TISSUES Experimental Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores Dataset

Description protein tissue expression evidence scores by integrating experimental data
Measurement association by data aggregation
Association protein-tissue associations by integrating evidence from experimental studies
Category proteomics
Resource TISSUES
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  1. 15505 genes
  2. 243 tissues
  3. 274154 gene-tissue associations

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tissue Gene Sets

243 sets of proteins highly expressed in tissues in proteomics datasets from the TISSUES Experimental Tissue Protein Expression Evidence Scores dataset.

Gene Set Description
abdomen 1: The part of the body between the thorax and the pelvis; also: the cavity of this part of the trunk containing the chief viscera. 2: The posterior section of the body behind the thorax in an arthropod.
acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell Lymphocytic leukemia cell that is marked by an abnormal increase in the number of lymphoblasts, that is characterized by rapid onset and progression of symptoms which include fever, anemia, pallor, fatigue, appetite loss, bleeding, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, bone and joint pain, and enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen, and that occurs chiefly during childhood.
acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Lymphocytic leukemia cell line that is marked by an abnormal increase in the number of lymphoblasts, that is characterized by rapid onset and progression of symptoms which include fever, anemia, pallor, fatigue, appetite loss, bleeding, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, bone and joint pain, and enlargement of the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen, and that occurs chiefly during childhood.
adipose tissue Connective tissue in which fat is stored and which has the cells distended by droplets of fat.
adrenal cortex The outer portion of the adrenal glands that produces several steroid hormones, including cortisol and aldosterone.
adrenal gland Either of a pair of complex endocrine organs near the anterior medial border of the kidney consisting of a mesodermal cortex that produces glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, and androgenic hormones and an ectodermal medulla that produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.
adult stem cell Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells that reproduce daily to provide certain specialized cells. Until recently it was thought that each of these cells could produce just one particular type of cell. This is called differentiation. However in the past few years, evidence has been gathered of stem cells that can transform into several different forms.
alimentary canal The mucous membrane-lined tube of the digestive system through which food passes, in which digestion takes place, and from which wastes are eliminated. It extends from the mouth to the anus and includes the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
amygdala The one of the four basal ganglia in each cerebral hemisphere that is part of the limbic system and consists of an almond-shaped mass of gray matter in the anterior extremity of the temporal lobe.
animal Any of a kingdom (Animalia) of living things including many-celled organisms and often many of the single-celled ones (as protozoans) that typically differ from plants in having cells without cellulose walls, in lacking chlorophyll and the capacity for photosynthesis, in requiring more complex food materials (as proteins), in being organized to a greater degree of complexity, and in having the capacity for spontaneous movement and rapid motor responses to stimulation.
ascites Accumulation of serous fluid in the spaces between tissues and organs in the cavity of the abdomen.
autonomic nervous system The enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic nervous systems taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the central nervous system, especially the hypothalamus and the solitary nucleus, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS; these and related central and sensory structures are sometimes (but not here) considered to be part of the autonomic nervous system itself.
avian pallium In the anatomy of animals, an avian pallium is the dorsal telencephalon of a bird's brain. Pallium of avian species tend to be relatively large, comprising ~75% of the telencephalic volume.
b-lymphoblast
b-lymphoblastoid cell
b-lymphocyte Any of the lymphocytes that have antibody molecules on the surface and comprise the antibody-secreting plasma cells when mature.
basal ganglion Any of four deeply placed masses of gray matter (as the amygdala) in each cerebral hemisphere. Location: The basal ganglion is located deep within the cerebral hemispheres in the telencephalon region of the brain. It consists of the corpus stratium, subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra.
bladder A membranous sac in animals that serves as the receptacle of a liquid or contains gas.
blast cell In the monophyletic theory, the least differentiated, totipotential blood cell without commitment as to its particular series, from which all blood cells are derived, preceding a stem cell.
blood 1: The fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins of a vertebrate animal carrying nourishment and oxygen to and bringing away waste products from all parts of the body. 2: A comparable fluid of an invertebrate.
blood cancer cell The major forms of blood cancer are lymphoma, leukemia and multiple myeloma. They affect the way a body makes blood and provides immunity from other diseases.
blood plasma The fluid portion of the blood in which the particulate components are suspended.
blood platelet A minute, nonnucleated, disklike cytoplasmic body found in the blood plasma of mammals that is derived from a megakaryocyte and functions to promote blood clotting.
bone The hard form of connective tissue that constitutes the majority of the skeleton of most vertebrates; it consists of an organic component (the cells and matrix) and an inorganic, or mineral, component; the matrix contains a framework of collagenous fibers and is impregnated with the mineral component, chiefly calcium phosphate (85 per cent) and calcium carbonate (10 per cent), which imparts the quality of rigidity to bone.
