function. Stem cells isolated from these areas are able to divide and to give rise to nerve cells and neuron-supporting cell types in culture.
pulmonary artery endothelial cell
lantern muscle
cheek pouch A pocketlike fold of skin in the cheeks of various animals, such as squirrels, gophers, and monkeys, that functions as a means of carrying food.
motor cortex The region of the cerebral cortex influencing movements of the face, neck and trunk, and arm and leg.
inner ear vestibulum The parts of the membranous labyrinth comprising the utricle and the saccule and contained in the cavity of the bony labyrinth.
ca-hpv-10 cell Human prostate cancer cell line.
breast lobe The 15 to 20 separate portions of the mammary gland that radiate from the central area deep to the nipple like wheel spokes and comprise the body of the mammary gland; each is drained by a single lactiferous duct.
hypnozoite Exoerythrocytic schizozoite of Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium Ovale in the human liver, characterised by delayed primary development; thought to be responsible for malarial relapse.
lens epithelial cell line
bhy cell Oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
molt-4f cell Human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia from peripheral blood.
primitive endoderm The primitive endoderm is the lower layer of the blastocyst that gives rise to fetal membranes.
exoerythrocytic stage The spozoites move to the liver, enter liver cells and replicate asexually through schizogony. This is the exoerythrocytic stage.
colorectal cancer cell line
sarcoma cell A malignant neoplasm cell arising in tissue of mesodermal origin, as connective tissue, bone, cartilage, or striated muscle.
osteoclast A large multinucleate cell found in growing bone that resorbs bony tissue, as in the formation of canals and cavities.
ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus A group of nerve cell bodies found in the ventral portion of the intermediate hypothalamic region; it is involved in diverse functions, for example, food intake and sexual behavior.
amoebocyte A cell (as a phagocyte) having amoeboid form or movements.
swine testicular cell line Sus scrofa normal testicular cell line, established from a male 80-90 days old gestation embryo. This line is useful for the propagation, assay and isolation of porcine parvovirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus and swine enteroviruses.
psoas minor A weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column. Psoas is derived from the Greek psoa, the plural meaning muscles of the loin.
pavement epithelium Squamous epithelium composed of a single layer of cells.
arteria bulbi penis The common penile artery subdivides into three arteries, the bulbourethral artery, the dorsal artery of the penis and the cavernosal artery.
ks-imm cell The tumorigenic KS IMM cell line derives from Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a highly angiogenic tumor.
beta-tc3 cell Murine insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells from an insulin producing tumour (insulinoma) in the pancreas.
jb6 cl41 cell Human colorectal cancer cell line.
berry A simple fruit (as a currant, grape, tomato, or banana) with a pulpy or fleshy pericarp.
bmmc cell Bone marrow culture-derived mast cells.
lama-84 cell Human chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis; established from the peripheral blood of a 29-year-old woman with chronic myeloid leukemia.
melan-a cell Melan-a cells are an immortal pigmented mouse cell line, cultured from epidermal melanoblasts from embryos of inbred C57BL mice.
sgc-7901 cell Human gastric cancer cell line.
plasmacytoma cell Cancer cell of the plasma cells -white blood cells that produce antibodies- that may turn into multiple myeloma.
somatic embryo An organized embryonic structure morphologically similar to a zygotic embryo but initiated from somatic non-zygotic cells. Under in vitro conditions, somatic embryos go through developmental processes similar to embryos of zygotic origin.
thymic dendritic cell Thymic stromal cells include thymic cortical epithelial cells, thymic medullary epithelial cells, and dendritic cells.
panin cell Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia cell line.
schwann cell line
anterior silk gland
pbmc cell line
ccd-18co cell Human normal colon fibroblast cell line established from a black 2.5-months-old human female.
cranium 1: The skull of a vertebrate. 2: The portion of the skull enclosing the brain; the braincase.
rectal cancer cell Cancer cell of the rectum.
nonparenchymal liver cell Hepatocytes may constitute 60 to 80 % of the mass of the liver tissue. The remaining tissue is made up of non-parenchymal cells such as sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, Kupffer cells and blood cells.
u-343 mg-a cell Human glioma cell line.
colon The part of the large intestine that extends from the cecum to the rectum.
renal clear cell Cell with empty-appearing cytoplasm; seen normally in the sweat glands, the parathyroid glands, the collecting tubules of the kidneys, and the epididymis; they also appear in some types of cancer.
pod A dry dehiscent pericarp or fruit that is composed of one or more carpels; especially: legume.
pectoral fin In fish, one of the pair of fins that are situated one on each side of the fish just behind the gills. Normally they are used for balancing and braking, but in some species, e.g. Exocoetidae, flying fish, the extra-large fins are used for jumping and for gliding over the water surface.
