Pathway Commons Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

Description protein-protein interactions from low-throughput or high-throughput studies aggregated by Pathway Commons from the following databases: Reactome, NCI Pathways, PhosphoSite, HumanCyc, HPRD, PANTHER, DIP, BioGRID, IntAct, BIND, Transfac, MiRTarBase, Drugbank, Recon X, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database, and KEGG
Measurement association by data aggregation
Association protein-protein associations from low-throughput or high-throughput protein-protein interaction data
Category physical interactions
Resource Pathway Commons
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  1. 15747 genes
  2. 15747 interacting proteins
  3. 3527164 gene-interacting protein associations

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interacting protein Gene Sets

15747 sets of interacting proteins for proteins from the Pathway Commons Protein-Protein Interactions dataset.

Gene Set Description
A1BG alpha-1-B glycoprotein|The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma glycoprotein of unknown function. The protein shows sequence similarity to the variable regions of some immunoglobulin supergene family member proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
A1CF APOBEC1 complementation factor|Mammalian apolipoprotein B mRNA undergoes site-specific C to U deamination, which is mediated by a multi-component enzyme complex containing a minimal core composed of APOBEC-1 and a complementation factor encoded by this gene. The gene product has three non-identical RNA recognition motifs and belongs to the hnRNP R family of RNA-binding proteins. It has been proposed that this complementation factor functions as an RNA-binding subunit and docks APOBEC-1 to deaminate the upstream cytidine. Studies suggest that the protein may also be involved in other RNA editing or RNA processing events. Several transcript variants encoding a few different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
A2M alpha-2-macroglobulin|Alpha-2-macroglobulin is a protease inhibitor and cytokine transporter. It inhibits many proteases, including trypsin, thrombin and collagenase. A2M is implicated in Alzheimer disease (AD) due to its ability to mediate the clearance and degradation of A-beta, the major component of beta-amyloid deposits. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
A2ML1 alpha-2-macroglobulin-like 1|This gene encodes a member of the alpha-macroglobulin superfamily. The encoded protein acts as an inhibitor for several proteases, and has been reported as the p170 antigen recognized by autoantibodies in the autoimmune disease paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP; PMID: 20805888). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
AAAS achalasia, adrenocortical insufficiency, alacrimia|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the WD-repeat family of regulatory proteins and may be involved in normal development of the peripheral and central nervous system. The encoded protein is part of the nuclear pore complex and is anchored there by NDC1. Defects in this gene are a cause of achalasia-addisonianism-alacrima syndrome (AAAS), also called triple-A syndrome or Allgrove syndrome. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
AACS acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase|
AADAC arylacetamide deacetylase|Microsomal arylacetamide deacetylase competes against the activity of cytosolic arylamine N-acetyltransferase, which catalyzes one of the initial biotransformation pathways for arylamine and heterocyclic amine carcinogens [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AAED1 AhpC/TSA antioxidant enzyme domain containing 1|
AAGAB alpha- and gamma-adaptin binding protein|The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the gamma-adaptin and alpha-adaptin subunits of complexes involved in clathrin-coated vesicle trafficking. Mutations in this gene are associated with type I punctate palmoplantar keratoderma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
AAK1 AP2 associated kinase 1|Adaptor-related protein complex 2 (AP-2 complexes) functions during receptor-mediated endocytosis to trigger clathrin assembly, interact with membrane-bound receptors, and recruit encodytic accessory factors. This gene encodes a member of the SNF1 subfamily of Ser/Thr protein kinases. The protein interacts with and phosphorylates a subunit of the AP-2 complex, which promotes binding of AP-2 to sorting signals found in membrane-bound receptors and subsequent receptor endocytosis. Its kinase activity is stimulated by clathrin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AAMDC adipogenesis associated, Mth938 domain containing|
AAMP angio-associated, migratory cell protein|The gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The encoded protein is associated with angiogenesis, with potential roles in endothelial tube formation and the migration of endothelial cells. It may also regulate smooth muscle cell migration via the RhoA pathway. The encoded protein can bind to heparin and may mediate heparin-sensitive cell adhesion. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
AANAT aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the acetyltransferase superfamily. It is the penultimate enzyme in melatonin synthesis and controls the night/day rhythm in melatonin production in the vertebrate pineal gland. Melatonin is essential for the function of the circadian clock that influences activity and sleep. This enzyme is regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation that promotes its interaction with 14-3-3 proteins and thus protects the enzyme against proteasomal degradation. This gene may contribute to numerous genetic diseases such as delayed sleep phase syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
AAR2 AAR2 splicing factor homolog (S. cerevisiae)|This gene encodes the homolog of the yeast A1-alpha2 repressin protein that is involved in mRNA splicing. Alternately spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
AARD alanine and arginine rich domain containing protein|
AARS alanyl-tRNA synthetase|The human alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AARS) belongs to a family of tRNA synthases, of the class II enzymes. Class II tRNA synthases evolved early in evolution and are highly conserved. This is reflected by the fact that 498 of the 968-residue polypeptide human AARS shares 41% identity witht the E.coli protein. tRNA synthases are the enzymes that interpret the RNA code and attach specific aminoacids to the tRNAs that contain the cognate trinucleotide anticodons. They consist of a catalytic domain which interacts with the amino acid acceptor-T psi C helix of the tRNA, and a second domain which interacts with the rest of the tRNA structure. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AARS2 alanyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the class-II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases play critical roles in mRNA translation by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. The encoded protein is a mitochondrial enzyme that specifically aminoacylates alanyl-tRNA. Mutations in this gene are a cause of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 8. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
AARSD1 alanyl-tRNA synthetase domain containing 1|
AASDHPPT aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase-phosphopantetheinyl transferase|The protein encoded by this gene is similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae LYS5, which is required for the activation of the alpha-aminoadipate dehydrogenase in the biosynthetic pathway of lysine. Yeast alpha-aminoadipate dehydrogenase converts alpha-biosynthetic-aminoadipate semialdehyde to alpha-aminoadipate. It has been suggested that defects in the human gene result in pipecolic acidemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AASS aminoadipate-semialdehyde synthase|This gene encodes a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the first two steps in the mammalian lysine degradation pathway. The N-terminal and the C-terminal portions of this enzyme contain lysine-ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase activity, respectively, resulting in the conversion of lysine to alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde. Mutations in this gene are associated with familial hyperlysinemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AATF apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor|The protein encoded by this gene was identified on the basis of its interaction with MAP3K12/DLK, a protein kinase known to be involved in the induction of cell apoptosis. This gene product contains a leucine zipper, which is a characteristic motif of transcription factors, and was shown to exhibit strong transactivation activity when fused to Gal4 DNA binding domain. Overexpression of this gene interfered with MAP3K12 induced apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AATK apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase|The protein encoded by this gene contains a tyrosine kinase domain at the N-terminus and a proline-rich domain at the C-terminus. This gene is induced during apoptosis, and expression of this gene may be a necessary pre-requisite for the induction of growth arrest and/or apoptosis of myeloid precursor cells. This gene has been shown to produce neuronal differentiation in a neuroblastoma cell line. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
ABAT 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase|4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (ABAT) is responsible for catabolism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an important, mostly inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, into succinic semialdehyde. The active enzyme is a homodimer of 50-kD subunits complexed to pyridoxal-5-phosphate. The protein sequence is over 95% similar to the pig protein. GABA is estimated to be present in nearly one-third of human synapses. ABAT in liver and brain is controlled by 2 codominant alleles with a frequency in a Caucasian population of 0.56 and 0.44. The ABAT deficiency phenotype includes psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, hyperreflexia, lethargy, refractory seizures, and EEG abnormalities. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein isoform have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCA1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 1|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the ABC1 subfamily. Members of the ABC1 subfamily comprise the only major ABC subfamily found exclusively in multicellular eukaryotes. With cholesterol as its substrate, this protein functions as a cholesteral efflux pump in the cellular lipid removal pathway. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Tangier's disease and familial high-density lipoprotein deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCA10 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 10|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, and White). This encoded protein is a member of the ABC1 subfamily. Members of the ABC1 subfamily comprise the only major ABC subfamily found exclusively in multicellular eukaryotes. This gene is clustered among 4 other ABC1 family members on 17q24, but neither the substrate nor the function of this gene is known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCA12 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 12|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, and White). This encoded protein is a member of the ABC1 subfamily, which is the only major ABC subfamily found exclusively in multicellular eukaryotes. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCA13 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 13|In human, the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transmembrane transporters has at least 48 genes and 7 gene subfamilies. This gene is a member of ABC gene subfamily A (ABCA). Genes within the ABCA family typically encode several thousand amino acids. Like other ABC transmembrane transporter proteins, this protein has 12 or more transmembrane alpha-helix domains that likely arrange to form a single central chamber with multiple substrate binding sites. It is also predicted to have two large extracellular domains and two nucleotide binding domains as is typical for ABCA proteins. Alternative splice variants have been described but their biological validity has not been demonstrated.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
ABCA2 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 2|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the ABC1 subfamily. Members of the ABC1 subfamily comprise the only major ABC subfamily found exclusively in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein is highly expressed in brain tissue and may play a role in macrophage lipid metabolism and neural development. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCA3 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 3|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the ABC1 subfamily. Members of the ABC1 subfamily comprise the only major ABC subfamily found exclusively in multicellular eukaryotes. The full transporter encoded by this gene may be involved in development of resistance to xenobiotics and engulfment during programmed cell death. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCA4 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 4|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the ABC1 subfamily. Members of the ABC1 subfamily comprise the only major ABC subfamily found exclusively in multicellular eukaryotes. This protein is a retina-specific ABC transporter with N-retinylidene-PE as a substrate. It is expressed exclusively in retina photoreceptor cells, indicating the gene product mediates transport of an essental molecule across the photoreceptor cell membrane. Mutations in this gene are found in patients diagnosed with Stargardt disease, a form of juvenile-onset macular degeneration. Mutations in this gene are also associated with retinitis pigmentosa-19, cone-rod dystrophy type 3, early-onset severe retinal dystrophy, fundus flavimaculatus, and macular degeneration age-related 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCA5 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 5|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, and White). This encoded protein is a member of the ABC1 subfamily. Members of the ABC1 subfamily comprise the only major ABC subfamily found exclusively in multicellular eukaryotes. This gene is clustered among 4 other ABC1 family members on 17q24, but neither the substrate nor the function of this gene is known. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants; however, not all variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCA6 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 6|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, and White). This encoded protein is a member of the ABC1 subfamily. Members of the ABC1 subfamily comprise the only major ABC subfamily found exclusively in multicellular eukaryotes. This gene is clustered among 4 other ABC1 family members on 17q24 and may play a role in macrophage lipid homeostasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCA7 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 7|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the ABC1 subfamily. Members of the ABC1 subfamily comprise the only major ABC subfamily found exclusively in multicellular eukaryotes. This full transporter has been detected predominantly in myelo-lymphatic tissues with the highest expression in peripheral leukocytes, thymus, spleen, and bone marrow. The function of this protein is not yet known; however, the expression pattern suggests a role in lipid homeostasis in cells of the immune system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCA8 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 8|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the ABC1 subfamily. Members of the ABC1 subfamily comprise the only major ABC subfamily found exclusively in multicellular eukaryotes. The encoded protein may regulate lipid metabolism and be involved in the formation and maintenance of myelin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
ABCA9 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 9|This gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and the encoded protein contains two transmembrane domains and two nucleotide binding folds. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, and White). This gene is a member of the ABC1 subfamily and is clustered with four other ABC1 family members on chromosome 17q24. Transcriptional expression of this gene is induced during monocyte differentiation into macrophages and is suppressed by cholesterol import. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCB1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 1|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance. The protein encoded by this gene is an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump for xenobiotic compounds with broad substrate specificity. It is responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells and often mediates the development of resistance to anticancer drugs. This protein also functions as a transporter in the blood-brain barrier. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCB10 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 10|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance. The function of this mitochondrial protein is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCB11 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance. The protein encoded by this gene is the major canalicular bile salt export pump in man. Mutations in this gene cause a form of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestases which are a group of inherited disorders with severe cholestatic liver disease from early infancy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCB4 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 4|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance as well as antigen presentation. This gene encodes a full transporter and member of the p-glycoprotein family of membrane proteins with phosphatidylcholine as its substrate. The function of this protein has not yet been determined; however, it may involve transport of phospholipids from liver hepatocytes into bile. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several products of undetermined function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCB5 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 5|ABCB5 belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily of integral membrane proteins. These proteins participate in ATP-dependent transmembrane transport of structurally diverse molecules ranging from small ions, sugars, and peptides to more complex organic molecules (Chen et al., 2005 [PubMed 15760339]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ABCB6 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 6 (Langereis blood group)|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance as well as antigen presentation. This half-transporter likely plays a role in mitochondrial function. Localized to 2q26, this gene is considered a candidate gene for lethal neonatal metabolic syndrome, a disorder of mitochondrial function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCB7 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 7|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance as well as antigen presentation. This gene encodes a half-transporter involved in the transport of heme from the mitochondria to the cytosol. With iron/sulfur cluster precursors as its substrates, this protein may play a role in metal homeostasis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with mitochondrial iron accumulation and isodicentric (X)(q13) and sideroblastic anemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
ABCB8 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 8|This nuclear gene encodes a multi-pass membrane protein that is targeted to the mitochondrial inner membrane. The encoded protein is an ATP-dependent transporter that may mediate the passage of organic and inorganic molecules out of the mitochondria. Loss of function of the related gene in mouse results in a disruption of iron homeostasis between the mitochondria and cytosol. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
ABCB9 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 9|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MDR/TAP subfamily. Members of the MDR/TAP subfamily are involved in multidrug resistance as well as antigen presentation. This family member functions in the translocation of peptides from the cytosol into the lysosomal lumen. Alternative splicing of this gene results in distinct isoforms which are likely to have different substrate specificities. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
ABCC1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra-and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This full transporter is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This protein functions as a multispecific organic anion transporter, with oxidized glutatione, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and activated aflatoxin B1 as substrates. This protein also transports glucuronides and sulfate conjugates of steroid hormones and bile salts. Alternatively spliced variants of this gene have been described but their full-length nature is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
ABCC10 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 10|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, and White). This ABC full-transporter is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
ABCC12 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 12|This gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and the encoded protein contains two ATP-binding domains and 12 transmembrane regions. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies: ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, and White. This gene is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This gene and another subfamily member are arranged head-to-tail on chromosome 16q12.1. Increased expression of this gene is associated with breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCC2 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This protein is expressed in the canalicular (apical) part of the hepatocyte and functions in biliary transport. Substrates include anticancer drugs such as vinblastine; therefore, this protein appears to contribute to drug resistance in mammalian cells. Several different mutations in this gene have been observed in patients with Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCC3 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. The specific function of this protein has not yet been determined; however, this protein may play a role in the transport of biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCC4 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This family member plays a role in cellular detoxification as a pump for its substrate, organic anions. It may also function in prostaglandin-mediated cAMP signaling in ciliogenesis. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
ABCC5 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 5|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This protein functions in the cellular export of its substrate, cyclic nucleotides. This export contributes to the degradation of phosphodiesterases and possibly an elimination pathway for cyclic nucleotides. Studies show that this protein provides resistance to thiopurine anticancer drugs, 6-mercatopurine and thioguanine, and the anti-HIV drug 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine. This protein may be involved in resistance to thiopurines in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and antiretroviral nucleoside analogs in HIV-infected patients. Alternative splicing of this gene has been detected; however, the complete sequence and translation initiation site is unclear. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCC6 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 6|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). The encoded protein, a member of the MRP subfamily, is involved in multi-drug resistance. Mutations in this gene cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different proteins have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCC8 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 8|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This protein functions as a modulator of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and insulin release. Mutations and deficiencies in this protein have been observed in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, an autosomal recessive disorder of unregulated and high insulin secretion. Mutations have also been associated with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type II, an autosomal dominant disease of defective insulin secretion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
ABCC9 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C (CFTR/MRP), member 9|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the MRP subfamily which is involved in multi-drug resistance. This protein is thought to form ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cardiac, skeletal, and vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle. Protein structure suggests a role as the drug-binding channel-modulating subunit of the extra-pancreatic ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Mutations in this gene are associated with cardiomyopathy dilated type 1O. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
ABCD1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D (ALD), member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the ALD subfamily, which is involved in peroxisomal import of fatty acids and/or fatty acyl-CoAs in the organelle. All known peroxisomal ABC transporters are half transporters which require a partner half transporter molecule to form a functional homodimeric or heterodimeric transporter. This peroxisomal membrane protein is likely involved in the peroxisomal transport or catabolism of very long chain fatty acids. Defects in this gene have been identified as the underlying cause of adrenoleukodystrophy, an X-chromosome recessively inherited demyelinating disorder of the nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCD2 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D (ALD), member 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the ALD subfamily, which is involved in peroxisomal import of fatty acids and/or fatty acyl-CoAs in the organelle. All known peroxisomal ABC transporters are half transporters which require a partner half transporter molecule to form a functional homodimeric or heterodimeric transporter. The function of this peroxisomal membrane protein is unknown; however this protein is speculated to function as a dimerization partner of ABCD1 and/or other peroxisomal ABC transporters. Mutations in this gene have been observed in patients with adrenoleukodystrophy, a severe demyelinating disease. This gene has been identified as a candidate for a modifier gene, accounting for the extreme variation among adrenoleukodystrophy phenotypes. This gene is also a candidate for a complement group of Zellweger syndrome, a genetically heterogeneous disorder of peroxisomal biogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCD3 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D (ALD), member 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the ALD subfamily, which is involved in peroxisomal import of fatty acids and/or fatty acyl-CoAs in the organelle. All known peroxisomal ABC transporters are half transporters which require a partner half transporter molecule to form a functional homodimeric or heterodimeric transporter. This peroxisomal membrane protein likely plays an important role in peroxisome biogenesis. Mutations have been associated with some forms of Zellweger syndrome, a heterogeneous group of peroxisome assembly disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCD4 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D (ALD), member 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the ALD subfamily, which is involved in peroxisomal import of fatty acids and/or fatty acyl-CoAs in the organelle. All known peroxisomal ABC transporters are half transporters which require a partner half transporter molecule to form a functional homodimeric or heterodimeric transporter. The function of this peroxisomal membrane protein is unknown. However, it is speculated that it may function as a heterodimer for another peroxisomal ABC transporter and, therefore, may modify the adrenoleukodystrophy phenotype. It may also play a role in the process of peroxisome biogenesis. Alternative splicing results in at least two different transcript variants, one which is protein-coding and one which is probably not protein-coding. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCE1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family E (OABP), member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the OABP subfamily. Alternatively referred to as the RNase L inhibitor, this protein functions to block the activity of ribonuclease L. Activation of ribonuclease L leads to inhibition of protein synthesis in the 2-5A/RNase L system, the central pathway for viral interferon action. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCF1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family F (GCN20), member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the GCN20 subfamily. Unlike other members of the superfamily, this protein lacks the transmembrane domains which are characteristic of most ABC transporters. This protein may be regulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and play a role in enhancement of protein synthesis and the inflammation process. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCF2 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family F (GCN20), member 2|This gene encodes a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. ATP-binding casette proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intracellular membranes. Alterations in this gene may be involved in cancer progression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 3 and 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
ABCF3 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family F (GCN20), member 3|
ABCG1 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the White subfamily. It is involved in macrophage cholesterol and phospholipids transport, and may regulate cellular lipid homeostasis in other cell types. Six alternative splice variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCG2 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 2 (Junior blood group)|The membrane-associated protein encoded by this gene is included in the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the White subfamily. Alternatively referred to as a breast cancer resistance protein, this protein functions as a xenobiotic transporter which may play a major role in multi-drug resistance. It likely serves as a cellular defense mechanism in response to mitoxantrone and anthracycline exposure. Significant expression of this protein has been observed in the placenta, which may suggest a potential role for this molecule in placenta tissue. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
ABCG4 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 4|The protein encoded by this gene is included in the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the White subfamily and is expressed predominantly in liver tissue. The function has not yet been determined but may involve cholesterol transport. Alternate splice variants have been described but their full length sequences have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCG5 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 5|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the White subfamily. The protein encoded by this gene functions as a half-transporter to limit intestinal absorption and promote biliary excretion of sterols. It is expressed in a tissue-specific manner in the liver, colon, and intestine. This gene is tandemly arrayed on chromosome 2, in a head-to-head orientation with family member ABCG8. Mutations in this gene may contribute to sterol accumulation and atheroschlerosis, and have been observed in patients with sitosterolemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABCG8 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G (WHITE), member 8|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct subfamilies (ABC1, MDR/TAP, MRP, ALD, OABP, GCN20, White). This protein is a member of the White subfamily. The protein encoded by this gene functions to exclude non-cholesterol sterol entry at the intestinal level, promote excretion of cholesterol and sterols into bile, and to facilitate transport of sterols back into the intestinal lumen. It is expressed in a tissue-specific manner in the liver, intestine, and gallbladder. This gene is tandemly arrayed on chromosome 2, in a head-to-head orientation with family member ABCG5. Mutations in this gene may contribute to sterol accumulation and atherosclerosis, and have been observed in patients with sitosterolemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABHD10 abhydrolase domain containing 10|This gene encodes a mitochondrially-localized enzyme that acts in liver cells as a hydrolase. The encoded protein removes glucuronide from mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 6. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
ABHD11 abhydrolase domain containing 11|This gene encodes a protein containing an alpha/beta hydrolase fold domain. This gene is deleted in Williams syndrome, a multisystem developmental disorder caused by the deletion of contiguous genes at 7q11.23. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABHD12 abhydrolase domain containing 12|This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), the main endocannabinoid lipid transmitter that acts on cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. The endocannabinoid system is involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including neurotransmission, mood, appetite, pain appreciation, addiction behavior, and inflammation. Mutations in this gene are associated with the neurodegenerative disease, PHARC (polyneuropathy, hearing loss, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and cataract), resulting from an inborn error of endocannabinoid metabolism. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ABHD14A abhydrolase domain containing 14A|
ABHD14B abhydrolase domain containing 14B|
ABHD16A abhydrolase domain containing 16A|A cluster of genes, BAT1-BAT5, has been localized in the vicinity of the genes for tumor necrosis factor alpha and tumor necrosis factor beta. These genes are all within the human major histocompatibility complex class III region. The protein encoded by this gene is thought to be involved in some aspects of immunity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
ABHD17A abhydrolase domain containing 17A|
ABHD17B abhydrolase domain containing 17B|
ABHD17C abhydrolase domain containing 17C|
ABHD2 abhydrolase domain containing 2|This gene encodes a protein containing an alpha/beta hydrolase fold, which is a catalytic domain found in a very wide range of enzymes. The function of this protein has not been determined. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABHD3 abhydrolase domain containing 3|This gene encodes a protein containing an alpha/beta hydrolase fold, which is a catalytic domain found in a very wide range of enzymes. The function of this protein has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABHD4 abhydrolase domain containing 4|
ABHD5 abhydrolase domain containing 5|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a large family of proteins defined by an alpha/beta hydrolase fold, and contains three sequence motifs that correspond to a catalytic triad found in the esterase/lipase/thioesterase subfamily. It differs from other members of this subfamily in that its putative catalytic triad contains an asparagine instead of the serine residue. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, a triglyceride storage disease with impaired long-chain fatty acid oxidation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABHD6 abhydrolase domain containing 6|
ABI1 abl-interactor 1|This gene encodes a member of the Abelson-interactor family of adaptor proteins. These proteins facilitate signal transduction as components of several multiprotein complexes, and regulate actin polymerization and cytoskeletal remodeling through interactions with Abelson tyrosine kinases. The encoded protein plays a role in macropinocytosis as a component of the WAVE2 complex, and also forms a complex with EPS8 and SOS1 that mediates signal transduction from Ras to Rac. This gene may play a role in the progression of several malignancies including melanoma, colon cancer and breast cancer, and a t(10;11) chromosomal translocation involving this gene and the MLL gene has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
ABI2 abl-interactor 2|
ABI3 ABI family, member 3|This gene encodes a member of an adaptor protein family. Members of this family encode proteins containing a homeobox homology domain, proline rich region and Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain, and are components of the Abi/WAVE complex which regulates actin polymerization. The encoded protein inhibits ectopic metastasis of tumor cells as well as cell migration. This may be accomplished through interaction with p21-activated kinase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
ABI3BP ABI family, member 3 (NESH) binding protein|
ABL1 ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase|This gene is a protooncogene that encodes a protein tyrosine kinase involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell division, adhesion, differentiation, and response to stress. The activity of the protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, whereby deletion of the region encoding this domain results in an oncogene. The ubiquitously expressed protein has DNA-binding activity that is regulated by CDC2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting a cell cycle function. This gene has been found fused to a variety of translocation partner genes in various leukemias, most notably the t(9;22) translocation that results in a fusion with the 5' end of the breakpoint cluster region gene (BCR; MIM:151410). Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants, which contain alternative first exons that are spliced to the remaining common exons. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]
ABL2 ABL proto-oncogene 2, non-receptor tyrosine kinase|This gene encodes a member of the Abelson family of nonreceptor tyrosine protein kinases. The protein is highly similar to the c-abl oncogene 1 protein, including the tyrosine kinase, SH2 and SH3 domains, and it plays a role in cytoskeletal rearrangements through its C-terminal F-actin- and microtubule-binding sequences. This gene is expressed in both normal and tumor cells, and is involved in translocation with the ets variant 6 gene in leukemia. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
ABLIM1 actin binding LIM protein 1|This gene encodes a cytoskeletal LIM protein that binds to actin filaments via a domain that is homologous to erythrocyte dematin. LIM domains, found in over 60 proteins, play key roles in the regulation of developmental pathways. LIM domains also function as protein-binding interfaces, mediating specific protein-protein interactions. The protein encoded by this gene could mediate such interactions between actin filaments and cytoplasmic targets. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABLIM2 actin binding LIM protein family, member 2|
ABLIM3 actin binding LIM protein family, member 3|The LIM domain is a double zinc finger structure that promotes protein-protein interactions. LIM domain proteins, such as ABLIM3, play roles in embryonic development, cell lineage determination, and cancer (Krupp et al., 2006 [PubMed 16328021]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ABO ABO blood group (transferase A, alpha 1-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase; transferase B, alpha 1-3-galactosyltransferase)|This gene encodes proteins related to the first discovered blood group system, ABO. Which allele is present in an individual determines the blood group. The 'O' blood group is caused by a deletion of guanine-258 near the N-terminus of the protein which results in a frameshift and translation of an almost entirely different protein. Individuals with the A, B, and AB alleles express glycosyltransferase activities that convert the H antigen into the A or B antigen. Other minor alleles have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABR active BCR-related|This gene encodes a protein that is similar to the protein encoded by the breakpoint cluster region gene located on chromosome 22. The protein encoded by this gene contains a GTPase-activating protein domain, a domain found in members of the Rho family of GTP-binding proteins. Functional studies in mice determined that this protein plays a role in vestibular morphogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
ABRA actin binding Rho activating protein|
ABRACL ABRA C-terminal like|
ABT1 activator of basal transcription 1|Basal transcription of genes by RNA polymerase II requires the interaction of TATA-binding protein (TBP) with the core region of class II promoters. Studies in mouse suggest that the protein encoded by this gene likely activates basal transcription from class II promoters by interaction with TBP and the class II promoter DNA. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ABTB1 ankyrin repeat and BTB (POZ) domain containing 1|This gene encodes a protein with an ankyrin repeat region and two BTB/POZ domains, which are thought to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Expression of this gene is activated by the phosphatase and tensin homolog, a tumor suppressor. Alternate splicing results in three transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
ABTB2 ankyrin repeat and BTB (POZ) domain containing 2|
ACAA1 acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1|This gene encodes an enzyme operative in the beta-oxidation system of the peroxisomes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to pseudo-Zellweger syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACAA2 acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 2|The encoded protein catalyzes the last step of the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation spiral. Unlike most mitochondrial matrix proteins, it contains a non-cleavable amino-terminal targeting signal. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACACA acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha|Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a complex multifunctional enzyme system. ACC is a biotin-containing enzyme which catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid synthesis. There are two ACC forms, alpha and beta, encoded by two different genes. ACC-alpha is highly enriched in lipogenic tissues. The enzyme is under long term control at the transcriptional and translational levels and under short term regulation by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of targeted serine residues and by allosteric transformation by citrate or palmitoyl-CoA. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants divergent in the 5' sequence and encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACACB acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta|Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a complex multifunctional enzyme system. ACC is a biotin-containing enzyme which catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid synthesis. ACC-beta is thought to control fatty acid oxidation by means of the ability of malonyl-CoA to inhibit carnitine-palmitoyl-CoA transferase I, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid uptake and oxidation by mitochondria. ACC-beta may be involved in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, rather than fatty acid biosynthesis. There is evidence for the presence of two ACC-beta isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACAD10 acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, member 10|This gene encodes a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family of enzymes (ACADs), which participate in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria. The encoded enzyme contains a hydrolase domain at the N-terminal portion, a serine/threonine protein kinase catlytic domain in the central region, and a conserved ACAD domain at the C-terminus. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
ACAD11 acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, member 11|
ACAD8 acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, member 8|This gene encodes a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family of enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA derivatives in the metabolism of fatty acids or branch chained amino acids. The encoded protein is a mitochondrial enzyme that functions in catabolism of the branched-chain amino acid valine. Defects in this gene are the cause of isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
ACAD9 acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, member 9|This gene encodes a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family. Members of this family of proteins localize to the mitochondria and catalyze the rate-limiting step in the beta-oxidation of fatty acyl-CoA. The encoded protein is specifically active toward palmitoyl-CoA and long-chain unsaturated substrates. Mutations in this gene cause acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family member type 9 deficiency. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
ACADL acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long chain|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, which is a family of mitochondrial flavoenzymes involved in fatty acid and branched chain amino-acid metabolism. This protein is one of the four enzymes that catalyze the initial step of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of straight-chain fatty acid. Defects in this gene are the cause of long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) deficiency, leading to nonketotic hypoglycemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACADM acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, C-4 to C-12 straight chain|This gene encodes the medium-chain specific (C4 to C12 straight chain) acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase. The homotetramer enzyme catalyzes the initial step of the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. Defects in this gene cause medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, a disease characterized by hepatic dysfunction, fasting hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy, which can result in infantile death. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACADS acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, C-2 to C-3 short chain|This gene encodes a tetrameric mitochondrial flavoprotein, which is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family. This enzyme catalyzes the initial step of the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. Mutations in this gene have been associated with short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency. Alternative splicing results in two variants which encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
ACADSB acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short/branched chain|Short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase(ACADSB) is a member of the acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family of enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of acyl-CoA derivatives in the metabolism of fatty acids or branch chained amino acids. Substrate specificity is the primary characteristic used to define members of this gene family. The ACADSB gene product has the greatest activity towards the short branched chain acyl-CoA derivative, (S)-2-methylbutyryl-CoA, but also reacts significantly with other 2-methyl branched chain substrates and with short straight chain acyl-CoAs. The cDNA encodes for a mitochondrial precursor protein which is cleaved upon mitochondrial import and predicted to yield a mature peptide of approximately 43.7-KDa. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACADVL acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain|The protein encoded by this gene is targeted to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it catalyzes the first step of the mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway. This acyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase is specific to long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acids. A deficiency in this gene product reduces myocardial fatty acid beta-oxidation and is associated with cardiomyopathy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACAN aggrecan|This gene is a member of the aggrecan/versican proteoglycan family. The encoded protein is an integral part of the extracellular matrix in cartilagenous tissue and it withstands compression in cartilage. Mutations in this gene may be involved in skeletal dysplasia and spinal degeneration. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been observed in this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACAP1 ArfGAP with coiled-coil, ankyrin repeat and PH domains 1|
ACAP2 ArfGAP with coiled-coil, ankyrin repeat and PH domains 2|
ACAP3 ArfGAP with coiled-coil, ankyrin repeat and PH domains 3|
ACAT1 acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1|This gene encodes a mitochondrially localized enzyme that catalyzes the reversible formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of acetyl-CoA. Defects in this gene are associated with 3-ketothiolase deficiency, an inborn error of isoleucine catabolism characterized by urinary excretion of 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-methylacetoacetic acid, tiglylglycine, and butanone. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
ACAT2 acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 2|The product of this gene is an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, and it encodes cytosolic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase. This gene shows complementary overlapping with the 3-prime region of the TCP1 gene in both mouse and human. These genes are encoded on opposite strands of DNA, as well as in opposite transcriptional orientation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ACBD3 acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3|The Golgi complex plays a key role in the sorting and modification of proteins exported from the endoplasmic reticulum. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the maintenance of Golgi structure and function through its interaction with the integral membrane protein giantin. It may also be involved in the hormonal regulation of steroid formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACBD4 acyl-CoA binding domain containing 4|This gene encodes a member of the acyl-coenzyme A binding domain containing protein family. All family members contain the conserved acyl-Coenzyme A binding domain, which binds acyl-CoA thiol esters. They are thought to play roles in acyl-CoA dependent lipid metabolism. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ACBD5 acyl-CoA binding domain containing 5|This gene encodes a member of the acyl-Coenzyme A binding protein family, known to function in the transport and distribution of long chain acyl-Coenzyme A in cells. This gene may play a role in the differentiation of megakaryocytes and formation of platelets. A related protein in yeast is involved in autophagy of peroxisomes. A mutation in this gene has been associated with autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
ACBD6 acyl-CoA binding domain containing 6|
ACCS 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase homolog (Arabidopsis)(non-functional)|
ACD adrenocortical dysplasia homolog (mouse)|This gene encodes a protein that is involved in telomere function. This protein is one of six core proteins in the telosome/shelterin telomeric complex, which functions to maintain telomere length and to protect telomere ends. Through its interaction with other components, this protein plays a key role in the assembly and stabilization of this complex, and it mediates the access of telomerase to the telomere. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. This gene, which is also referred to as TPP1, is distinct from the unrelated TPP1 gene on chromosome 11, which encodes tripeptidyl-peptidase I. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACE angiotensin I converting enzyme|This gene encodes an enzyme involved in catalyzing the conversion of angiotensin I into a physiologically active peptide angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasopressor and aldosterone-stimulating peptide that controls blood pressure and fluid-electrolyte balance. This enzyme plays a key role in the renin-angiotensin system. Many studies have associated the presence or absence of a 287 bp Alu repeat element in this gene with the levels of circulating enzyme or cardiovascular pathophysiologies. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified, and two most abundant spliced variants encode the somatic form and the testicular form, respectively, that are equally active. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
ACE2 angiotensin I converting enzyme 2|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the angiotensin-converting enzyme family of dipeptidyl carboxydipeptidases and has considerable homology to human angiotensin 1 converting enzyme. This secreted protein catalyzes the cleavage of angiotensin I into angiotensin 1-9, and angiotensin II into the vasodilator angiotensin 1-7. The organ- and cell-specific expression of this gene suggests that it may play a role in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function, as well as fertility. In addition, the encoded protein is a functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of the human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACER3 alkaline ceramidase 3|
ACHE acetylcholinesterase (Yt blood group)|Acetylcholinesterase hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine at neuromuscular junctions and brain cholinergic synapses, and thus terminates signal transmission. It is also found on the red blood cell membranes, where it constitutes the Yt blood group antigen. Acetylcholinesterase exists in multiple molecular forms which possess similar catalytic properties, but differ in their oligomeric assembly and mode of cell attachment to the cell surface. It is encoded by the single ACHE gene, and the structural diversity in the gene products arises from alternative mRNA splicing, and post-translational associations of catalytic and structural subunits. The major form of acetylcholinesterase found in brain, muscle and other tissues is the hydrophilic species, which forms disulfide-linked oligomers with collagenous, or lipid-containing structural subunits. The other, alternatively spliced form, expressed primarily in the erythroid tissues, differs at the C-terminal end, and contains a cleavable hydrophobic peptide with a GPI-anchor site. It associates with the membranes through the phosphoinositide (PI) moieties added post-translationally. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACIN1 apoptotic chromatin condensation inducer 1|Apoptosis is defined by several morphologic nuclear changes, including chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. This gene encodes a nuclear protein that induces apoptotic chromatin condensation after activation by caspase-3, without inducing DNA fragmentation. This protein has also been shown to be a component of a splicing-dependent multiprotein exon junction complex (EJC) that is deposited at splice junctions on mRNAs, as a consequence of pre-mRNA splicing. It may thus be involved in mRNA metabolism associated with splicing. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
ACLY ATP citrate lyase|ATP citrate lyase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. The enzyme is a tetramer (relative molecular weight approximately 440,000) of apparently identical subunits. It catalyzes the formation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate from citrate and CoA with a concomitant hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and phosphate. The product, acetyl-CoA, serves several important biosynthetic pathways, including lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis. In nervous tissue, ATP citrate-lyase may be involved in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ACMSD aminocarboxymuconate semialdehyde decarboxylase|The neuronal excitotoxin quinolinate is an intermediate in the de novo synthesis pathway of NAD from tryptophan, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Quinolinate is derived from alpha-amino-beta-carboxy-muconate-epsilon-semialdehyde (ACMS). ACMSD (ACMS decarboxylase; EC 4.1.1.45) can divert ACMS to a benign catabolite and thus prevent the accumulation of quinolinate from ACMS.[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2004]
ACN9 succinate dehydrogenase complex assembly factor 3|
ACO1 aconitase 1, soluble|The protein encoded by this gene is a bifunctional, cytosolic protein that functions as an essential enzyme in the TCA cycle and interacts with mRNA to control the levels of iron inside cells. When cellular iron levels are high, this protein binds to a 4Fe-4S cluster and functions as an aconitase. Aconitases are iron-sulfur proteins that function to catalyze the conversion of citrate to isocitrate. When cellular iron levels are low, the protein binds to iron-responsive elements (IREs), which are stem-loop structures found in the 5' UTR of ferritin mRNA, and in the 3' UTR of transferrin receptor mRNA. When the protein binds to IRE, it results in repression of translation of ferritin mRNA, and inhibition of degradation of the otherwise rapidly degraded transferrin receptor mRNA. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
ACO2 aconitase 2, mitochondrial|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the aconitase/IPM isomerase family. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate in the second step of the TCA cycle. This protein is encoded in the nucleus and functions in the mitochondrion. It was found to be one of the mitochondrial matrix proteins that are preferentially degraded by the serine protease 15(PRSS15), also known as Lon protease, after oxidative modification. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACOT1 acyl-CoA thioesterase 1|
ACOT11 acyl-CoA thioesterase 11|This gene encodes a member of the acyl-CoA thioesterase family which catalyse the conversion of activated fatty acids to the corresponding non-esterified fatty acid and coenzyme A. Expression of a mouse homolog in brown adipose tissue is induced by low temperatures and repressed by warm temperatures. Higher levels of expression of the mouse homolog has been found in obesity-resistant mice compared with obesity-prone mice, suggesting a role of acyl-CoA thioesterase 11 in obesity. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
ACOT13 acyl-CoA thioesterase 13|This gene encodes a member of the thioesterase superfamily. In humans, the protein co-localizes with microtubules and is essential for sustained cell proliferation. The orthologous mouse protein forms a homotetramer and is associated with mitochondria. The mouse protein functions as a medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
ACOT2 acyl-CoA thioesterase 2|This gene encodes a member of the acyl-CoA thioesterase protein family, and is one of four acyl-CoA hydrolase genes located in a cluster on chromosome 14. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
ACOT4 acyl-CoA thioesterase 4|
ACOT7 acyl-CoA thioesterase 7|This gene encodes a member of the acyl coenzyme family. The encoded protein hydrolyzes the CoA thioester of palmitoyl-CoA and other long-chain fatty acids. Decreased expression of this gene may be associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms with different subcellular locations have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACOT8 acyl-CoA thioesterase 8|The protein encoded by this gene is a peroxisomal thioesterase that appears to be involved more in the oxidation of fatty acids rather than in their formation. The encoded protein can bind to the human immunodeficiency virus-1 protein Nef, and mediate Nef-induced down-regulation of CD4 in T-cells. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
ACOT9 acyl-CoA thioesterase 9|The protein encoded by this gene is a mitochondrial acyl-CoA thioesterase of unknown function. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
ACOX1 acyl-CoA oxidase 1, palmitoyl|The protein encoded by this gene is the first enzyme of the fatty acid beta-oxidation pathway, which catalyzes the desaturation of acyl-CoAs to 2-trans-enoyl-CoAs. It donates electrons directly to molecular oxygen, thereby producing hydrogen peroxide. Defects in this gene result in pseudoneonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, a disease that is characterized by accumulation of very long chain fatty acids. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACOX2 acyl-CoA oxidase 2, branched chain|The product of this gene belongs to the acyl-CoA oxidase family. It encodes the branched-chain acyl-CoA oxidase which is involved in the degradation of long branched fatty acids and bile acid intermediates in peroxisomes. Deficiency of this enzyme results in the accumulation of branched fatty acids and bile acid intermediates, and may lead to Zellweger syndrome, severe mental retardation, and death in children. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