bone marrow The soft, fatty, vascular tissue that fills most bone cavities and is the source of red blood cells and many white blood cells.
bone marrow cell The soft, fatty, vascular tissue that fills most bone cavities and is the source of red blood cells and many white blood cells.
brain 1: The portion of the vertebrate central nervous system that constitutes the organ of thought and neural coordination, includes all the higher nervous centers receiving stimuli from the sense organs and interpreting and correlating them to formulate the motor impulses, is made up of neurons and supporting and nutritive structures, is enclosed within the skull, and is continuous with the spinal cord through the foramen magnum. Also named encephalon. 2: A nervous center in invertebrates comparable in position and function to the vertebrate brain.
brain stem The part of the brain composed of the mesencephalon, pons, and medulla oblongata and connecting the spinal cord with the forebrain and cerebrum.
brain ventricle Any of the system of communicating cavities in the brain that are continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord.
breast The fore or ventral part of the body between the neck and the abdomen.
bronchial epithelial cell A normal cell of the bronchial epithelium.
bronchial epithelium
bronchoalveolar system System pertaining to a bronchus and alveoli.
bronchus Either of the two primary divisions of the trachea that lead respectively into the right and the left lung.
cardiac muscle The principal muscle tissue of the vertebrate heart made up of striated fibers that appear to be separated from each other under the electron microscope but that function in long-term rhythmic contraction as if in protoplasmic continuity.
cardiovascular system The system of heart and blood vessels.
caudate nucleus One of the centrally-located portions of the brain affected by Huntington's Disease. Speech and swallowing problems arise when this region and another region called the putamen are affected.
cecum The first part of the large intestine, forming a dilated pouch into which open the ileum, colon, and appendix vermiformis.
cell culture Cells taken from a living organism and grown under controlled conditions (in culture). Methods used to maintain cell lines or strains.
central nervous system The central nervous system is that part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. The central nervous system (CNS) is one of the two major divisions of the nervous system. The other is the peripheral nervous system (PNS) which is outside the brain and spinal cord.
cerebellum A large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum , and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe.
cerebral cortex The surface layer of gray matter of the cerebrum that functions chiefly in coordination of sensory and motor information.
cerebral gyrus One of the convolutions of the surface of the cerebral hemispheres caused by infolding of the cortex.
cerebral hemisphere Either of the two hollow convoluted lateral halves of the cerebrum.
cerebral lobe The well defined areas of the cerebral cortex, demarcated by fissures, sulci, and arbitrary lines, including the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes.
cerebral peduncle Either of two large bundles of nerve fibers passing from the pons forward and outward to form the main connection between the cerebral hemispheres and the spinal cord.
cervical ganglion Any of three sympathetic ganglia on each side of the neck.
cingulate cortex A part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex. It is extended from the corpus callosum below to the cingulate sulcus above, at least anteriorly.
cingulate gyrus Cingulate gyrus (belt ridge in english) is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. It partially wraps around the corpus callosum and is limited above by the cingulate sulcus. The cortical part of the cingulate gyrus is referred to as cingulate cortex.
colon The part of the large intestine that extends from the cecum to the rectum.
colorectum The colon and rectum considered as a unit.
connective tissue The tissue which binds together and is the support of the various structures of the body. It is made up of fibroblasts, fibroglia, collagen fibrils, and elastic fibrils. It is derived from the mesoderm and in a broad sense includes the collagenous, elastic, mucous, reticular, osseous, and cartilaginous tissue. Some also include the blood in this group of tissues. Connective tissue is classified according to concentration of fibers as loose (areolar) and dense, the latter having more abundant fibers than the former.
corpus callosum The great band of commissural fibers uniting the cerebral hemispheres of higher mammals including humans.
corpus striatum Either of a pair of masses of nervous tissue within the brain that contain two large nuclei of gray matter separated by sheets of white matter.
cranial ganglion
cranial nerve Any of several nerves that arise in pairs from the brainstem and reach the periphery through openings in the skull. There are 12 such pairs in mammals, birds, and reptiles and usually 10 pairs in amphibians and fish.
culture condition
culture condition:antigen-presenting cell An antigen-presenting cell is a cell that displays foreign antigen complex with major histocompatibility complex on its surface.
culture condition:cd4+ cell CD4, cluster of differentiation 4, is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In humans CD4+ T helper cells are white blood cells that are an essential part of the human immune system.
culture condition:cd8+ cell
cytotoxic t-lymphocyte Subset of T-lymphocytes (mostly CD8+) responsible for lysing target cells and for killing virus-infected cells.