nci-h522 cell Human non-small cell lung cancer adenocarcinoma cell line. This line was derived from a lung cancer obtained from a 60 years old caucasian male patient prior to therapy.
bcwm.1 cell Derived from a long-term culture of CD19(+) selected bone marrow lymphoplasmacytic cells isolated from an untreated patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia.
antennal lobe The antennal lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of insect which receives the input from the olfactory sensory neurons on the antenna. Functionally, it shares some similarities with the olfactory bulb in vertebrates.
schizozoite A merozoite prior to schizogony, as in the exoerythrocytic phase of the development of the Plasmodium agent after sporozoite invasion of the hepatocyte and before multiple division.
iliac artery Either of the large arteries supplying blood to the lower trunk and hind limbs and arising by bifurcation of the aorta which in humans occurs at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra to form one vessel for each side of the body.
tsa-201 cell A transformed human kidney 293 cell line stably expressing an SV40 temperature-sensitive T antigen.
chrb-30 cell Multidrug resistant chinese hamster ovary cell line.
su-dhl-1 cell Human anaplastic large cell lymphoma cell line, established from the pleural effusion of a 10-year-old boy in 1973; original diagnosis was diffuse histiocytic lymphoma, corrected to diffuse large cell lymphoma (1984) and malignant histiocytosis (1989); according to REAL/WHO classification considered to represent an anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL).
forearm The part of the arm between the elbow and the wrist; also: the corresponding part in other vertebrates.
mesenchymal stem cell A special adult stem cell, which is a multipotent stem cell, that can be found in bone marrow and can produce all cell types of bone, cartilage, fat, blood, and connective tissues.
sh-ep cell The SHEP human neuroblastoma cell line was subcloned from SK-N-SH.
ags cell Human Caucasian gastric adenocarcinoma cell line.
aorta cell line
253j-bv cell Highly metastatic variant from human transitional cell carcinoma.
colon muscle
bewo cell Human placenta choriocarcinoma cell line.
ejaculatory duct Either of the paired ducts in the human male that are formed by the junction of the duct from the seminal vesicle with the vas deferens, pass through the prostate, and open into or close to the prostatic utricle.
acute megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia is a form of leukemia where a majority of the blasts are megakaryoblastic.
giant cell carcinoma cell line
nasal lavage fluid Fluid obtained by irrigation or washout of the nasal cavity and nasal mucosa.
oci-aml2 cell Human acute myeloid leukemia cell line; established from the peripheral blood of a 65-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia.
gland A cell, group of cells, or organ of endothelial origin that selectively removes materials from the blood, concentrates or alters them, and secretes them for further use in the body or for elimination from the body.
mh7a cell Human rheumatic synovial cell line.
bph-1 cell Human benign prostate hyperplasia; prostate epithelial cells from a 68-year-old man with benign prostate hyperplasia; cells were immortalized with SV-40 large T-antigen; cells were described to express cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19 (but not 14) and to metabolize prostatic androgens.
bmn cell Silkworm, Bombyx mori, cell line derived from ovary.
fine root Primary roots usually <2 mm diameter that have the function of water and nutrient uptake. They are often heavily branched and support mycorrhizas. These roots may be short lived, but are replaced by the plant in an ongoing process of root 'turnover'.
th2 cell Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
petal The often showy flower component attached just inside the sepals; petals are usually colorful to attract pollinators.
oropharyngeal cancer cell About 90% of oropharyngeal neoplasms are squamous cell carcinoma. Most patients complain of sore throat, otalgia or dysphagia; more advanced, invasive tumours may cause severe pain and trismus.
cem-vcr r cell Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, resistant to vincristine.
bbm cell Bos taurus bone marrow normal cell line.
pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell
baec cell Bovine aortic endothelial cell line.
gingival fibroblast A formative cell that moderates wound healing and healing after treatment.
honey sac A distension of the esophagus of a bee in which honey is elaborated.
oligodendroglia Neuroglia consisting of cells similar to but smaller than astrocytes, found in the central nervous system and associated with the formation of myelin.
alveolar epithelial cell line
teratocarcinoma cell line
pyloric mucosa
iic9 cell Chinese hamster embryonic fibroblast cell line.
nucleus dentatus
carb cell Mouse skin carcinoma cell line.
seedling The embryonic product of the germination of a seed. The young shoot and root axis.
eye cancer cell A cell of a cancerous growth in any part of the eye.
alphatn4-1 cell Immortal murine lens epithelial cell line.
adipocyte One of the fat-laden cells making up adipose tissue.
nplc/prf/5 cell A subline of the PLC/PRF/5 cell line.
llc-pk1 cell Pig normal kidney cell line, established from a 3- to 4-week-old male of sus scrofa.