ACOX3 acyl-CoA oxidase 3, pristanoyl|Acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 3 also know as pristanoyl -CoA oxidase (ACOX3)is involved in the desaturation of 2-methyl branched fatty acids in peroxisomes. Unlike the rat homolog, the human gene is expressed in very low amounts in liver such that its mRNA was undetectable by routine Northern-blot analysis or its product by immunoblotting or by enzyme activity measurements. However the human cDNA encoding a 700 amino acid protein with a peroxisomal targeting C-terminal tripeptide S-K-L was isolated and is thought to be expressed under special conditions such as specific developmental stages or in a tissue specific manner in tissues that have not yet been examined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACOXL acyl-CoA oxidase-like|
ACP1 acid phosphatase 1, soluble|The product of this gene belongs to the phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase family of proteins. It functions as an acid phosphatase and a protein tyrosine phosphatase by hydrolyzing protein tyrosine phosphate to protein tyrosine and orthophosphate. This enzyme also hydrolyzes orthophosphoric monoesters to alcohol and orthophosphate. This gene is genetically polymorphic, and three common alleles segregating at the corresponding locus give rise to six phenotypes. Each allele appears to encode at least two electrophoretically different isozymes, Bf and Bs, which are produced in allele-specific ratios. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
ACP2 acid phosphatase 2, lysosomal|This gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP). LAP is chemically and genetically distinct from red cell acid phosphatase. The encoded protein belongs to a family of distinct isoenzymes which hydrolyze orthophosphoric monoesters to alcohol and phosphate. LAP-deficiencies in mice cause multiple defects including bone structure alterations, lysosomal storage defects in the kidneys and central nervous system, and an increased tendency towards seizures. An enzymatically-inactive allele of LAP in mice exhibited a more severe phenotype than the null allele, and defects included cerebellum abnormalities, growth retardation, hair-follicle abnormalities, and an ataxia-like phenotype. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
ACP5 acid phosphatase 5, tartrate resistant|This gene encodes an iron containing glycoprotein which catalyzes the conversion of orthophosphoric monoester to alcohol and orthophosphate. It is the most basic of the acid phosphatases and is the only form not inhibited by L(+)-tartrate. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
ACP6 acid phosphatase 6, lysophosphatidic|
ACPP acid phosphatase, prostate|This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of orthophosphoric monoester to alcohol and orthophosphate. It is synthesized under androgen regulation and is secreted by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. An alternatively spliced transcript variant encoding a longer isoform has been found for this gene. This isoform contains a transmembrane domain and is localized in the plasma membrane-endosomal-lysosomal pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
ACR acrosin|Acrosin is the major proteinase present in the acrosome of mature spermatozoa. It is a typical serine proteinase with trypsin-like specificity. It is stored in the acrosome in its precursor form, proacrosin. The active enzyme functions in the lysis of the zona pellucida, thus facilitating penetration of the sperm through the innermost glycoprotein layers of the ovum. The mRNA for proacrosin is synthesized only in the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. In humans proacrosin first appears in the haploid spermatids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACRBP acrosin binding protein|The protein encoded by this gene is similar to proacrosin binding protein sp32 precursor found in mouse, guinea pig, and pig. This protein is located in the sperm acrosome and is thought to function as a binding protein to proacrosin for packaging and condensation of the acrosin zymogen in the acrosomal matrix. This protein is a member of the cancer/testis family of antigens and it is found to be immunogenic. In normal tissues, this mRNA is expressed only in testis, whereas it is detected in a range of different tumor types such as bladder, breast, lung, liver, and colon. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACSBG1 acyl-CoA synthetase bubblegum family member 1|The protein encoded by this gene possesses long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase activity. It is thought to play a central role in brain very long-chain fatty acids metabolism and myelinogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACSBG2 acyl-CoA synthetase bubblegum family member 2|
ACSF2 acyl-CoA synthetase family member 2|
ACSF3 acyl-CoA synthetase family member 3|This gene encodes a member of the acyl-CoA synthetase family of enzymes that activate fatty acids by catalyzing the formation of a thioester linkage between fatty acids and coenzyme A. The encoded protein is localized to mitochondria, has high specificity for malonate and methylmalonate and possesses malonyl-CoA synthetase activity. Mutations in this gene are a cause of combined malonic and methylmalonic aciduria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
ACSL1 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
ACSL3 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3|The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. This isozyme is highly expressed in brain, and preferentially utilizes myristate, arachidonate, and eicosapentaenoate as substrates. The amino acid sequence of this isozyme is 92% identical to that of rat homolog. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACSL4 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4|The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. This isozyme preferentially utilizes arachidonate as substrate. The absence of this enzyme may contribute to the mental retardation or Alport syndrome. Alternative splicing of this gene generates 2 transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACSL5 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 5|The protein encoded by this gene is an isozyme of the long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family. Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family convert free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby play a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. This isozyme is highly expressed in uterus and spleen, and in trace amounts in normal brain, but has markedly increased levels in malignant gliomas. This gene functions in mediating fatty acid-induced glioma cell growth. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACSL6 acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 6|The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of acyl-CoA from fatty acids, ATP, and CoA, using magnesium as a cofactor. The encoded protein plays a major role in fatty acid metabolism in the brain. Translocations with the ETV6 gene are causes of myelodysplastic syndrome with basophilia, acute myelogenous leukemia with eosinophilia, and acute eosinophilic leukemia. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
ACSM2B acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 2B|
ACSM3 acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 3|
ACSM5 acyl-CoA synthetase medium-chain family member 5|
ACSS1 acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 1|This gene encodes a mitochondrial acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme. A similar protein in mice plays an important role in the tricarboxylic acid cycle by catalyzing the conversion of acetate to acetyl CoA. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
ACSS2 acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2|This gene encodes a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the activation of acetate for use in lipid synthesis and energy generation. The protein acts as a monomer and produces acetyl-CoA from acetate in a reaction that requires ATP. Expression of this gene is regulated by sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, transcription factors that activate genes required for the synthesis of cholesterol and unsaturated fatty acids. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
ACSS3 acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 3|
ACTA1 actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle|The product encoded by this gene belongs to the actin family of proteins, which are highly conserved proteins that play a role in cell motility, structure and integrity. Alpha, beta and gamma actin isoforms have been identified, with alpha actins being a major constituent of the contractile apparatus, while beta and gamma actins are involved in the regulation of cell motility. This actin is an alpha actin that is found in skeletal muscle. Mutations in this gene cause nemaline myopathy type 3, congenital myopathy with excess of thin myofilaments, congenital myopathy with cores, and congenital myopathy with fiber-type disproportion, diseases that lead to muscle fiber defects. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACTA2 actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the actin family of proteins, which are highly conserved proteins that play a role in cell motility, structure and integrity. Alpha, beta and gamma actin isoforms have been identified, with alpha actins being a major constituent of the contractile apparatus, while beta and gamma actins are involved in the regulation of cell motility. This actin is an alpha actin that is found in skeletal muscle. Defects in this gene cause aortic aneurysm familial thoracic type 6. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
ACTB actin, beta|This gene encodes one of six different actin proteins. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility, structure, and integrity. This actin is a major constituent of the contractile apparatus and one of the two nonmuscle cytoskeletal actins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACTBL2 actin, beta-like 2|
ACTC1 actin, alpha, cardiac muscle 1|Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility. Polymerization of globular actin (G-actin) leads to a structural filament (F-actin) in the form of a two-stranded helix. Each actin can bind to four others. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the actin family which is comprised of three main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta, and gamma. The alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. Defects in this gene have been associated with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) and familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACTG1 actin gamma 1|Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. In vertebrates, three main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta and gamma have been identified. The alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton, and as mediators of internal cell motility. Actin, gamma 1, encoded by this gene, is a cytoplasmic actin found in non-muscle cells. Mutations in this gene are associated with DFNA20/26, a subtype of autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural progressive hearing loss. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ACTG2 actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric|Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and in the maintenance of the cytoskeleton. Three types of actins, alpha, beta and gamma, have been identified in vertebrates. Alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton and as mediators of internal cell motility. This gene encodes actin gamma 2; a smooth muscle actin found in enteric tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Based on similarity to peptide cleavage of related actins, the mature protein of this gene is formed by removal of two N-terminal peptides.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
ACTL6A actin-like 6A|This gene encodes a family member of actin-related proteins (ARPs), which share significant amino acid sequence identity to conventional actins. Both actins and ARPs have an actin fold, which is an ATP-binding cleft, as a common feature. The ARPs are involved in diverse cellular processes, including vesicular transport, spindle orientation, nuclear migration and chromatin remodeling. This gene encodes a 53 kDa subunit protein of the BAF (BRG1/brm-associated factor) complex in mammals, which is functionally related to SWI/SNF complex in S. cerevisiae and Drosophila; the latter is thought to facilitate transcriptional activation of specific genes by antagonizing chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. Together with beta-actin, it is required for maximal ATPase activity of BRG1, and for the association of the BAF complex with chromatin/matrix. Three transcript variants that encode two different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACTL6B actin-like 6B|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of actin-related proteins (ARPs) which share significant amino acid sequence identity to conventional actins. Both actins and ARPs have an actin fold, which is an ATP-binding cleft, as a common feature. The ARPs are involved in diverse cellular processes, including vesicular transport, spindle orientation, nuclear migration and chromatin remodeling. This gene encodes a subunit of the BAF (BRG1/brm-associated factor) complex in mammals, which is functionally related to SWI/SNF complex in S. cerevisiae and Drosophila; the latter is thought to facilitate transcriptional activation of specific genes by antagonizing chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. This subunit may be involved in the regulation of genes by structural modulation of their chromatin, specifically in the brain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACTL7A actin-like 7A|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of actin-related proteins (ARPs) which share significant amino acid sequence identity to conventional actins. Both actins and ARPs have an actin fold, which is an ATP-binding cleft, as a common feature. The ARPs are involved in diverse cellular processes, including vesicular transport, spindle orientation, nuclear migration and chromatin remodeling. This gene (ACTL7A), and related gene, ACTL7B, are intronless, and are located approximately 4 kb apart in a head-to-head orientation within the familial dysautonomia candidate region on 9q31. Based on mutational analysis of the ACTL7A gene in patients with this disorder, it was concluded that it is unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of dysautonomia. The ACTL7A gene is expressed in a wide variety of adult tissues, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACTL7B actin-like 7B|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of actin-related proteins (ARPs) which share significant amino acid sequence identity to conventional actins. Both actins and ARPs have an actin fold, which is an ATP-binding cleft, as a common feature. The ARPs are involved in diverse cellular processes, including vesicular transport, spindle orientation, nuclear migration and chromatin remodeling. This gene (ACTL7B), and related gene, ACTL7A, are intronless, and are located approximately 4 kb apart in a head-to-head orientation within the familial dysautonomia candidate region on 9q31. Based on mutational analysis of the ACTL7B gene in patients with this disorder, it was concluded that it is unlikely to be involved in the pathogenesis of dysautonomia. Unlike ACTL7A, the ACTL7B gene is expressed predominantly in the testis, however, its exact function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACTL8 actin-like 8|
ACTN1 actinin, alpha 1|Alpha actinins belong to the spectrin gene superfamily which represents a diverse group of cytoskeletal proteins, including the alpha and beta spectrins and dystrophins. Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. In nonmuscle cells, the cytoskeletal isoform is found along microfilament bundles and adherens-type junctions, where it is involved in binding actin to the membrane. In contrast, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle isoforms are localized to the Z-disc and analogous dense bodies, where they help anchor the myofibrillar actin filaments. This gene encodes a nonmuscle, cytoskeletal, alpha actinin isoform and maps to the same site as the structurally similar erythroid beta spectrin gene. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACTN2 actinin, alpha 2|Alpha actinins belong to the spectrin gene superfamily which represents a diverse group of cytoskeletal proteins, including the alpha and beta spectrins and dystrophins. Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. In nonmuscle cells, the cytoskeletal isoform is found along microfilament bundles and adherens-type junctions, where it is involved in binding actin to the membrane. In contrast, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle isoforms are localized to the Z-disc and analogous dense bodies, where they help anchor the myofibrillar actin filaments. This gene encodes a muscle-specific, alpha actinin isoform that is expressed in both skeletal and cardiac muscles. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
ACTN3 actinin, alpha 3 (gene/pseudogene)|This gene encodes a member of the alpha-actin binding protein gene family. The encoded protein is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and functions as a structural component of sarcomeric Z line. This protein is involved in crosslinking actin containing thin filaments. An allelic polymorphism in this gene results in both coding and non-coding variants; the reference genome represents the coding allele. The non-functional allele of this gene is associated with elite athlete status. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
ACTN4 actinin, alpha 4|Alpha actinins belong to the spectrin gene superfamily which represents a diverse group of cytoskeletal proteins, including the alpha and beta spectrins and dystrophins. Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. In nonmuscle cells, the cytoskeletal isoform is found along microfilament bundles and adherens-type junctions, where it is involved in binding actin to the membrane. In contrast, skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle isoforms are localized to the Z-disc and analogous dense bodies, where they help anchor the myofibrillar actin filaments. This gene encodes a nonmuscle, alpha actinin isoform which is concentrated in the cytoplasm, and thought to be involved in metastatic processes. Mutations in this gene have been associated with focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACTR10 actin-related protein 10 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
ACTR1A ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog A, centractin alpha (yeast)|This gene encodes a 42.6 kD subunit of dynactin, a macromolecular complex consisting of 10-11 subunits ranging in size from 22 to 150 kD. Dynactin binds to both microtubules and cytoplasmic dynein. It is involved in a diverse array of cellular functions, including ER-to-Golgi transport, the centripetal movement of lysosomes and endosomes, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear positioning, and axonogenesis. This subunit is present in 8-13 copies per dynactin molecule, and is the most abundant molecule in the dynactin complex. It is an actin-related protein, and is approximately 60% identical at the amino acid level to conventional actin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACTR1B ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog B, centractin beta (yeast)|This gene encodes a 42.3 kD subunit of dynactin, a macromolecular complex consisting of 10 subunits ranging in size from 22 to 150 kD. Dynactin binds to both microtubules and cytoplasmic dynein and is involved in a diverse array of cellular functions, including ER-to-Golgi transport, the centripetal movement of lysosomes and endosomes, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear positioning, and axonogenesis. This subunit, like ACTR1A, is an actin-related protein. These two proteins, which are of equal length and share 90% amino acid identity, are present in a constant ratio of approximately 1:15 in the dynactin complex. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
ACTR2 ARP2 actin-related protein 2 homolog (yeast)|The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, the protein it encodes is known to be a major constituent of the ARP2/3 complex. This complex is located at the cell surface and is essential to cell shape and motility through lamellipodial actin assembly and protrusion. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACTR3 ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog (yeast)|The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, the protein it encodes is known to be a major constituent of the ARP2/3 complex. This complex is located at the cell surface and is essential to cell shape and motility through lamellipodial actin assembly and protrusion. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]
ACTR3B ARP3 actin-related protein 3 homolog B (yeast)|This gene encodes a member of the actin-related proteins (ARP), which form multiprotein complexes and share 35-55% amino acid identity with conventional actin. The protein encoded by this gene may have a regulatory role in the actin cytoskeleton and induce cell-shape change and motility. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 2, 4, 10, 16, 22 and Y. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants and protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
ACTR5 ARP5 actin-related protein 5 homolog (yeast)|
ACTR6 ARP6 actin-related protein 6 homolog (yeast)|
ACTR8 ARP8 actin-related protein 8 homolog (yeast)|
ACVR1 activin A receptor, type I|Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I ( I and IB) and two type II (II and IIB) receptors. These receptors are all transmembrane proteins, composed of a ligand-binding extracellular domain with cysteine-rich region, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. Type I receptors are essential for signaling; and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a stable complex after ligand binding, resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. This gene encodes activin A type I receptor which signals a particular transcriptional response in concert with activin type II receptors. Mutations in this gene are associated with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressive. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACVR1B activin A receptor, type IB|This gene encodes an activin A type IB receptor. Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I and two type II receptors. This protein is a type I receptor which is essential for signaling. Mutations in this gene are associated with pituitary tumors. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
ACVR1C activin A receptor, type IC|ACVR1C is a type I receptor for the TGFB (see MIM 190180) family of signaling molecules. Upon ligand binding, type I receptors phosphorylate cytoplasmic SMAD transcription factors, which then translocate to the nucleus and interact directly with DNA or in complex with other transcription factors (Bondestam et al., 2001 [PubMed 12063393]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ACVR2A activin A receptor, type IIA|This gene encodes a receptor that mediates the functions of activins, which are members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily involved in diverse biological processes. The encoded protein is a transmembrane serine-threonine kinase receptor which mediates signaling by forming heterodimeric complexes with various combinations of type I and type II receptors and ligands in a cell-specific manner. The encoded type II receptor is primarily involved in ligand-binding and includes an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic serine-threonine kinase domain. This gene may be associated with susceptibility to preeclampsia, a pregnancy-related disease which can result in maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
ACVR2B activin A receptor, type IIB|Activins are dimeric growth and differentiation factors which belong to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of structurally related signaling proteins. Activins signal through a heteromeric complex of receptor serine kinases which include at least two type I (I and IB) and two type II (II and IIB) receptors. These receptors are all transmembrane proteins, composed of a ligand-binding extracellular domain with cysteine-rich region, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain with predicted serine/threonine specificity. Type I receptors are essential for signaling; and type II receptors are required for binding ligands and for expression of type I receptors. Type I and II receptors form a stable complex after ligand binding, resulting in phosphorylation of type I receptors by type II receptors. Type II receptors are considered to be constitutively active kinases. This gene encodes activin A type IIB receptor, which displays a 3- to 4-fold higher affinity for the ligand than activin A type II receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACVRL1 activin A receptor type II-like 1|This gene encodes a type I cell-surface receptor for the TGF-beta superfamily of ligands. It shares with other type I receptors a high degree of similarity in serine-threonine kinase subdomains, a glycine- and serine-rich region (called the GS domain) preceding the kinase domain, and a short C-terminal tail. The encoded protein, sometimes termed ALK1, shares similar domain structures with other closely related ALK or activin receptor-like kinase proteins that form a subfamily of receptor serine/threonine kinases. Mutations in this gene are associated with hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2, also known as Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACY1 aminoacylase 1|This gene encodes a cytosolic, homodimeric, zinc-binding enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acylated L-amino acids to L-amino acids and an acyl group, and has been postulated to function in the catabolism and salvage of acylated amino acids. This gene is located on chromosome 3p21.1, a region reduced to homozygosity in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), and its expression has been reported to be reduced or undetectable in SCLC cell lines and tumors. The amino acid sequence of human aminoacylase-1 is highly homologous to the porcine counterpart, and this enzyme is the first member of a new family of zinc-binding enzymes. Mutations in this gene cause aminoacylase-1 deficiency, a metabolic disorder characterized by central nervous system defects and increased urinary excretion of N-acetylated amino acids. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the upstream ABHD14A (abhydrolase domain containing 14A) gene, as represented in GeneID:100526760. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 18. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
ACY3 aminoacylase 3|
ACYP1 acylphosphatase 1, erythrocyte (common) type|This gene is a member of the acylphosphatase family. The encoded protein is a small cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the carboxyl-phosphate bond of acylphosphates. Two isoenzymes have been isolated and described based on their tissue localization: erythrocyte (common) type acylphosphatase encoded by this gene, and muscle type acylphosphatase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
ACYP2 acylphosphatase 2, muscle type|Acylphosphatase can hydrolyze the phosphoenzyme intermediate of different membrane pumps, particularly the Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle. Two isoenzymes have been isolated, called muscle acylphosphatase and erythrocyte acylphosphatase on the basis of their tissue localization. This gene encodes the muscle-type isoform (MT). An increase of the MT isoform is associated with muscle differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADA adenosine deaminase|This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of adenosine to inosine. Various mutations have been described for this gene and have been linked to human diseases. Deficiency in this enzyme causes a form of severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID), in which there is dysfunction of both B and T lymphocytes with impaired cellular immunity and decreased production of immunoglobulins, whereas elevated levels of this enzyme have been associated with congenital hemolytic anemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAD2 adenosine deaminase domain containing 2|
ADAL adenosine deaminase-like|
ADAM10 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 10|Members of the ADAM family are cell surface proteins with a unique structure possessing both potential adhesion and protease domains. This gene encodes and ADAM family member that cleaves many proteins including TNF-alpha and E-cadherin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAM11 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 11|This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) protein family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. This gene represents a candidate tumor suppressor gene for human breast cancer based on its location within a minimal region of chromosome 17q21 previously defined by tumor deletion mapping. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ADAM12 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 12|This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins that are structurally related to snake venom disintegrins and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. Expression of this gene has been used as a maternal serum marker for pre-natal development. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Shorter isoforms are secreted, while longer isoforms are membrane-bound form. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
ADAM15 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 15|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) protein family. ADAM family members are type I transmembrane glycoproteins known to be involved in cell adhesion and proteolytic ectodomain processing of cytokines and adhesion molecules. This protein contains multiple functional domains including a zinc-binding metalloprotease domain, a disintegrin-like domain, as well as a EGF-like domain. Through its disintegrin-like domain, this protein specifically interacts with the integrin beta chain, beta 3. It also interacts with Src family protein-tyrosine kinases in a phosphorylation-dependent manner, suggesting that this protein may function in cell-cell adhesion as well as in cellular signaling. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAM17 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17|This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biologic processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. The protein encoded by this gene functions as a tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme; binds mitotic arrest deficient 2 protein; and also plays a prominent role in the activation of the Notch signaling pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAM19 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 19|This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. This member is a type I transmembrane protein and serves as a marker for dendritic cell differentiation. It has been demonstrated to be an active metalloproteinase, which may be involved in normal physiological processes such as cell migration, cell adhesion, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, and signal transduction. It is proposed to play a role in pathological processes, such as cancer, inflammatory diseases, renal diseases, and Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
ADAM2 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 2|This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. The encoded protein is a subunit of an integral sperm membrane glycoprotein called fertilin, which plays an important role in sperm-egg interactions. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
ADAM22 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 22|This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. Unlike other members of the ADAM protein family, the protein encoded by this gene lacks metalloprotease activity since it has no zinc-binding motif. This gene is highly expressed in the brain and may function as an integrin ligand in the brain. In mice, it has been shown to be essential for correct myelination in the peripheral nervous system. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
ADAM23 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 23|This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. It is reported that inactivation of this gene is associated with tumorigenesis in human cancers. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
ADAM28 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 28|This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. The protein encoded by this gene is a lymphocyte-expressed ADAM protein. This gene is present in a gene cluster with other members of the ADAM family on chromosome 8. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
ADAM29 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 29|This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. The protein encoded by this gene is highly expressed in testis and may be involved in human spermatogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAM33 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 33|This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. This protein is a type I transmembrane protein implicated in asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
ADAM8 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 8|This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. The protein encoded by this gene may be involved in cell adhesion during neurodegeneration, and it is thought to be a target for allergic respiratory diseases, including asthma. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]
ADAM9 ADAM metallopeptidase domain 9|This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. The protein encoded by this gene interacts with SH3 domain-containing proteins, binds mitotic arrest deficient 2 beta protein, and is also involved in TPA-induced ectodomain shedding of membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
ADAMTS1 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 1|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The protein encoded by this gene contains two disintegrin loops and three C-terminal TS motifs and has anti-angiogenic activity. The expression of this gene may be associated with various inflammatory processes as well as development of cancer cachexia. This gene is likely to be necessary for normal growth, fertility, and organ morphology and function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS10 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 10|This gene belongs to the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin type-1 motifs) family of zinc-dependent proteases. ADAMTS proteases are complex secreted enzymes containing a prometalloprotease domain of the reprolysin type attached to an ancillary domain with a highly conserved structure that includes at least one thrombospondin type 1 repeat. They have been demonstrated to have important roles in connective tissue organization, coagulation, inflammation, arthritis, angiogenesis and cell migration. The product of this gene plays a major role in growth and in skin, lens, and heart development. It is also a candidate gene for autosomal recessive Weill-Marchesani syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS12 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 12|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS-1) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS-1 motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The enzyme encoded by this gene contains eight TS-1 motifs. It may play roles in pulmonary cells during fetal development or in tumor processes through its proteolytic activity or as a molecule potentially involved in regulation of cell adhesion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS13 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13|This gene encodes a member of a family of proteins containing several distinct regions, including a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. The enzyme encoded by this gene specifically cleaves von Willebrand Factor (vWF). Defects in this gene are associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
ADAMTS14 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 14|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. This gene is highly similar to two family members, ADAMTS2 and ADAMTS3, in its sequence and gene structure, and the encoded protein shares the aminoprocollagen peptidase activity with the protein products encoded by ADAMTS2 and ADAMTS3. Various transcript variants of this gene have been identified. They result from the use of two different promoters and transcription initiation sites as well as alternative splicing sites. The full length nature of some transcripts has not been defined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS15 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 15|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. ADAMTS family members share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The protein encoded by this gene has a high sequence similarity to the proteins encoded by ADAMTS1 and ADAMTS8. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS16 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 16|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. ADAMTS family members share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The protein encoded by this gene has high sequence similarity to the protein encoded by ADAMTS18, another family member. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS17 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 17|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. ADAMTS family members share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The protein encoded by this gene has a high sequence similarity to the protein encoded by ADAMTS19, another family member. The function of this protein has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS18 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 18|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. ADAMTS family members share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The protein encoded by this gene has a high sequence similarity to the protein encoded by gene ADAMTS16, another family member. It is thought to function as a tumor suppressor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS19 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 19|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The protein encoded by this gene has high sequence similarity to the protein encoded by ADAMTS16, another family member. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS2 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 2|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The enzyme encoded by this gene excises the N-propeptide of type I, type II and type V procollagens. Mutations in this gene cause Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIC, a recessively inherited connective-tissue disorder. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
ADAMTS20 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 20|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ADAMTS family of zinc-dependent proteases. The encoded protein has a signal peptide that is cleaved to release the mature peptide, which is secreted and found in the extracellular matrix. This protein may be involved in tissue remodeling. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
ADAMTS3 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 3|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The protein encoded by this gene is the major procollagen II N-propeptidase. A deficiency of this protein may be responsible for dermatosparaxis, a genetic defect of connective tissues. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS4 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 4|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The enzyme encoded by this gene lacks a C-terminal TS motif. It is responsible for the degradation of aggrecan, a major proteoglycan of cartilage, and brevican, a brain-specific extracellular matrix protein. The cleavage of aggrecan and brevican suggests key roles of this enzyme in arthritic disease and in the central nervous system, potentially, in the progression of glioma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS5 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 5|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The enzyme encoded by this gene contains two C-terminal TS motifs and functions as aggrecanase to cleave aggrecan, a major proteoglycan of cartilage. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS6 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 6|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS7 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 7|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family. Members of this family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The protein encoded by this gene contains two C-terminal TS motifs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS8 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 8|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The enzyme encoded by this gene contains two C-terminal TS motifs, and disrupts angiogenesis in vivo. A number of disorders have been mapped in the vicinity of this gene, most notably lung neoplasms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTS9 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 9|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. Members of the ADAMTS family have been implicated in the cleavage of proteoglycans, the control of organ shape during development, and the inhibition of angiogenesis. This gene is localized to chromosome 3p14.3-p14.2, an area known to be lost in hereditary renal tumors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTSL1 ADAMTS-like 1|This gene encodes a secreted protein and member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif) family. This protein lacks the metalloproteinase and disintegrin-like domains, which are typical of the ADAMTS family, but contains other ADAMTS domains, including the thrombospondin type 1 motif. This protein may have important functions in the extracellular matrix. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAMTSL2 ADAMTS-like 2|This gene encodes a member of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) and ADAMTS-like protein family. Members of the family share several distinct protein modules, including a propeptide region, a metalloproteinase domain, a disintegrin-like domain, and a thrombospondin type 1 (TS) motif. Individual members of this family differ in the number of C-terminal TS motifs, and some have unique C-terminal domains. The protein encoded by this gene lacks the protease domain, and is therefore of a member of the the ADAMTS-like protein subfamily. It is a secreted glycoprotein that binds the cell surface and extracellular matrix; it also interacts with latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 1. Mutations in this gene have been associated with geleophysic dysplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
ADAMTSL3 ADAMTS-like 3|
ADAMTSL4 ADAMTS-like 4|This gene is a member of ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs)-like gene family and encodes a protein with seven thrombospondin type 1 repeats. The thrombospondin type 1 repeat domain is found in many proteins with diverse biological functions including cellular adhesion, angiogenesis, and patterning of the developing nervous system. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
ADAMTSL5 ADAMTS-like 5|
ADAP1 ArfGAP with dual PH domains 1|
ADAP2 ArfGAP with dual PH domains 2|
ADAR adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific|This gene encodes the enzyme responsible for RNA editing by site-specific deamination of adenosines. This enzyme destabilizes double-stranded RNA through conversion of adenosine to inosine. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
ADARB1 adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B1|This gene encodes the enzyme responsible for pre-mRNA editing of the glutamate receptor subunit B by site-specific deamination of adenosines. Studies in rat found that this enzyme acted on its own pre-mRNA molecules to convert an AA dinucleotide to an AI dinucleotide which resulted in a new splice site. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants, some of which have been characterized by the presence or absence of an ALU cassette insert and a short or long C-terminal region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADARB2 adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B2 (non-functional)|This gene encodes a member of the double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase family of RNA-editing enzymes and may play a regulatory role in RNA editing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADAT1 adenosine deaminase, tRNA-specific 1|This gene is a member of the ADAR (adenosine deaminase acting on RNA) family. Using site-specific adenosine modification, proteins encoded by these genes participate in the pre-mRNA editing of nuclear transcripts. The protein encoded by this gene, tRNA-specific adenosine deaminase 1, is responsible for the deamination of adenosine 37 to inosine in eukaryotic tRNA. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
ADAT2 adenosine deaminase, tRNA-specific 2|
ADAT3 adenosine deaminase, tRNA-specific 3|
ADCK1 aarF domain containing kinase 1|
ADCK2 aarF domain containing kinase 2|
ADCK3 aarF domain containing kinase 3|This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein similar to yeast ABC1, which functions in an electron-transferring membrane protein complex in the respiratory chain. It is not related to the family of ABC transporter proteins. Expression of this gene is induced by the tumor suppressor p53 and in response to DNA damage, and inhibiting its expression partially suppresses p53-induced apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found; however, their full-length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADCK4 aarF domain containing kinase 4|This gene encodes a protein with two copies of a domain found in protein kinases. The encoded protein has a complete protein kinase catalytic domain, and a truncated domain that contains only the active and binding sites of the protein kinase domain, however, it is not known whether the protein has any kinase activity. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
ADCK5 aarF domain containing kinase 5|
ADCY1 adenylate cyclase 1 (brain)|This gene encodes a member of the of adenylate cyclase gene family that is primarily expressed in the brain. This protein is regulated by calcium/calmodulin concentration and may be involved in brain development. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
ADCY10 adenylate cyclase 10 (soluble)|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a distinct class of adenylyl cyclases that is soluble and insensitive to G protein or forskolin regulation. Activity of this protein is regulated by bicarbonate. Variation at this gene has been observed in patients with absorptive hypercalciuria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been observed. There is a pseudogene of this gene on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
ADCY2 adenylate cyclase 2 (brain)|This gene encodes a member of the family of adenylate cyclases, which are membrane-associated enzymes that catalyze the formation of the secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). This enzyme is insensitive to Ca(2+)/calmodulin, and is stimulated by the G protein beta and gamma subunit complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADCY3 adenylate cyclase 3|This gene encodes adenylyl cyclase 3 which is a membrane-associated enzyme and catalyzes the formation of the secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). This protein appears to be widely expressed in various human tissues and may be involved in a number of physiological and pathophysiological metabolic processes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADCY4 adenylate cyclase 4|This gene encodes a member of the family of adenylate cyclases, which are membrane-associated enzymes that catalyze the formation of the secondary messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Mouse studies show that adenylate cyclase 4, along with adenylate cyclases 2 and 3, is expressed in olfactory cilia, suggesting that several different adenylate cyclases may couple to olfactory receptors and that there may be multiple receptor-mediated mechanisms for the generation of cAMP signals. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
ADCY5 adenylate cyclase 5|This gene encodes a member of the membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase enzymes. Adenylyl cyclases mediate G protein-coupled receptor signaling through the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP. Activity of the encoded protein is stimulated by the Gs alpha subunit of G protein-coupled receptors and is inhibited by protein kinase A, calcium and Gi alpha subunits. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with low birth weight and type 2 diabetes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
ADCY6 adenylate cyclase 6|This gene encodes a member of the adenylyl cyclase family of proteins, which are required for the synthesis of cyclic AMP. All members of this family have an intracellular N-terminus, a tandem repeat of six transmembrane domains separated by a cytoplasmic loop, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. The two cytoplasmic regions bind ATP and form the catalytic core of the protein. Adenylyl cyclases are important effectors of transmembrane signaling pathways and are regulated by the activity of G protein coupled receptor signaling. This protein belongs to a small subclass of adenylyl cyclase proteins that are functionally related and are inhibited by protein kinase A, calcium ions and nitric oxide. A mutation in this gene is associated with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. [provided by RefSeq, May 2015]
ADCY7 adenylate cyclase 7|This gene encodes a membrane-bound adenylate cyclase that catalyses the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP and is inhibitable by calcium. The product of this gene is a member of the adenylyl cyclase class-4/guanylyl cyclase enzyme family that is characterized by the presence of twelve membrane-spanning domains in its sequences. Several transcript variants have been observed for this gene, but the full-length natures of only two have been determined so far. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]
ADCY8 adenylate cyclase 8 (brain)|Adenylate cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme that catalyses the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP. The enzymatic activity is under the control of several hormones, and different polypeptides participate in the transduction of the signal from the receptor to the catalytic moiety. Stimulatory or inhibitory receptors (Rs and Ri) interact with G proteins (Gs and Gi) that exhibit GTPase activity and they modulate the activity of the catalytic subunit of the adenylyl cyclase [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADCY9 adenylate cyclase 9|Adenylate cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme that catalyses the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP. It is regulated by a family of G protein-coupled receptors, protein kinases, and calcium. The type 9 adenylyl cyclase is a widely distributed adenylyl cyclase, and it is stimulated by beta-adrenergic receptor activation but is insensitive to forskolin, calcium, and somatostatin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADCYAP1 adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary)|This gene encodes a secreted proprotein that is further processed into multiple mature peptides. These peptides stimulate adenylate cyclase and increase cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, resulting in the transcriptional activation of target genes. The products of this gene are key mediators of neuroendocrine stress responses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]
ADCYAP1R1 adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) receptor type I|This gene encodes type I adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide receptor, which is a membrane-associated protein and shares significant homology with members of the glucagon/secretin receptor family. This receptor mediates diverse biological actions of adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 and is positively coupled to adenylate cyclase. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
ADD1 adducin 1 (alpha)|Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded by three genes (alpha, beta, gamma). Adducin is a heterodimeric protein that consists of related subunits, which are produced from distinct genes but share a similar structure. Alpha- and beta-adducin include a protease-resistant N-terminal region and a protease-sensitive, hydrophilic C-terminal region. Alpha- and gamma-adducins are ubiquitously expressed. In contrast, beta-adducin is expressed at high levels in brain and hematopoietic tissues. Adducin binds with high affinity to Ca(2+)/calmodulin and is a substrate for protein kinases A and C. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding distinct isoforms; however, not all variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADD2 adducin 2 (beta)|Adducins are heteromeric proteins composed of different subunits referred to as adducin alpha, beta and gamma. The three subunits are encoded by distinct genes and belong to a family of membrane skeletal proteins involved in the assembly of spectrin-actin network in erythrocytes and at sites of cell-cell contact in epithelial tissues. While adducins alpha and gamma are ubiquitously expressed, the expression of adducin beta is restricted to brain and hematopoietic tissues. Adducin, originally purified from human erythrocytes, was found to be a heterodimer of adducins alpha and beta. Polymorphisms resulting in amino acid substitutions in these two subunits have been associated with the regulation of blood pressure in an animal model of hypertension. Heterodimers consisting of alpha and gamma subunits have also been described. Structurally, each subunit is comprised of two distinct domains. The amino-terminal region is protease resistant and globular in shape, while the carboxy-terminal region is protease sensitive. The latter contains multiple phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C, the binding site for calmodulin, and is required for association with spectrin and actin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
ADD3 adducin 3 (gamma)|Adducins are heteromeric proteins composed of different subunits referred to as adducin alpha, beta and gamma. The three subunits are encoded by distinct genes and belong to a family of membrane skeletal proteins involved in the assembly of spectrin-actin network in erythrocytes and at sites of cell-cell contact in epithelial tissues. While adducins alpha and gamma are ubiquitously expressed, the expression of adducin beta is restricted to brain and hematopoietic tissues. Adducin, originally purified from human erythrocytes, was found to be a heterodimer of adducins alpha and beta. Polymorphisms resulting in amino acid substitutions in these two subunits have been associated with the regulation of blood pressure in an animal model of hypertension. Heterodimers consisting of alpha and gamma subunits have also been described. Structurally, each subunit is comprised of two distinct domains. The amino-terminal region is protease resistant and globular in shape, while the carboxy-terminal region is protease sensitive. The latter contains multiple phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C, the binding site for calmodulin, and is required for association with spectrin and actin. Alternatively spliced adducin gamma transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. The functions of the different isoforms are not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADH1A alcohol dehydrogenase 1A (class I), alpha polypeptide|This gene encodes a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. The encoded protein is the alpha subunit of class I alcohol dehydrogenase, which consists of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta and gamma subunits. Alcohol dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes. This gene is active in the liver in early fetal life but only weakly active in adult liver. This gene is found in a cluster with six additional alcohol dehydrogenase genes, including those encoding the beta and gamma subunits, on the long arm of chromosome 4. Mutations in this gene may contribute to variation in certain personality traits and substance dependence. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
ADH1B alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (class I), beta polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this enzyme family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. This encoded protein, consisting of several homo- and heterodimers of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits, exhibits high activity for ethanol oxidation and plays a major role in ethanol catabolism. Three genes encoding alpha, beta and gamma subunits are tandemly organized in a genomic segment as a gene cluster. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
ADH4 alcohol dehydrogenase 4 (class II), pi polypeptide|This gene encodes class II alcohol dehydrogenase 4 pi subunit, which is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this enzyme family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. Class II alcohol dehydrogenase is a homodimer composed of 2 pi subunits. It exhibits a high activity for oxidation of long-chain aliphatic alcohols and aromatic alcohols and is less sensitive to pyrazole. This gene is localized to chromosome 4 in the cluster of alcohol dehydrogenase genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADH5 alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (class III), chi polypeptide|This gene encodes a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. The encoded protein forms a homodimer. It has virtually no activity for ethanol oxidation, but exhibits high activity for oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and for oxidation of S-hydroxymethyl-glutathione, a spontaneous adduct between formaldehyde and glutathione. This enzyme is an important component of cellular metabolism for the elimination of formaldehyde, a potent irritant and sensitizing agent that causes lacrymation, rhinitis, pharyngitis, and contact dermatitis. The human genome contains several non-transcribed pseudogenes related to this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ADH6 alcohol dehydrogenase 6 (class V)|This gene encodes class V alcohol dehydrogenase, which is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. This gene is expressed in the stomach as well as in the liver, and it contains a glucocorticoid response element upstream of its 5' UTR, which is a steroid hormone receptor binding site. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADH7 alcohol dehydrogenase 7 (class IV), mu or sigma polypeptide|This gene encodes class IV alcohol dehydrogenase 7 mu or sigma subunit, which is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family. Members of this family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, hydroxysteroids, and lipid peroxidation products. The enzyme encoded by this gene is inefficient in ethanol oxidation, but is the most active as a retinol dehydrogenase; thus it may participate in the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. The expression of this gene is much more abundant in stomach than liver, thus differing from the other known gene family members. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
ADHFE1 alcohol dehydrogenase, iron containing, 1|The ADHFE1 gene encodes hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.24), which is responsible for the oxidation of 4-hydroxybutyrate in mammalian tissues (Kardon et al., 2006 [PubMed 16616524]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ADI1 acireductone dioxygenase 1|This gene encodes an enzyme that belongs to the aci-reductone dioxygenase family of metal-binding enzymes, which are involved in methionine salvage. This enzyme may regulate mRNA processing in the nucleus, and may carry out different functions depending on its localization. Related pseudogenes have been defined on chromosomes 8 and 20. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]
ADIPOQ adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing|This gene is expressed in adipose tissue exclusively. It encodes a protein with similarity to collagens X and VIII and complement factor C1q. The encoded protein circulates in the plasma and is involved with metabolic and hormonal processes. Mutations in this gene are associated with adiponectin deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
ADIPOR1 adiponectin receptor 1|This gene encodes a protein which acts as a receptor for adiponectin, a hormone secreted by adipocytes which regulates fatty acid catabolism and glucose levels. Binding of adiponectin to the encoded protein results in activation of an AMP-activated kinase signaling pathway which affects levels of fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 14. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