dendritic cell A special type of cell that is a key regulator of the immune system, acting as a professional antigen-presenting cell, APC, capable of activating naive T cells and stimulating the growth and differentiation of B cells. Dendritic cells are found, for example, in the lymph nodes and spleen. As an APC, a dendritic cell can retain antigen for long periods on its surface, present the antigen to a T or B cell and so influence their behavior.
diencephalon The posterior subdivision of the forebrain.
digestive gland A gland, such as the liver or pancreas, that secretes into the alimentary canal substances necessary for digestion.
duodenum The first part of the small intestine extending from the pylorus to the jejunum.
ear The organ of hearing.
embryo An animal in the early stages of growth and differentiation that are characterized by cleavage, the laying down of fundamental tissues, and the formation of primitive organs and organ systems; especially: the developing human individual from the time of implantation to the end of the eighth week after conception.
embryonic brain
embryonic structure An anatomical structure that exists only before the organism is fully formed. In mammals, for example, a structure that exists only prior to the birth of the organism. This structure may be normal or abnormal.
endocrine gland Any of various glands producing hormonal secretions that pass directly into the bloodstream. The endocrine glands include the thyroid, parathyroids, anterior and posterior pituitary, pancreas, adrenals, pineal, and gonads.
endocrine pancreas That part of the pancreas that acts as an endocrine gland, consisting of the islets of Langerhans, which secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and sometimes pancreatic polypeptide directly into the bloodstream.
epididymis A system of ductules emerging posteriorly from the testis that holds sperm during maturation and that forms a tangled mass before uniting into a single coiled duct which is continuous with the vas deferens.
epithalamus The caudal part of the roof and the adjoining lateral walls of the third ventricle of the diencephalon, comprising the habenular nuclei and their commissure, pineal body, and commissure of the epithalamus.
epithelium A membranous cellular tissue that covers a free surface or lines a tube or cavity of an animal body and serves especially to enclose and protect the other parts of the body, to produce secretions and excretions, and to function in assimilation.
erythroid cell Cell that will give rise to erythrocytes.
esophagus A muscular tube that in humans is about nine inches (23 centimeters) long and passes from the pharynx down the neck between the trachea and the spinal column and behind the left bronchus where it pierces the diaphragm slightly to the left of the middle line and joins the cardiac end of the stomach.
excretory gland A gland that discharges its secretion through a duct opening on an internal or external surface of the body, as a lacrimal gland.
exocrine gland An externally secreting gland, such as a salivary gland or sweat gland that releases its secretions directly or through a duct.
eye An organ of sight; especially: a nearly spherical hollow organ that is lined with a sensitive retina, is lodged in a bony orbit in the skull, is the vertebrate organ of sight, and is normally paired.
female reproductive gland
female reproductive system The internal and external reproductive organs in the female.
fetus An unborn or unhatched vertebrate especially after attaining the basic structural plan of its kind; specifically: a developing human from usually three months after conception to birth.
fibre tract A bundle of nerve fibers (axons) having a common origin, termination, and function.
forebrain The anterior of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain that includes especially the cerebral hemispheres, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus and that especially in higher vertebrates is the main control center for sensory and associative information processing, visceral functions, and voluntary motor functions.
frontal lobe Front part of the brain, involved in planning, organizing, problem solving, selective attention, personality and a variety of higher cognitive functions including behavior and emotions.
gall bladder A small, pear-shaped muscular sac, located under the right lobe of the liver, in which bile secreted by the liver is stored until needed by the body for digestion.
ganglion A group of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system. The term is occasionally applied to certain nuclear groups within the brain or spinal cord, such as the basal ganglia.
gastrointestinal tract The gastrointestinal tract includes both stomach and intestine.
gland A cell, group of cells, or organ of endothelial origin that selectively removes materials from the blood, concentrates or alters them, and secretes them for further use in the body or for elimination from the body.
globus pallidus The smaller and more medial part of the lentiform nucleus of the brain, separated from the putamen by the lateral medullary lamina. In official anatomic nomenclature, it is divided by the medial medullary lamina into two parts, lateral and medial, both of which have extensive connections with the corpus striatum, thalamus, and mesencephalon. The paleostriatum is the phylogenetically older part of the corpus striatum represented by the globus pallidus.
gonad A reproductive gland (as an ovary or testis) that produces gametes.
gut 1: The alimentary canal or a portion thereof, especially the intestine or stomach. 2: The embryonic digestive tube, consisting of the foregut, the midgut, and the hindgut.
head The upper or anterior division of the animal body that contains the brain, the chief sense organs, and the mouth.
heart 1: A hollow muscular organ of vertebrate animals that by its rhythmic contraction acts as a force pump maintaining the circulation of the blood. 2: A structure in an invertebrate animal functionally analogous to the vertebrate heart.