colo-205 cell Human Caucasian colon adenocarcinoma cell line. Isolated from ascitic fluid of a 70-year-old Caucasian male with carcinoma of the colon.
cerebellar nucleus Four accumulations of gray substance embedded in the white substance of the cerebellum, comprising the nucleus dentatus, nucleus emboliformis, nucleus globosus, and nucleus fastigii.
sw-1116 cell Homo sapiens (human) colon; colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line; established from a 73 year old caucasian male organism.
nhbe cell Normal human bronchial epithelial cell line.
nci-h460m cell Metastatic subclone of NCI-H460 cell line.
sas cell Human tongue squamous carcinoma cell line.
cervical epithelial cell
right ventricle The lower right chamber of the heart that receives deoxygenated blood from the right atrium and pumps it under low pressure into the lungs via the pulmonary artery.
hematopoietic stem cell A blood cell progenitor or mother cell representing a slightly later stage than the blast cell; it has the capacity for both replication and differentiation, and has pluripotentiality, giving rise to precursors of various different blood cell lines, such as the proerythrocyte and myeloblast, which cannot self-replicate and must differentiate into more mature daughter cells.
hep-3b2 cell Human hepatocarcinoma cell line.
hatching gland A transversely oriented set of cells located deep to the enveloping layer on the pericardial membrane, especially prominent during pharyngula period because of the brightly refractile cytoplasmic granules (containing hatching enzymes) of the principal cells of the gland; The fish hatching gland is a unicellular holocrine gland. Although it has recently been found that the precursors or immature forms of the gland cells considerably migrate in the embryonic body during development (see later), the final location of the hatching gland cells in fish is generally restricted to anterior and/or dorsal regions of a well-grown prehatching embryo. In medaka, the final location is somewhat unique: The giant gland cells are mostly localized in the inner surface of the buccal (or pharyngeal) cavity.
af5 cell Immortalized mesencephalic-derived AF5 cell line. The characterized AF5 rat neural-derived cell line displays GABAergic properties during culture in vitro.
ophthalmic nerve The one of the three major branches or divisions of the trigeminal nerve that supply sensory fibers to the lacrimal gland, eyelids, ciliary muscle, nose, forehead, and adjoining parts.
mel cell Murine erythroleukemia cell line.
peyer's gland Any of numerous large oval patches of closely aggregated nodules of lymphoid tissue in the walls of the small intestine especially in the ileum that partially or entirely disappear in advanced life and in typhoid fever become the seat of ulcers which may perforate the intestines.
mitotic cell A cell that undergoes mitosis: a process that takes place in the nucleus of a dividing cell, involves typically a series of steps consisting of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, and results in the formation of two new nuclei each having the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus.
medial septum A nucleus in the septal area, coextensive with the diagonal band of Broca; it has afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of forebrain and brain stem areas including the hippocampus, the lateral hypothalamus, the tegmentum, and the amygdaloid bodies.
pericardium 1: The conical sac of serous membrane that encloses the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels of vertebrates. 2: A cavity or space that contains the heart of an invertebrate and in arthropods is a part of the hemocoel.
nci cell Human fibrosarcoma cell line.
distal tubular epithelium
mda-panc-28 cell Human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line.
oc-3 cell Human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
paw The foot of a quadruped, as a lion or dog, that has claws.
chamber of the eye One of he various spaces in the eyeball.
eggshell The hard exterior covering of an egg.
duodenal gland Any of the compound racemose glands in the submucous layer of the duodenum that secrete alkaline mucus and a potent proteolytic enzyme.
langerhans cell Stellate dendritic cells, derived from precursors in the bone marrow, that appear clear on light microscopy and have a dark-staining, indented nucleus and characteristic inclusions (Birbeck granules) in the cytoplasm, they lack tonofilaments, desmosomes, and melanosomes. Langerhans' cells are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the epidermis, but they also occur in other stratified epithelia and have been identified in the lung, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus. They have surface markers characteristic of macrophages and are believed to be antigen-presenting cells involved in contact allergic responses and other cell-mediated immune reactions in the skin.
gastrointestinal stromal tumor cell A type of tumor that usually begins in cells in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be benign or malignant.
huma-7 cell Normal human breast cell line.
neurohemal organ A system of neurons that has the specialized function to produce and secrete hormones, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an endocrine organ or system.
suit-2 cell Human pancreatic cancer cell line.
external gill External gills are the gills of an animal, most typically an amphibian, that are exposed to the environment, rather than set inside the pharynx and covered by gill slits, as they are in most fishes.
hs-683 cell Human brain glioma cell line. Hs 683 was isolated from explant cultures of a glioma taken from the left temporal lobe of a 76 year old male Caucasian.