ADIPOR2 adiponectin receptor 2|The adiponectin receptors, ADIPOR1 (MIM 607945) and ADIPOR2, serve as receptors for globular and full-length adiponectin (MIM 605441) and mediate increased AMPK (see MIM 602739) and PPAR-alpha (PPARA; MIM 170998) ligand activities, as well as fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake by adiponectin (Yamauchi et al., 2003 [PubMed 12802337]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ADIRF adipogenesis regulatory factor|APM2 gene is exclusively expressed in adipose tissue. Its function is currently unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADK adenosine kinase|This gene an enzyme which catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-phosphate from ATP to adenosine, thereby serving as a regulator of concentrations of both extracellular adenosine and intracellular adenine nucleotides. Adenosine has widespread effects on the cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, and immune systems and inhibitors of the enzyme could play an important pharmacological role in increasing intravascular adenosine concentrations and acting as anti-inflammatory agents. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ADM adrenomedullin|The protein encoded by this gene is a preprohormone which is cleaved to form two biologically active peptides, adrenomedullin and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide. Adrenomedullin is a 52 aa peptide with several functions, including vasodilation, regulation of hormone secretion, promotion of angiogenesis, and antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity is antibacterial, as the peptide has been shown to kill E. coli and S. aureus at low concentration. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]
ADM5 adrenomedullin 5 (putative)|
ADNP activity-dependent neuroprotector homeobox|Vasoactive intestinal peptide is a neuroprotective factor that has a stimulatory effect on the growth of some tumor cells and an inhibitory effect on others. This gene encodes a protein that is upregulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide and may be involved in its stimulatory effect on certain tumor cells. The encoded protein contains one homeobox and nine zinc finger domains, suggesting that it functions as a transcription factor. This gene is also upregulated in normal proliferative tissues. Finally, the encoded protein may increase the viability of certain cell types through modulation of p53 activity. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADNP2 ADNP homeobox 2|
ADO 2-aminoethanethiol (cysteamine) dioxygenase|Human thiol dioxygenases include cysteine dioxygenase (CDO; MIM 603943) and cysteamine (2-aminoethanethiol) dioxygenase (ADO; EC 1.13.11.19). CDO adds 2 oxygen atoms to free cysteine, whereas ADO adds 2 oxygen atoms to free cysteamine to form hypotaurine (Dominy et al., 2007 [PubMed 17581819]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ADORA1 adenosine A1 receptor|The protein encoded by this gene is an adenosine receptor that belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family. There are 3 types of adenosine receptors, each with a specific pattern of ligand binding and tissue distribution, and together they regulate a diverse set of physiologic functions. The type A1 receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase, and play a role in the fertilization process. Animal studies also suggest a role for A1 receptors in kidney function and ethanol intoxication. Transcript variants with alternative splicing in the 5' UTR have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADORA2A adenosine A2a receptor|This gene encodes a member of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, which is subdivided into classes and subtypes. The receptors are seven-pass transmembrane proteins that respond to extracellular cues and activate intracellular signal transduction pathways. This protein, an adenosine receptor of A2A subtype, uses adenosine as the preferred endogenous agonist and preferentially interacts with the G(s) and G(olf) family of G proteins to increase intracellular cAMP levels. It plays an important role in many biological functions, such as cardiac rhythm and circulation, cerebral and renal blood flow, immune function, pain regulation, and sleep. It has been implicated in pathophysiological conditions such as inflammatory diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A read-through transcript composed of the upstream SPECC1L (sperm antigen with calponin homology and coiled-coil domains 1-like) and ADORA2A (adenosine A2a receptor) gene sequence has been identified, but it is thought to be non-coding. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
ADORA2B adenosine A2b receptor|This gene encodes an adenosine receptor that is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This integral membrane protein stimulates adenylate cyclase activity in the presence of adenosine. This protein also interacts with netrin-1, which is involved in axon elongation. The gene is located near the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADORA3 adenosine A3 receptor|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the family of adenosine receptors, which are G-protein-coupled receptors that are involved in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways and physiological functions. The receptor encoded by this gene mediates a sustained cardioprotective function during cardiac ischemia, it is involved in the inhibition of neutrophil degranulation in neutrophil-mediated tissue injury, it has been implicated in both neuroprotective and neurodegenerative effects, and it may also mediate both cell proliferation and cell death. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. This gene shares its 5' terminal exon with some transcripts from overlapping GeneID:57413, which encodes an immunoglobulin domain-containing protein. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
ADPGK ADP-dependent glucokinase|ADPGK (EC 2.7.1.147) catalyzes the ADP-dependent phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate and may play a role in glycolysis, possibly during ischemic conditions (Ronimus and Morgan, 2004 [PubMed 14975750]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ADPRH ADP-ribosylarginine hydrolase|The enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes removal of mono-ADP-ribose from arginine residues of proteins in the ADP-ribosylation cycle. Unlike the rat and mouse enzymes that require DTT for maximal activity, the human enzyme is DTT-independent. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
ADPRHL1 ADP-ribosylhydrolase like 1|ADP-ribosylation is a reversible posttranslational modification used to regulate protein function. ADP-ribosyltransferases (see ART1; MIM 601625) transfer ADP-ribose from NAD+ to the target protein, and ADP-ribosylhydrolases, such as ADPRHL1, reverse the reaction (Glowacki et al., 2002 [PubMed 12070318]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ADPRHL2 ADP-ribosylhydrolase like 2|This gene encodes a member of the ADP-ribosylglycohydrolase family. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the removal of ADP-ribose from ADP-ribosylated proteins. This enzyme localizes to the mitochondria, in addition to the nucleus and cytoplasm.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
ADPRM ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatase, manganese-dependent|
ADRA1A adrenoceptor alpha 1A|Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors (alpha-1-ARs) are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. They activate mitogenic responses and regulate growth and proliferation of many cells. There are 3 alpha-1-AR subtypes: alpha-1A, -1B and -1D, all of which signal through the Gq/11 family of G-proteins and different subtypes show different patterns of activation. This gene encodes alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor. Alternative splicing of this gene generates four transcript variants, which encode four different isoforms with distinct C-termini but having similar ligand binding properties. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADRA1B adrenoceptor alpha 1B|Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors (alpha-1-ARs) are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. They activate mitogenic responses and regulate growth and proliferation of many cells. There are 3 alpha-1-AR subtypes: alpha-1A, -1B and -1D, all of which signal through the Gq/11 family of G-proteins and different subtypes show different patterns of activation. This gene encodes alpha-1B-adrenergic receptor, which induces neoplastic transformation when transfected into NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and other cell lines. Thus, this normal cellular gene is identified as a protooncogene. This gene comprises 2 exons and a single large intron of at least 20 kb that interrupts the coding region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADRA1D adrenoceptor alpha 1D|Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors (alpha-1-ARs) are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. They activate mitogenic responses and regulate growth and proliferation of many cells. There are 3 alpha-1-AR subtypes: alpha-1A, -1B and -1D, all of which signal through the Gq/11 family of G-proteins and different subtypes show different patterns of activation. This gene encodes alpha-1D-adrenergic receptor. Similar to alpha-1B-adrenergic receptor gene, this gene comprises 2 exons and a single intron that interrupts the coding region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADRA2A adrenoceptor alpha 2A|Alpha-2-adrenergic receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. They include 3 highly homologous subtypes: alpha2A, alpha2B, and alpha2C. These receptors have a critical role in regulating neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerves and from adrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. Studies in mouse revealed that both the alpha2A and alpha2C subtypes were required for normal presynaptic control of transmitter release from sympathetic nerves in the heart and from central noradrenergic neurons; the alpha2A subtype inhibited transmitter release at high stimulation frequencies, whereas the alpha2C subtype modulated neurotransmission at lower levels of nerve activity. This gene encodes alpha2A subtype and it contains no introns in either its coding or untranslated sequences. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADRA2B adrenoceptor alpha 2B|This intronless gene encodes a seven-pass transmembrane protein. This protein is a member of a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors that regulate neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerves and from adrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
ADRA2C adrenoceptor alpha 2C|Alpha-2-adrenergic receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. They include 3 highly homologous subtypes: alpha2A, alpha2B, and alpha2C. These receptors have a critical role in regulating neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerves and from adrenergic neurons in the central nervous system. The mouse studies revealed that both the alpha2A and alpha2C subtypes were required for normal presynaptic control of transmitter release from sympathetic nerves in the heart and from central noradrenergic neurons. The alpha2A subtype inhibited transmitter release at high stimulation frequencies, whereas the alpha2C subtype modulated neurotransmission at lower levels of nerve activity. This gene encodes the alpha2C subtype, which contains no introns in either its coding or untranslated sequences. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADRB1 adrenoceptor beta 1|The adrenergic receptors (subtypes alpha 1, alpha 2, beta 1, and beta 2) are a prototypic family of guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein-coupled receptors that mediate the physiological effects of the hormone epinephrine and the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. Specific polymorphisms in this gene have been shown to affect the resting heart rate and can be involved in heart failure. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADRB2 adrenoceptor beta 2, surface|This gene encodes beta-2-adrenergic receptor which is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. This receptor is directly associated with one of its ultimate effectors, the class C L-type calcium channel Ca(V)1.2. This receptor-channel complex also contains a G protein, an adenylyl cyclase, cAMP-dependent kinase, and the counterbalancing phosphatase, PP2A. The assembly of the signaling complex provides a mechanism that ensures specific and rapid signaling by this G protein-coupled receptor. This gene is intronless. Different polymorphic forms, point mutations, and/or downregulation of this gene are associated with nocturnal asthma, obesity and type 2 diabetes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADRB3 adrenoceptor beta 3|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of beta adrenergic receptors, which mediate catecholamine-induced activation of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. This receptor is located mainly in the adipose tissue and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis and thermogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
ADRBK1 adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 1|The product of this gene phosphorylates the beta-2-adrenergic receptor and appears to mediate agonist-specific desensitization observed at high agonist concentrations. This protein is an ubiquitous cytosolic enzyme that specifically phosphorylates the activated form of the beta-adrenergic and related G-protein-coupled receptors. Abnormal coupling of beta-adrenergic receptor to G protein is involved in the pathogenesis of the failing heart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADRBK2 adrenergic, beta, receptor kinase 2|The beta-adrenergic receptor kinase specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and related G protein-coupled receptors. Overall, the beta adrenergic receptor kinase 2 has 85% amino acid similarity with beta adrenergic receptor kinase 1, with the protein kinase catalytic domain having 95% similarity. These data suggest the existence of a family of receptor kinases which may serve broadly to regulate receptor function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADRM1 adhesion regulating molecule 1|This gene encodes a member of the adhesion regulating molecule 1 protein family. The encoded protein is a component of the proteasome where it acts as a ubiquitin receptor and recruits the deubiquitinating enzyme, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L5. Increased levels of the encoded protein are associated with increased cell adhesion, which is likely an indirect effect of this intracellular protein. Dysregulation of this gene has been implicated in carcinogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
ADSL adenylosuccinate lyase|Adenylsuccinate lyase is involved in both de novo synthesis of purines and formation of adenosine monophosphate from inosine monophosphate. It catalyzes two reactions in AMP biosynthesis: the removal of a fumarate from succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide (SAICA) ribotide to give aminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide (AICA) and removal of fumarate from adenylosuccinate to give AMP. Adenylosuccinase deficiency results in succinylpurinemic autism, psychomotor retardation, and , in some cases, growth retardation associated with muscle wasting and epilepsy. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADSS adenylosuccinate synthase|This gene encodes the enzyme adenylosuccinate synthetase which catalyzes the first committed step in the conversion of inosine monophosphate to adenosine monophosphate. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 17.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
ADSSL1 adenylosuccinate synthase like 1|ADSSL1 is a muscle isozyme of adenylosuccinate synthase (EC 6.3.4.4), which catalyzes the initial reaction in the conversion of inosine monophosphate (IMP) to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) (Sun et al., 2005 [PubMed 15786719]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2008]
ADTRP androgen-dependent TFPI-regulating protein|
AEBP1 AE binding protein 1|This gene encodes a member of carboxypeptidase A protein family. The encoded protein may function as a transcriptional repressor and play a role in adipogenesis and smooth muscle cell differentiation. Studies in mice suggest that this gene functions in wound healing and abdominal wall development. Overexpression of this gene is associated with glioblastoma. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
AEBP2 AE binding protein 2|
AEN apoptosis enhancing nuclease|
AES amino-terminal enhancer of split|The protein encoded by this gene is similar in sequence to the amino terminus of Drosophila enhancer of split groucho, a protein involved in neurogenesis during embryonic development. The encoded protein, which belongs to the groucho/TLE family of proteins, can function as a homooligomer or as a heteroologimer with other family members to dominantly repress the expression of other family member genes. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AFAP1 actin filament associated protein 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a Src binding partner. It may represent a potential modulator of actin filament integrity in response to cellular signals, and may function as an adaptor protein by linking Src family members and/or other signaling proteins to actin filaments. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
AFAP1L1 actin filament associated protein 1-like 1|
AFAP1L2 actin filament associated protein 1-like 2|
AFF1 AF4/FMR2 family, member 1|
AFF2 AF4/FMR2 family, member 2|This gene encodes a putative transcriptional activator that is a member of the AF4FMR2 gene family. This gene is associated with the folate-sensitive fragile X E locus on chromosome X. A repeat polymorphism in the fragile X E locus results in silencing of this gene causing Fragile X E syndrome. Fragile X E syndrome is a form of nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
AFF3 AF4/FMR2 family, member 3|This gene encodes a tissue-restricted nuclear transcriptional activator that is preferentially expressed in lymphoid tissue. Isolation of this protein initially defined a highly conserved LAF4/MLLT2 gene family of nuclear transcription factors that may function in lymphoid development and oncogenesis. In some ALL patients, this gene has been found fused to the gene for MLL. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different proteins have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AFF4 AF4/FMR2 family, member 4|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the AF4 family of transcription factors involved in leukemia. It is a component of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex. A chromosomal translocation involving this gene and MLL gene on chromosome 11 is found in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia with ins(5;11)(q31;q31q23). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
AFG3L2 AFG3-like AAA ATPase 2|This gene encodes a protein localized in mitochondria and closely related to paraplegin. The paraplegin gene is responsible for an autosomal recessive form of hereditary spastic paraplegia. This gene is a candidate gene for other hereditary spastic paraplegias or neurodegenerative disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AFMID arylformamidase|
AFP alpha-fetoprotein|This gene encodes alpha-fetoprotein, a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. Alpha-fetoprotein expression in adults is often associated with hepatoma or teratoma. However, hereditary persistance of alpha-fetoprotein may also be found in individuals with no obvious pathology. The protein is thought to be the fetal counterpart of serum albumin, and the alpha-fetoprotein and albumin genes are present in tandem in the same transcriptional orientation on chromosome 4. Alpha-fetoprotein is found in monomeric as well as dimeric and trimeric forms, and binds copper, nickel, fatty acids and bilirubin. The level of alpha-fetoprotein in amniotic fluid is used to measure renal loss of protein to screen for spina bifida and anencephaly. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AFTPH aftiphilin|
AGA aspartylglucosaminidase|Aspartylglucosaminidase is involved in the catabolism of N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins. It cleaves asparagine from N-acetylglucosamines as one of the final steps in the lysosomal breakdown of glycoproteins. The lysosomal storage disease aspartylglycosaminuria is caused by a deficiency in the AGA enzyme. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
AGAP1 ArfGAP with GTPase domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 1|This gene encodes a member of an ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein family involved in membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton dynamics. This gene functions as a direct regulator of the adaptor-related protein complex 3 on endosomes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
AGAP2 ArfGAP with GTPase domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 2|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the centaurin gamma-like family. It mediates anti-apoptotic effects of nerve growth factor by activating nuclear phosphoinositide 3-kinase. It is overexpressed in cancer cells, and promotes cancer cell invasion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
AGAP3 ArfGAP with GTPase domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 3|
AGAP4 ArfGAP with GTPase domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 4|
AGBL1 ATP/GTP binding protein-like 1|Polyglutamylation is a reversible posttranslational modification catalyzed by polyglutamylases that results in the addition of glutamate side chains on the modified protein. This gene encodes a glutamate decarboxylase that catalyzes the deglutamylation of polyglutamylated proteins. Mutations in this gene result in dominant late-onset Fuchs corneal dystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
AGBL2 ATP/GTP binding protein-like 2|
AGER advanced glycosylation end product-specific receptor|The advanced glycosylation end product (AGE) receptor encoded by this gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface receptors. It is a multiligand receptor, and besides AGE, interacts with other molecules implicated in homeostasis, development, and inflammation, and certain diseases, such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms, as well as non-protein-coding variants, have been described for this gene (PMID:18089847). [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
AGFG1 ArfGAP with FG repeats 1|The protein encoded by this gene is related to nucleoporins, a class of proteins that mediate nucleocytoplasmic transport. The encoded protein binds the activation domain of the human immunodeficiency virus Rev protein when Rev is assembled onto its RNA target, and is required for the nuclear export of Rev-directed RNAs. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
AGFG2 ArfGAP with FG repeats 2|This gene is a member of the HIV-1 Rev binding protein (HRB) family and encodes a protein with one Arf-GAP zinc finger domain, several phe-gly (FG) motifs, and four asn-pro-phe (NPF) motifs. This protein interacts with Eps15 homology (EH) domains and plays a role in the Rev export pathway, which mediates the nucleocytoplasmic transfer of proteins and RNAs. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]
AGGF1 angiogenic factor with G patch and FHA domains 1|This gene encodes an angiogenic factor that promotes proliferation of endothelial cells. Mutations in this gene are associated with a susceptibility to Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 3, 4, 10 and 16.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
AGK acylglycerol kinase|The protein encoded by this gene is a mitochondrial membrane protein involved in lipid and glycerolipid metabolism. The encoded protein is a lipid kinase that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidic and lysophosphatidic acids. Defects in this gene have been associated with mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 10. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
AGL amylo-alpha-1, 6-glucosidase, 4-alpha-glucanotransferase|This gene encodes the glycogen debrancher enzyme which is involved in glycogen degradation. This enzyme has two independent catalytic activities which occur at different sites on the protein: a 4-alpha-glucotransferase activity and a amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity. Mutations in this gene are associated with glycogen storage disease although a wide range of enzymatic and clinical variability occurs which may be due to tissue-specific alternative splicing. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AGMAT agmatine ureohydrolase (agmatinase)|
AGO1 argonaute RISC catalytic component 1|This gene encodes a member of the Argonaute family of proteins which play a role in RNA interference. The encoded protein is highly basic, and contains a PAZ domain and a PIWI domain. It may interact with dicer1 and play a role in short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing. This gene is located on chromosome 1 in a cluster of closely related family members including argonaute 3, and argonaute 4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AGO2 argonaute RISC catalytic component 2|This gene encodes a member of the Argonaute family of proteins which play a role in RNA interference. The encoded protein is highly basic, and contains a PAZ domain and a PIWI domain. It may interact with dicer1 and play a role in short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
AGO3 argonaute RISC catalytic component 3|This gene encodes a member of the Argonaute family of proteins which play a role in RNA interference. The encoded protein is highly basic, contains a PAZ domain and a PIWI domain, and may play a role in short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing. This gene is located on chromosome 1 in a tandem cluster of closely related family members including argonaute 4 and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C, 1. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AGO4 argonaute RISC catalytic component 4|This gene encodes a member of the Argonaute family of proteins which play a role in RNA interference. The encoded protein is highly basic containing PAZ and PIWI domains, and it may play a role in short-interfering-RNA-mediated gene silencing. This gene is located on chromosome 1 in a cluster of closely related family members including argonaute 3, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2C, 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AGPAT1 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1|This gene encodes an enzyme that converts lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) into phosphatidic acid (PA). LPA and PA are two phospholipids involved in signal transduction and in lipid biosynthesis in cells. This enzyme localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. This gene is located in the class III region of the human major histocompatibility complex. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AGPAT2 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2|This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. The protein is located within the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and converts lysophosphatidic acid to phosphatidic acid, the second step in de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL), or Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, a disease characterized by a near absence of adipose tissue and severe insulin resistance. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AGPAT3 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 3|The protein encoded by this gene is an acyltransferase that converts lysophosphatidic acid into phosphatidic acid, which is the second step in the de novo phospholipid biosynthetic pathway. The encoded protein may be an integral membrane protein. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AGPAT4 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 4|This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. This integral membrane protein converts lysophosphatidic acid to phosphatidic acid, the second step in de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AGPAT5 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 5|This gene encodes a member of the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase family. This integral membrane protein converts lysophosphatidic acid to phosphatidic acid, the second step in de novo phospholipid biosynthesis. A pseudogene of this gene is present on the Y chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]
AGPAT6 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 6|Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (EC 2.3.1.51) catalyze the conversion of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) to phosphatidic acid (PA). LPA and PA are involved in signal transduction and lipid biosynthesis.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]
AGPAT9 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 9|This gene encodes a member of the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase protein family. The encoded protein is an enzyme which catalyzes the conversion of glycerol-3-phosphate to lysophosphatidic acid in the synthesis of triacylglycerol. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
AGPS alkylglycerone phosphate synthase|This gene is a member of the FAD-binding oxidoreductase/transferase type 4 family. It encodes a protein that catalyzes the second step of ether lipid biosynthesis in which acyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) is converted to alkyl-DHAP by the addition of a long chain alcohol and the removal of a long-chain acid anion. The protein is localized to the inner aspect of the peroxisomal membrane and requires FAD as a cofactor. Mutations in this gene have been associated with rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, type 3 and Zellweger syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AGR2 anterior gradient 2|
AGR3 anterior gradient 3|
AGRN agrin|This gene encodes one of several proteins that are critical in the development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), as identified in mouse knock-out studies. The encoded protein contains several laminin G, Kazal type serine protease inhibitor, and epidermal growth factor domains. Additional post-translational modifications occur to add glycosaminoglycans and disulfide bonds. In one family with congenital myasthenic syndrome affecting limb-girdle muscles, a mutation in this gene was found. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]
AGRP agouti related neuropeptide|This gene encodes an antagonist of the melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptor. It appears to regulate hypothalamic control of feeding behavior via melanocortin receptor and/or intracellular calcium regulation, and thus plays a role in weight homeostasis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with late on-set obesity. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
AGT angiotensinogen (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 8)|The protein encoded by this gene, pre-angiotensinogen or angiotensinogen precursor, is expressed in the liver and is cleaved by the enzyme renin in response to lowered blood pressure. The resulting product, angiotensin I, is then cleaved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to generate the physiologically active enzyme angiotensin II. The protein is involved in maintaining blood pressure and in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension and preeclampsia. Mutations in this gene are associated with susceptibility to essential hypertension, and can cause renal tubular dysgenesis, a severe disorder of renal tubular development. Defects in this gene have also been associated with non-familial structural atrial fibrillation, and inflammatory bowel disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AGTPBP1 ATP/GTP binding protein 1|NNA1 is a zinc carboxypeptidase that contains nuclear localization signals and an ATP/GTP-binding motif that was initially cloned from regenerating spinal cord neurons of the mouse.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2002]
AGTR1 angiotensin II receptor, type 1|Angiotensin II is a potent vasopressor hormone and a primary regulator of aldosterone secretion. It is an important effector controlling blood pressure and volume in the cardiovascular system. It acts through at least two types of receptors. This gene encodes the type 1 receptor which is thought to mediate the major cardiovascular effects of angiotensin II. This gene may play a role in the generation of reperfusion arrhythmias following restoration of blood flow to ischemic or infarcted myocardium. It was previously thought that a related gene, denoted as AGTR1B, existed; however, it is now believed that there is only one type 1 receptor gene in humans. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
AGTR2 angiotensin II receptor, type 2|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family, and functions as a receptor for angiotensin II. It is an intergral membrane protein that is highly expressed in fetus, but scantily in adult tissues, except brain, adrenal medulla, and atretic ovary. This receptor has been shown to mediate programmed cell death and this apoptotic function may play an important role in developmental biology and pathophysiology. Mutations in this gene are been associated with X-linked mental retardation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
AGTRAP angiotensin II receptor-associated protein|This gene encodes a transmembrane protein localized to the plasma membrane and perinuclear vesicular structures. The gene product interacts with the angiotensin II type I receptor and negatively regulates angiotensin II signaling. Alternative splicing of this gene generates multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AGXT alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase|This gene is expressed only in the liver and the encoded protein is localized mostly in the peroxisomes, where it is involved in glyoxylate detoxification. Mutations in this gene, some of which alter subcellular targetting, have been associated with type I primary hyperoxaluria. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AGXT2 alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a class III pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent mitochondrial aminotransferase. It catalyzes the conversion of glyoxylate to glycine using L-alanine as the amino donor. It is an important regulator of methylarginines and is involved in the control of blood pressure in kidney. Polymorphisms in this gene affect methylarginine and beta-aminoisobutyrate metabolism, and are associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]
AHCTF1 AT hook containing transcription factor 1|
AHCY adenosylhomocysteinase|S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase belongs to the adenosylhomocysteinase family. It catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) to adenosine (Ado) and L-homocysteine (Hcy). Thus, it regulates the intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentration thought to be important for transmethylation reactions. Deficiency in this protein is one of the different causes of hypermethioninemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]
AHCYL1 adenosylhomocysteinase-like 1|The protein encoded by this gene interacts with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1 and may be involved in the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine to L-homocysteine and adenosine. Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
AHCYL2 adenosylhomocysteinase-like 2|The protein encoded by this gene acts as a homotetramer and may be involved in the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine to L-homocysteine and adenosine. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
AHDC1 AT hook, DNA binding motif, containing 1|This gene encodes a protein containing two AT-hooks, which likely function in DNA binding. Mutations in this gene were found in individuals with Xia-Gibbs syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
AHI1 Abelson helper integration site 1|This gene is apparently required for both cerebellar and cortical development in humans. This gene mutations cause specific forms of Joubert syndrome-related disorders. Joubert syndrome (JS) is a recessively inherited developmental brain disorder with several identified causative chromosomal loci. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
AHNAK AHNAK nucleoprotein|
AHNAK2 AHNAK nucleoprotein 2|
AHR aryl hydrocarbon receptor|This gene encodes a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of biological responses to planar aromatic hydrocarbons. This receptor has been shown to regulate xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450. Its ligands included a variety of aromatic hydrocarbons. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AHRR aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor|The protein encoded by this gene participates in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling cascade, which mediates dioxin toxicity, and is involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It functions as a feedback modulator by repressing AhR-dependent gene expression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
AHSA1 AHA1, activator of heat shock 90kDa protein ATPase homolog 1 (yeast)|
AHSA2 AHA1, activator of heat shock 90kDa protein ATPase homolog 2 (yeast)|
AHSG alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein|Alpha2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG), a glycoprotein present in the serum, is synthesized by hepatocytes. The AHSG molecule consists of two polypeptide chains, which are both cleaved from a proprotein encoded from a single mRNA. It is involved in several functions, such as endocytosis, brain development and the formation of bone tissue. The protein is commonly present in the cortical plate of the immature cerebral cortex and bone marrow hemopoietic matrix, and it has therefore been postulated that it participates in the development of the tissues. However, its exact significance is still obscure. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AHSP alpha hemoglobin stabilizing protein|
AICDA activation-induced cytidine deaminase|This gene encodes a RNA-editing deaminase that is a member of the cytidine deaminase family. The protein is involved in somatic hypermutation, gene conversion, and class-switch recombination of immunoglobulin genes. Defects in this gene are the cause of autosomal recessive hyper-IgM immunodeficiency syndrome type 2 (HIGM2). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
AIDA axin interactor, dorsalization associated|
AIF1 allograft inflammatory factor 1|This gene is induced by cytokines and interferon. Its protein product is thought to be involved in negative regulation of growth of vascular smooth muscle cells, which contributes to the anti-inflammatory response to vessel wall trauma. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
AIF1L allograft inflammatory factor 1-like|
AIFM1 apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 1|This gene encodes a flavoprotein essential for nuclear disassembly in apoptotic cells, and it is found in the mitochondrial intermembrane space in healthy cells. Induction of apoptosis results in the translocation of this protein to the nucleus where it affects chromosome condensation and fragmentation. In addition, this gene product induces mitochondria to release the apoptogenic proteins cytochrome c and caspase-9. Mutations in this gene cause combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 6, which results in a severe mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 10. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
AIFM2 apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 2|This gene encodes a flavoprotein oxidoreductase that binds single stranded DNA and is thought to contribute to apoptosis in the presence of bacterial and viral DNA. The expression of this gene is also found to be induced by tumor suppressor protein p53 in colon cancer cells. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
AIFM3 apoptosis-inducing factor, mitochondrion-associated, 3|
AIG1 androgen-induced 1|
AIM1 absent in melanoma 1|
AIM1L absent in melanoma 1-like|
AIM2 absent in melanoma 2|AIM2 is a member of the IFI20X /IFI16 family. It plays a putative role in tumorigenic reversion and may control cell proliferation. Interferon-gamma induces expression of AIM2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AIMP1 aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that is specifically induced by apoptosis, and it is involved in the control of angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. The release of this cytokine renders the tumor-associated vasculature sensitive to tumor necrosis factor. The precursor protein is identical to the p43 subunit, which is associated with the multi-tRNA synthetase complex, and it modulates aminoacylation activity of tRNA synthetase in normal cells. This protein is also involved in the stimulation of inflammatory responses after proteolytic cleavage in tumor cells. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 20. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
AIMP2 aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 2|The JTV1 gene is located on chromosome 7p22 flanked by two genes, HRI and PMS2. JTV1 and HRI overlap slightly and are arranged in a tail-to-tail fashion. JTV1 and PMS2 are separated by approximately 200 base pairs and are arranged head-to-head. JTV1 is transcribed in the opposite direction compared to HRI and PMS2. The function of the JTV1 gene product is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AIP aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein|The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for aryl hydrocarbons and a ligand-activated transcription factor. The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm as part of a multiprotein complex, but upon binding of ligand is transported to the nucleus. This protein can regulate the expression of many xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Also, the encoded protein can bind specifically to and inhibit the activity of hepatitis B virus. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
AIPL1 aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein-like 1|Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the most severe inherited retinopathy with the earliest age of onset and accounts for at least 5% of all inherited retinal diseases. Affected individuals are diagnosed at birth or in the first few months of life with nystagmus, severely impaired vision or blindness and an abnormal or flat electroretinogram. The photoreceptor/pineal-expressed gene, AIPL1, encoding aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein-like 1, is located within the LCA4 candidate region. The encoded protein contains three tetratricopeptide motifs, consistent with chaperone or nuclear transport activity. Mutations in this gene may cause approximately 20% of recessive LCA. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
AIRE autoimmune regulator|This gene encodes a transcriptional regulator that forms nuclear bodies and interacts with the transcriptional coactivator CREB binding protein. The encoded protein plays an important role in immunity by regulating the expression of autoantigens and negative selection of autoreactive T-cells in the thymus. Mutations in this gene cause the rare autosomal-recessive systemic autoimmune disease termed autoimmune polyendocrinopathy with candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
AJAP1 adherens junctions associated protein 1|
AJUBA ajuba LIM protein|
AK1 adenylate kinase 1|Adenylate kinase is an enzyme involved in regulating the adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate group among adinine nucleotides. Three isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates, adenylate isozyme 1 (AK1), 2 (AK2) and 3 (AK3). AK1 is found in the cytosol of skeletal muscle, brain and erythrocytes, whereas AK2 and AK3 are found in the mitochondria of other tissues including liver and heart. AK1 was identified because of its association with a rare genetic disorder causing nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia where a mutation in the AK1 gene was found to reduce the catalytic activity of the enzyme. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AK2 adenylate kinase 2|Adenylate kinases are involved in regulating the adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate groups among adenine nucleotides. Three isozymes of adenylate kinase, namely 1, 2, and 3, have been identified in vertebrates; this gene encodes isozyme 2. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. Isozyme 2 is localized in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and may play a role in apoptosis. Mutations in this gene are the cause of reticular dysgenesis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1 and 2.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
AK3 adenylate kinase 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a GTP:ATP phosphotransferase that is found in the mitochondrial matrix. Several transcript variants encoding a few different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
AK4 adenylate kinase 4|This gene encodes a member of the adenylate kinase family of enzymes. The encoded protein is localized to the mitochondrial matrix. Adenylate kinases regulate the adenine and guanine nucleotide compositions within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate group among these nucleotides. Five isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. A pseudogene for this gene has been located on chromosome 17. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. Sequence alignment suggests that the gene defined by NM_013410, NM_203464, and NM_001005353 is located on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AK5 adenylate kinase 5|This gene encodes a member of the adenylate kinase family, which is involved in regulating the adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate groups among adenine nucleotides. This member is related to the UMP/CMP kinase of several species. It is located in the cytosol and expressed exclusively in brain. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AK7 adenylate kinase 7|
AK8 adenylate kinase 8|
AK9 adenylate kinase 9|
AKAP1 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 1|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein binds to type I and type II regulatory subunits of PKA and anchors them to the mitochondrion. This protein is speculated to be involved in the cAMP-dependent signal transduction pathway and in directing RNA to a specific cellular compartment. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKAP10 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 10|This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchor protein family. A-kinase anchor proteins bind to the regulatory subunits of protein kinase A (PKA) and confine the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. The encoded protein is localized to mitochondria and interacts with both the type I and type II regulatory subunits of PKA. Polymorphisms in this gene may be associated with increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
AKAP11 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 11|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is expressed at high levels throughout spermatogenesis and in mature sperm. It binds the RI and RII subunits of PKA in testis. It may serve a function in cell cycle control of both somatic cells and germ cells in addition to its putative role in spermatogenesis and sperm function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKAP12 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 12|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is expressed in endothelial cells, cultured fibroblasts, and osteosarcoma cells. It associates with protein kinases A and C and phosphatase, and serves as a scaffold protein in signal transduction. This protein and RII PKA colocalize at the cell periphery. This protein is a cell growth-related protein. Antibodies to this protein can be produced by patients with myasthenia gravis. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKAP13 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 13|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms containing c-terminal dbl oncogene homology (DH) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. The DH domain is associated with guanine nucleotide exchange activation for the Rho/Rac family of small GTP binding proteins, resulting in the conversion of the inactive GTPase to the active form capable of transducing signals. The PH domain has multiple functions. Therefore, these isoforms function as scaffolding proteins to coordinate a Rho signaling pathway, function as protein kinase A-anchoring proteins and, in addition, enhance ligand-dependent activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
AKAP14 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 14|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The protein anchors PKA in ciliary axonemes and, in this way, may play a role in regulating ciliary beat frequency. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKAP17A A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 17A|This locus encodes a protein kinase A anchoring protein. The encoded protein is part of the spliceosome complex and is involved in the regulation of alternate splicing in some mRNA precursors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
AKAP2 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 2|The protein encoded by this gene binds to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A and is found associated with the actin cytoskeleton. The encoded protein mediates signals carried by cAMP and may be involved in creating polarity in certain signaling processes. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
AKAP3 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 3|This gene encodes a member of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), a family of functionally related proteins that target protein kinase A to discrete locations within the cell. The encoded protein is reported to participate in protein-protein interactions with the R-subunit of the protein kinase A as well as sperm-associated proteins. This protein is expressed in spermatozoa and localized to the acrosomal region of the sperm head as well as the length of the principal piece. It may function as a regulator of motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
AKAP4 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 4|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is localized to the sperm flagellum and may be involved in the regulation of sperm motility. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKAP5 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 5|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein binds to the RII-beta regulatory subunit of PKA, and also to protein kinase C and the phosphatase calcineurin. It is predominantly expressed in cerebral cortex and may anchor the PKA protein at postsynaptic densities (PSD) and be involved in the regulation of postsynaptic events. It is also expressed in T lymphocytes and may function to inhibit interleukin-2 transcription by disrupting calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of NFAT. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKAP6 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 6|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins, which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. The encoded protein is highly expressed in various brain regions and cardiac and skeletal muscle. It is specifically localized to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and nuclear membrane, and is involved in anchoring PKA to the nuclear membrane or sarcoplasmic reticulum. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKAP7 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 7|This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) family, a group of functionally related proteins that bind to a regulatory subunit (RII) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and target the enzyme to specific subcellular compartments. AKAPs have a common RII-binding domain, but contain different targeting motifs responsible for directing PKA to distinct intracellular locations. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
AKAP8 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8|This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchor protein family. A-kinase anchor proteins are scaffold proteins that contain a binding domain for the RI/RII subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and recruit PKA and other signaling molecules to specific subcellular locations. This gene encodes a nuclear A-kinase anchor protein that binds to the RII alpha subunit of PKA and may play a role in chromosome condensation during mitosis by targeting PKA and the condensin complex to chromatin. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
AKAP8L A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8-like|
AKAP9 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 9|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. Alternate splicing of this gene results in at least two isoforms that localize to the centrosome and the Golgi apparatus, and interact with numerous signaling proteins from multiple signal transduction pathways. These signaling proteins include type II protein kinase A, serine/threonine kinase protein kinase N, protein phosphatase 1, protein phosphatase 2a, protein kinase C-epsilon and phosphodiesterase 4D3. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
AKIP1 A kinase (PRKA) interacting protein 1|This gene encodes a nuclear protein that interacts with protein kinase A catalytic subunit, and regulates the effect of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathway on the NF-kappa-B activation cascade. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
AKIRIN1 akirin 1|
AKIRIN2 akirin 2|
AKNA AT-hook transcription factor|
AKNAD1 AKNA domain containing 1|This gene encodes a protein which contains a domain found in an AT-hook-containing transcription factor. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
AKR1A1 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member A1 (aldehyde reductase)|This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. This member, also known as aldehyde reductase, is involved in the reduction of biogenic and xenobiotic aldehydes and is present in virtually every tissue. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene exist, all encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
AKR1B1 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (aldose reductase)|This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. This member catalyzes the reduction of a number of aldehydes, including the aldehyde form of glucose, and is thereby implicated in the development of diabetic complications by catalyzing the reduction of glucose to sorbitol. Multiple pseudogenes have been identified for this gene. The nomenclature system used by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee to define human aldo-keto reductase family members is known to differ from that used by the Mouse Genome Informatics database. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
AKR1B10 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B10 (aldose reductase)|This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. This member can efficiently reduce aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, and it is less active on hexoses. It is highly expressed in adrenal gland, small intestine, and colon, and may play an important role in liver carcinogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKR1C1 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1|This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme catalyzes the reaction of progesterone to the inactive form 20-alpha-hydroxy-progesterone. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKR1C2 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C2|This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols using NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme binds bile acid with high affinity, and shows minimal 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
AKR1C3 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C3|This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of prostaglandin (PG) D2, PGH2 and phenanthrenequinone (PQ), and the oxidation of 9alpha,11beta-PGF2 to PGD2. It may play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as asthma, and may also have a role in controlling cell growth and/or differentiation. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
AKR1C4 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C4|This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of aldehydes and ketones to their corresponding alcohols by utilizing NADH and/or NADPH as cofactors. The enzymes display overlapping but distinct substrate specificity. This enzyme catalyzes the bioreduction of chlordecone, a toxic organochlorine pesticide, to chlordecone alcohol in liver. This gene shares high sequence identity with three other gene members and is clustered with those three genes at chromosome 10p15-p14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKR1D1 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member D1|The enzyme encoded by this gene is responsible for the catalysis of the 5-beta-reduction of bile acid intermediates and steroid hormones carrying a delta(4)-3-one structure. Deficiency of this enzyme may contribute to hepatic dysfunction. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Other variants may be present, but their full-length natures have not been determined yet. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
AKR7A2 aldo-keto reductase family 7, member A2 (aflatoxin aldehyde reductase)|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the aldo/keto reductase (AKR) superfamily and AKR7 family, which are involved in the detoxification of aldehydes and ketones. The AKR7 family consists of 3 genes that are present in a cluster on the p arm of chromosome 1. This protein, thought to be localized in the golgi, catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of succinic semialdehyde to the endogenous neuromodulator, gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It may also function as a detoxication enzyme in the reduction of aflatoxin B1 and 2-carboxybenzaldehyde. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
AKR7A3 aldo-keto reductase family 7, member A3 (aflatoxin aldehyde reductase)|Aldo-keto reductases, such as AKR7A3, are involved in the detoxification of aldehydes and ketones.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]
AKT1 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1|The serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the AKT1 gene is catalytically inactive in serum-starved primary and immortalized fibroblasts. AKT1 and the related AKT2 are activated by platelet-derived growth factor. The activation is rapid and specific, and it is abrogated by mutations in the pleckstrin homology domain of AKT1. It was shown that the activation occurs through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. In the developing nervous system AKT is a critical mediator of growth factor-induced neuronal survival. Survival factors can suppress apoptosis in a transcription-independent manner by activating the serine/threonine kinase AKT1, which then phosphorylates and inactivates components of the apoptotic machinery. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the Proteus syndrome. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
AKT1S1 AKT1 substrate 1 (proline-rich)|AKT1S1 is a proline-rich substrate of AKT (MIM 164730) that binds 14-3-3 protein (see YWHAH, MIM 113508) when phosphorylated (Kovacina et al., 2003 [PubMed 12524439]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