helper t-lymphocyte A T-cell that participates in an immune response by recognizing a foreign antigen and secreting lymphokines to activate T cell and B cell proliferation, that usually carries CD4 molecular markers on its cell surface, and that is reduced to 20 percent or less of normal numbers in AIDS.
hematopoietic cell A blood cell.
hematopoietic cell line
hematopoietic stem cell A blood cell progenitor or mother cell representing a slightly later stage than the blast cell; it has the capacity for both replication and differentiation, and has pluripotentiality, giving rise to precursors of various different blood cell lines, such as the proerythrocyte and myeloblast, which cannot self-replicate and must differentiate into more mature daughter cells.
hematopoietic system The tissues concerned in production of the blood, including the bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus.
hindbrain The posterior of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain that includes the cerebellum, the medulla oblongata, and in mammals the pons and that controls autonomic functions and equilibrium.
hippocampus A curved elongated ridge that extends over the floor of the descending horn of each lateral ventricle of the brain and consists of gray matter covered on the ventricular surface with white matter; The hippocampus is a part of the temporal lobe, which has a well established role in learning, memory and emotion.
hypocotyl The part of the axis of a plant embryo or seedling below the cotyledon.
hypothalamus The ventral part of the diencephalon that forms the floor and part of the lateral wall of the third ventricle. Anatomically, it includes the preoptic area, optic tract, optic chiasm, mammillary bodies, tuber cinereum, infundibulum, and neurohypophysis, but for physiological purposes the neurohypophysis is considered a distinct structure. The hypothalamus may be divided into five regions or areas (area hypothalamica rostralis, area hypothalamica dorsalis, area hypothalamica intermedia, area hypothalamica lateralis and area hypothalamica posterior) or into three longitudinal zones (periventricular zone, medial zone, and lateral zone). The hypothalamic nuclei constitute that part of the corticodiencephalic mechanism that activates, controls and integrates the peripheral autonomic mechanisms, endocrine activity, and many somatic functions, e.g., a general regulation of water balance, body temperature, sleep, and food intake, and the development of secondary sex characteristics. The hypothalamus secretes vasopressin and oxytocin, which are stored in the pituitary, as well as many releasing factors (hypophysiotropic hormones), by means of which it exerts control over functions of the adenohypophysis.
ileocecum The ileum and cecum considered as one organ.
integument Something that covers or encloses; especially: an enveloping layer (as a skin, membrane, or husk) of an organism or one of its parts.
internal female genital organ The various organs in the female that are concerned with reproduction, including the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina.
internal male genital organ The internal organs in the male that are concerned with reproduction, including the testis, epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, prostate, and bulbourethral gland.
intestine The tubular part of the alimentary canal that extends from the stomach to the anus.
kidney 1: One of a pair of vertebrate organs situated in the body cavity near the spinal column that excrete waste products of metabolism, in humans are bean-shaped organs about 4 1/2 inches (11 1/2 centimeters) long lying behind the peritoneum in a mass of fatty tissue, and consist chiefly of nephrons by which urine is secreted, collected, and discharged into a main cavity whence it is conveyed by the ureter to the bladder. 2: Any of various excretory organs of invertebrate animals.
large granular lymphocyte A type of white blood cell that contains granules with enzymes that can kill tumor cells or microbial cells.
large intestine The more terminal division of the vertebrate intestine that is wider and shorter than the small intestine, typically divided into cecum, colon, and rectum, and concerned especially with the resorption of water and the formation of feces.
larynx The modified upper part of the trachea of air-breathing vertebrates that in humans, most other mammals, and a few lower forms contains the vocal cords.
lateral ventricle An internal cavity in each cerebral hemisphere that consists of a central body and three cornua including an anterior one curving forward and outward, a posterior one curving backward, and an inferior one curving downward.
leaf A lateral outgrowth from a plant stem that is typically a flattened expanded variably shaped greenish organ, constitutes a unit of the foliage, and functions primarily in food manufacture by photosynthesis.
leukemia cell A cancer cell of the white blood cells. Leukaemias are grouped by how quickly the disease develops (acute or chronic) as well as by the type of blood cell that is affected.
leukemia cell line
leukocyte Any of the blood cells that are colorless, lack hemoglobin, contain a nucleus, and include the lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
limbic system A group of subcortical structures (as the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the amygdala) of the brain that are concerned especially with emotion and motivation.
liver 1: A large very vascular glandular organ of vertebrates that secretes bile and causes important changes in many of the substances contained in the blood (as by converting sugars into glycogen which it stores up until required and by forming urea). 2: Any of various large compound glands associated with the digestive tract of invertebrate animals and probably concerned with the secretion of digestive enzymes.
lung One of the usually paired compound saccular thoracic organs that constitute the basic respiratory organ of air-breathing vertebrates.