bw-5147 cell Mouse AKR/J thymic lymphoma cell line.
tracheal smooth muscle
nephron A single excretory unit of the vertebrate kidney.
bone marrow stem cell Bone marrow stem cells are the most primitive cells in the marrow. From them all the various types of blood cells are descended.
fruit The mature ovary or ovaries of a seed-bearing plant, together with accessory parts, containing the seeds and occurring in a wide variety of forms.
biceps femoris Biceps of the femur.
gastroesophageal cancer cell
iris dilator muscle A name given fibers extending radially from the sphincter pupillae to the ciliary margin; innervation, sympathetic; action, dilates iris.
cytotoxic t-lymphocyte cell line
a-498 cell Human kidney carcinoma cell line; established from the kidney carcinoma of a 52-year-old man in 1973.
renal outer medulla
hpaf-2 cell HPAF-II is a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line derived from peritoneal ascitic fluid of a 44 year old Caucasian male with primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma and metastases to the liver, diaphragm and lymph nodes.
tov-112d cell This cell line was initiated in October of 1992 from a patient with early onset ovarian cancer. The patient was of French-Canadian descent with an unknown family history of ovarian cancer.
mm1-r cell Multiple myeloma cell line.
frontal lobe Front part of the brain, involved in planning, organizing, problem solving, selective attention, personality and a variety of higher cognitive functions including behavior and emotions.
intestinal epithelium The endodermally-derived epithelium of the intestine varies considerably, but the absorptive epithelium of small intestine is usually implied.
carotid atherosclerotic plaque Cholesterol plaques on the inner wall of the carotid artery can lead to stroke.
avian pallium In the anatomy of animals, an avian pallium is the dorsal telencephalon of a bird's brain. Pallium of avian species tend to be relatively large, comprising ~75% of the telencephalic volume.
pr cell Osteosarcoma cell line.
oci-aml3 cell Human acute myeloid leukemia cell line; established from the peripheral blood of a 57-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia.
ns-1 cell Mouse myeloma cell line.
sghpl-4 cell Extravillous trophoblast cell line.
bhk-21 cell Syrian hamster kidney BHK-21 is a subclone (clone 13) of the parental line established from the kidneys of five unsexed, one-day-old hamsters in 1961; cells can be used for virus replication studies.
h2.35 cell Mouse epithelial-like hepatoma cell line derived from a primary hepatocyte culture from the livers of 6 week old female BALB/c mice.
ins-1 823/13 cell Subline of INS-1 rat insulinoma cell line with optimized glucose-sensitive insulin secretion.
b16f10-nex2 cell B16F10-Nex2 is a subline from B16F10 murine melanoma , isolated at the Experimental Oncology Unit (UNONEX). It is characterized by low immunogenicity and moderate virulence.
upper epidermis The epidermal layer directed towards the axis.
insular cortex The insula is a portion of the cerebral cortex that is not visible until the margins of the lateral sulcus are opened up, or, as in this case, removed. The insular cortex is roughly triangular. Originally part of the superficial cortex, in higher mammals it became submerged beneath the expanding cortex around it, thereby remaining relatively close to the basal ganglia of the hemisphere. Complete submergence of the insular cortex is a feature of the human brain and is not found even in other primates.
k-562/r7 cell Doxorubicin-selected variantt of the human myelogenous leukemia cell line K562.
fast muscle The paler-colored muscle tissue of some mammals, composed of fast twitch muscle fibers.
cama-1 cell Human mammary gland breast adenocarcinoma cell line, derived from metastatic site: pleural effusion.
anterior midgut
ng2 cell A significantly large population of glial cells in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) that can be identified by the expression of the NG2 proteoglycan. They are found in the developing and mature CNS and are distinct from neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and mature oligodendrocytes. They are often referred to as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells because of their ability to differentiate into oligodendrocytes in culture.
dermal microvascular endothelial cell
222 cell Human gynecologic ovarian cancer cell line.
m5076 cell Mouse, C57BL/6, sarcoma, reticulum cell line.
germarium Each ovariole consists of a germarium and a series of ovarial follicles. The germarium is a mass of undifferentiated cells that form oocytes, nurse cells, and follicular cells.
smooth muscle Muscle tissue that lacks cross striations, that is made up of elongated spindle-shaped cells having a central nucleus, and that is found in vertebrate visceral structures (as the stomach and bladder) as thin sheets performing functions not subject to conscious control by the mind and in all or most of the musculature of invertebrates other than arthropods.
nci-h1650 cell Human lung bronchoalveolar carcinoma cell line, tumor stage 3B, derived from pleural effusion.
umbilical smooth muscle
oln-93 cell The permanent oligodendrocyte cell line OLN-93, derived from spontaneously transformed cells in primary rat brain glia cultures.