AKT2 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2|This gene is a putative oncogene encoding a protein belonging to a subfamily of serine/threonine kinases containing SH2-like (Src homology 2-like) domains. The gene was shown to be amplified and overexpressed in 2 of 8 ovarian carcinoma cell lines and 2 of 15 primary ovarian tumors. Overexpression contributes to the malignant phenotype of a subset of human ductal pancreatic cancers. The encoded protein is a general protein kinase capable of phophorylating several known proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKT3 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the AKT, also called PKB, serine/threonine protein kinase family. AKT kinases are known to be regulators of cell signaling in response to insulin and growth factors. They are involved in a wide variety of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, as well as glycogen synthesis and glucose uptake. This kinase has been shown to be stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Alternatively splice transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKTIP AKT interacting protein|The mouse homolog of this gene produces fused toes and thymic hyperplasia in heterozygous mutant animals while homozygous mutants die in early development. This gene may play a role in apoptosis as these morphological abnormalities are caused by altered patterns of programmed cell death. The protein encoded by this gene is similar to the ubiquitin ligase domain of other ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes but lacks the conserved cysteine residue that enables those enzymes to conjugate ubiquitin to the target protein. This protein interacts directly with serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt and modulates PKB activity by enhancing the phosphorylation of PKB's regulatory sites. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALAD aminolevulinate dehydratase|The ALAD enzyme is composed of 8 identical subunits and catalyzes the condensation of 2 molecules of delta-aminolevulinate to form porphobilinogen (a precursor of heme, cytochromes and other hemoproteins). ALAD catalyzes the second step in the porphyrin and heme biosynthetic pathway; zinc is essential for enzymatic activity. ALAD enzymatic activity is inhibited by lead and a defect in the ALAD structural gene can cause increased sensitivity to lead poisoning and acute hepatic porphyria. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALAS1 5'-aminolevulinate synthase 1|This gene encodes the mitochondrial enzyme which is catalyzes the rate-limiting step in heme (iron-protoporphyrin) biosynthesis. The enzyme encoded by this gene is the housekeeping enzyme; a separate gene encodes a form of the enzyme that is specific for erythroid tissue. The level of the mature encoded protein is regulated by heme: high levels of heme down-regulate the mature enzyme in mitochondria while low heme levels up-regulate. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 12. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
ALAS2 5'-aminolevulinate synthase 2|The product of this gene specifies an erythroid-specific mitochondrially located enzyme. The encoded protein catalyzes the first step in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Defects in this gene cause X-linked pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALB albumin|Albumin is a soluble, monomeric protein which comprises about one-half of the blood serum protein. Albumin functions primarily as a carrier protein for steroids, fatty acids, and thyroid hormones and plays a role in stabilizing extracellular fluid volume. Albumin is a globular unglycosylated serum protein of molecular weight 65,000. Albumin is synthesized in the liver as preproalbumin which has an N-terminal peptide that is removed before the nascent protein is released from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The product, proalbumin, is in turn cleaved in the Golgi vesicles to produce the secreted albumin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALCAM activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule|This gene encodes activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), also known as CD166 (cluster of differentiation 166), which is a member of a subfamily of immunoglobulin receptors with five immunoglobulin-like domains (VVC2C2C2) in the extracellular domain. This protein binds to T-cell differentiation antigene CD6, and is implicated in the processes of cell adhesion and migration. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
ALDH16A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 16 family, member A1|This gene encodes a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily. The family members act on aldehyde substrates and use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) as a cofactor. This gene is conserved in chimpanzee, dog, cow, mouse, rat, and zebrafish. The protein encoded by this gene interacts with maspardin, a protein that when truncated is responsible for Mast syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
ALDH18A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 18 family, member A1|This gene is a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase family and encodes a bifunctional ATP- and NADPH-dependent mitochondrial enzyme with both gamma-glutamyl kinase and gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase activities. The encoded protein catalyzes the reduction of glutamate to delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, a critical step in the de novo biosynthesis of proline, ornithine and arginine. Mutations in this gene lead to hyperammonemia, hypoornithinemia, hypocitrullinemia, hypoargininemia and hypoprolinemia and may be associated with neurodegeneration, cataracts and connective tissue diseases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants, encoding different isoforms, have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALDH1A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family. Aldehyde dehydrogenase is the next enzyme after alcohol dehydrogenase in the major pathway of alcohol metabolism. There are two major aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in the liver, cytosolic and mitochondrial, which are encoded by distinct genes, and can be distinguished by their electrophoretic mobility, kinetic properties, and subcellular localization. This gene encodes the cytosolic isozyme. Studies in mice show that through its role in retinol metabolism, this gene may also be involved in the regulation of the metabolic responses to high-fat diet. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
ALDH1A2 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A2|This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family of proteins. The product of this gene is an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of retinoic acid (RA) from retinaldehyde. Retinoic acid, the active derivative of vitamin A (retinol), is a hormonal signaling molecule that functions in developing and adult tissues. The studies of a similar mouse gene suggest that this enzyme and the cytochrome CYP26A1, concurrently establish local embryonic retinoic acid levels which facilitate posterior organ development and prevent spina bifida. Four transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
ALDH1A3 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A3|This gene encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme that uses retinal as a substrate. Mutations in this gene have been associated with microphthalmia, isolated 8, and expression changes have also been detected in tumor cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
ALDH1B1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member B1|This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenases family of proteins. Aldehyde dehydrogenase is the second enzyme of the major oxidative pathway of alcohol metabolism. This gene does not contain introns in the coding sequence. The variation of this locus may affect the development of alcohol-related problems. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALDH1L1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1|The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the conversion of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+), and water to tetrahydrofolate, NADPH, and carbon dioxide. The encoded protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family. Loss of function or expression of this gene is associated with decreased apoptosis, increased cell motility, and cancer progression. There is an antisense transcript that overlaps on the opposite strand with this gene locus. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
ALDH1L2 aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L2|This gene encodes a member of both the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily and the formyl transferase superfamily. This member is the mitochondrial form of 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (FDH), which converts 10-formyltetrahydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and CO2 in an NADP(+)-dependent reaction, and plays an essential role in the distribution of one-carbon groups between the cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments of the cell. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
ALDH2 aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (mitochondrial)|This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family of proteins. Aldehyde dehydrogenase is the second enzyme of the major oxidative pathway of alcohol metabolism. Two major liver isoforms of aldehyde dehydrogenase, cytosolic and mitochondrial, can be distinguished by their electrophoretic mobilities, kinetic properties, and subcellular localizations. Most Caucasians have two major isozymes, while approximately 50% of Orientals have the cytosolic isozyme but not the mitochondrial isozyme. A remarkably higher frequency of acute alcohol intoxication among Orientals than among Caucasians could be related to the absence of a catalytically active form of the mitochondrial isozyme. The increased exposure to acetaldehyde in individuals with the catalytically inactive form may also confer greater susceptibility to many types of cancer. This gene encodes a mitochondrial isoform, which has a low Km for acetaldehydes, and is localized in mitochondrial matrix. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
ALDH3A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A1|Aldehyde dehydrogenases oxidize various aldehydes to the corresponding acids. They are involved in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde and in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation. The enzyme encoded by this gene forms a cytoplasmic homodimer that preferentially oxidizes aromatic and medium-chain (6 carbons or more) saturated and unsaturated aldehyde substrates. It is thought to promote resistance to UV and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-induced oxidative damage in the cornea. The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
ALDH3A2 aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member A2|Aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes are thought to play a major role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated by alcohol metabolism and lipid peroxidation. This gene product catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acid. Mutations in the gene cause Sjogren-Larsson syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALDH3B1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member B1|This gene encodes a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase protein family. Aldehyde dehydrogenases are a family of isozymes that may play a major role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated by alcohol metabolism and lipid peroxidation. The encoded protein is able to oxidize long-chain fatty aldehydes in vitro, and may play a role in protection from oxidative stress. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
ALDH3B2 aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family, member B2|This gene encodes a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase family, a group of isozymes that may play a major role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated by alcohol metabolism and lipid peroxidation. The gene of this particular family member is over 10 kb in length. The expression of these transcripts is restricted to the salivary gland among the human tissues examined. Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALDH4A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 4 family, member A1|This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family of proteins. This enzyme is a mitochondrial matrix NAD-dependent dehydrogenase which catalyzes the second step of the proline degradation pathway, converting pyrroline-5-carboxylate to glutamate. Deficiency of this enzyme is associated with type II hyperprolinemia, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by accumulation of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) and proline. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]
ALDH5A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 5 family, member A1|This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family of proteins. This gene encodes a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. A deficiency of this enzyme, known as 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, is a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA). In response to the defect, physiologic fluids from patients accumulate GHB, a compound with numerous neuromodulatory properties. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALDH6A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 6 family, member A1|This gene encodes a member of the aldehyde dehydrogenase protein family. The encoded protein is a mitochondrial methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase that plays a role in the valine and pyrimidine catabolic pathways. This protein catalyzes the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation of malonate and methylmalonate semialdehydes to acetyl- and propionyl-CoA. Methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by elevated beta-alanine, 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and both isomers of 3-amino and 3-hydroxyisobutyric acids in urine organic acids. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
ALDH7A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 family, member A1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of subfamily 7 in the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene family. These enzymes are thought to play a major role in the detoxification of aldehydes generated by alcohol metabolism and lipid peroxidation. This particular member has homology to a previously described protein from the green garden pea, the 26g pea turgor protein. It is also involved in lysine catabolism that is known to occur in the mitochondrial matrix. Recent reports show that this protein is found both in the cytosol and the mitochondria, and the two forms likely arise from the use of alternative translation initiation sites. An additional variant encoding a different isoform has also been found for this gene. Mutations in this gene are associated with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. Several related pseudogenes have also been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ALDH8A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 8 family, member A1|This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenases family of proteins. It plays a role in a pathway of 9-cis-retinoic acid biosynthesis in vivo. This enzyme converts 9-cis-retinal into the retinoid X receptor ligand 9-cis-retinoic acid, and has approximately 40-fold higher activity with 9-cis-retinal than with all-trans-retinal. Therefore, it is the first known aldehyde dehydrogenase to show a preference for 9-cis-retinal relative to all-trans-retinal. Three transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
ALDH9A1 aldehyde dehydrogenase 9 family, member A1|This protein belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family of proteins. It has a high activity for oxidation of gamma-aminobutyraldehyde and other amino aldehydes. The enzyme catalyzes the dehydrogenation of gamma-aminobutyraldehyde to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This isozyme is a tetramer of identical 54-kD subunits. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALDOA aldolase A, fructose-bisphosphate|The protein encoded by this gene, Aldolase A (fructose-bisphosphate aldolase), is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Three aldolase isozymes (A, B, and C), encoded by three different genes, are differentially expressed during development. Aldolase A is found in the developing embryo and is produced in even greater amounts in adult muscle. Aldolase A expression is repressed in adult liver, kidney and intestine and similar to aldolase C levels in brain and other nervous tissue. Aldolase A deficiency has been associated with myopathy and hemolytic anemia. Alternative splicing and alternative promoter usage results in multiple transcript variants. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 3 and 10. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
ALDOB aldolase B, fructose-bisphosphate|Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (EC 4.1.2.13) is a tetrameric glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Vertebrates have 3 aldolase isozymes which are distinguished by their electrophoretic and catalytic properties. Differences indicate that aldolases A, B, and C are distinct proteins, the products of a family of related 'housekeeping' genes exhibiting developmentally regulated expression of the different isozymes. The developing embryo produces aldolase A, which is produced in even greater amounts in adult muscle where it can be as much as 5% of total cellular protein. In adult liver, kidney and intestine, aldolase A expression is repressed and aldolase B is produced. In brain and other nervous tissue, aldolase A and C are expressed about equally. There is a high degree of homology between aldolase A and C. Defects in ALDOB cause hereditary fructose intolerance. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
ALDOC aldolase C, fructose-bisphosphate|This gene encodes a member of the class I fructose-biphosphate aldolase gene family. Expressed specifically in the hippocampus and Purkinje cells of the brain, the encoded protein is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible aldol cleavage of fructose-1,6-biphosphate and fructose 1-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and either glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate or glyceraldehyde, respectively. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALG1 ALG1, chitobiosyldiphosphodolichol beta-mannosyltransferase|The enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes the first mannosylation step in the biosynthesis of lipid-linked oligosaccharides. This gene is mutated in congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ik. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
ALG10 ALG10, alpha-1,2-glucosyltransferase|This gene encodes a membrane-associated protein that adds the third glucose residue to the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor for N-linked glycosylation. That is, it transfers the terminal glucose from dolichyl phosphate glucose (Dol-P-Glc) onto the lipid-linked oligosaccharide Glc2Man9GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol. The rat protein homolog was shown to specifically modulate the gating function of the rat neuronal ether-a-go-go (EAG) potassium ion channel. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
ALG10B ALG10B, alpha-1,2-glucosyltransferase|
ALG11 ALG11, alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase|This gene encodes a GDP-Man:Man3GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol-alpha1,2-mannosyltransferase which is localized to the cytosolic side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and catalyzes the transfer of the fourth and fifth mannose residue from GDP-mannose (GDP-Man) to Man3GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol and Man4GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol resulting in the production of Man5GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol. Mutations in this gene are associated with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ip (CDGIP). This gene overlaps but is distinct from the UTP14, U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein, homolog C (yeast) gene. A pseudogene of the GDP-Man:Man3GlcNAc2-PP-dolichol-alpha1,2-mannosyltransferase has been identified on chromosome 19. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
ALG12 ALG12, alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase|This gene encodes a member of the glycosyltransferase 22 family. The encoded protein catalyzes the addition of the eighth mannose residue in an alpha-1,6 linkage onto the dolichol-PP-oligosaccharide precursor (dolichol-PP-Man(7)GlcNAc(2)) required for protein glycosylation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ig (CDG-Ig)characterized by abnormal N-glycosylation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALG13 ALG13, UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit|The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of a bipartite UDP-N-acetylglucosamine transferase. It heterodimerizes with asparagine-linked glycosylation 14 homolog to form a functional UDP-GlcNAc glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the second sugar addition of the highly conserved oligosaccharide precursor in endoplasmic reticulum N-linked glycosylation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
ALG14 ALG14, UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit|This gene is a member of the glycosyltransferase 1 family. The encoded protein and ALG13 are thought to be subunits of UDP-GlcNAc transferase, which catalyzes the first two committed steps in endoplasmic reticulum N-linked glycosylation. Mutations in this gene have been linked to congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMSWTA). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]
ALG1L ALG1, chitobiosyldiphosphodolichol beta-mannosyltransferase-like|
ALG1L2 ALG1, chitobiosyldiphosphodolichol beta-mannosyltransferase-like 2|
ALG2 ALG2, alpha-1,3/1,6-mannosyltransferase|This gene encodes a member of the glycosyltransferase 1 family. The encoded protein acts as an alpha 1,3 mannosyltransferase, mannosylating Man(2)GlcNAc(2)-dolichol diphosphate and Man(1)GlcNAc(2)-dolichol diphosphate to form Man(3)GlcNAc(2)-dolichol diphosphate. Defects in this gene have been associated with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ih (CDG-Ii). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
ALG3 ALG3, alpha-1,3- mannosyltransferase|This gene encodes a member of the ALG3 family. The encoded protein catalyses the addition of the first dol-P-Man derived mannose in an alpha 1,3 linkage to Man5GlcNAc2-PP-Dol. Defects in this gene have been associated with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Id (CDG-Id) characterized by abnormal N-glycosylation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
ALG5 ALG5, dolichyl-phosphate beta-glucosyltransferase|This gene encodes a member of the glycosyltransferase 2 family. The encoded protein participates in glucosylation of the oligomannose core in N-linked glycosylation of proteins. The addition of glucose residues to the oligomannose core is necessary to ensure substrate recognition, and therefore, effectual transfer of the oligomannose core to the nascent glycoproteins. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
ALG8 ALG8, alpha-1,3-glucosyltransferase|This gene encodes a member of the ALG6/ALG8 glucosyltransferase family. The encoded protein catalyzes the addition of the second glucose residue to the lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor for N-linked glycosylation of proteins. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ih (CDG-Ih). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALG9 ALG9, alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase|This gene encodes an alpha-1,2-mannosyltransferase enzyme that functions in lipid-linked oligosaccharide assembly. Mutations in this gene result in congenital disorder of glycosylation type Il. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
ALK anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase|This gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, which belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily. This protein comprises an extracellular domain, an hydrophobic stretch corresponding to a single pass transmembrane region, and an intracellular kinase domain. It plays an important role in the development of the brain and exerts its effects on specific neurons in the nervous system. This gene has been found to be rearranged, mutated, or amplified in a series of tumours including anaplastic large cell lymphomas, neuroblastoma, and non-small cell lung cancer. The chromosomal rearrangements are the most common genetic alterations in this gene, which result in creation of multiple fusion genes in tumourigenesis, including ALK (chromosome 2)/EML4 (chromosome 2), ALK/RANBP2 (chromosome 2), ALK/ATIC (chromosome 2), ALK/TFG (chromosome 3), ALK/NPM1 (chromosome 5), ALK/SQSTM1 (chromosome 5), ALK/KIF5B (chromosome 10), ALK/CLTC (chromosome 17), ALK/TPM4 (chromosome 19), and ALK/MSN (chromosome X).[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ALKBH1 alkB, alkylation repair homolog 1 (E. coli)|This gene encodes a homolog to the E. coli alkB gene product. The E. coli alkB protein is part of the adaptive response mechanism of DNA alkylation damage repair. It is involved in damage reversal by oxidative demethylation of 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALKBH2 alkB, alkylation repair homolog 2 (E. coli)|The Escherichia coli AlkB protein protects against the cytotoxicity of methylating agents by repair of the specific DNA lesions generated in single-stranded DNA. ALKBH2 and ALKBH3 (MIM 610603) are E. coli AlkB homologs that catalyze the removal of 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine (Duncan et al., 2002 [PubMed 12486230]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ALKBH3 alkB, alkylation repair homolog 3 (E. coli)|The Escherichia coli AlkB protein protects against the cytotoxicity of methylating agents by repair of the specific DNA lesions generated in single-stranded DNA. ALKBH2 (MIM 610602) and ALKBH3 are E. coli AlkB homologs that catalyze the removal of 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine (Duncan et al., 2002 [PubMed 12486230]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ALKBH4 alkB, alkylation repair homolog 4 (E. coli)|
ALKBH5 AlkB family member 5, RNA demethylase|
ALKBH6 alkB, alkylation repair homolog 6 (E. coli)|
ALKBH7 alkB, alkylation repair homolog 7 (E. coli)|
ALMS1 Alstrom syndrome protein 1|This gene encodes a protein containing a large tandem-repeat domain as well as additional low complexity regions. The encoded protein functions in microtubule organization, particularly in the formation and maintanance of cilia. Mutations in this gene cause Alstrom syndrome. There is a pseudogene for this gene located adjacent in the same region of chromosome 2. Alternative splice variants have been described but their full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
ALOX12 arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase|
ALOX12B arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, 12R type|This gene encodes an enzyme involved in the converstion of arachidonic acid to 12R-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Mutations in this gene are associated with nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALOX15 arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase|
ALOX15B arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase, type B|This gene encodes a member of the lipoxygenase family of structurally related nonheme iron dioxygenases involved in the production of fatty acid hydroperoxides. The encoded protein converts arachidonic acid exclusively to 15S-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid, while metabolizing linoleic acid less effectively. This gene is located in a cluster of related genes and a pseudogene that spans approximately 100 kilobases on the short arm of chromosome 17. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALOX5 arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase|This gene encodes a member of the lipoxygenase gene family and plays a dual role in the synthesis of leukotrienes from arachidonic acid. The encoded protein, which is expressed specifically in bone marrow-derived cells, catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid, and further to the allylic epoxide 5(S)-trans-7,9-trans-11,14-cis-eicosatetrenoic acid (leukotriene A4). Leukotrienes are important mediators of a number of inflammatory and allergic conditions. Mutations in the promoter region of this gene lead to a diminished response to antileukotriene drugs used in the treatment of asthma and may also be associated with atherosclerosis and several cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
ALOX5AP arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein|This gene encodes a protein which, with 5-lipoxygenase, is required for leukotriene synthesis. Leukotrienes are arachidonic acid metabolites which have been implicated in various types of inflammatory responses, including asthma, arthritis and psoriasis. This protein localizes to the plasma membrane. Inhibitors of its function impede translocation of 5-lipoxygenase from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane and inhibit 5-lipoxygenase activation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
ALOXE3 arachidonate lipoxygenase 3|This gene is a member of the lipoxygenase family, which are catabolized by arachidonic acid-derived compounds. The encoded enzyme is a hydroperoxide isomerase that synthesizes a unique type of epoxy alcohol (8R-hydroxy-11R,12R-epoxyeicosa-5Z,9E,14Z-trienoic acid) from 12R-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12R-HPETE). This epoxy alcohol can activate the the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), which is implicated in epidermal differentiation. Loss of function of the enzyme encoded by this gene results in ichthyosis, implicating the function of this gene in the differentiation of human skin. This gene is part of a cluster of lipoxygenase genes on 17p13.1. Mutations in this gene result in nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
ALPI alkaline phosphatase, intestinal|There are at least four distinct but related alkaline phosphatases: intestinal, placental, placental-like, and liver/bone/kidney (tissue non-specific). The intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene encodes a digestive brush-border enzyme. This enzyme is a component of the gut mucosal defense system and is thought to function in the detoxification of lipopolysaccharide, and in the prevention of bacterial translocation in the gut. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ALPK1 alpha-kinase 1|This gene encodes an alpha kinase. Mice which were homozygous for disrupted copies of this gene exhibited coordination defects (PMID: 21208416). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ALPK2 alpha-kinase 2|
ALPK3 alpha-kinase 3|
ALPL alkaline phosphatase, liver/bone/kidney|There are at least four distinct but related alkaline phosphatases: intestinal, placental, placental-like, and liver/bone/kidney (tissue non-specific). The first three are located together on chromosome 2, while the tissue non-specific form is located on chromosome 1. The product of this gene is a membrane bound glycosylated enzyme that is not expressed in any particular tissue and is, therefore, referred to as the tissue-nonspecific form of the enzyme. The exact physiological function of the alkaline phosphatases is not known. A proposed function of this form of the enzyme is matrix mineralization; however, mice that lack a functional form of this enzyme show normal skeletal development. This enzyme has been linked directly to hypophosphatasia, a disorder that is characterized by hypercalcemia and includes skeletal defects. The character of this disorder can vary, however, depending on the specific mutation since this determines age of onset and severity of symptoms. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
ALPP alkaline phosphatase, placental|The protein encoded by this gene is an alkaline phosphatase, a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphoric acid monoesters. It belongs to a multigene family composed of four alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. The enzyme functions as a homodimer and has a catalytic site containing one magnesium and two zinc ions, which are required for its enzymatic function. The protein is primarily expressed in placental and endometrial tissue; however, strong ectopic expression has been detected in ovarian adenocarcinoma, serous cystadenocarcinoma, and other ovarian cancer cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
ALPPL2 alkaline phosphatase, placental-like 2|There are at least four distinct but related alkaline phosphatases: intestinal, placental, placental-like, and liver/bone/kidney (tissue non-specific). The product of this gene is a membrane bound glycosylated enzyme, localized to testis, thymus and certain germ cell tumors, that is closely related to both the placental and intestinal forms of alkaline phosphatase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALS2 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile)|The protein encoded by this gene contains an ATS1/RCC1-like domain, a RhoGEF domain, and a vacuolar protein sorting 9 (VPS9) domain, all of which are guanine-nucleotide exchange factors that activate members of the Ras superfamily of GTPases. The protein functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPase RAB5. The protein localizes with RAB5 on early endosomal compartments, and functions as a modulator for endosomal dynamics. Mutations in this gene result in several forms of juvenile lateral sclerosis and infantile-onset ascending spastic paralysis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ALS2CL ALS2 C-terminal like|
ALS2CR11 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) chromosome region, candidate 11|
ALS2CR12 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) chromosome region, candidate 12|
ALX1 ALX homeobox 1|The specific function of this gene has yet to be determined in humans; however, in rodents, it is necessary for survival of the forebrain mesenchyme and may also be involved in development of the cervix. Mutations in the mouse gene lead to neural tube defects such as acrania and meroanencephaly. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ALX4 ALX homeobox 4|This gene encodes a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the mesenchyme of developing bones, limbs, hair, teeth, and mammary tissue. Mutations in this gene cause parietal foramina 2 (PFM2); an autosomal dominant disease characterized by deficient ossification of the parietal bones. Mutations in this gene also cause a form of frontonasal dysplasia with alopecia and hypogonadism; suggesting a role for this gene in craniofacial development, mesenchymal-epithelial communication, and hair follicle development. Deletion of a segment of chromosome 11 containing this gene, del(11)(p11p12), causes Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS); a syndrome characterized by craniofacial anomalies, mental retardation, multiple exostoses, and genital abnormalities in males. In mouse, this gene has been shown to use dual translation initiation sites located 16 codons apart. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
ALYREF Aly/REF export factor|The protein encoded by this gene is a heat stable, nuclear protein and functions as a molecular chaperone. It is thought to regulate dimerization, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity of basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AMACR alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase|This gene encodes a racemase. The encoded enzyme interconverts pristanoyl-CoA and C27-bile acylCoAs between their (R)- and (S)-stereoisomers. The conversion to the (S)-stereoisomers is necessary for degradation of these substrates by peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Encoded proteins from this locus localize to both mitochondria and peroxisomes. Mutations in this gene may be associated with adult-onset sensorimotor neuropathy, pigmentary retinopathy, and adrenomyeloneuropathy due to defects in bile acid synthesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the upstream neighboring C1QTNF3 (C1q and tumor necrosis factor related protein 3) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
AMBP alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor|This gene encodes a complex glycoprotein secreted in plasma. The precursor is proteolytically processed into distinct functioning proteins: alpha-1-microglobulin, which belongs to the superfamily of lipocalin transport proteins and may play a role in the regulation of inflammatory processes, and bikunin, which is a urinary trypsin inhibitor belonging to the superfamily of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors and plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. This gene is located on chromosome 9 in a cluster of lipocalin genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AMBRA1 autophagy/beclin-1 regulator 1|
AMD1 adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1|This gene encodes an important intermediate enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. The polyamines spermine, spermidine, and putrescine are low-molecular-weight aliphatic amines essential for cellular proliferation and tumor promotion. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 5, 6, 10, X and Y. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
AMDHD1 amidohydrolase domain containing 1|
AMDHD2 amidohydrolase domain containing 2|
AMER1 APC membrane recruitment protein 1|The protein encoded by this gene upregulates trancriptional activation by the Wilms tumor protein and interacts with many other proteins, including CTNNB1, APC, AXIN1, and AXIN2. Defects in this gene are a cause of osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS). [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
AMER2 APC membrane recruitment protein 2|
AMER3 APC membrane recruitment protein 3|
AMFR autocrine motility factor receptor, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|This locus encodes a glycosylated transmembrane receptor. Its ligand, autocrine motility factor, is a tumor motility-stimulating protein secreted by tumor cells. The encoded receptor is also a member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase family of proteins. It catalyzes ubiquitination and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of specific proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
AMH anti-Mullerian hormone|Anti-Mullerian hormone is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta gene family which mediates male sexual differentiation. Anti-Mullerian hormone causes the regression of Mullerian ducts which would otherwise differentiate into the uterus and fallopian tubes. Some mutations in the anti-Mullerian hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AMHR2 anti-Mullerian hormone receptor, type II|This gene encodes the receptor for the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) which, in addition to testosterone, results in male sex differentiation. AMH and testosterone are produced in the testes by different cells and have different effects. Testosterone promotes the development of male genitalia while the binding of AMH to the encoded receptor prevents the development of the mullerian ducts into uterus and Fallopian tubes. Mutations in this gene are associated with persistent Mullerian duct syndrome type II. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
AMICA1 adhesion molecule, interacts with CXADR antigen 1|
AMIGO1 adhesion molecule with Ig-like domain 1|
AMIGO2 adhesion molecule with Ig-like domain 2|
AMIGO3 adhesion molecule with Ig-like domain 3|
AMMECR1 Alport syndrome, mental retardation, midface hypoplasia and elliptocytosis chromosomal region gene 1|The exact function of this gene is not known, however, submicroscopic deletion of the X chromosome including this gene, COL4A5, and FACL4 genes, result in a contiguous gene deletion syndrome, the AMME complex (Alport syndrome, mental retardation, midface hypoplasia, and elliptocytosis). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
AMMECR1L AMMECR1-like|
AMN amnion associated transmembrane protein|The protein encoded by this gene is a type I transmembrane protein. It is thought to modulate bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor function by serving as an accessory or coreceptor, and thus facilitates or hinders BMP binding. It is known that the mouse AMN gene is expressed in the extraembryonic visceral endoderm layer during gastrulation, but it is found to be mutated in amnionless mouse. The encoded protein has sequence similarity to short gastrulation (Sog) and procollagen IIA proteins in Drosophila. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AMOT angiomotin|This gene belongs to the motin family of angiostatin binding proteins characterized by conserved coiled-coil domains and C-terminal PDZ binding motifs. The encoded protein is expressed predominantly in endothelial cells of capillaries as well as larger vessels of the placenta where it may mediate the inhibitory effect of angiostatin on tube formation and the migration of endothelial cells toward growth factors during the formation of new blood vessels. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AMOTL1 angiomotin like 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a peripheral membrane protein that is a component of tight junctions or TJs. TJs form an apical junctional structure and act to control paracellular permeability and maintain cell polarity. This protein is related to angiomotin, an angiostatin binding protein that regulates endothelial cell migration and capillary formation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
AMOTL2 angiomotin like 2|Angiomotin is a protein that binds angiostatin, a circulating inhibitor of the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Angiomotin mediates angiostatin inhibition of endothelial cell migration and tube formation in vitro. The protein encoded by this gene is related to angiomotin and is a member of the motin protein family. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
AMPD1 adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1|Adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP in skeletal muscle and plays an important role in the purine nucleotide cycle. Two other genes have been identified, AMPD2 and AMPD3, for the liver- and erythocyte-specific isoforms, respectively. Deficiency of the muscle-specific enzyme is apparently a common cause of exercise-induced myopathy and probably the most common cause of metabolic myopathy in the human. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
AMPD2 adenosine monophosphate deaminase 2|The protein encoded by this gene is important in purine metabolism by converting AMP to IMP. The encoded protein, which acts as a homotetramer, is one of three AMP deaminases found in mammals. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
AMPD3 adenosine monophosphate deaminase 3|This gene encodes a member of the AMP deaminase gene family. The encoded protein is a highly regulated enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine monophosphate to inosine monophosphate, a branch point in the adenylate catabolic pathway. This gene encodes the erythrocyte (E) isoforms, whereas other family members encode isoforms that predominate in muscle (M) and liver (L) cells. Mutations in this gene lead to the clinically asymptomatic, autosomal recessive condition erythrocyte AMP deaminase deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms of this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AMPH amphiphysin|This gene encodes a protein associated with the cytoplasmic surface of synaptic vesicles. A subset of patients with stiff-man syndrome who were also affected by breast cancer are positive for autoantibodies against this protein. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additional splice variants have been described, but their full length sequences have not been determined. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 11.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
AMT aminomethyltransferase|This gene encodes one of four critical components of the glycine cleavage system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with glycine encephalopathy. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
AMY1A amylase, alpha 1A (salivary)|Amylases are secreted proteins that hydrolyze 1,4-alpha-glucoside bonds in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, and thus catalyze the first step in digestion of dietary starch and glycogen. The human genome has a cluster of several amylase genes that are expressed at high levels in either salivary gland or pancreas. This gene encodes an amylase isoenzyme produced by the salivary gland. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AMY2A amylase, alpha 2A (pancreatic)|This gene encodes a member of the alpha-amylase family of proteins. Amylases are secreted proteins that hydrolyze 1,4-alpha-glucoside bonds in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, catalyzing the first step in digestion of dietary starch and glycogen. This gene and several family members are present in a gene cluster on chromosome 1. This gene encodes an amylase isoenzyme produced by the pancreas. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
AMY2B amylase, alpha 2B (pancreatic)|Amylases are secreted proteins that hydrolyze 1,4-alpha-glucoside bonds in oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, and thus catalyze the first step in digestion of dietary starch and glycogen. The human genome has a cluster of several amylase genes that are expressed at high levels in either salivary gland or pancreas. This gene encodes an amylase isoenzyme produced by the pancreas. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
AMZ2 archaelysin family metallopeptidase 2|
ANAPC1 anaphase promoting complex subunit 1|This gene encodes a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. This complex is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through the metaphase to anaphase portion of the cell cycle by ubiquitinating proteins which targets them for degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ANAPC10 anaphase promoting complex subunit 10|ANAPC10 is a core subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or cyclosome, a ubiquitin protein ligase that is essential for progression through the cell cycle. APC initiates sister chromatid separation by ubiquitinating the anaphase inhibitor securin (PTTG1; MIM 604147) and triggers exit from mitosis by ubiquitinating cyclin B (CCNB1; MIM 123836), the activating subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase-1 (CDK1; MIM 116940) (summary by Wendt et al., 2001 [PubMed 11524682]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2011]
ANAPC11 anaphase promoting complex subunit 11|
ANAPC13 anaphase promoting complex subunit 13|This gene encodes a component of the anaphase promoting complex, a large ubiquitin-protein ligase that controls cell cycle progression by regulating the degradation of cell cycle regulators such as B-type cyclins. The encoded protein is evolutionarily conserved and is required for the integrity and ubiquitin ligase activity of the anaphase promoting complex. Pseudogenes and splice variants have been found for this gene; however, the biological validity of some of the splice variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
ANAPC15 anaphase promoting complex subunit 15|
ANAPC16 anaphase promoting complex subunit 16|
ANAPC2 anaphase promoting complex subunit 2|A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition by ubiquitinating its specific substrates such as mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitor, which are subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. Biochemical studies have shown that the vertebrate APC contains eight subunits. The composition of the APC is highly conserved in organisms from yeast to humans. The product of this gene is a component of the complex and shares sequence similarity with a recently identified family of proteins called cullins, which may also be involved in ubiquitin-mediated degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANAPC4 anaphase promoting complex subunit 4|A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition by ubiquitinating its specific substrates such as mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitor, which are subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. Biochemical studies have shown that the vertebrate APC contains eight subunits. The composition of the APC is highly conserved in organisms from yeast to humans. The exact function of this gene product is not known. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
ANAPC5 anaphase promoting complex subunit 5|This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat-containing component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls cell cycle progression by targeting a number of cell cycle regulators such as B-type cyclins for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation through ubiquitination. The encoded protein is required for the proper ubiquitination function of APC/C and for the interaction of APC/C with transcription coactivators. It also interacts with polyA binding protein and represses internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. These differences cause translation initiation at a downstream AUG and result in a shorter protein (isoform b), compared to isoform a. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
ANAPC7 anaphase promoting complex subunit 7|This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat containing component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls cell cycle progression by targeting a number of cell cycle regulators such as B-type cyclins for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation through ubiquitination. The encoded protein is required for proper protein ubiquitination function of APC/C and for the interaction of APC/C with certain transcription coactivators. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
ANG angiogenin, ribonuclease, RNase A family, 5|The protein encoded by this gene is an exceedingly potent mediator of new blood vessel formation. It hydrolyzes cellular tRNAs resulting in decreased protein synthesis and is similar to pancreatic ribonuclease. In addition, the mature peptide has antimicrobial activity against some bacteria and fungi, including S. pneumoniae and C. albicans. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding the same protein. This gene and the gene that encodes ribonuclease, RNase A family, 4 share promoters and 5' exons. Each gene splices to a unique downstream exon that contains its complete coding region. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]
ANGEL1 angel homolog 1 (Drosophila)|
ANGEL2 angel homolog 2 (Drosophila)|
ANGPT1 angiopoietin 1|Angiopoietins are proteins with important roles in vascular development and angiogenesis. All angiopoietins bind with similar affinity to an endothelial cell-specific tyrosine-protein kinase receptor. The protein encoded by this gene is a secreted glycoprotein that activates the receptor by inducing its tyrosine phosphorylation. It plays a critical role in mediating reciprocal interactions between the endothelium and surrounding matrix and mesenchyme and inhibits endothelial permeability. The protein also contributes to blood vessel maturation and stability, and may be involved in early development of the heart. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
ANGPT2 angiopoietin 2|The protein encoded by this gene is an antagonist of angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1) and endothelial TEK tyrosine kinase (TIE-2, TEK). The encoded protein disrupts the vascular remodeling ability of ANGPT1 and may induce endothelial cell apoptosis. Three transcript variants encoding three different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANGPT4 angiopoietin 4|Angiopoietins are proteins with important roles in vascular development and angiogenesis. All angiopoietins bind with similar affinity to an endothelial cell-specific tyrosine-protein kinase receptor. The mechanism by which they contribute to angiogenesis is thought to involve regulation of endothelial cell interactions with supporting perivascular cells. The protein encoded by this gene functions as an agonist and is an angiopoietin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANGPTL1 angiopoietin-like 1|Angiopoietins are members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family and the only known growth factors largely specific for vascular endothelium. Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin-4 participate in the formation of blood vessels. The protein encoded by this gene is another member of the angiopoietin family that is widely expressed in adult tissues with mRNA levels highest in highly vascularized tissues. This protein was found to be a secretory protein that does not act as an endothelial cell mitogen in vitro. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANGPTL2 angiopoietin-like 2|Angiopoietins are members of the vascular endothelial growth factor family and the only known growth factors largely specific for vascular endothelium. Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, and angiopoietin-4 participate in the formation of blood vessels. ANGPTL2 protein is a secreted glycoprotein with homology to the angiopoietins and may exert a function on endothelial cells through autocrine or paracrine action. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANGPTL3 angiopoietin-like 3|This gene encodes a member of a family of secreted proteins that function in angiogenesis. The encoded protein, which is expressed predominantly in the liver, is further processed into an N-terminal coiled-coil domain-containing chain and a C-terminal fibrinogen chain. The N-terminal chain is important for lipid metablism, while the C-terminal chain may be involved in angiogenesis. Mutations in this gene cause familial hypobetalipoproteinemia type 2. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]
ANGPTL4 angiopoietin-like 4|This gene encodes a glycosylated, secreted protein containing a C-terminal fibrinogen domain. The encoded protein is induced by peroxisome proliferation activators and functions as a serum hormone that regulates glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity. This protein can also act as an apoptosis survival factor for vascular endothelial cells and can prevent metastasis by inhibiting vascular growth and tumor cell invasion. The C-terminal domain may be proteolytically-cleaved from the full-length secreted protein. Decreased expression of this gene has been associated with type 2 diabetes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. This gene was previously referred to as ANGPTL2 but has been renamed ANGPTL4. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
ANGPTL5 angiopoietin-like 5|
ANGPTL6 angiopoietin-like 6|
ANGPTL7 angiopoietin-like 7|
ANK1 ankyrin 1, erythrocytic|Ankyrins are a family of proteins that link the integral membrane proteins to the underlying spectrin-actin cytoskeleton and play key roles in activities such as cell motility, activation, proliferation, contact and the maintenance of specialized membrane domains. Multiple isoforms of ankyrin with different affinities for various target proteins are expressed in a tissue-specific, developmentally regulated manner. Most ankyrins are typically composed of three structural domains: an amino-terminal domain containing multiple ankyrin repeats; a central region with a highly conserved spectrin binding domain; and a carboxy-terminal regulatory domain which is the least conserved and subject to variation. Ankyrin 1, the prototype of this family, was first discovered in the erythrocytes, but since has also been found in brain and muscles. Mutations in erythrocytic ankyrin 1 have been associated in approximately half of all patients with hereditary spherocytosis. Complex patterns of alternative splicing in the regulatory domain, giving rise to different isoforms of ankyrin 1 have been described. Truncated muscle-specific isoforms of ankyrin 1 resulting from usage of an alternate promoter have also been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
ANK2 ankyrin 2, neuronal|This gene encodes a member of the ankyrin family of proteins that link the integral membrane proteins to the underlying spectrin-actin cytoskeleton. Ankyrins play key roles in activities such as cell motility, activation, proliferation, contact and the maintenance of specialized membrane domains. Most ankyrins are typically composed of three structural domains: an amino-terminal domain containing multiple ankyrin repeats; a central region with a highly conserved spectrin binding domain; and a carboxy-terminal regulatory domain which is the least conserved and subject to variation. The protein encoded by this gene is required for targeting and stability of Na/Ca exchanger 1 in cardiomyocytes. Mutations in this gene cause long QT syndrome 4 and cardiac arrhythmia syndrome. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ANK3 ankyrin 3, node of Ranvier (ankyrin G)|Ankyrins are a family of proteins that are believed to link the integral membrane proteins to the underlying spectrin-actin cytoskeleton and play key roles in activities such as cell motility, activation, proliferation, contact, and the maintenance of specialized membrane domains. Multiple isoforms of ankyrin with different affinities for various target proteins are expressed in a tissue-specific, developmentally regulated manner. Most ankyrins are typically composed of three structural domains: an amino-terminal domain containing multiple ankyrin repeats; a central region with a highly conserved spectrin binding domain; and a carboxy-terminal regulatory domain which is the least conserved and subject to variation. Ankyrin 3 is an immunologically distinct gene product from ankyrins 1 and 2, and was originally found at the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
ANKAR ankyrin and armadillo repeat containing|
ANKEF1 ankyrin repeat and EF-hand domain containing 1|
ANKFY1 ankyrin repeat and FYVE domain containing 1|This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein that contains a coiled-coil structure and a BTB/POZ domain at its N-terminus, ankyrin repeats in the middle portion, and a FYVE-finger motif at its C-terminus. This protein belongs to a subgroup of double zinc finger proteins which may be involved in vesicle or protein transport. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
ANKH ANKH inorganic pyrophosphate transport regulator|This gene encodes a multipass transmembrane protein that is expressed in joints and other tissues and controls pyrophosphate levels in cultured cells. Progressive ankylosis-mediated control of pyrophosphate levels has been suggested as a possible mechanism regulating tissue calcification and susceptibility to arthritis in higher animals. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal dominant craniometaphyseal dysplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANKHD1 ankyrin repeat and KH domain containing 1|This gene encodes a protein with multiple ankyrin repeat domains and a single KH-domain. The protein is thought to function as a scaffolding protein, and it may be involved in the regulation of caspases and thereby play an antiapoptotic role in cell survival. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, one of which generates a fusion transcript (MASK-BP3) with the downstream eIF4E-binding protein 3 (EIF4EBP3) gene, resulting in a protein comprised of the ANKHD1 sequence for the majority of the protein and a different C-terminus due to an alternate reading frame for the EIF4EBP3 segments. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
ANKIB1 ankyrin repeat and IBR domain containing 1|
ANKLE1 ankyrin repeat and LEM domain containing 1|
ANKLE2 ankyrin repeat and LEM domain containing 2|This gene encodes a member of the LEM family of inner nuclear membrane proteins. The encoded protein functions as a mitotic regulator through postmitotic formation of the nuclear envelope. Mutations in this gene cause morphology defects in the nuclear envelope and BAF hyperphosphorylation. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
ANKMY2 ankyrin repeat and MYND domain containing 2|
ANKRA2 ankyrin repeat, family A (RFXANK-like), 2|
ANKRD1 ankyrin repeat domain 1 (cardiac muscle)|The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the nucleus of endothelial cells and is induced by IL-1 and TNF-alpha stimulation. Studies in rat cardiomyocytes suggest that this gene functions as a transcription factor. Interactions between this protein and the sarcomeric proteins myopalladin and titin suggest that it may also be involved in the myofibrillar stretch-sensor system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANKRD10 ankyrin repeat domain 10|
ANKRD11 ankyrin repeat domain 11|This locus encodes an ankryin repeat domain-containing protein. The encoded protein inhibits ligand-dependent activation of transcription. Mutations in this gene have been associated with KBG syndrome, which is characterized by macrodontia, distinctive craniofacial features, short stature, skeletal anomalies, global developmental delay, seizures and intellectual disability. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. Related pseudogenes exist on chromosomes 2 and X. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
ANKRD12 ankyrin repeat domain 12|This gene encodes a member of the ankyrin repeats-containing cofactor family. These proteins may inhibit the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors through the recruitment of histone deacetylases. The encoded protein interacts with p160 coactivators and also represses transcription mediated by the coactivator alteration/deficiency in activation 3 (ADA3). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
ANKRD13A ankyrin repeat domain 13A|
ANKRD13B ankyrin repeat domain 13B|
ANKRD13C ankyrin repeat domain 13C|
ANKRD13D ankyrin repeat domain 13 family, member D|
ANKRD17 ankyrin repeat domain 17|This gene encodes a protein with ankyrin repeats, which are associated with protein-protein interactions. Studies in mice suggest that this protein is involved in liver development. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
ANKRD18A ankyrin repeat domain 18A|
ANKRD2 ankyrin repeat domain 2 (stretch responsive muscle)|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the muscle ankyrin repeat protein (MARP) family. A similar gene in rodents is a component of a muscle stress response pathway and plays a role in the stretch-response associated with slow muscle function. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