lymph A clear, watery, sometimes faintly yellowish fluid derived from body tissues that contains white blood cells and circulates throughout the lymphatic system, returning to the venous bloodstream through the thoracic duct. Lymph acts to remove bacteria and certain proteins from the tissues, transport fat from the small intestine, and supply mature lymphocytes to the blood.
lymph node Any of the rounded masses of lymphoid tissue that are surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue, are distributed along the lymphatic vessels, and contain numerous lymphocytes which filter the flow of lymph.
lymphoblast Often referred to as a blast cell. Unlike other usages of the suffix -blast a lymphoblast is a further differentiation of a lymphocyte, T- or B-, occasioned by an antigenic stimulus. The lymphoblast usually develops by enlargement of a lymphocyte, active re-entry to the S phase of the cell cycle, mitogenesis and production of much m-RNA and ribosomes.
lymphoblastic leukemia cell Lymphocytic leukemia characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of lymphoblasts.
lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Lymphocytic leukemia cell line characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of lymphoblasts.
lymphoblastoid cell line Human cell line from tissue infected with Epstein-Barr virus, resembling a lymphoblast.
lymphocyte Any of the colorless weakly motile cells originating from stem cells and differentiating in lymphoid tissue (as of the thymus or bone marrow) that are the typical cellular elements of lymph, include the cellular mediators of immunity, and constitute 20 to 30 percent of the white blood cells of normal human blood.
lymphocytic leukemia cell Leukemia cell of either of two types marked by an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells (as lymphocytes) which accumulate in bone marrow, lymphoid tissue (as of the lymph nodes and spleen), and circulating blood.
lymphocytic leukemia cell line
lymphoid cell Any of the cells responsible for the production of immunity mediated by cells or antibodies and including lymphocytes, lymphoblasts, and plasma cells. Cells derived from stem cells of the lymphoid lineage: large and small lymphocytes, plasma cells.
lymphoid tissue Tissue that is particularly rich in lymphocytes (and accessory cells such as macrophages and reticular cells), particularly the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, Peyer's patches, pharyngeal tonsils, adenoids, and (in birds) the Bursa of Fabricius.
male reproductive gland
male reproductive system The internal and external reproductive organs in the male.
marrow cell Any of the immature blood cells that develop in the bone marrow, such as those involved in hematopoiesis.
medulla oblongata The part of the vertebrate brain that is continuous posteriorly with the spinal cord and that contains the centers controlling involuntary vital functions.
megakaryoblast The earliest cytologically identifiable precursor in the thrombocytic series, a large cell that matures to form a promegakaryocyte.
megakaryocyte A large cell that has a lobulated nucleus, is found especially in the bone marrow, and is the source of blood platelets.
metencephalon The anterior segment of the developing vertebrate hindbrain or the corresponding part of the adult brain composed of the cerebellum and pons.
midbrain The middle of the three primary divisions of the developing vertebrate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain.
molt-4 cell Human T cell leukemia established from the peripheral blood of a 19-year-old man with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in relapse in 1971; sister cell line of MOLT-3.
monocyte A mononuclear phagocytic leukocyte, 13 to 25 mm in diameter, with an ovoid or kidney-shaped nucleus, containing lacy, linear chromatin and abundant gray-blue cytoplasm filled with fine reddish and azurophilic granules. Formed in the bone marrow from promonocytes, monocytes are transported to tissues such as the lung and liver, where they develop into macrophages.
mononuclear cell A cell having only one nucleus, especially: MONOCYTE.
mononuclear phagocyte Any cell of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, including macrophages, monocytes, and their precursors in the monocytic series.
mouth The natural opening through which food passes into the body of an animal and which in vertebrates is typically bounded externally by the lips and internally by the pharynx and encloses the tongue, gums, and teeth.
mucosa A membrane lining all body passages that communicate with the air, such as the respiratory and alimentary tracts, and having cells and associated glands that secrete mucus.
muscle A body tissue consisting of long cells that contract when stimulated and produce motion.
muscular system The bodily system that is composed of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue and functions in movement of the body or of materials through the body, maintenance of posture, and heat production.
myelencephalon The posterior part of the developing vertebrate hindbrain or the corresponding part of the adult brain composed of the medulla oblongata.
myeloid progenitor cell One of the two stem cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells, the other being the lymphoid progenitor cell. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the erythroid progenitor cells and the myeloid cells.
nasopharynx The upper part of the throat behind the nose. An opening on each side of the nasopharynx leads into the ear.
natural killer cell A large granular lymphocyte capable of killing a tumor or microbial cell without prior exposure to the target cell and without having it presented with or marked by a histocompatibility antigen.
neck The part of an animal that connects the head with the body.