papillary renal cell carcinoma cell A type of kidney cancer that accounts for 15 to 20% of renal carcinomas. It occurs in both sporadic and familial forms. Hereditary papillary renal carcinoma is characterized by the development of multiple papillary tumors in both kidneys.
rheumatoid arthritis disease specific synovial fluid
jejunal mucosa
laticifer A plant cell or vessel that contains latex.
urogenital ridge A pair of dorsolateral mesodermal ridges in the vertebrate embryo out of which the urogenital organs are developed.
endosperm A triploid nutritive tissue resulting from the fusion of a haploid sperm nucleus with the two haploid polar nuclei in the ovule of angiosperms.
aorta thoracica smooth muscle cell line
multiple myeloma cell line
bile canaliculus Fine tubular canals running between liver cells, throughout the parenchyma, usually occurring singly between each adjacent pair of cells, and forming a three-dimensional network of polyhedral meshes, with a single cell in each mesh.
seminoma cell A type of cancer of the testicles. Seminomas may spread to the lung, bone, liver, or brain.
hop-62 cell Non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cell line.
ros cell Rat osteosarcoma cell line.
jimt-1 cell Human breast carcinoma cell line; established from the pleural effusion of a 62-year-old woman with ductal breast cancer (grade 3 invasive, T2N1M0) after postoperative radiation in 2003.
neurosecretory cell Cell that has properties both of electrical activity, carrying impulses and a secretory function, releasing hormones into the bloodstream. In a sense, they are behaving in the same way as any chemically signalling neuron, except that the target is the blood (and remote tissues), not another nerve or post synaptic region.
silique A narrow elongated two-valved usually many-seeded capsule that is characteristic of the mustard family, opens by sutures at either margin, and has two parietal placentas.
pupa An intermediate usually quiescent stage of a metamorphic insect as a bee, moth, or beetle that occurs between the larva and the imago, is usually enclosed in a cocoon or protective covering, and undergoes internal changes by which larval structures are replaced by those typical of the imago.
1-ln cell Human prostate cancer cell line.
kmst-6 cell Human embryonic fibroblast cell line; established from a 9-weeks-old embryo of Homo sapiens. Normal fibroblasts immortalized by 60Co irradiation; indefinite growth, non-tumorigenic.
bxpc-3 cell Human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line, established from a 61 year old human female.
medial entorhinal cortex The entorhinal cortex (EC) is an important memory center in the brain. In rodents, the EC is located at the caudal end of the temporal lobe. In primates it is located at the rostral end of the temporal lobe and stretches dorsolaterally. It is usually divided into medial and lateral regions with three bands with distinct properties and connectivity running perpendicular across the whole area.
calu-3 cell Human lung adenocarcinoma cell line; established from a 25-year-old caucasian male.
sf-268 cell Human malignant CNS glioma cell line.
sf-21 cell Insect - fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, cell line. This cell line was derived from immature ovaries of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda pupae (species Spodoptera frugiperda, family Sciaridae, order Lepidoptera); cells are susceptible to Baculovirus infection.
bulbourethral gland Either of two small racemose glands that are located below the prostate and discharge a component of the seminal fluid into the urethra. They are homologous to the Bartholin's glands in the female.
car-1 cell Human rectal carcinoma cell line.
larva 1: The immature, wingless, and often wormlike feeding form that hatches from the egg of many insects, alters chiefly in size while passing through several molts, and is finally transformed into a pupa or chrysalis from which the adult emerges. 2: The early form of an animal (as a frog or sea urchin) that at birth or hatching is fundamentally unlike its parent and must metamorphose before assuming the adult characters.
periosteum The dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of bones except at the joints and serving as an attachment for muscles and tendons.
colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line
astrocyte cell line
olfactory organ The specialized structures subserving the function of the sense of smell, including the olfactory region of the nasal mucosa containing the bipolar cells of origin of the olfactory nerves, together with the olfactory glands.
subthalamic nucleus A biconvex mass of gray matter on the medial side of the junction of the internal capsule and the crus cerebri; its chief connections are with the globus pallidus.
lymphoid tissue Tissue that is particularly rich in lymphocytes (and accessory cells such as macrophages and reticular cells), particularly the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, Peyer's patches, pharyngeal tonsils, adenoids, and (in birds) the Bursa of Fabricius.
endodermis The innermost tissue of the cortex in many roots and stems.
scc-15 cell Human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line.
aerial root An aerial root is a plant's root that is produced above the ground.
biofilm A thin usually resistant layer of microorganisms (as bacteria) that form on and coat various surfaces (as of water pipes and catheters).