ANKRD22 ankyrin repeat domain 22|
ANKRD23 ankyrin repeat domain 23|This gene is a member of the muscle ankyrin repeat protein (MARP) family and encodes a protein with four tandem ankyrin-like repeats. The protein is localized to the nucleus, functioning as a transcriptional regulator. Expression of this protein is induced during recovery following starvation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANKRD24 ankyrin repeat domain 24|
ANKRD26 ankyrin repeat domain 26|This gene encodes a protein containing N-terminal ankyrin repeats which function in protein-protein interactions. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal dominant thrombocytopenia-2. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosome 7, 10, 13 and 16. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ANKRD27 ankyrin repeat domain 27 (VPS9 domain)|
ANKRD28 ankyrin repeat domain 28|
ANKRD30A ankyrin repeat domain 30A|
ANKRD30B ankyrin repeat domain 30B|
ANKRD31 ankyrin repeat domain 31|
ANKRD32 ankyrin repeat domain 32|
ANKRD34A ankyrin repeat domain 34A|
ANKRD35 ankyrin repeat domain 35|
ANKRD36BP1 ankyrin repeat domain 36B pseudogene 1|
ANKRD36C ankyrin repeat domain 36C|
ANKRD37 ankyrin repeat domain 37|
ANKRD39 ankyrin repeat domain 39|
ANKRD40 ankyrin repeat domain 40|
ANKRD42 ankyrin repeat domain 42|
ANKRD44 ankyrin repeat domain 44|
ANKRD45 ankyrin repeat domain 45|
ANKRD46 ankyrin repeat domain 46|This gene encodes a protein containing multiple ankyrin repeats. Ankyrin domains function in protein-protein interactions in a variety of cellular processes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
ANKRD49 ankyrin repeat domain 49|
ANKRD50 ankyrin repeat domain 50|
ANKRD52 ankyrin repeat domain 52|
ANKRD53 ankyrin repeat domain 53|
ANKRD54 ankyrin repeat domain 54|
ANKRD55 ankyrin repeat domain 55|
ANKRD6 ankyrin repeat domain 6|
ANKRD65 ankyrin repeat domain 65|
ANKRD7 ankyrin repeat domain 7|
ANKS1A ankyrin repeat and sterile alpha motif domain containing 1A|
ANKS1B ankyrin repeat and sterile alpha motif domain containing 1B|This gene encodes a multi-domain protein that is predominantly expressed in brain and testis. This protein interacts with amyloid beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) and may have a role in normal brain development, and in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Expression of this gene has been shown to be elevated in patients with pre-B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia associated with t(1;19) translocation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms (some with different subcellular localization, PMID:15004329) have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
ANKS3 ankyrin repeat and sterile alpha motif domain containing 3|
ANKS4B ankyrin repeat and sterile alpha motif domain containing 4B|
ANKS6 ankyrin repeat and sterile alpha motif domain containing 6|
ANKZF1 ankyrin repeat and zinc finger domain containing 1|
ANLN anillin, actin binding protein|This gene encodes an actin-binding protein that plays a role in cell growth and migration, and in cytokinesis. The encoded protein is thought to regulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics in podocytes, components of the glomerulus. Mutations in this gene are associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 8. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
ANO1 anoctamin 1, calcium activated chloride channel|
ANO10 anoctamin 10|The transmembrane protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of calcium-activated chloride channels. Defects in this gene may be a cause of autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-10. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
ANO2 anoctamin 2, calcium activated chloride channel|ANO2 belongs to a family of calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) (reviewed by Hartzell et al., 2009 [PubMed 19015192]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011]
ANO5 anoctamin 5|This gene encodes a member of the anoctamin family of transmembrane proteins. The encoded protein is likely a calcium activated chloride channel. Mutations in this gene have been associated with gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
ANO6 anoctamin 6|This gene encodes a multi-pass transmembrane protein that belongs to the anoctamin family. This protein is an essential component for the calcium-dependent exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface. The scrambling of phospholipid occurs in various biological systems, such as when blood platelets are activated, they expose phosphatidylserine to trigger the clotting system. Mutations in this gene are associated with Scott syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
ANO8 anoctamin 8|
ANO9 anoctamin 9|
ANP32A acidic (leucine-rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member A|
ANP32B acidic (leucine-rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member B|
ANP32C acidic (leucine-rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member C|Phosphoprotein 32 (PP32) is a tumor suppressor that can inhibit several types of cancers, including prostate and breast cancers. The protein encoded by this gene is one of at least two proteins that are similar in amino acid sequence to PP32 and are part of the same acidic nuclear phosphoprotein gene family. However, unlike PP32, the encoded protein is tumorigenic. The tumor suppressor function of PP32 has been localized to a 25 amino acid region that is divergent between PP32 and the protein encoded by this gene. This gene does not contain introns. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANP32D acidic (leucine-rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member D|Phosphoprotein 32 (PP32) is a tumor suppressor that can inhibit several types of cancers, including prostate and breast cancers. The protein encoded by this gene is one of at least two proteins that are similar in amino acid sequence to PP32 and are part of the same acidic nuclear phosphoprotein gene family. However, unlike PP32, the encoded protein is tumorigenic. The tumor suppressor function of PP32 has been localized to a 25 amino acid region that is absent in the protein encoded by this gene. This gene does not contain introns. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANP32E acidic (leucine-rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member E|
ANPEP alanyl (membrane) aminopeptidase|Aminopeptidase N is located in the small-intestinal and renal microvillar membrane, and also in other plasma membranes. In the small intestine aminopeptidase N plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins by gastric and pancreatic proteases. Its function in proximal tubular epithelial cells and other cell types is less clear. The large extracellular carboxyterminal domain contains a pentapeptide consensus sequence characteristic of members of the zinc-binding metalloproteinase superfamily. Sequence comparisons with known enzymes of this class showed that CD13 and aminopeptidase N are identical. The latter enzyme was thought to be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides by diverse cell types, including small intestinal and renal tubular epithelial cells, macrophages, granulocytes, and synaptic membranes from the CNS. Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for one strain of human coronavirus that is an important cause of upper respiratory tract infections. Defects in this gene appear to be a cause of various types of leukemia or lymphoma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANTXR1 anthrax toxin receptor 1|This gene encodes a type I transmembrane protein and is a tumor-specific endothelial marker that has been implicated in colorectal cancer. The encoded protein has been shown to also be a docking protein or receptor for Bacillus anthracis toxin, the causative agent of the disease, anthrax. The binding of the protective antigen (PA) component, of the tripartite anthrax toxin, to this receptor protein mediates delivery of toxin components to the cytosol of cells. Once inside the cell, the other two components of anthrax toxin, edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) disrupt normal cellular processes. Three alternatively spliced variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ANTXR2 anthrax toxin receptor 2|This gene encodes a receptor for anthrax toxin. The protein binds to collagen IV and laminin, suggesting that it may be involved in extracellular matrix adhesion. Mutations in this gene cause juvenile hyaline fibromatosis and infantile systemic hyalinosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
ANXA1 annexin A1|This gene encodes a membrane-localized protein that binds phospholipids. This protein inhibits phospholipase A2 and has anti-inflammatory activity. Loss of function or expression of this gene has been detected in multiple tumors. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ANXA10 annexin A10|This gene encodes a member of the annexin family. Members of this calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein family play a role in the regulation of cellular growth and in signal transduction pathways. The function of this gene has not yet been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANXA11 annexin A11|This gene encodes a member of the annexin family, a group of calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins. Annexins have unique N-terminal domains and conserved C-terminal domains, which contain the calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding sites. The encoded protein is a 56-kD antigen recognized by sera from patients with various autoimmune diseases. Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
ANXA13 annexin A13|This gene encodes a member of the annexin family. Members of this calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein family play a role in the regulation of cellular growth and in signal transduction pathways. The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, it is associated with the plasma membrane of undifferentiated, proliferating endothelial cells and differentiated villus enterocytes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANXA2 annexin A2|This gene encodes a member of the annexin family. Members of this calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein family play a role in the regulation of cellular growth and in signal transduction pathways. This protein functions as an autocrine factor which heightens osteoclast formation and bone resorption. This gene has three pseudogenes located on chromosomes 4, 9 and 10, respectively. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANXA2R annexin A2 receptor|
ANXA3 annexin A3|This gene encodes a member of the annexin family. Members of this calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein family play a role in the regulation of cellular growth and in signal transduction pathways. This protein functions in the inhibition of phopholipase A2 and cleavage of inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate to form inositol 1-phosphate. This protein may also play a role in anti-coagulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANXA4 annexin A4|Annexin IV (ANX4) belongs to the annexin family of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding proteins. Although their functions are still not clearly defined, several members of the annexin family have been implicated in membrane-related events along exocytotic and endocytotic pathways. ANX4 has 45 to 59% identity with other members of its family and shares a similar size and exon-intron organization. Isolated from human placenta, ANX4 encodes a protein that has possible interactions with ATP, and has in vitro anticoagulant activity and also inhibits phospholipase A2 activity. ANX4 is almost exclusively expressed in epithelial cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANXA5 annexin A5|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the annexin family of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding proteins some of which have been implicated in membrane-related events along exocytotic and endocytotic pathways. Annexin 5 is a phospholipase A2 and protein kinase C inhibitory protein with calcium channel activity and a potential role in cellular signal transduction, inflammation, growth and differentiation. Annexin 5 has also been described as placental anticoagulant protein I, vascular anticoagulant-alpha, endonexin II, lipocortin V, placental protein 4 and anchorin CII. The gene spans 29 kb containing 13 exons, and encodes a single transcript of approximately 1.6 kb and a protein product with a molecular weight of about 35 kDa. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANXA6 annexin A6|Annexin VI belongs to a family of calcium-dependent membrane and phospholipid binding proteins. Several members of the annexin family have been implicated in membrane-related events along exocytotic and endocytotic pathways. The annexin VI gene is approximately 60 kbp long and contains 26 exons. It encodes a protein of about 68 kDa that consists of eight 68-amino acid repeats separated by linking sequences of variable lengths. It is highly similar to human annexins I and II sequences, each of which contain four such repeats. Annexin VI has been implicated in mediating the endosome aggregation and vesicle fusion in secreting epithelia during exocytosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
ANXA7 annexin A7|Annexin VII is a member of the annexin family of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding proteins.The Annexin VII gene contains 14 exons and spans approximately 34 kb of DNA. An alternatively spliced cassette exon results in two mRNA transcripts of 2.0 and 2.4 kb which are predicted to generate two protein isoforms differing in their N-terminal domain. The alternative splicing event is tissue specific and the mRNA containing the cassette exon is prevalent in brain, heart and skeletal muscle. The transcripts also differ in their 3'-non coding regions by the use of two alternative poly(A) signals. Annexin VII encodes a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa with a unique, highly hydrophobic N-terminal domain of 167 amino acids and a conserved C-terminal region of 299 amino acids. The latter domain is composed of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic segments. Structural analysis of the protein suggests that Annexin VII is a membrane binding protein with diverse properties, including voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, ion selectivity and membrane fusion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANXA8 annexin A8|This gene encodes a member of the annexin family of evolutionarily conserved Ca2+ and phospholipid binding proteins. The encoded protein may function as an an anticoagulant that indirectly inhibits the thromboplastin-specific complex. Overexpression of this gene has been associated with acute myelocytic leukemia. A highly similar duplicated copy of this gene is found in close proximity on the long arm of chromosome 10. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANXA8L1 annexin A8-like 1|This gene encodes a member of the annexin family of evolutionarily conserved Ca2+ and phospholipid binding proteins. The encoded protein may function as an an anticoagulant that indirectly inhibits the thromboplastin-specific complex. Overexpression of this gene has been associated with acute myelocytic leukemia. A highly similar duplicated copy of this gene is found in close proximity on the long arm of chromosome 10. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
ANXA9 annexin A9|The annexins are a family of calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins. Members of the annexin family contain 4 internal repeat domains, each of which includes a type II calcium-binding site. The calcium-binding sites are required for annexins to aggregate and cooperatively bind anionic phospholipids and extracellular matrix proteins. This gene encodes a divergent member of the annexin protein family in which all four homologous type II calcium-binding sites in the conserved tetrad core contain amino acid substitutions that ablate their function. However, structural analysis suggests that the conserved putative ion channel formed by the tetrad core is intact. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AOAH acyloxyacyl hydrolase (neutrophil)|This locus encodes both the light and heavy subunits of acyloxyacyl hydrolase. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of acyloxylacyl-linked fatty acyl chains from bacterial lipopolysaccharides, effectively detoxifying these molecules. The encoded protein may play a role in modulating host inflammatory response to gram-negative bacteria. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
AOC1 amine oxidase, copper containing 1|This gene encodes a metal-binding membrane glycoprotein that oxidatively deaminates putrescine, histamine, and related compounds. The encoded protein is inhibited by amiloride, a diuretic that acts by closing epithelial sodium ion channels. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
AOC3 amine oxidase, copper containing 3|This gene encodes a member of the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase family. Copper amine oxidases catalyze the oxidative conversion of amines to aldehydes in the presence of copper and quinone cofactor. The encoded protein is localized to the cell surface, has adhesive properties as well as monoamine oxidase activity, and may be involved in leukocyte trafficking. Alterations in levels of the encoded protein may be associated with many diseases, including diabetes mellitus. A pseudogene of this gene has been described and is located approximately 9-kb downstream on the same chromosome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2013]
AOX1 aldehyde oxidase 1|Aldehyde oxidase produces hydrogen peroxide and, under certain conditions, can catalyze the formation of superoxide. Aldehyde oxidase is a candidate gene for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AP1AR adaptor-related protein complex 1 associated regulatory protein|
AP1B1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, beta 1 subunit|Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates both the recruitment of clathrin to the membrane and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane receptors. This complex is a heterotetramer composed of two large, one medium, and one small adaptin subunit. The protein encoded by this gene serves as one of the large subunits of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. This gene is a candidate meningioma gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
AP1G1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 1 subunit|Adaptins are important components of clathrin-coated vesicles transporting ligand-receptor complexes from the plasma membrane or from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes. The adaptin family of proteins is composed of four classes of molecules named alpha, beta-, beta prime- and gamma- adaptins. Adaptins, together with medium and small subunits, form a heterotetrameric complex called an adaptor, whose role is to promote the formation of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AP1G2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, gamma 2 subunit|Adaptins are important components of clathrin-coated vesicles transporting ligand-receptor complexes from the plasma membrane or from the trans-Golgi network to lysosomes. The adaptin family of proteins is compsed of four classes of molecules named alpha, beta-, beta prime- and gamma- adaptins. Adaptins, together with medium and small subunits, form a heterotetrameric complex called an adaptor, whose role is to promote the formation of clathrin-coated pits and vesicles. The protein encoded by this gene is a gamma-adaptin protein and it belongs to the adaptor complexes large subunits family. This protein along with the complex is thought to function at some trafficking step in the complex pathways between the trans-Golgi network and the cell surface. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene exist, but their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
AP1M1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 1 subunit|The protein encoded by this gene is the medium chain of the trans-Golgi network clathrin-associated protein complex AP-1. The other components of this complex are beta-prime-adaptin, gamma-adaptin, and the small chain AP1S1. This complex is located at the Golgi vesicle and links clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. These vesicles are involved in endocytosis and Golgi processing. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AP1M2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, mu 2 subunit|This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric adaptor-related protein comlex 1 (AP-1), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This protein is capable of interacting with tyrosine-based sorting signals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
AP1S1 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 1 subunit|The protein encoded by this gene is part of the clathrin coat assembly complex which links clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. These vesicles are involved in endocytosis and Golgi processing. This protein, as well as beta-prime-adaptin, gamma-adaptin, and the medium (mu) chain AP47, form the AP-1 assembly protein complex located at the Golgi vesicle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AP1S2 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 2 subunit|Adaptor protein complex 1 is found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex, where it mediates both the recruitment of clathrin to the membrane and the recognition of sorting signals within the cytosolic tails of transmembrane receptors. This complex is a heterotetramer composed of two large, one medium, and one small adaptin subunit. The protein encoded by this gene serves as the small subunit of this complex and is a member of the adaptin protein family. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
AP1S3 adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma 3 subunit|This gene encodes a member of the adaptor-related protein complex 1, sigma subunit genes. The encoded protein is a component of adaptor protein complex 1 (AP-1), one of the AP complexes involved in claathrin-mediated vesicular transport from the Golgi or endosomes. Disruption of the pathway for display of HIV-1 antigens, which prevents recognition of the virus by cytotoxic T cells, has been shown to involve the AP-1 complex (PMID: 15569716). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
AP2A1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit|This gene encodes the alpha 1 adaptin subunit of the adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) complex found in clathrin coated vesicles. The AP-2 complex is a heterotetramer consisting of two large adaptins (alpha or beta), a medium adaptin (mu), and a small adaptin (sigma). The complex is part of the protein coat on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles which links clathrin to receptors in vesicles. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms. A third transcript variant has been described, but its full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AP2A2 adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit|
AP2B1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit|The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the assembly protein complex 2, which serves to link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. The encoded protein is found on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles in the plasma membrane. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AP2M1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit|This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. The encoded protein is required for the activity of a vacuolar ATPase, which is responsible for proton pumping occurring in the acidification of endosomes and lysosomes. The encoded protein may also play an important role in regulating the intracellular trafficking and function of CTLA-4 protein. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AP2S1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit|One of two major clathrin-associated adaptor complexes, AP-2, is a heterotetramer which is associated with the plasma membrane. This complex is composed of two large chains, a medium chain, and a small chain. This gene encodes the small chain of this complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
AP3B1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 1 subunit|This gene encodes a protein that may play a role in organelle biogenesis associated with melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. The encoded protein is part of the heterotetrameric AP-3 protein complex which interacts with the scaffolding protein clathrin. Mutations in this gene are associated with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
AP3B2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, beta 2 subunit|Adaptor protein-3 (AP3) is a heterotetrameric vesicle-coat protein complex. Some AP3 subunits are ubiquitously expressed, whereas others are expressed exclusively in neurons. The neuron-specific AP3 complex, which includes AP3B2, is thought to serve neuron-specific functions such as neurotransmitter release (Grabner et al., 2006 [PubMed 16788073]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit|The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor-like complex, which is not clathrin-associated, but is associated with the golgi region, as well as more peripheral structures. The AP-3 complex facilitates the budding of vesicles from the golgi membrane, and may be directly involved in trafficking to lysosomes. This subunit is implicated in intracellular biogenesis and trafficking of pigment granules, and possibly platelet dense granules and neurotransmitter vesicles. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
AP3M1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 1 subunit|The protein encoded by this gene is the medium subunit of AP-3, which is an adaptor-related protein complex associated with the Golgi region as well as more peripheral intracellular structures. AP-3 facilitates the budding of vesicles from the Golgi membrane and may be directly involved in protein sorting to the endosomal/lysosomal system. AP-3 is a heterotetrameric protein complex composed of two large subunits (delta and beta3), a medium subunit (mu3), and a small subunit (sigma 3). Mutations in one of the large subunits of AP-3 have been associated with the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, a genetic disorder characterized by defective lysosome-related organelles. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AP3M2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, mu 2 subunit|This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric adaptor-related protein comlex 3 (AP-3), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. The AP-3 complex plays a role in protein trafficking to lysosomes and specialized organelles. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
AP3S1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 1 subunit|
AP3S2 adaptor-related protein complex 3, sigma 2 subunit|
AP4B1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, beta 1 subunit|This gene encodes a subunit of a heterotetrameric adapter-like complex 4 that is involved in targeting proteins from the trans-Golgi network to the endosomal-lysosomal system. Mutations in this gene are associated with cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegic type 5 (CPSQ5) disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
AP4E1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, epsilon 1 subunit|This gene encodes a member of the adaptor complexes large subunit protein family. These proteins are components of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes, which play important roles in the secretory and endocytic pathways by mediating vesicle formation and sorting of integral membrane proteins. The encoded protein is a large subunit of adaptor protein complex-4, which is associated with both clathrin- and nonclathrin-coated vesicles. Disruption of this gene may be associated with cerebral palsy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
AP4M1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, mu 1 subunit|This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric AP-4 complex. The encoded protein belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. This AP-4 complex is involved in the recognition and sorting of cargo proteins with tyrosine-based motifs from the trans-golgi network to the endosomal-lysosomal system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AP4S1 adaptor-related protein complex 4, sigma 1 subunit|This gene encodes a member of the adaptor complexes small subunit protein family. These proteins are components of the heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes, which play important roles in the secretory and endocytic pathways by mediating vesicle formation and sorting of integral membrane proteins. The encoded protein is the small subunit of adaptor protein complex-4, which is associated with both clathrin- and nonclathrin-coated vesicles. Mutations in this gene are associated with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy-6. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
AP5B1 adaptor-related protein complex 5, beta 1 subunit|
AP5M1 adaptor-related protein complex 5, mu 1 subunit|
AP5S1 adaptor-related protein complex 5, sigma 1 subunit|
AP5Z1 adaptor-related protein complex 5, zeta 1 subunit|This gene was identified by genome-wide screen for genes involved in homologous recombination DNA double-strand break repair (HR-DSBR). The encoded protein was found in a complex with other proteins that have a role in HR-DSBR. Knockdown of this gene reduced homologous recombination, and mutations in this gene were found in patients with spastic paraplegia. It was concluded that this gene likely encodes a helicase (PMID:20613862). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
APAF1 apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1|This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein that initiates apoptosis. This protein contains several copies of the WD-40 domain, a caspase recruitment domain (CARD), and an ATPase domain (NB-ARC). Upon binding cytochrome c and dATP, this protein forms an oligomeric apoptosome. The apoptosome binds and cleaves caspase 9 preproprotein, releasing its mature, activated form. Activated caspase 9 stimulates the subsequent caspase cascade that commits the cell to apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APBA1 amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adapter protein that interacts with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP). It stabilizes APP and inhibits production of proteolytic APP fragments including the A beta peptide that is deposited in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. This gene product is believed to be involved in signal transduction processes. It is also regarded as a putative vesicular trafficking protein in the brain that can form a complex with the potential to couple synaptic vesicle exocytosis to neuronal cell adhesion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APBA2 amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is a neuronal adapter protein that interacts with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP). It stabilizes APP and inhibits production of proteolytic APP fragments including the A beta peptide that is deposited in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. This gene product is believed to be involved in signal transduction processes. It is also regarded as a putative vesicular trafficking protein in the brain that can form a complex with the potential to couple synaptic vesicle exocytosis to neuronal cell adhesion. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APBA3 amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family A, member 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the X11 protein family. It is an adapter protein that interacts with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein. This gene product is believed to be involved in signal transduction processes. This gene is a candidate gene for Alzheimer's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APBB1 amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 1 (Fe65)|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Fe65 protein family. It is an adaptor protein localized in the nucleus. It interacts with the Alzheimer's disease amyloid precursor protein (APP), transcription factor CP2/LSF/LBP1 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. APP functions as a cytosolic anchoring site that can prevent the gene product's nuclear translocation. This encoded protein could play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. It is thought to regulate transcription. Also it is observed to block cell cycle progression by downregulating thymidylate synthase expression. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
APBB1IP amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 1 interacting protein|
APBB2 amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 2|The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the cytoplasmic domains of amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein and amyloid beta (A4) precursor-like protein 2. This protein contains two phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains, which are thought to function in signal transduction. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with Alzheimer's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
APBB3 amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the APBB protein family. It is found in the cytoplasm and binds to the intracellular domain of the Alzheimer's disease beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as to other APP-like proteins. It is thought that the protein encoded by this gene may modulate the internalization of APP. Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APC adenomatous polyposis coli|This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein that acts as an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway. It is also involved in other processes including cell migration and adhesion, transcriptional activation, and apoptosis. Defects in this gene cause familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal dominant pre-malignant disease that usually progresses to malignancy. Disease-associated mutations tend to be clustered in a small region designated the mutation cluster region (MCR) and result in a truncated protein product. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APC2 adenomatosis polyposis coli 2|
APCDD1 adenomatosis polyposis coli down-regulated 1|This locus encodes an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway. Mutations at this locus have been associated with hereditary hypotrichosis simplex. Increased expression of this gene may also be associated with colorectal carcinogenesis.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
APCS amyloid P component, serum|The protein encoded by this gene is a glycoprotein, belonging to the pentraxin family of proteins, which has a characteristic pentameric organization. These family members have considerable sequence homology which is thought to be the result of gene duplication. The binding of the encoded protein to proteins in the pathological amyloid cross-beta fold suggests its possible role as a chaperone. This protein is also thought to control the degradation of chromatin. It has been demonstrated that this protein binds to apoptotic cells at an early stage, which raises the possibility that it is involved in dealing with apoptotic cells in vivo. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
APEH acylaminoacyl-peptide hydrolase|This gene encodes the enzyme acylpeptide hydrolase, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the terminal acetylated amino acid preferentially from small acetylated peptides. The acetyl amino acid formed by this hydrolase is further processed to acetate and a free amino acid by an aminoacylase. This gene is located within the same region of chromosome 3 (3p21) as the aminoacylase gene, and deletions at this locus are also associated with a decrease in aminoacylase activity. The acylpeptide hydrolase is a homotetrameric protein of 300 kDa with each subunit consisting of 732 amino acid residues. It can play an important role in destroying oxidatively damaged proteins in living cells. Deletions of this gene locus are found in various types of carcinomas, including small cell lung carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APEX1 APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1|Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites occur frequently in DNA molecules by spontaneous hydrolysis, by DNA damaging agents or by DNA glycosylases that remove specific abnormal bases. AP sites are pre-mutagenic lesions that can prevent normal DNA replication so the cell contains systems to identify and repair such sites. Class II AP endonucleases cleave the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the AP site. This gene encodes the major AP endonuclease in human cells. Splice variants have been found for this gene; all encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APEX2 APEX nuclease (apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease) 2|Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites occur frequently in DNA molecules by spontaneous hydrolysis, by DNA damaging agents or by DNA glycosylases that remove specific abnormal bases. AP sites are pre-mutagenic lesions that can prevent normal DNA replication so the cell contains systems to identify and repair such sites. Class II AP endonucleases cleave the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the AP site. This gene encodes a protein shown to have a weak class II AP endonuclease activity. Most of the encoded protein is located in the nucleus but some is also present in mitochondria. This protein may play an important role in both nuclear and mitochondrial base excision repair. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
APH1A APH1A gamma secretase subunit|This gene encodes a component of the gamma secretase complex that cleaves integral membrane proteins such as Notch receptors and beta-amyloid precursor protein. The gamma secretase complex contains this gene product, or the paralogous anterior pharynx defective 1 homolog B (APH1B), along with the presenilin, nicastrin, and presenilin enhancer-2 proteins. The precise function of this seven-transmembrane-domain protein is unknown though it is suspected of facilitating the association of nicastrin and presenilin in the gamma secretase complex as well as interacting with substrates of the gamma secretase complex prior to their proteolytic processing. Polymorphisms in a promoter region of this gene have been associated with an increased risk for developing sporadic Alzheimer's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple protein-coding and non-protein-coding transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
APH1B APH1B gamma secretase subunit|This gene encodes a multi-pass transmembrane protein that is a functional component of the gamma-secretase complex, which also contains presenilin and nicastrin. This protein represents a stabilizing cofactor for the presenilin holoprotein in the complex. The gamma-secretase complex catalyzes the cleavage of integral proteins such as notch receptors and beta-amyloid precursor protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
API5 apoptosis inhibitor 5|This gene encodes an apoptosis inhibitory protein whose expression prevents apoptosis after growth factor deprivation. This protein suppresses the transcription factor E2F1-induced apoptosis and also interacts with, and negatively regulates Acinus, a nuclear factor involved in apoptotic DNA fragmentation. Its depletion enhances the cytotoxic action of the chemotherapeutic drugs. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
APIP APAF1 interacting protein|APIP is an APAF1 (MIM 602233)-interacting protein that acts as a negative regulator of ischemic/hypoxic injury (Cho et al., 2004 [PubMed 15262985]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2008]
APITD1 apoptosis-inducing, TAF9-like domain 1|This gene was identified in the neuroblastoma tumor suppressor candidate region on chromosome 1p36. It contains a TFIID-31 domain, similar to that found in TATA box-binding protein-associated factor, TAF(II)31, which is required for p53-mediated transcription activation. This gene was expressed at very low levels in neuroblastoma tumors, and was shown to reduce cell growth in neuroblastoma cells, suggesting that it may have a role in a cell death pathway. The protein is a component of multiple complexes, including the Fanconi anemia (FA) core complex, the APITD1/CENPS complex, and the CENPA-CAD (nucleosome distal) complex. Known functions include an involvement with chromatin associations of the FA core complex, and a role in the stable assembly of the outer kinetochore. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. Naturally occurring read-through transcripts also exist between this gene and the downstream cortistatin (CORT) gene, as represented in GeneID:100526739. An APITD1-related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
APLF aprataxin and PNKP like factor|C2ORF13 is a component of the cellular response to chromosomal DNA single- and double-strand breaks (Iles et al., 2007 [PubMed 17353262]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
APLN apelin|This gene encodes a peptide that functions as an endogenous ligand for the G protein coupled receptor APJ. The encoded protein is synthesized as a prepropeptide that is processed into biologically active C-terminal fragments. The peptide fragments activate different tissue specific signaling pathways that regulate diverse biological functions including fluid homeostasis, cardiovascular function and insulin secretion. This protein also functions as a coreceptor for the human immunodeficiency virus 1.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
APLNR apelin receptor|This gene encodes a member of the G protein-coupled receptor gene family. The encoded protein is related to the angiotensin receptor, but is actually an apelin receptor that inhibits adenylate cyclase activity and plays a counter-regulatory role against the pressure action of angiotensin II by exerting hypertensive effect. It functions in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems, in glucose metabolism, in embryonic and tumor angiogenesis and as a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) coreceptor. Two transcript variants resulting from alternative splicing have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
APLP1 amyloid beta (A4) precursor-like protein 1|This gene encodes a member of the highly conserved amyloid precursor protein gene family. The encoded protein is a membrane-associated glycoprotein that is cleaved by secretases in a manner similar to amyloid beta A4 precursor protein cleavage. This cleavage liberates an intracellular cytoplasmic fragment that may act as a transcriptional activator. The encoded protein may also play a role in synaptic maturation during cortical development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APLP2 amyloid beta (A4) precursor-like protein 2|This gene encodes amyloid precursor- like protein 2 (APLP2), which is a member of the APP (amyloid precursor protein) family including APP, APLP1 and APLP2. This protein is ubiquitously expressed. It contains heparin-, copper- and zinc- binding domains at the N-terminus, BPTI/Kunitz inhibitor and E2 domains in the middle region, and transmembrane and intracellular domains at the C-terminus. This protein interacts with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The synergy of this protein and the APP is required to mediate neuromuscular transmission, spatial learning and synaptic plasticity. This protein has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
APMAP adipocyte plasma membrane associated protein|
APOA1 apolipoprotein A-I|This gene encodes apolipoprotein A-I, which is the major protein component of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma. The protein promotes cholesterol efflux from tissues to the liver for excretion, and it is a cofactor for lecithin cholesterolacyltransferase (LCAT) which is responsible for the formation of most plasma cholesteryl esters. This gene is closely linked with two other apolipoprotein genes on chromosome 11. Defects in this gene are associated with HDL deficiencies, including Tangier disease, and with systemic non-neuropathic amyloidosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOA1BP apolipoprotein A-I binding protein|The product of this gene interacts with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major apolipoprotein of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). It is secreted into some bodily fluids, and its synthesis and secretion are stimulated in vitro by incubating cells with apoA-I. The human genome contains related pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOA2 apolipoprotein A-II|This gene encodes apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, which is the second most abundant protein of the high density lipoprotein particles. The protein is found in plasma as a monomer, homodimer, or heterodimer with apolipoprotein D. Defects in this gene may result in apolipoprotein A-II deficiency or hypercholesterolemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOA4 apolipoprotein A-IV|Apoliprotein (apo) A-IV gene contains 3 exons separated by two introns. A sequence polymorphism has been identified in the 3'UTR of the third exon. The primary translation product is a 396-residue preprotein which after proteolytic processing is secreted its primary site of synthesis, the intestine, in association with chylomicron particles. Although its precise function is not known, apo A-IV is a potent activator of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in vitro. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOA5 apolipoprotein A-V|The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein that plays an important role in regulating the plasma triglyceride levels, a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. It is a component of high density lipoprotein and is highly similar to a rat protein that is upregulated in response to liver injury. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hypertriglyceridemia and hyperlipoproteinemia type 5. This gene is located proximal to the apolipoprotein gene cluster on chromosome 11q23. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
APOB apolipoprotein B|This gene product is the main apolipoprotein of chylomicrons and low density lipoproteins. It occurs in plasma as two main isoforms, apoB-48 and apoB-100: the former is synthesized exclusively in the gut and the latter in the liver. The intestinal and the hepatic forms of apoB are encoded by a single gene from a single, very long mRNA. The two isoforms share a common N-terminal sequence. The shorter apoB-48 protein is produced after RNA editing of the apoB-100 transcript at residue 2180 (CAA->UAA), resulting in the creation of a stop codon, and early translation termination. Mutations in this gene or its regulatory region cause hypobetalipoproteinemia, normotriglyceridemic hypobetalipoproteinemia, and hypercholesterolemia due to ligand-defective apoB, diseases affecting plasma cholesterol and apoB levels. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOBEC1 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1|This gene encodes a member of the cytidine deaminase enzyme family. The encoded protein forms a multiple-protein editing holoenzyme with APOBEC1 complementation factor (ACF) and APOBEC1 stimulating protein (ASP). This holoenzyme is involved in the editing of C-to-U nucleotide bases in apolipoprotein B and neurofibromatosis-1 mRNAs. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]
APOBEC2 apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 2|
APOBEC3A apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3A|This gene is a member of the cytidine deaminase gene family. It is one of seven related genes or pseudogenes found in a cluster, thought to result from gene duplication, on chromosome 22. Members of the cluster encode proteins that are structurally and functionally related to the C to U RNA-editing cytidine deaminase APOBEC1. The protein encoded by this gene lacks the zinc binding activity of other family members. The protein plays a role in immunity, by restricting transmission of foreign DNA such as viruses. One mechanism of foreign DNA restriction is deamination of foreign double-stranded DNA cytidines to uridines, which leads to DNA degradation. However, other mechanisms are also thought to be involved, as anti-viral effect is not dependent on deaminase activity. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
APOBEC3B apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3B|This gene is a member of the cytidine deaminase gene family. It is one of seven related genes or pseudogenes found in a cluster, thought to result from gene duplication, on chromosome 22. Members of the cluster encode proteins that are structurally and functionally related to the C to U RNA-editing cytidine deaminase APOBEC1. It is thought that the proteins may be RNA editing enzymes and have roles in growth or cell cycle control. A hybrid gene results from the deletion of approximately 29.5 kb of sequence between this gene, APOBEC3B, and the adjacent gene APOBEC3A. The breakpoints of the deletion are within the two genes, so the deletion allele is predicted to have the promoter and coding region of APOBEC3A, but the 3' UTR of APOBEC3B. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
APOBEC3C apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3C|This gene is a member of the cytidine deaminase gene family. It is one of seven related genes or pseudogenes found in a cluster thought to result from gene duplication, on chromosome 22. Members of the cluster encode proteins that are structurally and functionally related to the C to U RNA-editing cytidine deaminase APOBEC1. It is thought that the proteins may be RNA editing enzymes and have roles in growth or cell cycle control. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOBEC3D apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3D|This gene is a member of the cytidine deaminase gene family. It is one of a group of related genes found in a cluster, thought to result from gene duplication, on chromosome 22. Members of the cluster encode proteins that are structurally and functionally related to the C to U RNA-editing cytidine deaminase APOBEC1 and inhibit retroviruses, such as HIV, by deaminating cytosine residues in nascent retroviral cDNA. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOBEC3F apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3F|This gene is a member of the cytidine deaminase gene family. It is one of seven related genes or pseudogenes found in a cluster, thought to result from gene duplication, on chromosome 22. Members of the cluster encode proteins that are structurally and functionally related to the C to U RNA-editing cytidine deaminase APOBEC1. It is thought that the proteins may be RNA editing enzymes and have roles in growth or cell cycle control. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOBEC3G apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G|This gene is a member of the cytidine deaminase gene family. It is one of seven related genes or pseudogenes found in a cluster, thought to result from gene duplication, on chromosome 22. Members of the cluster encode proteins that are structurally and functionally related to the C to U RNA-editing cytidine deaminase APOBEC1. It is thought that the proteins may be RNA editing enzymes and have roles in growth or cell cycle control. The protein encoded by this gene has been found to be a specific inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infectivity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOC1 apolipoprotein C-I|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the apolipoprotein C1 family. This gene is expressed primarily in the liver, and it is activated when monocytes differentiate into macrophages. A pseudogene of this gene is located 4 kb downstream in the same orientation, on the same chromosome. This gene is mapped to chromosome 19, where it resides within a apolipoprotein gene cluster. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOC2 apolipoprotein C-II|This gene encodes a lipid-binding protein belonging to the apolipoprotein gene family. The protein is secreted in plasma where it is a component of very low density lipoprotein. This protein activates the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, which hydrolyzes triglycerides and thus provides free fatty acids for cells. Mutations in this gene cause hyperlipoproteinemia type IB, characterized by hypertriglyceridemia, xanthomas, and increased risk of pancreatitis and early atherosclerosis. This gene is present in a cluster with other related apolipoprotein genes on chromosome 19. Naturally occurring read-through transcription exists between this gene and the neighboring upstream apolipoprotein C-IV (APOC4) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
APOC3 apolipoprotein C-III|Apolipoprotein C-III is a very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) protein. APOC3 inhibits lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase; it is thought to delay catabolism of triglyceride-rich particles. The APOA1, APOC3 and APOA4 genes are closely linked in both rat and human genomes. The A-I and A-IV genes are transcribed from the same strand, while the A-1 and C-III genes are convergently transcribed. An increase in apoC-III levels induces the development of hypertriglyceridemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOC4 apolipoprotein C-IV|This gene encodes a lipid-binding protein belonging to the apolipoprotein gene family. The protein is thought to play a role in lipid metabolism. Polymorphisms in this gene may influence circulating lipid levels and may be associated with coronary artery disease risk. This gene is present in a cluster with other related apolipoprotein genes on chromosome 19. Naturally occurring read-through transcription exists between this gene and the neighboring downstream apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
APOD apolipoprotein D|This gene encodes a component of high density lipoprotein that has no marked similarity to other apolipoprotein sequences. It has a high degree of homology to plasma retinol-binding protein and other members of the alpha 2 microglobulin protein superfamily of carrier proteins, also known as lipocalins. This glycoprotein is closely associated with the enzyme lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase - an enzyme involved in lipoprotein metabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
APOE apolipoprotein E|The protein encoded by this gene is a major apoprotein of the chylomicron. It binds to a specific liver and peripheral cell receptor, and is essential for the normal catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein constituents. This gene maps to chromosome 19 in a cluster with the related apolipoprotein C1 and C2 genes. Mutations in this gene result in familial dysbetalipoproteinemia, or type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP III), in which increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides are the consequence of impaired clearance of chylomicron and VLDL remnants. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
APOF apolipoprotein F|The product of this gene is one of the minor apolipoproteins found in plasma. This protein forms complexes with lipoproteins and may be involved in transport and/or esterification of cholesterol. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOH apolipoprotein H (beta-2-glycoprotein I)|Apolipoprotein H has been implicated in a variety of physiologic pathways including lipoprotein metabolism, coagulation, and the production of antiphospholipid autoantibodies. APOH may be a required cofactor for anionic phospholipid binding by the antiphospholipid autoantibodies found in sera of many patients with lupus and primary antiphospholipid syndrome, but it does not seem to be required for the reactivity of antiphospholipid autoantibodies associated with infections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOL1 apolipoprotein L, 1|This gene encodes a secreted high density lipoprotein which binds to apolipoprotein A-I. Apolipoprotein A-I is a relatively abundant plasma protein and is the major apoprotein of HDL. It is involved in the formation of most cholesteryl esters in plasma and also promotes efflux of cholesterol from cells. This apolipoprotein L family member may play a role in lipid exchange and transport throughout the body, as well as in reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral cells to the liver. Several different transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
APOL2 apolipoprotein L, 2|This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene family. The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm, where it may affect the movement of lipids or allow the binding of lipids to organelles. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOL5 apolipoprotein L, 5|This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene family. The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm, where it may affect the movement of lipids or allow the binding of lipids to organelles. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOL6 apolipoprotein L, 6|This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein L gene family. The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm, where it may affect the movement of lipids or allow the binding of lipids to organelles. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APOLD1 apolipoprotein L domain containing 1|APOLD1 is an endothelial cell early response protein that may play a role in regulation of endothelial cell signaling and vascular function (Regard et al., 2004 [PubMed 15102925]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2008]
APOM apolipoprotein M|The protein encoded by this gene is an apolipoprotein and member of the lipocalin protein family. It is found associated with high density lipoproteins and to a lesser extent with low density lipoproteins and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The encoded protein is secreted through the plasma membrane but remains membrane-bound, where it is involved in lipid transport. Alternate splicing results in both coding and non-coding variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
APOO apolipoprotein O|This gene is a member of the apolipoprotein family. Members of this protein family are involved in the transport and metabolism of lipids. The encoded protein associates with HDL, LDL and VLDL lipoproteins and is characterized by chondroitin-sulfate glycosylation. This protein may be involved in preventing lipid accumulation in the myocardium in obese and diabetic patients. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 12 and 16.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
APOOL apolipoprotein O-like|This gene encodes a protein which contains an apolipoprotein O superfamily domain. This domain is found on proteins in circulating lipoprotein complexes. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
APOPT1 apoptogenic 1, mitochondrial|This gene encodes a protein that localizes to the mitochondria, where it stimulates the release of cytochrome c, thereby promoting programmed cell death. Mutations in this gene have been found in individuals with mitochondrial complex IV deficiency. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
APP amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein|This gene encodes a cell surface receptor and transmembrane precursor protein that is cleaved by secretases to form a number of peptides. Some of these peptides are secreted and can bind to the acetyltransferase complex APBB1/TIP60 to promote transcriptional activation, while others form the protein basis of the amyloid plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease. In addition, two of the peptides are antimicrobial peptides, having been shown to have bacteriocidal and antifungal activities. Mutations in this gene have been implicated in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease and cerebroarterial amyloidosis (cerebral amyloid angiopathy). Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]
APPBP2 amyloid beta precursor protein (cytoplasmic tail) binding protein 2|The protein encoded by this gene interacts with microtubules and is functionally associated with beta-amyloid precursor protein transport and/or processing. The beta-amyloid precursor protein is a cell surface protein with signal-transducing properties, and it is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. The encoded protein may be involved in regulating cell death. This gene has been found to be highly expressed in breast cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