neostriatum The neostriatum is a compound structure comprised of the putamen and caudate nucleus. In birds, it also includes the high vocal center; it has evolved into a structure nowadays called nidopallium.
nerve Any of the filamentous bands of nervous tissue that connect parts of the nervous system with the other organs, conduct nervous impulses, and are made up of axons and dendrites together with protective and supportive structures.
nervous system The nervous system is essentially a biological information highway, and is responsible for controlling all the biological processes and movement in the body, and can also receive information and interpret it via electrical signals which are used in this nervous system. It consists of the Central Nervous System (CNS), essentially the processing area and the Peripheral Nervous System which detects and sends electrical impulses that are used in the nervous system.
nucleus lentiformis The part of the corpus striatum somewhat resembling a biconvex lens, divided into an external, larger, lateral part (putamen) and an internal, smaller, lighter colored medial part (globus pallidus), which is in turn subdivided into a smaller, medial, and a larger, lateral part by the medial medullary lamina.
null cell A null cell is a large granular lymphocyte without surface markers or membrane-associated proteins from B lymphocytes or T lymphocytes. Members of null cells are natural killer cells, antigen dependent cytotoxic cells and the lymphokine activated killer cells.
occipital lobe This lobe is located at the back of the head and is involved in vision and reading.
olfactory bulb A bulbous anterior projection of the olfactory lobe that is the place of termination of the olfactory nerves and is especially well developed in lower vertebrates (as fishes).
olfactory lobe An anterior projection of each cerebral hemisphere that is continuous anteriorly with the olfactory nerve; A term applied to the olfactory apparatus on the lower surface of the frontal lobe of the brain. It consists of the olfactory bulb, tract, and trigone.
ophthalmic nerve The one of the three major branches or divisions of the trigeminal nerve that supply sensory fibers to the lacrimal gland, eyelids, ciliary muscle, nose, forehead, and adjoining parts.
oral mucosa The mucous coat (membrane) lining the oral cavity.
organism form
other source Other sources of an enzyme as cell culture or commercial preparation, not related to a specific tissue.
ovary One of the typically paired essential female reproductive organs that produce eggs and in vertebrates female sex hormones.
oviduct Either of a pair of slender ducts through which ova pass from the ovaries to the uterus in the female reproductive system of humans and higher mammals.
pancreas A large lobulated gland of vertebrates that secretes digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon.
pancreatic islet Irregular microscopic structures scattered throughout the pancreas and comprising its endocrine part (the endocrine pancreas). In humans, they are composed of at least four types of cells: the alpha cells, which secrete glucagon; the beta cells, which are the most abundant and secrete insulin; the delta cells, which secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells, which secrete pancreatic polypeptide. Degeneration of the beta cells, whose secretion (insulin) is important in carbohydrate metabolism, is the major cause of type I diabetes mellitus.
parathyroid gland Any of usually four small endocrine glands that are adjacent to or embedded in the thyroid gland and produce parathyroid hormone.
parenchyma The tissue characteristic of an organ, as distinguished from associated connective or supporting tissues.
parietal lobe The upper central lobe of the cerebral hemisphere, separated from the temporal lobe below by the lateral sulcus, but continuous at the posterior end of that sulcus, and separated from the frontal lobe by the central sulcus. Behind, it is continuous with the occipital lobe on the lateral surface, but separated from it by the parietooccipital sulcus on the medial surface.
peripheral blood Blood circulating throughout the body.
peripheral ganglion
peripheral nervous system The peripheral nervous system (PNS) connects the central nervous system (CNS) to sensory organs (such as the eye and ear), other organs of the body, muscles, blood vessels and glands.
phagocyte A cell, as a white blood cell, that engulfs and consumes foreign material, as microorganisms, and debris.
pharynx The part of the vertebrate alimentary canal between the cavity of the mouth and the esophagus. The pharynx of Nematodes is an efficient pump and forces food into the intestines.
pineal gland A small, cone-shaped organ in the brain of most vertebrates that secretes the hormone melatonin.
placenta The vascular organ in mammals except monotremes and marsupials that unites the fetus to the maternal uterus and mediates its metabolic exchanges through a more or less intimate association of uterine mucosal with chorionic and usually allantoic tissues; also: an analogous organ in another animal.
plant Any of a kingdom (Plantae) of living things typically lacking locomotive movement or obvious nervous or sensory organs and possessing cellulose cell walls.
plant embryo The early developmental stage that, through embryological development, ultimately becomes an adult individual. In plants, that portion of a seed that will form the growing seedling following germination, it has a radicle, apical meristem, and embryonic leaf or leaves.
plant form
plant vessel One of the tubular conductive vessels in the xylem of vascular plants.