adenohypophysis tumor cell
cerebral peduncle Either of two large bundles of nerve fibers passing from the pons forward and outward to form the main connection between the cerebral hemispheres and the spinal cord.
paca-44 cell Human pancreatic cancer cell line.
spermary An organ or a gland in which male gametes are formed, especially in invertebrate animals.
high endothelial venule Specialized area of vascular endothelium found in lymphoid organs, which express a variety of cell-adhesion molecules and is involved in lymphocyte extravasation.
pk-1 cell Human cell line stablished from liver metastases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas.
onco-dg1 cell Oxyphilic papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line.
lncap-c4-2b cell LNCaP-derivative C4-2B prostate cancer cell line.
sartorius A muscle that crosses the front of the thigh obliquely, assists in rotating the leg to the cross-legged position in which the knees are spread wide apart, and in humans is the longest muscle.
peritoneal dialysis fluid The peritoneal dialysis is a technique that uses the patients own body tissues inside of the abdominal cavity to act as a filter. A special fluid is flushed into the abdominal cavity and washes around the intestines. The intestinal walls act as a filter between this fluid and the blood stream. By using different types of solutions, waste products and excess water can be removed from the body through this process.
862l cell Mouse pheochromocytoma cell line.
mac-1 cell T cell lymphoblastoid line.
bone cell line
lan-5 cell Human neuroblastoma cell line.
nose 1a: The part of the face that bears the nostrils and covers the anterior part of the nasal cavity; broadly: this part together with the nasal cavity. 1b: The anterior part of the head at the top or end of the muzzle: snout, proboscis. 2: The vertebrate olfactory organ.
helper t-lymphocyte A T-cell that participates in an immune response by recognizing a foreign antigen and secreting lymphokines to activate T cell and B cell proliferation, that usually carries CD4 molecular markers on its cell surface, and that is reduced to 20 percent or less of normal numbers in AIDS.
sk-lms-1 cell Human vulva leiomyosarcoma cell line; established from a 43-years old caucasian female.
metaphloem The primary phloem that forms after differentiation of the protophloem.
urinary bladder cell line
aortic smooth muscle
mo-b cell Human Caucasian peripheral blood hairy cell leukaemia B-lymphoblast cell line.
node The point on a stem at which leaves and buds are attached.
parotid gland duct The excretory duct of the parotid glands.
mast cell A large cell that occurs especially in connective tissue and has basophilic granules containing substances (as histamine and heparin) which mediate allergic reactions.
parahippocampal region It is located in the limbic lobe. Recent research has found neurons here that are responsive to landmarks.
head muscle
radula A flexible tonguelike organ in certain mollusks, having rows of horny teeth on the surface.
medulloblastoma cell A cell of a malignant, highly radiosensitive cerebellar tumor composed of undifferentiated neuroglial cells.
brain endothelium
animal cap In Xenopus embryos the animal cap, which is the area around the animal pole of the blastula, is destined to form the ectoderm during normal development. However, these cells retain pluripotentiality and upon exposure to specific inducers, the animal cap can differentiate into neural, mesodermal, and endodermal tissues. In this sense, the cells of the animal cap are equivalent to mammalian embryonic stem cells.
ftc-133 cell Human thyroid carcinoma cell line; obtained from a lymph node metastasis of a follicular thyroid carcinoma from a 42-year-old male.
b-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell
promontorium tympani Promontory of tympanic cavity: the prominence on the medial wall of the tympanic cavity, formed by the first turn of the cochlea.
lung epithelial cell
proximal deep inguinal lymph node One of the deep inguinal lymph nodes located in or adjacent to the femoral canal; sometimes mistaken for a femoral hernia when enlarged.
nhl-b cell B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell line.
heart endothelium The endothelium, the layer of flat cells lining the closed spaces of the body such as the heart.
cementum The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament.
twig A small shoot or branch usually without its leaves.
blood platelet A minute, nonnucleated, disklike cytoplasmic body found in the blood plasma of mammals that is derived from a megakaryocyte and functions to promote blood clotting.
glioma cell A tumor cell originating in the neuroglia of the brain or spinal cord.
slow twitch muscle fiber Small dark muscle fibers rich in mitochondria, myoglobin, and sarcoplasm and with only faint cross-striping; designed for slow but repetitive contractions over long periods of time.
sw-948 cell Human colon adenocarcinoma, established from the colon tumor of a 81-year-old Caucasian woman with colon adenocarcinoma.
abrams cell Canine osteosarcoma cell line.
sn-56 cell Murine septal cholinergic neuronal cell line.
rat-1 cell Rattus norvegicus connective tissue fibroblast cell line.
xenopus a6 cell Kidney cell line of Xenopus laevis.
skeletal muscle fiber Skeletal muscle fibers are cylindrical multinucleate cells containing contracting myofibrils, across which run transverse striations, enclosed in a sarcolemma.