APPL1 adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1|The protein encoded by this gene has been shown to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, and in the crosstalk between the adiponectin signalling and insulin signalling pathways. The encoded protein binds many other proteins, including RAB5A, DCC, AKT2, PIK3CA, adiponectin receptors, and proteins of the NuRD/MeCP1 complex. This protein is found associated with endosomal membranes, but can be released by EGF and translocated to the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APPL2 adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 2|The protein encoded by this gene is one of two effectors of the small GTPase RAB5A/Rab5, which are involved in a signal transduction pathway. Both effectors contain an N-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain, a central pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, and a C-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain, and they bind the Rab5 through the BAR domain. They are associated with endosomal membranes and can be translocated to the nucleus in response to the EGF stimulus. They interact with the NuRD/MeCP1 complex (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase /methyl-CpG-binding protein 1 complex) and are required for efficient cell proliferation. A chromosomal aberration t(12;22)(q24.1;q13.3) involving this gene and the PSAP2 gene results in 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, also known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
APRT adenine phosphoribosyltransferase|Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase belongs to the purine/pyrimidine phosphoribosyltransferase family. A conserved feature of this gene is the distribution of CpG dinucleotides. This enzyme catalyzes the formation of AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate from adenine and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP). It also produces adenine as a by-product of the polyamine biosynthesis pathway. A homozygous deficiency in this enzyme causes 2,8-dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APTX aprataxin|This gene encodes a member of the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily. The encoded protein may play a role in single-stranded DNA repair through its nucleotide-binding activity and its diadenosine polyphosphate hydrolase activity. Mutations in this gene have been associated with ataxia-ocular apraxia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
AQP1 aquaporin 1 (Colton blood group)|Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major intrinsic protein (MIP or AQP0). This gene encodes an aquaporin which functions as a molecular water channel protein. It is a homotetramer with 6 bilayer spanning domains and N-glycosylation sites. The protein physically resembles channel proteins and is abundant in erythrocytes and renal tubes. The gene encoding this aquaporin is a possible candidate for disorders involving imbalance in ocular fluid movement. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
AQP11 aquaporin 11|
AQP2 aquaporin 2 (collecting duct)|This gene encodes a water channel protein located in the kidney collecting tubule. It belongs to the MIP/aquaporin family, some members of which are clustered together on chromosome 12q13. Mutations in this gene have been linked to autosomal dominant and recessive forms of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
AQP3 aquaporin 3 (Gill blood group)|This gene encodes the water channel protein aquaporin 3. Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major intrinsic protein, also known as aquaporin 0. Aquaporin 3 is localized at the basal lateral membranes of collecting duct cells in the kidney. In addition to its water channel function, aquaporin 3 has been found to facilitate the transport of nonionic small solutes such as urea and glycerol, but to a smaller degree. It has been suggested that water channels can be functionally heterogeneous and possess water and solute permeation mechanisms. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
AQP4 aquaporin 4|This gene encodes a member of the aquaporin family of intrinsic membrane proteins that function as water-selective channels in the plasma membranes of many cells. The encoded protein is the predominant aquaporin found in brain. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AQP5 aquaporin 5|Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is a water channel protein. Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major intrinsic protein (MIP or AQP0). Aquaporin 5 plays a role in the generation of saliva, tears and pulmonary secretions. AQP0, AQP2, AQP5, and AQP6 are closely related and all map to 12q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AQP6 aquaporin 6, kidney specific|The protein encoded by this gene is an aquaporin protein, which functions as a water channel in cells. Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major intrinsic protein (MIP or AQP0). This protein is specific for the kidney. This gene and related family members AQP0, AQP2, and AQP5 reside in a cluster on chromosome 12q13. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AQP9 aquaporin 9|The aquaporins are a family of water-selective membrane channels. The protein encoded by this gene allows passage of a wide variety of noncharged solutes. It stimulates urea transport and osmotic water permeability; there are contradicting reports about its role in providing glycerol permeability. The encoded protein may also play a role in specialized leukocyte functions such as immunological response and bactericidal activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AQR aquarius intron-binding spliceosomal factor|
AR androgen receptor|The androgen receptor gene is more than 90 kb long and codes for a protein that has 3 major functional domains: the N-terminal domain, DNA-binding domain, and androgen-binding domain. The protein functions as a steroid-hormone activated transcription factor. Upon binding the hormone ligand, the receptor dissociates from accessory proteins, translocates into the nucleus, dimerizes, and then stimulates transcription of androgen responsive genes. This gene contains 2 polymorphic trinucleotide repeat segments that encode polyglutamine and polyglycine tracts in the N-terminal transactivation domain of its protein. Expansion of the polyglutamine tract causes spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (Kennedy disease). Mutations in this gene are also associated with complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS). Two alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARAF A-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase|This proto-oncogene belongs to the RAF subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and maybe involved in cell growth and development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
ARAP1 ArfGAP with RhoGAP domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 1|The protein encoded by this gene contains SAM, ARF-GAP, RHO-GAP, ankyrin repeat, RAS-associating, and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. In vitro, this protein displays RHO-GAP and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) trisphosphate (PIP3)-dependent ARF-GAP activity. The encoded protein associates with the Golgi, and the ARF-GAP activity mediates changes in the Golgi and the formation of filopodia. It is thought to regulate the cell-specific trafficking of a receptor protein involved in apoptosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
ARAP2 ArfGAP with RhoGAP domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 2|The protein encoded by this gene contains ARF-GAP, RHO-GAP, ankyrin repeat, RAS-associating, and pleckstrin homology domains. The protein is a phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate-dependent Arf6 GAP that binds RhoA-GTP, but it lacks the predicted catalytic arginine in the RHO-GAP domain and does not have RHO-GAP activity. The protein associates with focal adhesions and functions downstream of RhoA to regulate focal adhesion dynamics. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
ARAP3 ArfGAP with RhoGAP domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 3|This gene encodes a phosphoinositide binding protein containing ARF-GAP, RHO-GAP, RAS-associating, and pleckstrin homology domains. The ARF-GAP and RHO-GAP domains cooperate in mediating rearrangements in the cell cytoskeleton and cell shape. It is a specific PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/PtdIns(3,4)P2-stimulated Arf6-GAP protein. An alternatively spliced transcript has been found for this gene, but its biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
ARC activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein|
ARCN1 archain 1|This gene maps in a region, which include the mixed lineage leukemia and Friend leukemia virus integration 1 genes, where multiple disease-associated chromosome translocations occur. It is an intracellular protein. Archain sequences are well conserved among eukaryotes and this protein may play a fundamental role in eukaryotic cell biology. It has similarities to heat shock proteins and clathrin-associated proteins, and may be involved in vesicle structure or trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AREG amphiregulin|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the epidermal growth factor family. It is an autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for astrocytes, Schwann cells and fibroblasts. It is related to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). The protein interacts with the EGF/TGF-alpha receptor to promote the growth of normal epithelial cells, and it inhibits the growth of certain aggressive carcinoma cell lines. It also functions in mammary gland, oocyte and bone tissue development. This gene is associated with a psoriasis-like skin phenotype, and is also associated with other pathological disorders, including various types of cancers and inflammatory conditions. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
AREL1 apoptosis resistant E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1|
ARF1 ADP-ribosylation factor 1|ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) is a member of the human ARF gene family. The family members encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and play a role in vesicular trafficking as activators of phospholipase D. The gene products, including 6 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins, constitute a family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF proteins are categorized as class I (ARF1, ARF2 and ARF3), class II (ARF4 and ARF5) and class III (ARF6), and members of each class share a common gene organization. The ARF1 protein is localized to the Golgi apparatus and has a central role in intra-Golgi transport. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARF3 ADP-ribosylation factor 3|ADP-ribosylation factor 3 (ARF3) is a member of the human ARF gene family. These genes encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and play a role in vesicular trafficking and as activators of phospholipase D. The gene products include 6 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins and constitute 1 family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF proteins are categorized as class I (ARF1, ARF2,and ARF3), class II (ARF4 and ARF5) and class III (ARF6) and members of each class share a common gene organization. The ARF3 gene contains five exons and four introns. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARF4 ADP-ribosylation factor 4|This gene is a member of the human ARF gene family whose members encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and play a role in vesicular trafficking and as activators of phospholipase D. The gene products include 5 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins and constitute one family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF proteins are categorized as class I, class II and class III; this gene is a class II member. The members of each class share a common gene organization. The ARF4 gene spans approximately 12kb and contains six exons and five introns. This gene is the most divergent member of the human ARFs. Conflicting map positions at 3p14 or 3p21 have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARF5 ADP-ribosylation factor 5|This gene is a member of the human ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) gene family. These genes encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and play a role in vesicular trafficking and as activators of phospholipase D. The gene products include 6 ARF proteins and 11 ARF-like proteins and constitute 1 family of the RAS superfamily. The ARF proteins are categorized as class I (ARF1, ARF2,and ARF3), class II (ARF4 and ARF5) and class III (ARF6). The members of each class share a common gene organization. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
ARF6 ADP-ribosylation factor 6|This gene encodes a member of the human ARF gene family, which is part of the RAS superfamily. The ARF genes encode small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that stimulate the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin and play a role in vesicular trafficking and as activators of phospholipase D. The product of this gene is localized to the plasma membrane, and regulates vesicular trafficking, remodelling of membrane lipids, and signaling pathways that lead to actin remodeling. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARFGAP1 ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase-activating protein, which associates with the Golgi apparatus and which interacts with ADP-ribosylation factor 1. The encoded protein promotes hydrolysis of ADP-ribosylation factor 1-bound GTP and is required for the dissociation of coat proteins from Golgi-derived membranes and vesicles. Dissociation of the coat proteins is required for the fusion of these vesicles with target compartments. The activity of this protein is stimulated by phosphoinosides and inhibited by phosphatidylcholine. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
ARFGAP2 ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 2|
ARFGAP3 ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating protein 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that associates with the Golgi apparatus and regulates the early secretory pathway of proteins. The encoded protein promotes hydrolysis of ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1)-bound GTP, which is required for the dissociation of coat proteins from Golgi-derived membranes and vesicles. Dissociation of the coat proteins is a prerequisite for the fusion of these vesicles with target compartments. The activity of this protein is sensitive to phospholipids. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. This gene was originally known as ARFGAP1, but that is now the name of a related but different gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
ARFGEF1 ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 1 (brefeldin A-inhibited)|ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) play an important role in intracellular vesicular trafficking. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the activation of ARFs by accelerating replacement of bound GDP with GTP. It contains a Sec7 domain, which may be responsible for guanine-nucleotide exchange activity and also brefeldin A inhibition. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
ARFGEF2 ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 (brefeldin A-inhibited)|ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) play an important role in intracellular vesicular trafficking. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the activation of ARFs by accelerating replacement of bound GDP with GTP and is involved in Golgi transport. It contains a Sec7 domain, which may be responsible for its guanine-nucleotide exchange activity and also brefeldin A inhibition. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARFIP1 ADP-ribosylation factor interacting protein 1|
ARFIP2 ADP-ribosylation factor interacting protein 2|
ARFRP1 ADP-ribosylation factor related protein 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane-associated GTP-ase which localizes to the plasma membrane and is related to the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) and ARF-like (ARL) proteins. This gene plays a role in membrane trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
ARG1 arginase 1|Arginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. At least two isoforms of mammalian arginase exist (types I and II) which differ in their tissue distribution, subcellular localization, immunologic crossreactivity and physiologic function. The type I isoform encoded by this gene, is a cytosolic enzyme and expressed predominantly in the liver as a component of the urea cycle. Inherited deficiency of this enzyme results in argininemia, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hyperammonemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
ARG2 arginase 2|Arginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. At least two isoforms of mammalian arginase exists (types I and II) which differ in their tissue distribution, subcellular localization, immunologic crossreactivity and physiologic function. The type II isoform encoded by this gene, is located in the mitochondria and expressed in extra-hepatic tissues, especially kidney. The physiologic role of this isoform is poorly understood; it is thought to play a role in nitric oxide and polyamine metabolism. Transcript variants of the type II gene resulting from the use of alternative polyadenylation sites have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARGLU1 arginine and glutamate rich 1|
ARHGAP1 Rho GTPase activating protein 1|This gene encodes a member of a large family of proteins that activate Rho-type guanosine triphosphate (GTP) metabolizing enzymes. The encoded protein contains a SRC homology 3 domain and interacts with Bcl-2-associated protein family members. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
ARHGAP10 Rho GTPase activating protein 10|
ARHGAP11A Rho GTPase activating protein 11A|
ARHGAP11B Rho GTPase activating protein 11B|
ARHGAP12 Rho GTPase activating protein 12|This gene encodes a member of a large family of proteins that activate Rho-type guanosine triphosphate (GTP) metabolizing enzymes. The encoded protein may be involved in suppressing tumor formation by regulating cell invasion and adhesion. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
ARHGAP15 Rho GTPase activating protein 15|RHO GTPases (see ARHA; MIM 165390) regulate diverse biologic processes, and their activity is regulated by RHO GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), such as ARHGAP15 (Seoh et al., 2003 [PubMed 12650940]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARHGAP17 Rho GTPase activating protein 17|RICH1 is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). GAPs stimulate the intrinsic GTP hydrolysis of small G proteins, such as RHOA (MIM 165390), RAC1 (MIM 602048), and CDC42 (MIM 116952).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]
ARHGAP18 Rho GTPase activating protein 18|ARHGAP18 belongs to a family of Rho (see MIM 165390) GTPase-activating proteins that modulate cell signaling (Potkin et al., 2009 [PubMed 19065146]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]
ARHGAP19 Rho GTPase activating protein 19|Members of the ARHGAP family, such as ARHGAP19, encode negative regulators of Rho GTPases (see RHOA; MIM 165390), which are involved in cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation, actin remodeling, and G1 cell cycle progression (Lv et al., 2007 [PubMed 17454002]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARHGAP20 Rho GTPase activating protein 20|
ARHGAP21 Rho GTPase activating protein 21|ARHGAP21 functions preferentially as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for CDC42 (MIM 116952) and regulates the ARP2/3 complex (MIM 604221) and F-actin dynamics at the Golgi through control of CDC42 activity (Dubois et al., 2005 [PubMed 15793564]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARHGAP22 Rho GTPase activating protein 22|This gene encodes a member of the GTPase activating protein family which activates a GTPase belonging to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. The encoded protein is insulin-responsive, is dependent on the kinase Akt and requires the Akt-dependent 14-3-3 binding protein which binds sequentially to two serine residues. The result of these interactions is regulation of cell motility. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ARHGAP23 Rho GTPase activating protein 23|The RHO (see ARHA; MIM 165390) family of small GTPases are involved in signal transduction through transmembrane receptors, and they are inactive in the GDP-bound form and active in the GTP-bound form. GTPase-activating proteins, such as ARHGAP23, inactivate RHO family proteins by stimulating their hydrolysis of GTP (Katoh and Katoh, 2004 [PubMed 15254754]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARHGAP24 Rho GTPase activating protein 24|ARHGAPs, such as ARHGAP24, encode negative regulators of Rho GTPases (see ARHA; MIM 165390), which are implicated in actin remodeling, cell polarity, and cell migration (Katoh and Katoh, 2004 [PubMed 15254788]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARHGAP25 Rho GTPase activating protein 25|ARHGAPs, such as ARHGAP25, encode negative regulators of Rho GTPases (see ARHA; MIM 165390), which are implicated in actin remodeling, cell polarity, and cell migration (Katoh and Katoh, 2004 [PubMed 15254788]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARHGAP26 Rho GTPase activating protein 26|Interaction of a cell with the extracellular matrix triggers integrin cell surface receptors to begin signaling cascades that regulate the organization of the actin-cytoskeleton. One of the proteins involved in these cascades is focal adhesion kinase. The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase activating protein that binds to focal adhesion kinase and mediates the activity of the GTP binding proteins RhoA and Cdc42. Defects in this gene are a cause of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
ARHGAP27 Rho GTPase activating protein 27|This gene encodes a member of a large family of proteins that activate Rho-type guanosine triphosphate (GTP) metabolizing enzymes. The encoded protein may pay a role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
ARHGAP28 Rho GTPase activating protein 28|
ARHGAP29 Rho GTPase activating protein 29|
ARHGAP30 Rho GTPase activating protein 30|
ARHGAP31 Rho GTPase activating protein 31|This gene encodes a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). A variety of cellular processes are regulated by Rho GTPases which cycle between an inactive form bound to GDP and an active form bound to GTP. This cycling between inactive and active forms is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors and GAPs. The encoded protein is a GAP shown to regulate two GTPases involved in protein trafficking and cell growth. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGAP32 Rho GTPase activating protein 32|RICS is a neuron-associated GTPase-activating protein that may regulate dendritic spine morphology and strength by modulating Rho GTPase (see RHOA; MIM 165390) activity (Okabe et al., 2003 [PubMed 12531901]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARHGAP33 Rho GTPase activating protein 33|This gene encodes a member of the sorting nexin family. Members of this family contain a phox (PX) domain, which is a phosphoinositide binding domain, and are involved in intracellular trafficking. Alternative splice variants encoding different isoforms have been identified in this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
ARHGAP35 Rho GTPase activating protein 35|The human glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding factor, which associates with the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (hGR gene), is a repressor of glucocorticoid receptor transcription. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequences show the presence of three sequence motifs characteristic of a zinc finger and one motif suggestive of a leucine zipper in which 1 cysteine is found instead of all leucines. The GRLF1 enhances the homologous down-regulation of wild-type hGR gene expression. Biochemical analysis suggests that GRLF1 interaction is sequence specific and that transcriptional efficacy of GRLF1 is regulated through its interaction with specific sequence motif. The level of expression is regulated by glucocorticoids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGAP36 Rho GTPase activating protein 36|
ARHGAP39 Rho GTPase activating protein 39|
ARHGAP4 Rho GTPase activating protein 4|This gene encodes a member of the rhoGAP family of proteins which play a role in the regulation of small GTP-binding proteins belonging to the RAS superfamily. The protein encoded by the orthologous gene in rat is localized to the Golgi complex and can redistribute to microtubules. The rat protein stimulates the activity of some Rho GTPases in vitro. Genomic deletions of this gene and a neighboring gene have been found in patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
ARHGAP40 Rho GTPase activating protein 40|
ARHGAP42 Rho GTPase activating protein 42|
ARHGAP44 Rho GTPase activating protein 44|
ARHGAP5 Rho GTPase activating protein 5|Rho GTPase activating protein 5 negatively regulates RHO GTPases, a family which may mediate cytoskeleton changes by stimulating the hydrolysis of bound GTP. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGAP6 Rho GTPase activating protein 6|This gene encodes a member of the rhoGAP family of proteins which play a role in the regulation of actin polymerization at the plasma membrane during several cellular processes. This protein is thought to have two independent functions, one as a GTPase-activating protein with specificity for RhoA, and another as a cytoskeletal protein that promotes actin remodeling. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGAP8 Rho GTPase activating protein 8|This gene encodes a member of the RHOGAP family. GAP (GTPase-activating) family proteins participate in signaling pathways that regulate cell processes involved in cytoskeletal changes. GAP proteins alternate between an active (GTP-bound) and inactive (GDP-bound) state based on the GTP:GDP ratio in the cell. This family member is a multidomain protein that functions to promote Erk activation and cell motility. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcripts from the upstream proline rich 5, renal (PRR5) gene into this gene also exist, which led to the original description of PRR5 and ARHGAP8 being a single gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
ARHGAP9 Rho GTPase activating protein 9|This gene encodes a member of the Rho-GAP family of GTPase activating proteins. The protein has substantial GAP activity towards several Rho-family GTPases in vitro, converting them to an inactive GDP-bound state. It is implicated in regulating adhesion of hematopoietic cells to the extracellular matrix. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGDIA Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) alpha|This gene encodes a protein that plays a key role in the regulation of signaling through Rho GTPases. The encoded protein inhibits the disassociation of Rho family members from GDP (guanine diphosphate), thereby maintaining these factors in an inactive state. Activity of this protein is important in a variety of cellular processes, and expression of this gene may be altered in tumors. Mutations in this gene have been found in individuals with nephrotic syndrome, type 8. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
ARHGDIB Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) beta|Members of the Rho (or ARH) protein family (see MIM 165390) and other Ras-related small GTP-binding proteins (see MIM 179520) are involved in diverse cellular events, including cell signaling, proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, and secretion. The GTP-binding proteins are active only in the GTP-bound state. At least 3 classes of proteins tightly regulate cycling between the GTP-bound and GDP-bound states: GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs), guanine nucleotide-releasing factors (GRFs), and GDP-dissociation inhibitors (GDIs). The GDIs, including ARHGDIB, decrease the rate of GDP dissociation from Ras-like GTPases (summary by Scherle et al., 1993 [PubMed 8356058]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2010]
ARHGDIG Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI) gamma|The GDP-dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) play a primary role in modulating the activation of GTPases by inhibiting the exchange of GDP for GTP. See ARHGDIB (MIM 602843).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
ARHGEF1 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 1|Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein may form complex with G proteins and stimulate Rho-dependent signals. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been defined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGEF10 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10|This gene encodes a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Rho GEFs regulate the activity of small Rho GTPases by stimulating the exchange of guanine diphosphate (GDP) for guanine triphosphate (GTP) and may play a role in neural morphogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with slowed nerve conduction velocity (SNCV). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]
ARHGEF10L Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10-like|ARHGEF10L is a member of the RhoGEF family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate Rho GTPases (Winkler et al., 2005 [PubMed 16112081]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2008]
ARHGEF11 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 11|Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein may form a complex with G proteins and stimulate Rho-dependent signals. A similar protein in rat interacts with glutamate transporter EAAT4 and modulates its glutamate transport activity. Expression of the rat protein induces the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and its overexpression induces the formation of membrane ruffling and filopodia. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGEF12 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 12|Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli working through G protein-coupled receptors. The encoded protein may form a complex with G proteins and stimulate Rho-dependent signals. This protein has been observed to form a myeloid/lymphoid fusion partner in acute myeloid leukemia. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
ARHGEF15 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 15|Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein-coupled receptors. This gene encodes a protein that functions as a specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RhoA. It also interacts with ephrin A4 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Two alternatively spliced transcripts variants that encode the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
ARHGEF16 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 16|Although the specific function of this protein is not known yet, it is thought to be involved in protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGEF17 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 17|
ARHGEF18 Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 18|Rho GTPases are GTP binding proteins that regulate a wide spectrum of cellular functions. These cellular processes include cytoskeletal rearrangements, gene transcription, cell growth and motility. Activation of Rho GTPases is under the direct control of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). The protein encoded by this gene is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor and belongs to the Rho GTPase GFE family. Family members share a common feature, a Dbl (DH) homology domain followed by a pleckstrin (PH) homology domain. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ARHGEF19 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 19|Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) such as ARHGEF19 accelerate the GTPase activity of Rho GTPases (see RHOA, MIM 165390).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2008]
ARHGEF2 Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 2|Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein may form complex with G proteins and stimulate rho-dependent signals. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]
ARHGEF25 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 25|Rho GTPases alternate between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state, and GEFs facilitate GDP/GTP exchange. This gene encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) which interacts with Rho GTPases involved in contraction of vascular smooth muscles, regulation of responses to angiotensin II and lens cell differentiation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
ARHGEF26 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 26|This gene encodes a member of the Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF) family. These proteins regulate Rho GTPases by catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP. The encoded protein specifically activates RhoG and plays a role in the promotion of macropinocytosis. Underexpression of the encoded protein may be a predictive marker of chemoresistant disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
ARHGEF28 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 28|This gene encodes a member of the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor family. The encoded protein interacts with low molecular weight neurofilament mRNA and may be involved in the formation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis neurofilament aggregates. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
ARHGEF3 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 3|Rho-like GTPases are involved in a variety of cellular processes, and they are activated by binding GTP and inactivated by conversion of GTP to GDP by their intrinsic GTPase activity. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) accelerate the GTPase activity of Rho GTPases by catalyzing their release of bound GDP. This gene encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, which specifically activates two members of the Rho GTPase family: RHOA and RHOB, both of which have a role in bone cell biology. It has been identified that genetic variation in this gene plays a role in the determination of bone mineral density (BMD), indicating the implication of this gene in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGEF35 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 35|
ARHGEF39 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 39|
ARHGEF4 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 4|Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The protein encoded by this gene may form complex with G proteins and stimulate Rho-dependent signals. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
ARHGEF40 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 40|This gene encodes a protein similar to guanosine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho GTPases. The encoded protein contains in its C-terminus a GEF domain involved in exchange activity and a pleckstrin homology domain. Alternatively spliced transcripts that encode different proteins have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
ARHGEF5 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 5|Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein may form a complex with G proteins and stimulate Rho-dependent signals. This protein may be involved in the control of cytoskeletal organization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGEF6 Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 6|Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein belongs to a family of cytoplasmic proteins that activate the Ras-like family of Rho proteins by exchanging bound GDP for GTP. It may form a complex with G proteins and stimulate Rho-dependent signals. This protein is activated by PI3-kinase. Mutations in this gene can cause X-chromosomal non-specific mental retardation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGEF7 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 7|Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes triggered by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein belongs to a family of cytoplasmic proteins that activate the Ras-like family of Rho proteins by exchanging bound GDP for GTP. It forms a complex with the small GTP binding protein Rac1 and recruits Rac1 to membrane ruffles and to focal adhesions. This protein can induce membrane ruffling. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGEF9 Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 9|The protein encoded by this gene is a Rho-like GTPase that switches between the active (GTP-bound) state and inactive (GDP-bound) state to regulate CDC42 and other genes. Defects in this gene are a cause of startle disease with epilepsy (STHEE), also known as hyperekplexia with epilepsy. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
ARID1A AT rich interactive domain 1A (SWI-like)|This gene encodes a member of the SWI/SNF family, whose members have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. It possesses at least two conserved domains that could be important for its function. First, it has a DNA-binding domain that can specifically bind an AT-rich DNA sequence known to be recognized by a SNF/SWI complex at the beta-globin locus. Second, the C-terminus of the protein can stimulate glucocorticoid receptor-dependent transcriptional activation. It is thought that the protein encoded by this gene confers specificity to the SNF/SWI complex and may recruit the complex to its targets through either protein-DNA or protein-protein interactions. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARID1B AT rich interactive domain 1B (SWI1-like)|This locus encodes an AT-rich DNA interacting domain-containing protein. The encoded protein is a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and may play a role in cell-cycle activation. The protein encoded by this locus is similar to AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A. These two proteins function as alternative, mutually exclusive ARID-subunits of the SWI/SNF complex. The associated complexes play opposing roles. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
ARID2 AT rich interactive domain 2 (ARID, RFX-like)|ARID2 is a subunit of the PBAF chromatin-remodeling complex (see BAF180; MIM 606083), which facilitates ligand-dependent transcriptional activation by nuclear receptors (Yan et al., 2005 [PubMed 15985610]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARID3A AT rich interactive domain 3A (BRIGHT-like)|This gene encodes a member of the ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) family of DNA binding proteins. It was found by homology to the Drosophila dead ringer gene, which is important for normal embryogenesis. Other ARID family members have roles in embryonic patterning, cell lineage gene regulation, cell cycle control, transcriptional regulation, and possibly in chromatin structure modification. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARID3B AT rich interactive domain 3B (BRIGHT-like)|This gene encodes a member of the ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) family of DNA-binding proteins. The encoded protein is homologous with two proteins that bind to the retinoblastoma gene product, and also with the mouse Bright and Drosophila dead ringer proteins. A pseudogene on chromosome 1p31 exists for this gene. Members of the ARID family have roles in embryonic patterning, cell lineage gene regulation, cell cycle control, transcriptional regulation and possibly in chromatin structure modification. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARID4A AT rich interactive domain 4A (RBP1-like)|The protein encoded by this gene is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein. It binds directly, with several other proteins, to retinoblastoma protein (pRB) which regulates cell proliferation. pRB represses transcription by recruiting the encoded protein. This protein, in turn, serves as a bridging molecule to recruit HDACs and, in addition, provides a second HDAC-independent repression function. The encoded protein possesses transcriptional repression activity. Multiple alternatively spliced transcripts have been observed for this gene, although not all transcript variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARID4B AT rich interactive domain 4B (RBP1-like)|This gene encodes a protein with sequence similarity to retinoblastoma-binding protein-1. The encoded protein is a subunit of the histone deacetylase-dependant SIN3A transcriptional corepressor complex, which functions in diverse cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, oncogenesis, and cell fate determination. The gene product is recognized by IgG antibody isolated from a breast cancer patient and appears to be a molecular marker associated with a broad range of human malignancies. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARID5A AT rich interactive domain 5A (MRF1-like)|Members of the ARID protein family, including ARID5A, have diverse functions but all appear to play important roles in development, tissue-specific gene expression, and regulation of cell growth (Patsialou et al., 2005 [PubMed 15640446]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARID5B AT rich interactive domain 5B (MRF1-like)|This gene encodes a member of the AT-rich interaction domain (ARID) family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein forms a histone H3K9Me2 demethylase complex with PHD finger protein 2 and regulates the transcription of target genes involved in adipogenesis and liver development. This gene also plays a role in cell growth and differentiation of B-lymphocyte progenitors, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
ARIH1 ariadne RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1|
ARIH2 ariadne RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2|
ARL1 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ARL (ADP-ribosylation factor-like) family of proteins, which are structurally related to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs). ARFs, described as activators of cholera toxin (CT) ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, regulate intracellular vesicular membrane trafficking, and stimulate a phospholipase D (PLD) isoform. Although, ARL proteins were initially thought not to activate CT or PLD, later work showed that they are weak stimulators of PLD and CT in a phospholipid dependent manner. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
ARL10 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 10|
ARL11 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 11|This gene encodes a tumor suppressor related to the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) family of proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with some familial cancers. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
ARL13A ADP-ribosylation factor-like 13A|
ARL13B ADP-ribosylation factor-like 13B|This gene encodes a member of the ADP-ribosylation factor-like family. The encoded protein is a small GTPase that contains both N-terminal and C-terminal guanine nucleotide-binding motifs. This protein is localized in the cilia and plays a role in cilia formation and in maintenance of cilia. Mutations in this gene are the cause of Joubert syndrome 8. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
ARL14 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 14|
ARL14EP ADP-ribosylation factor-like 14 effector protein|The protein encoded by this gene is an effector protein. It interacts with ADP-ribosylation factor-like 14 [ARL14, also known as ADP-ribosylation factor 7 (ARF7)], beta-actin (ACTB) and actin-based motor protein myosin 1E (MYO1E). ARL14 is a small GTPase; it controls the export of major histocompatibility class II molecules by connecting to the actin network via this effector protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
ARL15 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 15|
ARL16 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 16|
ARL17A ADP-ribosylation factor-like 17A|
ARL2 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2|This gene encodes a small GTP-binding protein of the RAS superfamily which functions as an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF). The encoded protein is one of a functionally distinct group of ARF-like genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARL2BP ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2 binding protein|ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)-like proteins (ARLs) comprise a functionally distinct group of the ARF family of RAS-related GTPases. The protein encoded by this gene binds to ARL2.GTP with high affinity but does not interact with ARL2.GDP, activated ARF, or RHO proteins. The lack of detectable membrane association of this protein or ARL2 upon activation of ARL2 is suggestive of actions distinct from those of the ARFs. This protein is considered to be the first ARL2-specific effector identified, due to its interaction with ARL2.GTP but lack of ARL2 GTPase-activating protein activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARL3 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3|ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3 is a member of the ADP-ribosylation factor family of GTP-binding proteins. ARL3 binds guanine nucleotides but lacks ADP-ribosylation factor activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARL4A ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4A|ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4A is a member of the ADP-ribosylation factor family of GTP-binding proteins. ARL4A is similar to ARL4C and ARL4D and each has a nuclear localization signal and an unusually high guaninine nucleotide exchange rate. ARL4A is located in both the nuclear and extranuclear cell compartments. Multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARL4C ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4C|ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4C is a member of the ADP-ribosylation factor family of GTP-binding proteins. ARL4C is closely similar to ARL4A and ARL4D and each has a nuclear localization signal and an unusually high guanine nucleotide exchange rate. This protein may play a role in cholesterol transport. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARL4D ADP-ribosylation factor-like 4D|ADP-ribosylation factor 4D is a member of the ADP-ribosylation factor family of GTP-binding proteins. ARL4D is closely similar to ARL4A and ARL4C and each has a nuclear localization signal and an unusually high guanine nucleotide exchange rate. This protein may play a role in membrane-associated intracellular trafficking. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARL5A ADP-ribosylation factor-like 5A|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ARF family of GTP-binding proteins. With its distinctive nuclear/nucleolar localization and interaction with HP1alpha, the protein is developmentally regulated and may play a role(s) in nuclear dynamics and/or signaling cascades during embryonic development. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. This gene has multiple pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARL5B ADP-ribosylation factor-like 5B|ARL5B (ARL8) belongs to a family of proteins that are structurally similar to ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs; see MIM 103180). ARLs and ARFs are part of the RAS superfamily of regulatory GTPases.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
ARL6 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the ARF-like (ADP ribosylation factor-like) sub-family of the ARF family of GTP-binding proteins which are involved in regulation of intracellular traffic. Mutations in this gene are associated with Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. A vision-specific transcript encoding a different protein has been described (PMID: 20333246). [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
ARL6IP1 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 1|
ARL6IP4 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 4|
ARL6IP5 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 5|Expression of this gene is affected by vitamin A. The encoded protein of this gene may be associated with the cytoskeleton. A similar protein in rats may play a role in the regulation of cell differentiation. The rat protein binds and inhibits the cell membrane glutamate transporter EAAC1. The expression of the rat gene is upregulated by retinoic acid, which results in a specific reduction in EAAC1-mediated glutamate transport. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARL6IP6 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein 6|
ARL8A ADP-ribosylation factor-like 8A|
ARL8B ADP-ribosylation factor-like 8B|
ARMC1 armadillo repeat containing 1|
ARMC10 armadillo repeat containing 10|This gene encodes a protein that contains an armadillo repeat and transmembrane domain. The encoded protein decreases the transcriptional activity of the tumor suppressor protein p53 through direct interaction with the DNA-binding domain of p53, and may play a role in cell growth and survival. Upregulation of this gene may play a role in hepatocellular carcinoma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
ARMC2 armadillo repeat containing 2|
ARMC5 armadillo repeat containing 5|This gene encodes a member of the ARM (armadillo/beta-catenin-like repeat) superfamily. The ARM repeat is a tandemly repeated sequence motif with approximately 40 amino acid long. This repeat is implicated in mediating protein-protein interactions. The encoded protein contains seven ARM repeats. Mutations in this gene are associated with primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, which is also known as ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia 2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
ARMC6 armadillo repeat containing 6|The function of this gene's protein product has not been determined. A related protein in mouse suggests that this protein has a conserved function. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
ARMC7 armadillo repeat containing 7|
ARMC8 armadillo repeat containing 8|
ARMC9 armadillo repeat containing 9|
ARMCX1 armadillo repeat containing, X-linked 1|This gene encodes a member of the ALEX family of proteins and may play a role in tumor suppression. The encoded protein contains a potential N-terminal transmembrane domain and two Armadillo (arm) repeats. Other proteins containing the arm repeat are involved in development, maintenance of tissue integrity, and tumorigenesis. This gene is closely localized with other family members, including ALEX2 and ALEX3, on the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARMCX2 armadillo repeat containing, X-linked 2|This gene encodes a protein containing a potential N-terminal transmembrane domain and multiple armadillo (arm) repeats. Proteins containing arm repeats are involved in development, maintenance of tissue integrity, and tumorigenesis. This gene is located in a cluster of related genes on chromosome X. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 7. Alternative splicing in the 5' UTR results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
ARMCX3 armadillo repeat containing, X-linked 3|This gene encodes a member of the ALEX family of proteins which may play a role in tumor suppression. The encoded protein contains a potential N-terminal transmembrane domain and a single Armadillo (arm) repeat. Other proteins containing the arm repeat are involved in development, maintenance of tissue integrity, and tumorigenesis. This gene is closely localized with other family members on the X chromosome. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARMCX5 armadillo repeat containing, X-linked 5|
ARNT aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator|This gene encodes a protein containing a basic helix-loop-helix domain and two characteristic PAS domains along with a PAC domain. The encoded protein binds to ligand-bound aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aids in the movement of this complex to the nucleus, where it promotes the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. This protein is also a co-factor for transcriptional regulation by hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Chromosomal translocation of this locus with the ETV6 (ets variant 6) gene on chromosome 12 have been described in leukemias. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]
ARNT2 aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2|This gene encodes a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix-Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH-PAS) superfamily of transcription factors. The encoded protein acts as a partner for several sensor proteins of the bHLH-PAS family, forming heterodimers with the sensor proteins that bind regulatory DNA sequences in genes responsive to developmental and environmental stimuli. Under hypoxic conditions, the encoded protein complexes with hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha in the nucleus and this complex binds to hypoxia-responsive elements in enhancers and promoters of oxygen-responsive genes. A highly similar protein in mouse forms functional complexes with both aryl hydrocarbon receptors and Single-minded proteins, suggesting additional roles for the encoded protein in the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds and the regulation of neurogenesis, respectively. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
ARNTL aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like|The protein encoded by this gene is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that forms a heterodimer with CLOCK. This heterodimer binds E-box enhancer elements upstream of Period (PER1, PER2, PER3) and Cryptochrome (CRY1, CRY2) genes and activates transcription of these genes. PER and CRY proteins heterodimerize and repress their own transcription by interacting in a feedback loop with CLOCK/ARNTL complexes. Defects in this gene have been linked to infertility, problems with gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis, and altered sleep patterns. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
ARNTL2 aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like 2|This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor belonging to the PAS (PER, ARNT, SIM) superfamily. The PAS proteins play important roles in adaptation to low atmospheric and cellular oxygen levels, exposure to certain environmental pollutants, and diurnal oscillations in light and temperature. This protein forms a transcriptionally active heterodimer with the circadian CLOCK protein, the structurally related MOP4, and hypoxia-inducible factors, such as HIF1alpha. Consistent with its role as a biologically relevant partner of circadian and hypoxia factors, this protein is coexpressed in regions of the brain such as the thalamus, hypothalamus, and amygdala. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
ARPC1A actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1A, 41kDa|This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1B. The similarity between these two proteins suggests that they both may function as p41 subunit of the human Arp2/3 complex that has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. It is possible that the p41 subunit is involved in assembling and maintaining the structure of the Arp2/3 complex. Multiple versions of the p41 subunit may adapt the functions of the complex to different cell types or developmental stages. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
ARPC1B actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1B, 41kDa|This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. This subunit is a member of the SOP2 family of proteins and is most similar to the protein encoded by gene ARPC1A. The similarity between these two proteins suggests that they both may function as p41 subunit of the human Arp2/3 complex that has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. It is possible that the p41 subunit is involved in assembling and maintaining the structure of the Arp2/3 complex. Multiple versions of the p41 subunit may adapt the functions of the complex to different cell types or developmental stages. This protein also has a role in centrosomal homeostasis by being an activator and substrate of the Aurora A kinase. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
ARPC2 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2, 34kDa|This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through evolution. The exact role of the protein encoded by this gene, the p34 subunit, has yet to be determined. Two alternatively spliced variants have been characterized to date. Additional alternatively spliced variants have been described but their full length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARPC3 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 3, 21kDa|This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. The Arp2/3 protein complex has been conserved through evolution and is implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
ARPC4 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 4, 20kDa|This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. This complex controls actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution. This gene encodes the p20 subunit, which is necessary for actin nucleation and high-affinity binding to F-actin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Naturally occurring read-through transcription exists between this gene and the downstream tubulin tyrosine ligase-like family, member 3 (TTLL3), which results in the production of a fusion protein. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
ARPC5 actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5, 16kDa|This gene encodes one of seven subunits of the human Arp2/3 protein complex. The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells and has been conserved through evolution. The exact role of the protein encoded by this gene, the p16 subunit, has yet to be determined. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
ARPC5L actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 5-like|
ARPP19 cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 19kDa|The 19-kD cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein plays a role in regulating mitosis by inhibiting protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A; see MIM 176915) (summary by Gharbi-Ayachi et al., 2010 [PubMed 21164014]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2011]
ARPP21 cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 21kDa|This gene encodes a cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein. The encoded protein is enriched in the caudate nucleus and cerebellar cortex. A similar protein in mouse may be involved in regulating the effects of dopamine in the basal ganglia. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
ARR3 arrestin 3, retinal (X-arrestin)|
ARRB1 arrestin, beta 1|Members of arrestin/beta-arrestin protein family are thought to participate in agonist-mediated desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors and cause specific dampening of cellular responses to stimuli such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or sensory signals. Arrestin beta 1 is a cytosolic protein and acts as a cofactor in the beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (BARK) mediated desensitization of beta-adrenergic receptors. Besides the central nervous system, it is expressed at high levels in peripheral blood leukocytes, and thus the BARK/beta-arrestin system is believed to play a major role in regulating receptor-mediated immune functions. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms of arrestin beta 1 have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ARRB2 arrestin, beta 2|Members of arrestin/beta-arrestin protein family are thought to participate in agonist-mediated desensitization of G-protein-coupled receptors and cause specific dampening of cellular responses to stimuli such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or sensory signals. Arrestin beta 2, like arrestin beta 1, was shown to inhibit beta-adrenergic receptor function in vitro. It is expressed at high levels in the central nervous system and may play a role in the regulation of synaptic receptors. Besides the brain, a cDNA for arrestin beta 2 was isolated from thyroid gland, and thus it may also be involved in hormone-specific desensitization of TSH receptors. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
ARRDC1 arrestin domain containing 1|
ARRDC2 arrestin domain containing 2|
ARRDC3 arrestin domain containing 3|
ARRDC4 arrestin domain containing 4|
ARSA arylsulfatase A|The protein encoded by this gene hydrolyzes cerebroside sulfate to cerebroside and sulfate. Defects in this gene lead to metachromatic leucodystrophy (MLD), a progressive demyelination disease which results in a variety of neurological symptoms and ultimately death. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
ARSB arylsulfatase B|Arylsulfatase B encoded by this gene belongs to the sulfatase family. The arylsulfatase B homodimer hydrolyzes sulfate groups of N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine, chondriotin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate. The protein is targetted to the lysozyme. Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of arylsulfatase B. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARSD arylsulfatase D|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the sulfatase family. Sulfatases are essential for the correct composition of bone and cartilage matrix. The encoded protein is postranslationally glycosylated and localized to the lysosome. This gene is located within a cluster of similar arylsulfatase genes on chromosome X. A related pseudogene has been identified in the pseudoautosomal region of chromosome Y. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