plumule The primary bud of a plant embryo usually situated at the apex of the hypocotyl and consisting of leaves and an epicotyl.
pons A broad mass of chiefly transverse nerve fibers conspicuous on the ventral surface of the brain of man and lower mammals at the anterior end of the medulla oblongata.
prefrontal cortex The prefrontal cortex is the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain, lying in front of the motor and premotor areas.
prostate gland A firm partly muscular partly glandular body that is situated about the base of the mammalian male urethra and secretes an alkaline viscid fluid which is a major constituent of the ejaculatory fluid.
rectum The terminal part of the intestine from the sigmoid flexure to the anus.
reproductive system In women, the organs that are directly involved in producing eggs and in conceiving and carrying babies. In men, the organs directly involved in creating, storing, and delivering sperm to fertilize an egg.
respiratory epithelium Epithelium of the respiratory portion of the bronchial tree.
respiratory system A system of organs subserving the function of respiration and in air-breathing vertebrates consisting typically of the lungs and their nervous and circulatory supply and the channels by which these are continuous with the outer air.
retina The sensory membrane that lines the eye, is composed of several layers including one containing the rods and cones, and functions as the immediate instrument of vision by receiving the image formed by the lens and converting it into chemical and nervous signals which reach the brain by way of the optic nerve.
salivary gland The glands of the oral cavity whose combined secretion constitutes the saliva.
seed A matured ovule containing an embryo and food supply and covered by a seed coat.
seedling The embryonic product of the germination of a seed. The young shoot and root axis.
seminal vesicle Either of a pair of glandular pouches that lie one on either side of the male reproductive tract and in the human male secrete a sugar- and protein-containing fluid into the ejaculatory duct.
sense organ A bodily structure that receives a stimulus (as heat or sound waves) and is affected in such a manner as to initiate a wave of excitation in associated sensory nerve fibers which convey specific impulses to the central nervous system where they are interpreted as corresponding sensations: RECEPTOR.
shoot A sending out of new growth or the growth sent out: as a stem or branch with its leaves and appendages especially when not yet mature.
skeletal muscle A usually voluntary muscle made up of elongated, multinucleated, transversely striated muscle fibers, having principally bony attachments.
skeletal system The bodily system that consists of the bones, their associated cartilages, and the joints, and supports and protects the body, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.
skin The integument of an animal (as a fur-bearing mammal or a bird) separated from the body usually with its hair or feathers.
small intestine The part of the intestine that lies between the stomach and colon, consists of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, secretes digestive enzymes, and is the chief site of the absorption of digested nutrients. The proximal portion of the intestine.
smooth muscle Muscle tissue that lacks cross striations, that is made up of elongated spindle-shaped cells having a central nucleus, and that is found in vertebrate visceral structures (as the stomach and bladder) as thin sheets performing functions not subject to conscious control by the mind and in all or most of the musculature of invertebrates other than arthropods.
spinal cord The cord of nervous tissue that extends from the brain lengthwise along the back in the vertebral canal, gives off the pairs of spinal nerves, carries impulses to and from the brain, and serves as a center for initiating and coordinating many reflex acts.
spinal ganglion A ganglion on the dorsal root of each spinal nerve that is one of a series of ganglia lodging cell bodies of sensory neurons.
spleen A highly vascular ductless organ that is located in the left abdominal region near the stomach or intestine of most vertebrates and is concerned with final destruction of red blood cells, filtration and storage of blood, and production of lymphocytes.
stem The main trunk of a plant; specifically: a primary plant axis that develops buds and shoots instead of roots.
stomach A dilatation of the alimentary canal of a vertebrate communicating anteriorly with the esophagus and posteriorly with the duodenum.
subthalamic nucleus A biconvex mass of gray matter on the medial side of the junction of the internal capsule and the crus cerebri; its chief connections are with the globus pallidus.
superior cervical ganglion The uppermost ganglion on the sympathetic trunk, lying behind the internal carotid artery and in front of the second and third cervical vertebrae; it gives rise to postganglionic fibers to the heart via cervical cardiac nerves, to the pharyngeal plexus and thence to the larynx and pharynx, and to the head via the external and internal carotid plexuses.
sympathetic chain Either of the pair of ganglionated longitudinal cords of the sympathetic nervous system of which one is situated on each side of the spinal column.
sympathetic ganglion Any of the aggregations of cell bodies of primarily adrenergic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system, including the ganglia of the sympathetic trunks, the intermediate ganglia, the prevertebral ganglia, and some ganglionic cells in the autonomic plexuses.
sympathetic nervous system One of the two divisions of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system (the other being the parasympathetic nervous system). The sympathetic preganglionic neurons have their cell bodies in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord, and connect to the paravertebral chain of sympathetic ganglia. Innervate heart and blood vessels, sweat glands, viscera, and the adrenal medulla. Most sympathetic neurons, but not all, use noradrenaline as a post-ganglionic neurotransmitter.