svec4-10 cell Mouse vascular endothelial cell line. SVEC4-10 is an endothelial cell line derived by SV40 (strain 4A) transformation of endothelial cells from axillary lymph node vessels.
uterine endometrial cancer cell More than 95% of uterine cancers arise in the endometrium. Endometrial cancer develops when the cells that make up the endometrium become abnormal and grow uncontrollably.
ischial spine A bony process projecting backward and medialward from the posterior border of the ischium.
b-103 cell Rat neuroblastoma cell line.
carotid artery endothelial cell
spinal trigeminal tract Brainstem tract formed by the central processes of first-order, trigeminal ganglion neurons that extends from the caudal medulla to the midpons. This tract conveys nociceptive and thermal information from the face to second-order neurons in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal complex.
vaginal epithelium Vaginal epithelium is stratified squamous epithelium having a thickness of 15-200 microns.
subpallium The subpallium is the ventral telencephalon of a birds brain.
amnion epithelium
malme-3m cell Human malignant melanoma cell line derived from lung tisse of a 43 years old caucasian male.
longitudinal smooth muscle The outer layer of the muscular coat.
pa-1 cell Human ovary ascites teratocarcinoma cell line. The line was established from cells taken from ascitic fluid.
meniscus A fibrous cartilage within a joint especially of the knee.
mesothelioma cell line
hce-7 cell Human esophageal SCC cell line.
stav-ab cell Human malignant mesothelioma cell line with epithelial differentiation.
trophoblast cell line
hoof lamina The tissues which attach the third phalanx to the hoof wall.
endostyle An endostyle is a longitudinal ciliated groove on the ventral wall of the pharynx which produces mucus to gather food particles. It is found in urochordates and cephalochordates, and in the larvae of lampreys. It aids in transporting food to the esophagus. The endostyle in larval lampreys (ammocetes) metamorphoses into the thyroid gland in adults, and is regarded as being homologous to the thyroid gland in vertebrates.
spinal muscle The medial division of the erector spinae.
pc-6 cell A subline of PC12. The cells grow as single isolated cells, and have a slow but good morphological response to NGF.
rhabdomyosarcoma cell Malignant tumour (sarcoma) derived from striated muscle.
stratified epithelium Epithelium in which the cells are arranged in several layers.
ewing's sarcoma cell line A malignant primary bone tumour that arises most commonly in the first three decades of life.
oc/cde22 cell Gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-negative, non-tumorigenic rat liver oval cell line.
immature cell Not fully grown or developed.
medullary carcinoma cell A cell of a carcinoma composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma. Medullary carcinomas of the breast constitute 5%-7% of all mammary carcinomas; medullary carcinomas of the thyroid comprise 3%-10% of all thyroid malignancies.
l8 cell Rattus norvegicus skeletal muscle myoblast cell line. This line was originally isolated in 1969 from primary rat skeletal muscle cultures; unlike the L6 cell line no carcinogen was used to establish the L8 line.
b-cpap cell Human papillary thyroid carcinoma derived cell line.
hepatoma cell line
renal tubule One of the minute, reabsorptive, secretory, and collecting canals, made up of basement membrane lined with epithelium, that form the substance of the kidneys.
middle cerebral artery The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is one of the three major paired arteries that supplies blood to the cerebrum.
nb2a/d1 cell Mouse neuroblastoma cell line.
scent gland A specialized apocrine gland found in many mammals that produces a strong-smelling substance. (Also found in the abdomen of honeybees).
hypothalamus The ventral part of the diencephalon that forms the floor and part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle. Anatomically, it includes the preoptic area, optic tract, optic chiasm, mammillary bodies, tuber cinereum, infundibulum, and neurohypophysis, but for physiological purposes the neurohypophysis is considered a distinct structure. The hypothalamus may be divided into five regions or areas (area hypothalamica rostralis, area hypothalamica dorsalis, area hypothalamica intermedia, area hypothalamica lateralis and area hypothalamica posterior) or into three longitudinal zones (periventricular zone, medial zone, and lateral zone). The hypothalamic nuclei constitute that part of the corticodiencephalic mechanism that activates, controls and integrates the peripheral autonomic mechanisms, endocrine activity, and many somatic functions, e.g., a general regulation of water balance, body temperature, sleep, and food intake, and the development of secondary sex characteristics. The hypothalamus secretes vasopressin and oxytocin, which are stored in the pituitary, as well as many releasing factors (hypophysiotropic hormones), by means of which it exerts control over functions of the adenohypophysis.
neural crest cell line
mandibular condyle The posterior process on the ramus of the mandible composed of two parts: a superior part, the articular portion, and an inferior part, the condylar neck.