ARSE arylsulfatase E (chondrodysplasia punctata 1)|Arylsulfatase E is a member of the sulfatase family. It is glycosylated postranslationally and localized to the golgi apparatus. Sulfatases are essential for the correct composition of bone and cartilage matrix. X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata, a disease characterized by abnormalities in cartilage and bone development, has been linked to mutations in this gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene related to this gene is located on the Y chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
ARSF arylsulfatase F|This gene is a member of the sulfatase family, and more specifically, the arylsulfatase subfamily. Members of the subfamily share similarity in sequence and splice sites, and are clustered together on chromosome X, suggesting that they are derived from recent gene duplication events. Sulfatases are essential for the correct composition of bone and cartilage matrix. The activity of this protein, unlike that of arylsulfatase E, is not inhibited by warfarin. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ARSG arylsulfatase G|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the sulfatase enzyme family. Sulfatases hydrolyze sulfate esters from sulfated steroids, carbohydrates, proteoglycans, and glycolipids. They are involved in hormone biosynthesis, modulation of cell signaling, and degradation of macromolecules. This protein displays arylsulfatase activity at acidic pH, as is typical of lysosomal sulfatases, and has been shown to localize in the lysosomes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
ARSH arylsulfatase family, member H|Sulfatases, such as ARSH, hydrolyze sulfate esters from sulfated steroids, carbohydrates, proteoglycans, and glycolipids. They are involved in hormone biosynthesis, modulation of cell signaling, and degradation of macromolecules (Sardiello et al., 2005 [PubMed 16174644]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARSI arylsulfatase family, member I|Sulfatases (EC 3.1.5.6), such as ARSI, hydrolyze sulfate esters from sulfated steroids, carbohydrates, proteoglycans, and glycolipids. They are involved in hormone biosynthesis, modulation of cell signaling, and degradation of macromolecules (Sardiello et al., 2005 [PubMed 16174644]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARSJ arylsulfatase family, member J|Sulfatases (EC 3.1.5.6), such as ARSJ, hydrolyze sulfate esters from sulfated steroids, carbohydrates, proteoglycans, and glycolipids. They are involved in hormone biosynthesis, modulation of cell signaling, and degradation of macromolecules (Sardiello et al., 2005 [PubMed 16174644]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARSK arylsulfatase family, member K|Sulfatases (EC 3.1.5.6), such as ARSK, hydrolyze sulfate esters from sulfated steroids, carbohydrates, proteoglycans, and glycolipids. They are involved in hormone biosynthesis, modulation of cell signaling, and degradation of macromolecules (Sardiello et al., 2005 [PubMed 16174644]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ART1 ADP-ribosyltransferase 1|ADP-ribosyltransferase catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of arginine residues in proteins. Mono-ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins that is interfered with by a variety of bacterial toxins including cholera, pertussis, and heat-labile enterotoxins of E. coli. The amino acid sequence consists of predominantly hydrophobic N- and C-terminal regions, which is characteristic of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. This gene was previously designated ART2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ART3 ADP-ribosyltransferase 3|This gene encodes an arginine-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. The encoded protein catalyzes a reversible reaction which modifies proteins by the addition or removal of ADP-ribose to an arginine residue to regulate the function of the modified protein. An ADP-ribosyltransferase pseudogene is located on chromosome 11. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ART4 ADP-ribosyltransferase 4 (Dombrock blood group)|This gene encodes a protein that contains a mono-ADP-ribosylation (ART) motif. It is a member of the ADP-ribosyltransferase gene family but enzymatic activity has not been demonstrated experimentally. Antigens of the Dombrock blood group system are located on the gene product, which is glycosylphosphatidylinosotol-anchored to the erythrocyte membrane. Allelic variants, some of which lead to adverse transfusion reactions, are known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARTN artemin|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glial cell line-derived neurotophic factor (GDNF) family of ligands which are a group of ligands within the TGF-beta superfamily of signaling molecules. GDNFs are unique in having neurotrophic properties and have potential use for gene therapy in neurodegenerative disease. Artemin has been shown in culture to support the survival of a number of peripheral neuron populations and at least one population of dopaminergic CNS neurons. Its role in the PNS and CNS is further substantiated by its expression pattern in the proximity of these neurons. This protein is a ligand for the RET receptor and uses GFR-alpha 3 as a coreceptor. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ARV1 ARV1 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
ARVCF armadillo repeat gene deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome|Armadillo Repeat gene deleted in Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome (ARVCF) is a member of the catenin family. This family plays an important role in the formation of adherens junction complexes, which are thought to facilitate communication between the inside and outside environments of a cell. The ARVCF gene was isolated in the search for the genetic defect responsible for the autosomal dominant Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome (VCFS), a relatively common human disorder with phenotypic features including cleft palate, conotruncal heart defects and facial dysmorphology. The ARVCF gene encodes a protein containing two motifs, a coiled coil domain in the N-terminus and a 10 armadillo repeat sequence in the midregion. Since these sequences can facilitate protein-protein interactions ARVCF is thought to function in a protein complex. In addition, ARVCF contains a predicted nuclear-targeting sequence suggesting that it may have a function as a nuclear protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
AS3MT arsenite methyltransferase|AS3MT catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to trivalent arsenical and may play a role in arsenic metabolism (Lin et al., 2002 [PubMed 11790780]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ASAH1 N-acylsphingosine amidohydrolase (acid ceramidase) 1|This gene encodes a heterodimeric protein consisting of a nonglycosylated alpha subunit and a glycosylated beta subunit that is cleaved to the mature enzyme posttranslationally. The encoded protein catalyzes the synthesis and degradation of ceramide into sphingosine and fatty acid. Mutations in this gene have been associated with a lysosomal storage disorder known as Farber disease. Multiple transcript variants encoding several distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASAH2 N-acylsphingosine amidohydrolase (non-lysosomal ceramidase) 2|Ceramidases (EC 3.5.1.23), such as ASAH2, catalyze hydrolysis of the N-acyl linkage of ceramide, a second messenger in a variety of cellular events, to produce sphingosine. Sphingosine exerts both mitogenic and apoptosis-inducing activities, and its phosphorylated form functions as an intra- and intercellular second messenger (see MIM 603730) (Mitsutake et al., 2001 [PubMed 11328816]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ASAH2B N-acylsphingosine amidohydrolase (non-lysosomal ceramidase) 2B|
ASAP1 ArfGAP with SH3 domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 1|This gene encodes an ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein. The GTPase-activating activity is stimulated by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2), and is greater towards ARF1 and ARF5, and lesser for ARF6. This gene maybe involved in regulation of membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton remodeling. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
ASAP2 ArfGAP with SH3 domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 2|This gene encodes a multidomain protein containing an N-terminal alpha-helical region with a coiled-coil motif, followed by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, an Arf-GAP domain, an ankyrin homology region, a proline-rich region, and a C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. The protein localizes in the Golgi apparatus and at the plasma membrane, where it colocalizes with protein tyrosine kinase 2-beta (PYK2). The encoded protein forms a stable complex with PYK2 in vivo. This interaction appears to be mediated by binding of its SH3 domain to the C-terminal proline-rich domain of PYK2. The encoded protein is tyrosine phosphorylated by activated PYK2. It has catalytic activity for class I and II ArfGAPs in vitro, and can bind the class III Arf ARF6 without immediate GAP activity. The encoded protein is believed to function as an ARF GAP that controls ARF-mediated vesicle budding when recruited to Golgi membranes. In addition, it functions as a substrate and downstream target for PYK2 and SRC, a pathway that may be involved in the regulation of vesicular transport. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
ASAP3 ArfGAP with SH3 domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 3|This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of ADP-ribosylation factor(Arf) GTPase-activating proteins that contain additional ankyrin repeat and pleckstrin homology domains. The Arf GAP domain of this protein catalyzes the hydrolysis of GTP bound to Arf proteins. The encoded protein promotes cell differentiation and migration and has been implicated in cancer cell invasion. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
ASB1 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing (ASB) family of proteins. They contain ankyrin repeat sequence and SOCS box domain. The SOCS box serves to couple suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins and their binding partners with the elongin B and C complex, possibly targeting them for degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASB10 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 10|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing (ASB) family of proteins. The SOCS box serves to couple suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins and their binding partners with the elongin B and C complex, possibly targeting them for degradation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
ASB11 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 11, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing (ASB) family of proteins. They contain ankyrin repeat sequence and SOCS box domain. The SOCS box serves to couple suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins and their binding partners with the elongin B and C complex, possibly targeting them for degradation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ASB12 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 12|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing (ASB) family of proteins. They contain ankyrin repeat sequence and a SOCS box domain. The SOCS box serves to couple suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins and their binding partners with the elongin B and C complex, possibly targeting them for degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ASB13 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 13|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing (ASB) family of proteins. They contain ankyrin repeat sequence and a SOCS box domain. The SOCS box serves to couple suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins and their binding partners with the elongin B and C complex, possibly targeting them for degradation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants, both protein-coding and not protein-coding, have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
ASB14 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 14|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing (ASB) family of proteins. They contain ankyrin repeat sequence and a SOCS box domain. The SOCS box serves to couple suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins and their binding partners with the elongin B and C complex, possibly targeting them for degradation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
ASB15 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 15|This gene encodes a member of the suppressor of cytokine signaling box superfamily. The proteins in this superfamily participate in the ubiquitin-proteasome system for the degradation of proteins in the cell cycle and signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
ASB16 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 16|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing (ASB) family of proteins. They contain ankyrin repeat sequence and a SOCS box domain. The SOCS box serves to couple suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins and their binding partners with the elongin B and C complex, possibly targeting them for degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASB16-AS1 ASB16 antisense RNA 1|
ASB17 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 17|
ASB18 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 18|
ASB2 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 2|This gene encodes a member of the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing (ASB) protein family. These proteins play a role in protein degradation by coupling suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins with the elongin BC complex. The encoded protein is a subunit of a multimeric E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that mediates the degradation of actin-binding proteins. This gene plays a role in retinoic acid-induced growth inhibition and differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ASB3 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing (ASB) family of proteins. They contain ankyrin repeat sequence and SOCS box domain. The SOCS box serves to couple suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins and their binding partners with the elongin B and C complex, possibly targeting them for degradation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ASB4 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing (ASB) family of proteins. They contain ankyrin repeat sequence and SOCS box domain. The SOCS box serves to couple suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins and their binding partners with the elongin B and C complex, possibly targeting them for degradation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene but some of the full length sequences are not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASB5 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 5|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing (ASB) family of proteins. They contain ankyrin repeat sequence and SOCS box domain. The SOCS box serves to couple suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins and their binding partners with the elongin B and C complex, possibly targeting them for degradation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene but their full length sequences are not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASB6 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 6|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of ankyrin repeat proteins that, along with four other protein families, contain a C-terminal SOCS box motif. Growing evidence suggests that the SOCS box, similar to the F-box, acts as a bridge between specific substrate-binding domains and the more generic proteins that comprise a large family of E3 ubiquitin protein ligases. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ASB7 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 7|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of ankyrin repeat proteins that, along with four other protein families, contains a C-terminal SOCS box motif. Growing evidence suggests that the SOCS box acts as a bridge between specific substrate-binding domains and the more generic proteins that comprise a large family of E3 ubiquitin protein ligases. In this way, SOCS box containing proteins may regulate protein turnover by targeting proteins for polyubiquination and, therefore, for proteasome-mediated degradation. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASB8 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 8|
ASB9 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 9|This gene encodes a member of the ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) box protein family. Members of this family can interact with the elongin B-C adapter complex via their SOCS box domain and further complex with the cullin and ring box proteins to form E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes. They may function to mediate the substrate-recognition of the E3 ubiquitin ligases. A transcribed pseudogene of this gene has been identified on chromosome 15. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
ASCC1 activating signal cointegrator 1 complex subunit 1|This gene encodes a subunit of the activating signal cointegrator 1 (ASC-1) complex. The ASC-1 complex is a transcriptional coactivator that plays an important role in gene transactivation by multiple transcription factors including activating protein 1 (AP-1), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) and serum response factor (SRF). The encoded protein contains an N-terminal KH-type RNA-binding motif which is required for AP-1 transactivation by the ASC-1 complex. Mutations in this gene are associated with Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ASCC2 activating signal cointegrator 1 complex subunit 2|
ASCC3 activating signal cointegrator 1 complex subunit 3|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a family of helicases that are involved in the ATP-dependent unwinding of nucleic acid duplexes. The encoded protein is the largest subunit of the activating signal cointegrator 1 complex that is involved in DNA repair and resistance to alkylation damage. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
ASCL1 achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 1|This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors. The protein activates transcription by binding to the E box (5'-CANNTG-3'). Dimerization with other BHLH proteins is required for efficient DNA binding. This protein plays a role in the neuronal commitment and differentiation and in the generation of olfactory and autonomic neurons. Mutations in this gene may contribute to the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) phenotype in rare cases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASCL2 achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 2|This gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors. It activates transcription by binding to the E box (5'-CANNTG-3'). Dimerization with other BHLH proteins is required for efficient DNA binding. Involved in the determination of the neuronal precursors in the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASCL3 achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 3|Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, such as ASCL3, are essential for the determination of cell fate and the development and differentiation of numerous tissues (Jonsson et al., 2004 [PubMed 15475265]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ASCL4 achaete-scute family bHLH transcription factor 4|Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, such as ASCL4, are essential for the determination of cell fate and the development and differentiation of numerous tissues (Jonsson et al., 2004 [PubMed 15475265]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ASF1A anti-silencing function 1A histone chaperone|This gene encodes a member of the H3/H4 family of histone chaperone proteins and is similar to the anti-silencing function-1 gene in yeast. The protein is a key component of a histone donor complex that functions in nucleosome assembly. It interacts with histones H3 and H4, and functions together with a chromatin assembly factor during DNA replication and repair. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASF1B anti-silencing function 1B histone chaperone|This gene encodes a member of the H3/H4 family of histone chaperone proteins and is similar to the anti-silencing function-1 gene in yeast. The encoded protein is the substrate of the tousled-like kinase family of cell cycle-regulated kinases, and may play a key role in modulating the nucleosome structure of chromatin by ensuring a constant supply of histones at sites of nucleosome assembly. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASGR1 asialoglycoprotein receptor 1|This gene encodes a subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. This receptor is a transmembrane protein that plays a critical role in serum glycoprotein homeostasis by mediating the endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of glycoproteins with exposed terminal galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The asialoglycoprotein receptor may facilitate hepatic infection by multiple viruses including hepatitis B, and is also a target for liver-specific drug delivery. The asialoglycoprotein receptor is a hetero-oligomeric protein composed of major and minor subunits, which are encoded by different genes. The protein encoded by this gene is the more abundant major subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ASGR2 asialoglycoprotein receptor 2|This gene encodes a subunit of the asialoglycoprotein receptor. This receptor is a transmembrane protein that plays a critical role in serum glycoprotein homeostasis by mediating the endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of glycoproteins with exposed terminal galactose or N-acetylgalactosamine residues. The asialoglycoprotein receptor may facilitate hepatic infection by multiple viruses including hepatitis B, and is also a target for liver-specific drug delivery. The asialoglycoprotein receptor is a hetero-oligomeric protein composed of major and minor subunits, which are encoded by different genes. The protein encoded by this gene is the less abundant minor subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ASH1L ash1 (absent, small, or homeotic)-like (Drosophila)|This gene encodes a member of the trithorax group of transcriptional activators. The protein contains four AT hooks, a SET domain, a PHD-finger motif, and a bromodomain. It is localized to many small speckles in the nucleus, and also to cell-cell tight junctions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASH2L ash2 (absent, small, or homeotic)-like (Drosophila)|
ASIC1 acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 1|This gene encodes a member of the acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) family of proteins, which are part of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. Members of the ASIC family are sensitive to amiloride and function in neurotransmission. The encoded proteins function in learning, pain transduction, touch sensation, and development of memory and fear. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
ASIC2 acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 2|This gene encodes a member of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. The members of this family are amiloride-sensitive sodium channels that contain intracellular N and C termini, 2 hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and a large extracellular loop, which has many cysteine residues with conserved spacing. The member encoded by this gene may play a role in neurotransmission. In addition, a heteromeric association between this member and acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channel 3 has been observed to co-assemble into proton-gated channels sensitive to gadolinium. Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and two variants, encoding distinct isoforms, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
ASIC3 acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel 3|This gene encodes a member of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) superfamily. The members of this family are amiloride-sensitive sodium channels that contain intracellular N and C termini, two hydrophobic transmembrane regions, and a large extracellular loop, which has many cysteine residues with conserved spacing. The member encoded by this gene is an acid sensor and may play an important role in the detection of lasting pH changes. In addition, a heteromeric association between this member and acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channel 2 has been observed as proton-gated channels sensitive to gadolinium. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
ASIC4 acid sensing (proton gated) ion channel family member 4|This gene belongs to the superfamily of acid-sensing ion channels, which are proton-gated, amiloride-sensitive sodium channels. These channels have been implicated in synaptic transmission, pain perception as well as mechanoperception. This gene is predominantly expressed in the pituitary gland, and was considered a candidate for paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis (PDC), a movement disorder, however, no correlation was found between mutations in this gene and PDC. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
ASIP agouti signaling protein|In mice, the agouti gene encodes a paracrine signaling molecule that causes hair follicle melanocytes to synthesize pheomelanin, a yellow pigment, instead of the black or brown pigment, eumelanin. Pleiotropic effects of constitutive expression of the mouse gene include adult-onset obesity, increased tumor susceptibility, and premature infertility. This gene is highly similar to the mouse gene and encodes a secreted protein that may (1) affect the quality of hair pigmentation, (2) act as a pharmacological antagonist of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, (3) play a role in neuroendocrine aspects of melanocortin action, and (4) have a functional role in regulating lipid metabolism in adipocytes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASL argininosuccinate lyase|This gene encodes a member of the lyase 1 family. The encoded protein forms a cytosolic homotetramer and primarily catalyzes the reversible hydrolytic cleavage of argininosuccinate into arginine and fumarate, an essential step in the liver in detoxifying ammonia via the urea cycle. Mutations in this gene result in the autosomal recessive disorder argininosuccinic aciduria, or argininosuccinic acid lyase deficiency. A nontranscribed pseudogene is also located on the long arm of chromosome 22. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASMTL acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase-like|The protein encoded by this gene has an N-terminus that is similar to the multicopy associated filamentation (maf) protein of Bacillus subtilis and to orfE of Escherichia coli, while the C-terminus is similar to N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase. This gene is located in the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of X and Y chromosomes. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
ASNA1 arsA arsenite transporter, ATP-binding, homolog 1 (bacterial)|This gene represents the human homolog of the bacterial arsA gene, encoding the arsenite-stimulated ATPase component of the arsenite transporter responsible for resistance to arsenicals. This protein is also a central component of a transmembrane domain (TMD) recognition complex (TRC) that is involved in the post-translational delivery of tail-anchored (TA) proteins from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It recognizes and selectively binds the TMD of TA proteins in the cytosol, and delivers them to the ER for insertion. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
ASNS asparagine synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing)|The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the synthesis of asparagine. This gene complements a mutation in the temperature-sensitive hamster mutant ts11, which blocks progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle at nonpermissive temperature. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
ASNSD1 asparagine synthetase domain containing 1|
ASPA aspartoacylase|This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of N-acetyl_L-aspartic acid (NAA) to aspartate and acetate. NAA is abundant in the brain where hydrolysis by aspartoacylase is thought to help maintain white matter. This protein is an NAA scavenger in other tissues. Mutations in this gene cause Canavan disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ASPH aspartate beta-hydroxylase|This gene is thought to play an important role in calcium homeostasis. The gene is expressed from two promoters and undergoes extensive alternative splicing. The encoded set of proteins share varying amounts of overlap near their N-termini but have substantial variations in their C-terminal domains resulting in distinct functional properties. The longest isoforms (a and f) include a C-terminal Aspartyl/Asparaginyl beta-hydroxylase domain that hydroxylates aspartic acid or asparagine residues in the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains of some proteins, including protein C, coagulation factors VII, IX, and X, and the complement factors C1R and C1S. Other isoforms differ primarily in the C-terminal sequence and lack the hydroxylase domain, and some have been localized to the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Some of these isoforms are found in complexes with calsequestrin, triadin, and the ryanodine receptor, and have been shown to regulate calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Some isoforms have been implicated in metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
ASPM asp (abnormal spindle) homolog, microcephaly associated (Drosophila)|This gene is the human ortholog of the Drosophila melanogaster 'abnormal spindle' gene (asp), which is essential for normal mitotic spindle function in embryonic neuroblasts. Studies in mouse also suggest a role of this gene in mitotic spindle regulation, with a preferential role in regulating neurogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with microcephaly primary type 5. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
ASPRV1 aspartic peptidase, retroviral-like 1|
ASPSCR1 alveolar soft part sarcoma chromosome region, candidate 1|The protein encoded by this gene contains a UBX domain and interacts with glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4). This protein is a tether, which sequesters the GLUT4 in intracellular vesicles in muscle and fat cells in the absence of insulin, and redistributes the GLUT4 to the plasma membrane within minutes of insulin stimulation. Translocation t(X;17)(p11;q25) of this gene with transcription factor TFE3 gene results in a ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion protein in alveolar soft part sarcoma and in renal cell carcinomas. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
ASRGL1 asparaginase like 1|
ASS1 argininosuccinate synthase 1|The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the penultimate step of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. There are approximately 10 to 14 copies of this gene including the pseudogenes scattered across the human genome, among which the one located on chromosome 9 appears to be the only functional gene for argininosuccinate synthetase. Mutations in the chromosome 9 copy of this gene cause citrullinemia. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
ASTE1 asteroid homolog 1 (Drosophila)|
ASTN1 astrotactin 1|Astrotactin is a neuronal adhesion molecule required for glial-guided migration of young postmitotic neuroblasts in cortical regions of developing brain, including cerebrum, hippocampus, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb (Fink et al., 1995).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]
ASTN2 astrotactin 2|This gene encodes a protein that is expressed in the brain and may function in neuronal migration, based on functional studies of the related astrotactin 1 gene in human and mouse. A deletion at this locus has been associated with schizophrenia. Multiple transcript variants encoding different proteins have been found for this locus. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
ASUN asunder spermatogenesis regulator|
ASXL1 additional sex combs like transcriptional regulator 1|This gene is similar to the Drosophila additional sex combs gene, which encodes a chromatin-binding protein required for normal determination of segment identity in the developing embryo. The protein is a member of the Polycomb group of proteins, which are necessary for the maintenance of stable repression of homeotic and other loci. The protein is thought to disrupt chromatin in localized areas, enhancing transcription of certain genes while repressing the transcription of other genes. The protein encoded by this gene functions as a ligand-dependent co-activator for retinoic acid receptor in cooperation with nuclear receptor coactivator 1. Mutations in this gene are associated with myelodysplastic syndromes and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
ASXL2 additional sex combs like transcriptional regulator 2|ASXL2 is a human homolog of the Drosophila asx gene. Drosophila asx is an enhancer of trithorax (see MIM 159555) and polycomb (see MIM 610231) (ETP) gene that encodes a chromatin protein with dual functions in transcriptional activation and silencing (Katoh and Katoh, 2003 [PubMed 12888926]).[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2009]
ASZ1 ankyrin repeat, SAM and basic leucine zipper domain containing 1|
ATAD1 ATPase family, AAA domain containing 1|
ATAD2 ATPase family, AAA domain containing 2|A large family of ATPases has been described, whose key feature is that they share a conserved region of about 220 amino acids that contains an ATP-binding site. The proteins that belong to this family either contain one or two AAA (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) domains. AAA family proteins often perform chaperone-like functions that assist in the assembly, operation, or disassembly of protein complexes. The protein encoded by this gene contains two AAA domains, as well as a bromodomain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATAD2B ATPase family, AAA domain containing 2B|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the AAA ATPase family. This family member includes an N-terminal bromodomain. It has been found to be localized to the nucleus, partly to replication sites, consistent with a chromatin-related function. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
ATAD3A ATPase family, AAA domain containing 3A|ATAD3A and ATAD3B (MIM 612317) are mitochondrial membrane proteins that contribute to the stabilization of large mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-protein complexes called nucleoids (He et al., 2007 [PubMed 17210950]).[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2008]
ATAD3B ATPase family, AAA domain containing 3B|ATAD3A (MIM 612316) and ATAD3B are mitochondrial membrane proteins that contribute to the stabilization of large mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-protein complexes called nucleoids (He et al., 2007 [PubMed 17210950]).[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2008]
ATAD3C ATPase family, AAA domain containing 3C|
ATAD5 ATPase family, AAA domain containing 5|
ATAT1 alpha tubulin acetyltransferase 1|
ATCAY ataxia, cerebellar, Cayman type|This gene encodes a neuron-restricted protein that contains a CRAL-TRIO motif common to proteins that bind small lipophilic molecules. Mutations in this gene are associated with cerebellar ataxia, Cayman type. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATE1 arginyltransferase 1|This gene encodes an arginyltransferase, an enzyme that is involved in posttranslational conjugation of arginine to N-terminal aspartate or glutamate residues. Conjugation of arginine to the N-terminal aspartate or glutamate targets proteins for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
ATF1 activating transcription factor 1|This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper) family. It influences cellular physiologic processes by regulating the expression of downstream target genes, which are related to growth, survival, and other cellular activities. This protein is phosphorylated at serine 63 in its kinase-inducible domain by serine/threonine kinases, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I/II, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk-3). Its phosphorylation enhances its transactivation and transcriptional activities, and enhances cell transformation. Fusion of this gene and FUS on chromosome 16 or EWSR1 on chromosome 22 induced by translocation generates chimeric proteins in angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma and clear cell sarcoma. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
ATF2 activating transcription factor 2|This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. The encoded protein may also be involved in cell's DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
ATF3 activating transcription factor 3|This gene encodes a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding (CREB) protein family of transcription factors. This gene is induced by a variety of signals, including many of those encountered by cancer cells, and is involved in the complex process of cellular stress response. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. It is possible that alternative splicing of this gene may be physiologically important in the regulation of target genes. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
ATF4 activating transcription factor 4|This gene encodes a transcription factor that was originally identified as a widely expressed mammalian DNA binding protein that could bind a tax-responsive enhancer element in the LTR of HTLV-1. The encoded protein was also isolated and characterized as the cAMP-response element binding protein 2 (CREB-2). The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of DNA-binding proteins that includes the AP-1 family of transcription factors, cAMP-response element binding proteins (CREBs) and CREB-like proteins. These transcription factors share a leucine zipper region that is involved in protein-protein interactions, located C-terminal to a stretch of basic amino acids that functions as a DNA binding domain. Two alternative transcripts encoding the same protein have been described. Two pseudogenes are located on the X chromosome at q28 in a region containing a large inverted duplication. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
ATF5 activating transcription factor 5|
ATF6 activating transcription factor 6|This gene encodes a transcription factor that activates target genes for the unfolded protein response (UPR) during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Although it is a transcription factor, this protein is unusual in that it is synthesized as a transmembrane protein that is embedded in the ER. It functions as an ER stress sensor/transducer, and following ER stress-induced proteolysis, it functions as a nuclear transcription factor via a cis-acting ER stress response element (ERSE) that is present in the promoters of genes encoding ER chaperones. This protein has been identified as a survival factor for quiescent but not proliferative squamous carcinoma cells. There have been conflicting reports about the association of polymorphisms in this gene with diabetes in different populations, but another polymorphism has been associated with increased plasma cholesterol levels. This gene is also thought to be a potential therapeutic target for cystic fibrosis. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
ATF6B activating transcription factor 6 beta|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor in the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway during ER stress. Either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with ATF6-alpha, the encoded protein binds to the ER stress response element, interacting with nuclear transcription factor Y to activate UPR target genes. The protein is normally found in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum; however, under ER stress, the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain is cleaved from the rest of the protein and translocates to the nucleus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ATF7 activating transcription factor 7|
ATF7IP activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein|ATF7IP is a multifunctional nuclear protein that associates with heterochromatin. It can act as a transcriptional coactivator or corepressor depending upon its binding partners (summary by Liu et al., 2009 [PubMed 19106100]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
ATF7IP2 activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein 2|
ATG10 autophagy related 10|Autophagy is a process for the bulk degradation of cytosolic compartments by lysosomes. ATG10 is an E2-like enzyme involved in 2 ubiquitin-like modifications essential for autophagosome formation: ATG12 (MIM 609608)-ATG5 (MIM 604261) conjugation and modification of a soluble form of MAP-LC3 (MAP1LC3A; MIM 601242), a homolog of yeast Apg8, to a membrane-bound form (Nemoto et al., 2003 [PubMed 12890687]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ATG12 autophagy related 12|Autophagy is a process of bulk protein degradation in which cytoplasmic components, including organelles, are enclosed in double-membrane structures called autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes or vacuoles for degradation. ATG12 is the human homolog of a yeast protein involved in autophagy (Mizushima et al., 1998 [PubMed 9852036]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ATG13 autophagy related 13|
ATG14 autophagy related 14|
ATG16L1 autophagy related 16-like 1 (S. cerevisiae)|The protein encoded by this gene is part of a large protein complex that is necessary for autophagy, the major process by which intracellular components are targeted to lysosomes for degradation. Defects in this gene are a cause of susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease type 10 (IBD10). Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
ATG16L2 autophagy related 16-like 2 (S. cerevisiae)|
ATG2A autophagy related 2A|
ATG2B autophagy related 2B|
ATG3 autophagy related 3|This gene encodes a ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme and is a component of ubiquitination-like systems involved in autophagy, the process of degradation, turnover and recycling of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells. This protein is known to play a role in regulation of autophagy during cell death. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 20. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
ATG4A autophagy related 4A, cysteine peptidase|Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene encodes a member of the autophagin protein family. The encoded protein is also designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases. Transcript variants that encode distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATG4B autophagy related 4B, cysteine peptidase|Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene encodes a member of the autophagin protein family. The encoded protein is also designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATG4C autophagy related 4C, cysteine peptidase|Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene encodes a member of the autophagin protein family. The encoded protein is also designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding the same protein, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATG4D autophagy related 4D, cysteine peptidase|Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This gene belongs to the autophagy-related protein 4 (Atg4) family of C54 endopeptidases. Members of this family encode proteins that play a role in the biogenesis of autophagosomes, which sequester the cytosol and organelles for degradation by lysosomes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
ATG5 autophagy related 5|
ATG7 autophagy related 7|This gene was identified based on homology to Pichia pastoris GSA7 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae APG7. In the yeast, the protein appears to be required for fusion of peroxisomal and vacuolar membranes. The protein shows homology to the ATP-binding and catalytic sites of the E1 ubiquitin activating enzymes. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
ATG9A autophagy related 9A|
ATHL1 ATH1, acid trehalase-like 1 (yeast)|
ATIC 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase|This gene encodes a bifunctional protein that catalyzes the last two steps of the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway. The N-terminal domain has phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase activity, and the C-terminal domain has IMP cyclohydrolase activity. A mutation in this gene results in AICA-ribosiduria. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
ATL1 atlastin GTPase 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase and a Golgi body transmembrane protein. The encoded protein can form a homotetramer and has been shown to interact with spastin and with mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4. This protein may be involved in axonal maintenance as evidenced by the fact that defects in this gene are a cause of spastic paraplegia type 3. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATL2 atlastin GTPase 2|
ATL3 atlastin GTPase 3|This gene encodes a member of a family of dynamin-like, integral membrane GTPases. The encoded protein is required for the proper formation of the network of interconnected tubules of the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in this gene may be associated with hereditary sensory neuropathy type IF. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
ATM ATM serine/threonine kinase|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. This protein is an important cell cycle checkpoint kinase that phosphorylates; thus, it functions as a regulator of a wide variety of downstream proteins, including tumor suppressor proteins p53 and BRCA1, checkpoint kinase CHK2, checkpoint proteins RAD17 and RAD9, and DNA repair protein NBS1. This protein and the closely related kinase ATR are thought to be master controllers of cell cycle checkpoint signaling pathways that are required for cell response to DNA damage and for genome stability. Mutations in this gene are associated with ataxia telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
ATMIN ATM interactor|
ATN1 atrophin 1|Dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, myoclonic epilepsy, choreoathetosis, and dementia. The disorder is related to the expansion from 7-23 copies to 49-75 copies of a trinucleotide repeat (CAG/CAA) within this gene. The encoded protein includes a serine repeat and a region of alternating acidic and basic amino acids, as well as the variable glutamine repeat. Alternative splicing results in two transcripts variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
ATOH1 atonal homolog 1 (Drosophila)|This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix (BHLH) family of transcription factors. It activates E-box dependent transcription along with E47. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATOH7 atonal homolog 7 (Drosophila)|This intronless gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors, with similarity to Drosophila atonal gene that controls photoreceptor development. Studies in mice suggest that this gene plays a central role in retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve formation. Mutations in this gene are associated with nonsyndromic congenital retinal nonattachment. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ATOH8 atonal homolog 8 (Drosophila)|
ATOX1 antioxidant 1 copper chaperone|This gene encodes a copper chaperone that plays a role in copper homeostasis by binding and transporting cytosolic copper to ATPase proteins in the trans-Golgi network for later incorporation to the ceruloplasmin. This protein also functions as an antioxidant against superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and therefore, may play a significant role in cancer carcinogenesis. Because of its cytogenetic location, this gene represents a candidate gene for 5q-syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP10A ATPase, class V, type 10A|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of aminophospholipid-transporting ATPases. The aminophospholipid translocases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from one side of a bilayer to another. This gene is maternally expressed. It maps within the most common interval of deletion responsible for Angelman syndrome, also known as 'happy puppet syndrome'. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP10D ATPase, class V, type 10D|
ATP11A ATPase, class VI, type 11A|The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane ATPase. The encoded protein is probably phosphorylated in its intermediate state and likely drives the transport of ions such as calcium across membranes. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP11B ATPase, class VI, type 11B|P-type ATPases, such as ATP11B, are phosphorylated in their intermediate state and drive uphill transport of ions across membranes. Several subfamilies of P-type ATPases have been identified. One subfamily transports heavy metal ions, such as Cu(2+) or Cd(2+). Another subfamily transports non-heavy metal ions, such as H(+), Na(+), K(+), or Ca(+). A third subfamily transports amphipaths, such as phosphatidylserine.[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2005]
ATP11C ATPase, class VI, type 11C|
ATP12A ATPase, H+/K+ transporting, nongastric, alpha polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases. This gene encodes a catalytic subunit of the ouabain-sensitive H+/K+ -ATPase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of H(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. It is also responsible for potassium absorption in various tissues. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
ATP13A1 ATPase type 13A1|
ATP13A2 ATPase type 13A2|This gene encodes a member of the P5 subfamily of ATPases which transports inorganic cations as well as other substrates. Mutations in this gene are associated with Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS), also referred to as Parkinson disease 9. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
ATP13A3 ATPase type 13A3|ATP13A3 is a member of the P-type ATPase family of proteins that transport a variety of cations across membranes. Other P-type ATPases include ATP7B (MIM 606882) and ATP7A (MIM 300011).[supplied by OMIM, Aug 2008]
ATP13A4 ATPase type 13A4|
ATP1A1 ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 1 polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The catalytic subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes an alpha 1 subunit. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
ATP1A2 ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 2 polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The catalytic subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes an alpha 2 subunit. Mutations in this gene result in familial basilar or hemiplegic migraines, and in a rare syndrome known as alternating hemiplegia of childhood. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ATP1A3 ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 3 polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The catalytic subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes an alpha 3 subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
ATP1A4 ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 4 polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The catalytic subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes an alpha 4 subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP1B1 ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 1 polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of Na+/K+ and H+/K+ ATPases beta chain proteins, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane. The glycoprotein subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes a beta 1 subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described, but their biological validity is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
ATP1B2 ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 2 polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of Na+/K+ and H+/K+ ATPases beta chain proteins, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane. The glycoprotein subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes a beta 2 subunit. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ATP1B3 ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 3 polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of Na+/K+ and H+/K+ ATPases beta chain proteins, and to the subfamily of Na+/K+ -ATPases. Na+/K+ -ATPase is an integral membrane protein responsible for establishing and maintaining the electrochemical gradients of Na and K ions across the plasma membrane. These gradients are essential for osmoregulation, for sodium-coupled transport of a variety of organic and inorganic molecules, and for electrical excitability of nerve and muscle. This enzyme is composed of two subunits, a large catalytic subunit (alpha) and a smaller glycoprotein subunit (beta). The beta subunit regulates, through assembly of alpha/beta heterodimers, the number of sodium pumps transported to the plasma membrane. The glycoprotein subunit of Na+/K+ -ATPase is encoded by multiple genes. This gene encodes a beta 3 subunit. This gene encodes a beta 3 subunit. A pseudogene exists for this gene, and it is located on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP2A1 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, fast twitch 1|This gene encodes one of the SERCA Ca(2+)-ATPases, which are intracellular pumps located in the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticula of muscle cells. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen, and is involved in muscular excitation and contraction. Mutations in this gene cause some autosomal recessive forms of Brody disease, characterized by increasing impairment of muscular relaxation during exercise. Alternative splicing results in three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]
ATP2A2 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, slow twitch 2|This gene encodes one of the SERCA Ca(2+)-ATPases, which are intracellular pumps located in the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticula of muscle cells. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen, and is involved in regulation of the contraction/relaxation cycle. Mutations in this gene cause Darier-White disease, also known as keratosis follicularis, an autosomal dominant skin disorder characterized by loss of adhesion between epidermal cells and abnormal keratinization. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ATP2A3 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, ubiquitous|This gene encodes one of the SERCA Ca(2+)-ATPases, which are intracellular pumps located in the sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticula of muscle cells. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the translocation of calcium from the cytosol to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen, and is involved in calcium sequestration associated with muscular excitation and contraction. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP2B1 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. These enzymes remove bivalent calcium ions from eukaryotic cells against very large concentration gradients and play a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these enzymes is further increased by alternative splicing of transcripts. The expression of different isoforms and splice variants is regulated in a developmental, tissue- and cell type-specific manner, suggesting that these pumps are functionally adapted to the physiological needs of particular cells and tissues. This gene encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP2B2 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 2|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. These enzymes remove bivalent calcium ions from eukaryotic cells against very large concentration gradients and play a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these enzymes is further increased by alternative splicing of transcripts. The expression of different isoforms and splice variants is regulated in a developmental, tissue- and cell type-specific manner, suggesting that these pumps are functionally adapted to the physiological needs of particular cells and tissues. This gene encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP2B3 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 3|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. These enzymes remove bivalent calcium ions from eukaryotic cells against very large concentration gradients and play a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these enzymes is further increased by alternative splicing of transcripts. The expression of different isoforms and splice variants is regulated in a developmental, tissue- and cell type-specific manner, suggesting that these pumps are functionally adapted to the physiological needs of particular cells and tissues. This gene encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 3. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP2B4 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 4|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterized by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. These enzymes remove bivalent calcium ions from eukaryotic cells against very large concentration gradients and play a critical role in intracellular calcium homeostasis. The mammalian plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms are encoded by at least four separate genes and the diversity of these enzymes is further increased by alternative splicing of transcripts. The expression of different isoforms and splice variants is regulated in a developmental, tissue- and cell type-specific manner, suggesting that these pumps are functionally adapted to the physiological needs of particular cells and tissues. This gene encodes the plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 4. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP2C1 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, type 2C, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases. This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium ions. Defects in this gene cause Hailey-Hailey disease, an autosomal dominant disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
ATP2C2 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, type 2C, member 2|
ATP4A ATPase, H+/K+ exchanging, alpha polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of P-type cation-transporting ATPases. The gastric H+, K+-ATPase is a heterodimer consisting of a high molecular weight catalytic alpha subunit and a smaller but heavily glycosylated beta subunit. This enzyme is a proton pump that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of H(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. It is also responsible for gastric acid secretion. This gene encodes a catalytic alpha subunit of the gastric H+, K+-ATPase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP4B ATPase, H+/K+ exchanging, beta polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to a family of P-type cation-transporting ATPases. The gastric H+, K+-ATPase is a heterodimer consisting of a high molecular weight catalytic alpha subunit and a smaller but heavily glycosylated beta subunit. This enzyme is a proton pump that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the exchange of H(+) and K(+) ions across the plasma membrane. It is also responsible for gastric acid secretion. This gene encodes the beta subunit of the gastric H+, K+-ATPase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP5A1 ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1, cardiac muscle|This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, using an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the different isoforms have been identified. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 9, 2, and 16. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
ATP5B ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide|This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the beta subunit of the catalytic core. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP5C1 ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, gamma polypeptide 1|This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the gamma subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. This gene also has a pseudogene on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP5D ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, delta subunit|This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the delta subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same isoform have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP5E ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, epsilon subunit|This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the epsilon subunit of the catalytic core. Two pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 4 and 13. Read-through transcripts that include exons from this gene are expressed from the upstream gene SLMO2.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