t-lymphoblastic leukemia cell line
t-lymphocyte Any of several lymphocytes (as a helper T cell) that differentiate in the thymus, possess highly specific cell-surface antigen receptors, and include some that control the initiation or suppression of cell-mediated and humoral immunity (as by the regulation of T and B cell maturation and proliferation) and others that lyse antigen-bearing cells.
telencephalon An enlarged anterior or upper part of the brain; especially: the expanded anterior portion of the brain that in higher mammals overlies the rest of the brain, consists of cerebral hemispheres and connecting structures, and is considered to be the seat of conscious mental processes.
temporal lobe One of the two parietal lobes of the brain located behind the frontal lobe at the top of the brain. Parietal Lobe, Right - Damage to this area can cause visuo-spatial deficits (for example, the patient may have difficulty finding their way around new, or even familiar, places). Parietal Lobe, Left - Damage to this area may disrupt a patient's ability to understand spoken and/or written language. The parietal lobes contain the primary sensory cortex which controls sensation (touch, pressure). Behind the primary sensory cortex is a large association area that controls fine sensation (judgment of texture, weight, size, shape).
testis A typically paired male reproductive gland that produces sperm and that in most mammals is contained within the scrotum at sexual maturity.
thalamus The largest subdivision of the diencephalon that consists chiefly of an ovoid mass of nuclei in each lateral wall of the third ventricle and functions in the integration of sensory information.
thorax 1: The part of the mammalian body between the neck and the abdomen; also: its cavity in which the heart and lungs lie. 2: The middle of the three chief divisions of the body of an insect; also: the corresponding part of a crustacean or an arachnid.
throat 1: The part of the neck in front of the spinal column. 2: The passage through the neck to the stomach and lungs.
thymus A glandular structure of largely lymphoid tissue that functions especially in the development of the body's immune system, is present in the young of most vertebrates typically in the upper anterior chest or at the base of the neck, and tends to atrophy in the adult.
thyroid gland A two-lobed endocrine gland found in all vertebrates, located in front of and on either side of the trachea in humans, and producing various hormones, such as triiodothyronine and calcitonin.
tissues, cell types and enzyme sources A structured controlled vocabulary for the source of an enzyme. It comprises terms of tissues, cell lines, cell types and cell cultures from uni- and multicellular organisms.
tonsil The human palatine tonsils and the nasopharyngeal tonsil are lymphoepithelial tissues located in strategic areas of the oropharynx and nasopharynx, although most commonly, the term tonsils refers to the palatine tonsils that can be seen in the back of the throat.
trachea 1: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi. It is kept patent by a series of about twenty transverse horseshoe-shaped cartilages. Called also windpipe. 2: One of a system of minute tubes ramifying throughout the body of a terrestrial arthropod and delivering air to the tissues. Called also tracheal tubule.
trigeminal ganglion A ganglion on the sensory root of the fifth cranial nerve, situated in a cleft within the dura mater (trigeminal cave) on the anterior surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone, and giving off the ophthalmic and maxillary and part of the mandibular nerve; it contains the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve.
trigeminal nerve Either of the fifth pair of cranial nerves, having sensory and motor functions in the face, teeth, mouth, and nasal cavity.
trunk 1: The human or animal body apart from the head and appendages. 2: The thorax of an insect.
urinary bladder A membranous sac in many vertebrates that serves for the temporary retention of urine and discharges by the urethra.
urinary system The organs and passageways concerned with the production and excretion of urine, including the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
urinary tract The organs of the body that produce and discharge urine. These include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
urogenital system The urinary system and genital system considered together.
uterine cervix A constricted portion of an organ or part; especially: the narrow outer end of the uterus.
uterus An organ of the female mammal for containing and usually for nourishing the young during development previous to birth.
vagina A canal in a female mammal that leads from the uterus to the external orifice of the genital canal.
vascular bundle A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of xylem and phloem.
vascular system The vessels of the body, especially the blood vessels.
vascular tissue The supportive and conductive tissue in plants, consisting of xylem and phloem.
vermiform appendix A narrow blind tube usually about three or four inches (7.6 to 10.2 centimeters) long that extends from the cecum in the lower right-hand part of the abdomen, has much lymphoid wall tissue, normally communicates with the cavity of the cecum, and represents an atrophied terminal part of the cecum.
vertebrate muscular system
viscus An internal organ of the body; especially: one (as the heart, liver, or intestine) located in the great cavity of the trunk proper.
whole body The main part of an animal body especially as distinguished from limbs and head.
whole plant The main part of a plant.