paramyeloblast Myeloblast: a large mononuclear nongranular bone-marrow cell; especially: one that is a precursor of a myelocyte.
ventral aorta The artery in vertebrate embryos that carries blood from the ventricle of the heart to the aortic arches. In adult fish it branches into afferent branchial arteries supplying the gills. In adult tetrapods it is represented by the ascending part of the aorta.
vestibular nucleus Any of four nuclei in the medulla oblongata on each side of the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain in which fibers of the vestibular nerve terminate.
htc cell Rat hepatoma cell line. Derived from a rat ascites tumour, which in turn was derived from a solid hepatoma induced in male Buffalo rats by feeding them 0.04% N,N'-2,7fluorenyle-bis-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide for 12.4 months.
lateral hypodermal chord Dorsal, ventral or lateral longitudinal thickenings of the hypodermis, generally internal.
olfactory bulb A bulbous anterior projection of the olfactory lobe that is the place of termination of the olfactory nerves and is especially well developed in lower vertebrates (as fishes).
ookinete A motile zygote in various protozoans (as the malaria parasite).
hit-t15 cell Pancreatic beta cell line.
germinal center The area in the center of a lymph node containing aggregations of actively proliferating lymphocytes.
ethmoid bone An irregularly shaped, spongy bone that provides the floor of the front part of the skull and the roof of the nose. The ethmoid bone consists of two masses of thin plates enclosing air cells and looks like a sieve.
alveolus A tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line
snu-449 cell Human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.
thyroid epithelial cell An epithelial cell lining the thyroid follicle.
hela-magi cell CD4 positive HeLa cell line that contains an integrated HIV-1 promoter.
terminal bronchiole The end of the nonrespiratory conducting airway; The lining is simple columnar or cuboidal epithelium without mucous goblet cells; most of the cells are ciliated, but a few nonciliated serous secreting cells occur.
harderian gland An accessory lacrimal gland on the inner side of the orbit in reptiles and birds but usually degenerate in mammals.
hel cell Human erythroleukemia, established from the peripheral blood of a 30-year-old man with erythroleukemia (AML M6) in relapse (after treatment for Hodgkin's disease) in 1980; cells were described to be capable of spontaneous and induced globin synthesis.
s-49 cell Mouse lymphoblastic T-lymphoma cell line.
granulosa-theca cell tumor cell An ovarian tumor predominantly composed of either granulosa cells (follicular cells) or theca cells, and often associated with excessive production of estrogen, with hyperplasia and carcinoma of the endometrium. When luteinized, i.e., having cells resembling those of the corpus luteum, it is known as luteoma.
clitoral gland The preputial glands of female animals are sometimes called clitoral glands.
thorax muscle
body wall The portion of an animal body that consists of ectoderm and mesoderm, forms the external body surface, and encloses the body cavity.
nr-6 cell Mouse fibroblast cell line.
brockmann body Certain teleost fish have large anatomically discrete islet organs called Brockmann bodies (BBs).
bl-2 cell Burkitt's lymphoma-derived cell line.
dermal papilla Any of the conical extensions of the collagen fibers, the capillary blood vessels, and sometimes the nerves of the dermis into corresponding spaces among the downward- or inward-projecting rete ridges on the under surface of the epidermis. On the forehead and ear these are less prominent; on the face, neck, and pubes the relations are reversed and rete pegs extend inward or downward into spaces among a network of dermal ridges.
inferior mesenteric vein The inferior (lower) mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein.
v-79 cell Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell line, established from the lung tissue of a Chinese hamster in 1958.
tachyzoite Oval, quickly multiplying trophozoite of Toxoplasma gondii, found in all tissues except non-nucleated erythrocytes during the acute stage of toxoplasmosis.
renal cancer cell line
thorax 1: The part of the mammalian body between the neck and the abdomen; also: its cavity in which the heart and lungs lie. 2: The middle of the three chief divisions of the body of an insect; also: the corresponding part of a crustacean or an arachnid.
secretion Material that is secreted as a result of the activity of a gland; this activity may range from separating a specific substance of the blood to the elaboration of a new chemical substance.
oligodendrocyte One of the cells comprising the oligodendroglia.
ishikawa cell The cell line Ishikawa was established from an endometrial adenocarcinoma from a 39-year-old Asian woman.
subarachnoid space The space between the arachnoidea mater and the pia mater, containing cerebrospinal fluid and bridged by delicate trabeculae.
fascia A sheet of connective tissue covering or binding together body structures as muscles.
hmcb cell Human bowes melanoma cell line of the skin.
chorion The outer membrane of the two membranes enclosing the embryo in reptiles, birds, and mammals. In placental mammals it contributes to the development of the placenta.