ATP5F1 ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1|This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the b subunit of the proton channel. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP5G1 ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9)|This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene is one of three genes that encode subunit c of the proton channel. Each of the three genes have distinct mitochondrial import sequences but encode the identical mature protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP5G2 ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9)|This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and single representatives of the gamma, delta, and epsilon subunits. The proton channel likely has nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). There are three separate genes which encode subunit c of the proton channel and they specify precursors with different import sequences but identical mature proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is one of three precursors of subunit c. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. This gene has multiple pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
ATP5G3 ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C3 (subunit 9)|This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene is one of three genes that encode subunit c of the proton channel. Each of the three genes have distinct mitochondrial import sequences but encode the identical mature protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different proteins have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
ATP5H ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit d|Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The F1 complex consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled in a ratio of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The Fo seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the d subunit of the Fo complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. In addition, three pseudogenes are located on chromosomes 9, 12 and 15. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
ATP5I ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit E|Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The F1 complex consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled in a ratio of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The Fo seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the e subunit of the Fo complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
ATP5J ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F6|Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The F1 complex consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled in a ratio of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The Fo seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the F6 subunit of the Fo complex, required for F1 and Fo interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. A pseudogene exists on chromosome Yp11.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
ATP5J2 ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F2|Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of five different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and single representatives of the gamma, delta, and epsilon subunits. The proton channel likely has nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the f subunit of the Fo complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. This gene has multiple pseudogenes. Naturally occurring read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the downstream pentatricopeptide repeat domain 1 (PTCD1) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
ATP5L ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit G|Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. It is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, which comprises the proton channel. The F1 complex consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled in a ratio of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The Fo seems to have nine subunits (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, F6 and 8). This gene encodes the g subunit of the Fo complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
ATP5O ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, O subunit|The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the F-type ATPase found in the mitochondrial matrix. F-type ATPases are composed of a catalytic core and a membrane proton channel. The encoded protein appears to be part of the connector linking these two components and may be involved in transmission of conformational changes or proton conductance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP5S ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit s (factor B)|This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. This gene encodes the subunit s, also known as factor B, of the proton channel. This subunit is necessary for the energy transduction activity of the ATP synthase complexes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6AP1 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal accessory protein 1|This gene encodes a component of a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. Vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) is comprised of a cytosolic V1 (site of the ATP catalytic site) and a transmembrane V0 domain. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, and receptor-mediated endocytosis. The encoded protein of this gene may assist in the V-ATPase-mediated acidification of neuroendocrine secretory granules. This protein may also play a role in early development. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
ATP6AP2 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal accessory protein 2|This gene encodes a protein that is associated with adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases). Proton-translocating ATPases have fundamental roles in energy conservation, secondary active transport, acidification of intracellular compartments, and cellular pH homeostasis. There are three classes of ATPases- F, P, and V. The vacuolar (V-type) ATPases have a transmembrane proton-conducting sector and an extramembrane catalytic sector. The encoded protein has been found associated with the transmembrane sector of the V-type ATPases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V0A1 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit a1|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c", and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This gene encodes one of three A subunit proteins and the encoded protein is associated with clathrin-coated vesicles. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V0A2 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit a2|The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase (v-ATPase), an heteromultimeric enzyme that is present in intracellular vesicles and in the plasma membrane of specialized cells, and which is essential for the acidification of diverse cellular components. V-ATPase is comprised of a membrane peripheral V(1) domain for ATP hydrolysis, and an integral membrane V(0) domain for proton translocation. The subunit encoded by this gene is a component of the V(0) domain. Mutations in this gene are a cause of both cutis laxa type II and wrinkly skin syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
ATP6V0A4 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit a4|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells. V-ATPase dependent acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c'', and d. This gene is one of four genes in man and mouse that encode different isoforms of the a subunit. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. Mutations in this gene are associated with renal tubular acidosis associated with preserved hearing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V0B ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 21kDa, V0 subunit b|This gene encodes a portion of the V0 domain of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. Activity of this enzyme is necessary for such varied processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
ATP6V0C ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 16kDa, V0 subunit c|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c", and d. This gene encodes the V0 subunit c. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants. Pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 6 and 17. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
ATP6V0D1 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 38kDa, V0 subunit d1|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c'', and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This encoded protein is known as the D subunit and is found ubiquitously. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V0D2 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 38kDa, V0 subunit d2|
ATP6V0E1 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 9kDa, V0 subunit e1|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c", and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This encoded protein is possibly part of the V0 subunit. Since two nontranscribed pseudogenes have been found in dog, it is possible that the localization to chromosome 2 for this gene by radiation hybrid mapping is representing a pseudogene. Genomic mapping puts the chromosomal location on 5q35.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V0E2 ATPase, H+ transporting V0 subunit e2|Multisubunit vacuolar-type proton pumps, or H(+)-ATPases, acidify various intracellular compartments, such as vacuoles, clathrin-coated and synaptic vesicles, endosomes, lysosomes, and chromaffin granules. H(+)-ATPases are also found in plasma membranes of specialized cells, where they play roles in urinary acidification, bone resorption, and sperm maturation. Multiple subunits form H(+)-ATPases, with proteins of the V1 class hydrolyzing ATP for energy to transport H+, and proteins of the V0 class forming an integral membrane domain through which H+ is transported. ATP6V0E2 encodes an isoform of the H(+)-ATPase V0 e subunit, an essential proton pump component (Blake-Palmer et al., 2007 [PubMed 17350184]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ATP6V1A ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 70kDa, V1 subunit A|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c", and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This encoded protein is one of two V1 domain A subunit isoforms and is found in all tissues. Transcript variants derived from alternative polyadenylation exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V1B1 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 56/58kDa, V1 subunit B1|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c'', and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This encoded protein is one of two V1 domain B subunit isoforms and is found in the kidney. Mutations in this gene cause distal renal tubular acidosis associated with sensorineural deafness. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V1B2 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 56/58kDa, V1 subunit B2|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A, three B, and two G subunits, as well as a C, D, E, F, and H subunit. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The protein encoded by this gene is one of two V1 domain B subunit isoforms and is the only B isoform highly expressed in osteoclasts. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V1C1 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 42kDa, V1 subunit C1|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells. V-ATPase dependent acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c'', and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This gene is one of two genes that encode the V1 domain C subunit proteins and is found ubiquitously. This C subunit is analogous but not homologous to gamma subunit of F-ATPases. Previously, this gene was designated ATP6D. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V1C2 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 42kDa, V1 subunit C2|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A,three B, and two G subunits, as well as a C, D, E, F, and H subunit. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. This gene encodes alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different V1 domain C subunit isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V1D ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 34kDa, V1 subunit D|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c", and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This gene encodes the V1 domain D subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V1E1 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 31kDa, V1 subunit E1|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A, three B, and two G subunits, as well as a C, D, E, F, and H subunit. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. This gene encodes alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different V1 domain E subunit isoforms. Pseudogenes for this gene have been found in the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V1E2 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 31kDa, V1 subunit E2|
ATP6V1F ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 14kDa, V1 subunit F|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c", and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This encoded protein is the V1 domain F subunit protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V1G1 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 13kDa, V1 subunit G1|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of eukaryotic intracellular organelles. V-ATPase dependent organelle acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A, three B, and two G subunits, as well as a C, D, E, F, and H subunit. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The protein encoded by this gene is one of three V1 domain G subunit proteins. Pseudogenes of this gene have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP6V1G2 ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 13kDa, V1 subunit G2|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells. V-ATPase dependent acidification is necessary for such intracellular processes as protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. V-ATPase is composed of a cytosolic V1 domain and a transmembrane V0 domain. The V1 domain consists of three A and three B subunits, two G subunits plus the C, D, E, F, and H subunits. The V1 domain contains the ATP catalytic site. The V0 domain consists of five different subunits: a, c, c', c'', and d. Additional isoforms of many of the V1 and V0 subunit proteins are encoded by multiple genes or alternatively spliced transcript variants. This encoded protein is one of three V1 domain G subunit proteins. This gene had previous gene symbols of ATP6G and ATP6G2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the downstream DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 39B (DDX39B) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
ATP6V1H ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 50/57kDa, V1 subunit H|This gene encodes a component of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase), a multisubunit enzyme that mediates acidification of intracellular organelles. V-ATPase-dependent organelle acidification is necessary for multiple processes including protein sorting, zymogen activation, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and synaptic vesicle proton gradient generation. The encoded protein is the regulatory H subunit of the V1 domain of V-ATPase, which is required for catalysis of ATP but not the assembly of V-ATPase. Decreased expression of this gene may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
ATP7A ATPase, Cu++ transporting, alpha polypeptide|This gene encodes a transmembrane protein that functions in copper transport across membranes. This protein is localized to the trans Golgi network, where it is predicted to supply copper to copper-dependent enzymes in the secretory pathway. It relocalizes to the plasma membrane under conditions of elevated extracellular copper, and functions in the efflux of copper from cells. Mutations in this gene are associated with Menkes disease, X-linked distal spinal muscular atrophy, and occipital horn syndrome. Alternatively-spliced transcript variants have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
ATP7B ATPase, Cu++ transporting, beta polypeptide|This gene is a member of the P-type cation transport ATPase family and encodes a protein with several membrane-spanning domains, an ATPase consensus sequence, a hinge domain, a phosphorylation site, and at least 2 putative copper-binding sites. This protein functions as a monomer, exporting copper out of the cells, such as the efflux of hepatic copper into the bile. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms with distinct cellular localizations, have been characterized. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Wilson disease (WD). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP8A1 ATPase, aminophospholipid transporter (APLT), class I, type 8A, member 1|The P-type adenosinetriphosphatases (P-type ATPases) are a family of proteins which use the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to drive uphill transport of ions across membranes. Several subfamilies of P-type ATPases have been identified. One subfamily catalyzes transport of heavy metal ions. Another subfamily transports non-heavy metal ions (NMHI). The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the third subfamily of P-type ATPases and acts to transport amphipaths, such as phosphatidylserine. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP8A2 ATPase, aminophospholipid transporter, class I, type 8A, member 2|
ATP8B1 ATPase, aminophospholipid transporter, class I, type 8B, member 1|This gene encodes a member of the P-type cation transport ATPase family, which belongs to the subfamily of aminophospholipid-transporting ATPases. The aminophospholipid translocases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from one side of a bilayer to another. Mutations in this gene may result in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 and in benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP8B2 ATPase, aminophospholipid transporter, class I, type 8B, member 2|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of aminophospholipid-transporting ATPases. The aminophospholipid translocases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from one side of a bilayer to another. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATP8B3 ATPase, aminophospholipid transporter, class I, type 8B, member 3|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type cation transport ATPases, and to the subfamily of aminophospholipid-transporting ATPases. The aminophospholipid translocases transport phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from one side of a bilayer to the other. This gene encodes member 3 of phospholipid-transporting ATPase 8B; other members of this protein family are located on chromosomes 1, 15 and 18. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
ATP8B4 ATPase, class I, type 8B, member 4|This gene encodes a member of the cation transport ATPase (P-type) family and type IV subfamily. The encoded protein is involved in phospholipid transport in the cell membrane. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
ATP9A ATPase, class II, type 9A|
ATP9B ATPase, class II, type 9B|
ATPAF1 ATP synthase mitochondrial F1 complex assembly factor 1|This gene encodes an assembly factor for the F(1) component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase. This protein binds specifically to the F1 beta subunit and is thought to prevent this subunit from forming nonproductive homooligomers during enzyme assembly. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
ATPAF2 ATP synthase mitochondrial F1 complex assembly factor 2|This gene encodes an assembly factor for the F(1) component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase. This protein binds specifically to the F1 alpha subunit and is thought to prevent this subunit from forming nonproductive homooligomers during enzyme assembly. This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. An alternatively spliced transcript variant has been described, but its biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATPIF1 ATPase inhibitory factor 1|This gene encodes a mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and three transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATR ATR serine/threonine kinase|The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia. This protein and ATM share similarity with Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3, a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This kinase has been shown to phosphorylate checkpoint kinase CHK1, checkpoint proteins RAD17, and RAD9, as well as tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. Mutations of this gene are associated with Seckel syndrome. An alternatively spliced transcript variant of this gene has been reported, however, its full length nature is not known. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA sites exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATRAID all-trans retinoic acid-induced differentiation factor|This gene is thought to be involved in apoptosis, and may also be involved in hematopoietic development and differentiation. The use of alternative splice sites and promotors result in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
ATRIP ATR interacting protein|This gene encodes an essential component of the DNA damage checkpoint. The encoded protein binds to single-stranded DNA coated with replication protein A. The protein also interacts with the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein kinase, resulting in its accumulation at intranuclear foci induced by DNA damage. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
ATRN attractin|Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms exist for this gene. One of the isoforms is a membrane-bound protein with sequence similarity to the mouse mahogany protein, a receptor involved in controlling obesity. The other two isoforms are secreted proteins involved in the initial immune cell clustering during inflammatory responses that may regulate the chemotactic activity of chemokines. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
ATRNL1 attractin-like 1|
ATRX alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked|The protein encoded by this gene contains an ATPase/helicase domain, and thus it belongs to the SWI/SNF family of chromatin remodeling proteins. This protein is found to undergo cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation, which regulates its nuclear matrix and chromatin association, and suggests its involvement in the gene regulation at interphase and chromosomal segregation in mitosis. Mutations in this gene are associated with an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) syndrome most often accompanied by alpha-thalassemia (ATRX) syndrome. These mutations have been shown to cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation, which may provide a link between chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, and gene expression in developmental processes. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
ATXN1 ataxin 1|The autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of the cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord. Clinically, ADCA has been divided into three groups: ADCA types I-III. ADCAI is genetically heterogeneous, with five genetic loci, designated spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6, being assigned to five different chromosomes. ADCAII, which always presents with retinal degeneration (SCA7), and ADCAIII often referred to as the `pure' cerebellar syndrome (SCA5), are most likely homogeneous disorders. Several SCA genes have been cloned and shown to contain CAG repeats in their coding regions. ADCA is caused by the expansion of the CAG repeats, producing an elongated polyglutamine tract in the corresponding protein. The expanded repeats are variable in size and unstable, usually increasing in size when transmitted to successive generations. The function of the ataxins is not known. This locus has been mapped to chromosome 6, and it has been determined that the diseased allele contains 41-81 CAG repeats, compared to 6-39 in the normal allele, and is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1). At least two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
ATXN10 ataxin 10|This gene encodes a protein that may function in neuron survival, neuron differentiation, and neuritogenesis. These roles may be carried out via activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Expansion of a pentanucleotide repeat in an intronic region of this locus has been associated with spinocerebellar ataxia, type 10. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
ATXN1L ataxin 1-like|
ATXN2 ataxin 2|The autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of the cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord. Clinically, ADCA has been divided into three groups: ADCA types I-III. Defects in this gene are the cause of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). SCA2 belongs to the autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias type I (ADCA I) which are characterized by cerebellar ataxia in combination with additional clinical features like optic atrophy, ophthalmoplegia, bulbar and extrapyramidal signs, peripheral neuropathy and dementia. SCA2 is caused by expansion of a CAG repeat in the coding region of this gene. This locus has been mapped to chromosome 12, and it has been determined that the diseased allele contains 37-50 CAG repeats, compared to 17-29 in the normal allele. Longer expansions result in earlier onset of the disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified but their full length sequence has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
ATXN2L ataxin 2-like|This gene encodes an ataxin type 2 related protein of unknown function. This protein is a member of the spinocerebellar ataxia (SCAs) family, which is associated with a complex group of neurodegenerative disorders. Several alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATXN3 ataxin 3|Machado-Joseph disease, also known as spinocerebellar ataxia-3, is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder. The protein encoded by this gene contains (CAG)n repeats in the coding region, and the expansion of these repeats from the normal 13-36 to 68-79 is one cause of Machado-Joseph disease. There is a negative correlation between the age of onset and CAG repeat numbers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
ATXN3L ataxin 3-like|This intronless gene may be a pseudogene (PMID:11450850). This gene is similar to the multi-exon gene which encodes ataxin 3 and contains a coding region which could encode a protein similar to ataxin 3. Mutations in the gene encoding ataxin 3 are associated with Machado-Joseph disease. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
ATXN7 ataxin 7|The autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of the cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord. Clinically, ADCA has been divided into three groups: ADCA types I-III. ADCAI is genetically heterogeneous, with five genetic loci, designated spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6, being assigned to five different chromosomes. ADCAII, which always presents with retinal degeneration (SCA7), and ADCAIII often referred to as the 'pure' cerebellar syndrome (SCA5), are most likely homogeneous disorders. Several SCA genes have been cloned and shown to contain CAG repeats in their coding regions. ADCA is caused by the expansion of the CAG repeats, producing an elongated polyglutamine tract in the corresponding protein. The expanded repeats are variable in size and unstable, usually increasing in size when transmitted to successive generations. This locus has been mapped to chromosome 3, and it has been determined that the diseased allele associated with spinocerebellar ataxia-7 contains 38-130 CAG repeats (near the N-terminus), compared to 7-17 in the normal allele. The encoded protein is a component of the SPT3/TAF9/GCN5 acetyltransferase (STAGA) and TBP-free TAF-containing (TFTC) chromatin remodeling complexes, and it thus plays a role in transcriptional regulation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
ATXN7L1 ataxin 7-like 1|
ATXN7L2 ataxin 7-like 2|
ATXN7L3 ataxin 7-like 3|
ATXN7L3B ataxin 7-like 3B|
AUH AU RNA binding protein/enoyl-CoA hydratase|The methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase, mitochondrial protein binds to the AU-rich element (ARE), a common element found in the 3' UTR of rapidly decaying mRNA such as c-fos, c-myc and granulocyte/ macrophage colony stimulating factor. ARE elements are involved in directing RNA to rapid degradation and deadenylation. AUH is also homologous to enol-CoA hydratase, an enzyme involved in fatty acid degradation, and has been shown to have intrinsic hydratase enzymatic activity. AUH is thus a bifunctional chimera between RNA binding and metabolic enzyme activity. A possible subcellular localization in the mitochondria has been demonstrated for the mouse homolog of this protein which shares 92% identity with the human protein. It has been suggested that AUH may have a novel role as a mitochondrial located AU-binding protein. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]
AUNIP aurora kinase A and ninein interacting protein|
AUP1 ancient ubiquitous protein 1|The protein encoded this gene is involved in several pathways including quality control of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplet accumulation. Lipid droplets are organelles in the cytoplasm that store neutral lipids such as cholesterol esters and trigylycerides to prevent the overabundance of free cholesterol and fatty acids in cells, but also to act as storage for other metabolic processes, such as membrane biogenesis. Reduced expression of this gene results in reduced lipid droplet clustering, a function that is dependent on ubiquitination of the protein. This protein contains multiple domains including a hydrophobic N-terminal domain, an acetyltranferase domain, a ubiquitin-binding CUE domain, and a UBE2B2-binding domain (G2BR). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
AURKA aurora kinase A|The protein encoded by this gene is a cell cycle-regulated kinase that appears to be involved in microtubule formation and/or stabilization at the spindle pole during chromosome segregation. The encoded protein is found at the centrosome in interphase cells and at the spindle poles in mitosis. This gene may play a role in tumor development and progression. A processed pseudogene of this gene has been found on chromosome 1, and an unprocessed pseudogene has been found on chromosome 10. Multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AURKAIP1 aurora kinase A interacting protein 1|
AURKB aurora kinase B|This gene encodes a member of the aurora kinase subfamily of serine/threonine kinases. The genes encoding the other two members of this subfamily are located on chromosomes 19 and 20. These kinases participate in the regulation of segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis through association with microtubules. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 8. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
AURKC aurora kinase C|This gene encodes a member of the Aurora subfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein is a chromosomal passenger protein that forms complexes with Aurora-B and inner centromere proteins and may play a role in organizing microtubules in relation to centrosome/spindle function during mitosis. This gene is overexpressed in several cancer cell lines, suggesting an involvement in oncogenic signal transduction. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AUTS2 autism susceptibility candidate 2|This gene has been implicated in neurodevelopment and as a candidate gene for numerous neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders, intellectual disability, and developmental delay. Mutations in this gene have also been associated with non-neurological disorders, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia, aging of the skin, early-onset androgenetic alopecia, and certain cancers. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
AVEN apoptosis, caspase activation inhibitor|
AVIL advillin|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the gelsolin/villin family of actin regulatory proteins. This protein has structural similarity to villin. It binds actin and may play a role in the development of neuronal cells that form ganglia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AVL9 AVL9 homolog (S. cerevisiase)|
AVP arginine vasopressin|This gene encodes a precursor protein consisting of arginine vasopressin and two associated proteins, neurophysin 2 and a glycopeptide, copeptin. Arginine vasopressin is a posterior pituitary hormone which is synthesized in the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Along with its carrier protein, neurophysin 2, it is packaged into neurosecretory vesicles and transported axonally to the nerve endings in the neurohypophysis where it is either stored or secreted into the bloodstream. The precursor is thought to be activated while it is being transported along the axon to the posterior pituitary. Arginine vasopressin acts as a growth factor by enhancing pH regulation through acid-base transport systems. It has a direct antidiuretic action on the kidney, and also causes vasoconstriction of the peripheral vessels. This hormone can contract smooth muscle during parturition and lactation. It is also involved in cognition, tolerance, adaptation and complex sexual and maternal behaviour, as well as in the regulation of water excretion and cardiovascular functions. Mutations in this gene cause autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus (ADNDI). [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
AVPI1 arginine vasopressin-induced 1|
AVPR1A arginine vasopressin receptor 1A|The protein encoded by this gene acts as receptor for arginine vasopressin. This receptor belongs to the subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors which includes AVPR1B, V2R and OXT receptors. Its activity is mediated by G proteins which stimulate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The receptor mediates cell contraction and proliferation, platelet aggregation, release of coagulation factor and glycogenolysis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AVPR1B arginine vasopressin receptor 1B|The protein encoded by this gene acts as receptor for arginine vasopressin. This receptor belongs to the subfamily of G-protein coupled receptors which includes AVPR1A, V2R and OXT receptors. Its activity is mediated by G proteins which stimulate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. The receptor is primarily located in the anterior pituitary, where it stimulates ACTH release. It is expressed at high levels in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas as well as in bronchial carcinoids responsible for the ectopic ACTH syndrome. A spliced antisense transcript of this gene has been reported but its function is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AVPR2 arginine vasopressin receptor 2|This gene encodes the vasopressin receptor, type 2, also known as the V2 receptor, which belongs to the seven-transmembrane-domain G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, and couples to Gs thus stimulating adenylate cyclase. The subfamily that includes the V2 receptor, the V1a and V1b vasopressin receptors, the oxytocin receptor, and isotocin and mesotocin receptors in non-mammals, is well conserved, though several members signal via other G proteins. All bind similar cyclic nonapeptide hormones. The V2 receptor is expressed in the kidney tubule, predominantly in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts, where its primary property is to respond to the pituitary hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) by stimulating mechanisms that concentrate the urine and maintain water homeostasis in the organism. When the function of this gene is lost, the disease Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus (NDI) results. The V2 receptor is also expressed outside the kidney although its tissue localization is uncertain. When these 'extrarenal receptors' are stimulated by infusion of a V2 selective agonist (dDAVP), a variety of clotting factors are released into the bloodstream. The physiologic importance of this property is not known - its absence does not appear to be detrimental in NDI patients. The gene expression has also been described in fetal lung tissue and lung cancer associated with alternative splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AXDND1 axonemal dynein light chain domain containing 1|
AXIN1 axin 1|This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein which contains a regulation of G-protein signaling (RGS) domain and a dishevelled and axin (DIX) domain. The encoded protein interacts with adenomatosis polyposis coli, catenin beta-1, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, protein phosphate 2, and itself. This protein functions as a negative regulator of the wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1 (WNT) signaling pathway and can induce apoptosis. The crystal structure of a portion of this protein, alone and in a complex with other proteins, has been resolved. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatoblastomas, ovarian endometriod adenocarcinomas, and medullablastomas. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
AXIN2 axin 2|The Axin-related protein, Axin2, presumably plays an important role in the regulation of the stability of beta-catenin in the Wnt signaling pathway, like its rodent homologs, mouse conductin/rat axil. In mouse, conductin organizes a multiprotein complex of APC (adenomatous polyposis of the colon), beta-catenin, glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta, and conductin, which leads to the degradation of beta-catenin. Apparently, the deregulation of beta-catenin is an important event in the genesis of a number of malignancies. The AXIN2 gene has been mapped to 17q23-q24, a region that shows frequent loss of heterozygosity in breast cancer, neuroblastoma, and other tumors. Mutations in this gene have been associated with colorectal cancer with defective mismatch repair. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AXL AXL receptor tyrosine kinase|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Tyro3-Axl-Mer (TAM) receptor tyrosine kinase subfamily. The encoded protein possesses an extracellular domain which is composed of two immunoglobulin-like motifs at the N-terminal, followed by two fibronectin type-III motifs. It transduces signals from the extracellular matrix into the cytoplasm by binding to the vitamin K-dependent protein growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6). This gene may be involved in several cellular functions including growth, migration, aggregation and anti-inflammation in multiple cell types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
AZGP1 alpha-2-glycoprotein 1, zinc-binding|
AZI2 5-azacytidine induced 2|AZI2, or NAP1, contributes to the activation of NFKB (see MIM 164011)-dependent gene expression by activating IKK-related kinases, such as NAK (TBK1; MIM 604834) (Fujita et al., 2003 [PubMed 14560022]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
AZIN1 antizyme inhibitor 1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the antizyme inhibitor family, which plays a role in cell growth and proliferation by maintaining polyamine homeostasis within the cell. Antizyme inhibitors are homologs of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, the key enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis) that have lost the ability to decarboxylase ornithine; however, retain the ability to bind to antizymes. Antizymes negatively regulate intracellular polyamine levels by binding to ODC and targeting it for degradation, as well as by inhibiting polyamine uptake. Antizyme inhibitors function as positive regulators of polyamine levels by sequestering antizymes and neutralizing their effect. This gene encodes antizyme inhibitor 1, the first member of this gene family that is ubiquitously expressed, and is localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. Overexpression of antizyme inhibitor 1 gene has been associated with increased proliferation, cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. Gene knockout studies showed that homozygous mutant mice lacking functional antizyme inhibitor 1 gene died at birth with abnormal liver morphology. RNA editing of this gene, predominantly in the liver tissue, has been linked to the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
AZU1 azurocidin 1|Azurophil granules, specialized lysosomes of the neutrophil, contain at least 10 proteins implicated in the killing of microorganisms. The protein encoded by this gene is an azurophil granule antibiotic protein, with monocyte chemotactic and antimicrobial activity. It is also an important multifunctional inflammatory mediator. This encoded protein is a member of the serine protease gene family but it is not a serine proteinase, because the active site serine and histidine residues are replaced. The genes encoding this protein, neutrophil elastase 2, and proteinase 3 are in a cluster located at chromosome 19pter. All 3 genes are expressed coordinately and their protein products are packaged together into azurophil granules during neutrophil differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
B2M beta-2-microglobulin|This gene encodes a serum protein found in association with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I heavy chain on the surface of nearly all nucleated cells. The protein has a predominantly beta-pleated sheet structure that can form amyloid fibrils in some pathological conditions. The encoded antimicrobial protein displays antibacterial activity in amniotic fluid. A mutation in this gene has been shown to result in hypercatabolic hypoproteinemia.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]
B3GALNT1 beta-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1 (globoside blood group)|This gene is a member of the beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase (beta3GalT) gene family. This family encodes type II membrane-bound glycoproteins with diverse enzymatic functions using different donor substrates (UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) and different acceptor sugars (N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine). The beta3GalT genes are distantly related to the Drosophila Brainiac gene and have the protein coding sequence contained in a single exon. The beta3GalT proteins also contain conserved sequences not found in the beta4GalT or alpha3GalT proteins. The carbohydrate chains synthesized by these enzymes are designated as type 1, whereas beta4GalT enzymes synthesize type 2 carbohydrate chains. The ratio of type 1:type 2 chains changes during embryogenesis. By sequence similarity, the beta3GalT genes fall into at least two groups: beta3GalT4 and 4 other beta3GalT genes (beta3GalT1-3, beta3GalT5). The encoded protein of this gene does not use N-acetylglucosamine as an acceptor sugar at all. Multiple transcript variants that are alternatively spliced in the 5' UTR have been described; they all encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B3GALNT2 beta-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2|This gene encodes a member of the glycosyltransferase 31 family. The encoded protein synthesizes GalNAc:beta-1,3GlcNAc, a novel carbohydrate structure, on N- and O-glycans. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]
B3GALT1 UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 1|This gene is a member of the beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase (beta3GalT) gene family. This family encodes type II membrane-bound glycoproteins with diverse enzymatic functions using different donor substrates (UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) and different acceptor sugars (N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine). The beta3GalT genes are distantly related to the Drosophila Brainiac gene and have the protein coding sequence contained in a single exon. The beta3GalT proteins also contain conserved sequences not found in the beta4GalT or alpha3GalT proteins. The carbohydrate chains synthesized by these enzymes are designated as type 1, whereas beta4GalT enzymes synthesize type 2 carbohydrate chains. The ratio of type 1:type 2 chains changes during embryogenesis. By sequence similarity, the beta3GalT genes fall into at least two groups: beta3GalT4 and 4 other beta3GalT genes (beta3GalT1-3, beta3GalT5). This gene is expressed exclusively in the brain. The encoded protein shows strict donor substrate specificity for UDP-galactose. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B3GALT2 UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 2|This gene is a member of the beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase (beta3GalT) gene family. This family encodes type II membrane-bound glycoproteins with diverse enzymatic functions using different donor substrates (UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) and different acceptor sugars (N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine). The beta3GalT genes are distantly related to the Drosophila Brainiac gene and have the protein coding sequence contained in a single exon. The beta3GalT proteins also contain conserved sequences not found in the beta4GalT or alpha3GalT proteins. The carbohydrate chains synthesized by these enzymes are designated as type 1, whereas beta4GalT enzymes synthesize type 2 carbohydrate chains. The ratio of type 1:type 2 chains changes during embryogenesis. By sequence similarity, the beta3GalT genes fall into at least two groups: beta3GalT4 and 4 other beta3GalT genes (beta3GalT1-3, beta3GalT5). This gene encodes a protein that functions in N-linked glycoprotein glycosylation and shows strict donor substrate specificity for UDP-galactose. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B3GALT4 UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 4|This gene is a member of the beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase (beta3GalT) gene family. This family encodes type II membrane-bound glycoproteins with diverse enzymatic functions using different donor substrates (UDP-galactose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine) and different acceptor sugars (N-acetylglucosamine, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine). The beta3GalT genes are distantly related to the Drosophila Brainiac gene and have the protein coding sequence contained in a single exon. The beta3GalT proteins also contain conserved sequences not found in the beta4GalT or alpha3GalT proteins. The carbohydrate chains synthesized by these enzymes are designated as type 1, whereas beta4GalT enzymes synthesize type 2 carbohydrate chains. The ratio of type 1:type 2 chains changes during embryogenesis. By sequence similarity, the beta3GalT genes fall into at least two groups: beta3GalT4 and 4 other beta3GalT genes (beta3GalT1-3, beta3GalT5). This gene is oriented telomere to centromere in close proximity to the ribosomal protein S18 gene. The functionality of the encoded protein is limited to ganglioseries glycolipid biosynthesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B3GALT6 UDP-Gal:betaGal beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase polypeptide 6|The enzyme encoded by this intronless gene is a beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase found in the medial Golgi apparatus, where it catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-galactose to substrates containing a terminal beta-linked galactose moiety. The encoded enzyme has a particular affinity for galactose-beta-1,4-xylose found in the linker region of glycosamines. This enzyme is required for glycosaminoglycan synthesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
B3GALTL beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase-like|The protein encoded by this gene is a beta-1,3-glucosyltransferase that transfers glucose to O-linked fucosylglycans on thrombospondin type-1 repeats (TSRs) of several proteins. The encoded protein is a type II membrane protein. Defects in this gene are a cause of Peters-plus syndrome (PPS).[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
B3GAT1 beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glucuronyltransferase gene family. These enzymes exhibit strict acceptor specificity, recognizing nonreducing terminal sugars and their anomeric linkages. This gene product functions as the key enzyme in a glucuronyl transfer reaction during the biosynthesis of the carbohydrate epitope HNK-1 (human natural killer-1, also known as CD57 and LEU7). Alternate transcriptional splice variants have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B3GAT2 beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 2|The product of this gene is a transmembrane protein belonging to the glucuronyltransferase family, and catalyzes the transfer of a beta-1,3 linked glucuronic acid to a terminal galactose in different glycoproteins or glycolipids containing a Gal-beta-1-4GlcNAc or Gal-beta-1-3GlcNAc residue. The encoded protein is involved in the synthesis of the human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate epitope, a sulfated trisaccharide implicated in cellular migration and adhesion in the nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B3GAT3 beta-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the glucuronyltransferase gene family, enzymes that exhibit strict acceptor specificity, recognizing nonreducing terminal sugars and their anomeric linkages. This gene product catalyzes the formation of the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage by way of a glucuronyl transfer reaction in the final step of the biosynthesis of the linkage region of proteoglycans. A pseudogene of this gene has been identified on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
B3GNT1
B3GNT2 UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2|This gene encodes a member of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase family. This enzyme is a type II transmembrane protein. It prefers the substrate of lacto-N-neotetraose, and is involved in the biosynthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B3GNT3 UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 3|This gene encodes a member of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase family. This enzyme is a type II transmembrane protein and contains a signal anchor that is not cleaved. It prefers the substrates of lacto-N-tetraose and lacto-N-neotetraose, and is involved in the biosynthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains and the biosynthesis of the backbone structure of dimeric sialyl Lewis a. It plays dominant roles in L-selectin ligand biosynthesis, lymphocyte homing and lymphocyte trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B3GNT4 UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 4|This gene encodes a member of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase protein family. The encoded enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains and prefers lacto-N-neotetraose as a substrate. It is a type II transmembrane protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B3GNT5 UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 5|This gene encodes a member of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase family. This enzyme is a type II membrane protein. It exhibits strong activity to transfer GlcNAc to glycolipid substrates and is identified as the most likely candidate for lactotriaosylceramide synthase. This enzyme is essential for the expression of Lewis X epitopes on glycolipids. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B3GNT6 UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 6|
B3GNT7 UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 7|
B3GNT8 UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 8|
B3GNT9 UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 9|
B3GNTL1 UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-like 1|
B4GALNT1 beta-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 1|GM2 and GD2 gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. GalNAc-T is the enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of G(M2) and G(D2) glycosphingolipids. GalNAc-T catalyzes the transfer of GalNAc into G(M3) and G(D3) by a beta-1,4 linkage, resulting in the synthesis of G(M2) and G(D2), respectively. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]
B4GALT1 UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 1|This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and beta4GalT2, beta4GalT3 and beta4GalT4, beta4GalT5 and beta4GalT6, and beta4GalT7. This gene is unique among the beta4GalT genes because it encodes an enzyme that participates both in glycoconjugate and lactose biosynthesis. For the first activity, the enzyme adds galactose to N-acetylglucosamine residues that are either monosaccharides or the nonreducing ends of glycoprotein carbohydrate chains. The second activity is restricted to lactating mammary tissues where the enzyme forms a heterodimer with alpha-lactalbumin to catalyze UDP-galactose + D-glucose <=> UDP + lactose. The two enzymatic forms result from alternate transcription initiation sites and post-translational processing. Two transcripts, which differ only at the 5' end, with approximate lengths of 4.1 kb and 3.9 kb encode the same protein. The longer transcript encodes the type II membrane-bound, trans-Golgi resident protein involved in glycoconjugate biosynthesis. The shorter transcript encodes a protein which is cleaved to form the soluble lactose synthase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B4GALT2 UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 2|This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and beta4GalT2, beta4GalT3 and beta4GalT4, beta4GalT5 and beta4GalT6, and beta4GalT7. The enzyme encoded by this gene synthesizes N-acetyllactosamine in glycolipids and glycoproteins. Its substrate specificity is affected by alpha-lactalbumin but it is not expressed in lactating mammary tissue. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
B4GALT3 UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 3|This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and beta4GalT2, beta4GalT3 and beta4GalT4, beta4GalT5 and beta4GalT6, and beta4GalT7. This gene encodes an enzyme that may be mainly involved in the synthesis of the first N-acetyllactosamine unit of poly-N-acetyllactosamine chains. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
B4GALT4 UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 4|This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and beta4GalT2, beta4GalT3 and beta4GalT4, beta4GalT5 and beta4GalT6, and beta4GalT7. The enzyme encoded by this gene appears to mainly play a role in glycolipid biosynthesis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B4GALT5 UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 5|This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and beta4GalT2, beta4GalT3 and beta4GalT4, beta4GalT5 and beta4GalT6, and beta4GalT7. The function of the enzyme encoded by this gene is not clear. This gene was previously designated as B4GALT4 but was renamed to B4GALT5. In the literature it is also referred to as beta4GalT2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B4GALT6 UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta 1,4- galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 6|This gene is one of seven beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) genes. They encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose; all transfer galactose in a beta1,4 linkage to similar acceptor sugars: GlcNAc, Glc, and Xyl. Each beta4GalT has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus and which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. By sequence similarity, the beta4GalTs form four groups: beta4GalT1 and beta4GalT2, beta4GalT3 and beta4GalT4, beta4GalT5 and beta4GalT6, and beta4GalT7. The enzyme encoded by this gene is a lactosylceramide synthase important for glycolipid biosynthesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
B4GALT7 xylosylprotein beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 7|This gene is a member of the beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (beta4GalT) family. Family members encode type II membrane-bound glycoproteins that appear to have exclusive specificity for the donor substrate UDP-galactose. Each beta4GalT member has a distinct function in the biosynthesis of different glycoconjugates and saccharide structures. As type II membrane proteins, they have an N-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence that directs the protein to the Golgi apparatus which then remains uncleaved to function as a transmembrane anchor. The enzyme encoded by this gene attaches the first galactose in the common carbohydrate-protein linkage (GlcA-beta1,3-Gal-beta1,3-Gal-beta1,4-Xyl-beta1-O-Ser) found in proteoglycans. This enzyme differs from other beta4GalTs because it lacks the conserved Cys residues found in beta4GalT1-beta4GalT6 and it is located in cis-Golgi instead of trans-Golgi. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the progeroid form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
B9D1 B9 protein domain 1|This gene encodes a B9 domain-containing protein, one of several that are involved in ciliogenesis. Alterations in expression of this gene have been found in a family with Meckel syndrome. Meckel syndrome has been associated with at least six different genes. This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different proteins have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
B9D2 B9 protein domain 2|This gene encodes a B9 domain protein, which are exclusively found in ciliated organisms. The gene is upregulated during mucociliary differentiation, and the encoded protein localizes to basal bodies and cilia. Disrupting expression of this gene results in ciliogenesis defects. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
BAALC brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic|This gene was identified by gene expression studies in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The gene is conserved among mammals and is not found in lower organisms. Tissues that express this gene develop from the neuroectoderm. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different proteins have been described for this gene; however, some of the transcript variants are found only in AML cell lines. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BAAT bile acid CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase|The protein encoded by this gene is a liver enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of C24 bile acids from the acyl-CoA thioester to either glycine or taurine, the second step in the formation of bile acid-amino acid conjugates. The bile acid conjugates then act as a detergent in the gastrointestinal tract, which enhances lipid and fat-soluble vitamin absorption. Defects in this gene are a cause of familial hypercholanemia (FHCA). Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BABAM1 BRISC and BRCA1 A complex member 1|
BACE1 beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1|Cerebral deposition of amyloid beta peptide is an early and critical feature of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid beta peptide is generated by proteolytic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by two proteases, one of which is the protein encoded by this gene. The encoded protein, a member of the peptidase A1 protein family, is a type I integral membrane glycoprotein and aspartic protease that is found mainly in the Golgi. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
BACE2 beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 2|This gene encodes an integral membrane glycoprotein that functions as an aspartic protease. The encoded protein cleaves amyloid precursor protein into amyloid beta peptide, which is a critical step in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome. The protein precursor is further processed into an active mature peptide. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
BACH1 BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 1|This gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the cap'n'collar type of basic region leucine zipper factor family (CNC-bZip). The encoded protein contains broad complex, tramtrack, bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) domains, which is atypical of CNC-bZip family members. These BTB/POZ domains facilitate protein-protein interactions and formation of homo- and/or hetero-oligomers. When this encoded protein forms a heterodimer with MafK, it functions as a repressor of Maf recognition element (MARE) and transcription is repressed. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
BACH2 BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2|
BAD BCL2-associated agonist of cell death|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BCL-2 family. BCL-2 family members are known to be regulators of programmed cell death. This protein positively regulates cell apoptosis by forming heterodimers with BCL-xL and BCL-2, and reversing their death repressor activity. Proapoptotic activity of this protein is regulated through its phosphorylation. Protein kinases AKT and MAP kinase, as well as protein phosphatase calcineurin were found to be involved in the regulation of this protein. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants which encode the same isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BAG1 BCL2-associated athanogene|The oncogene BCL2 is a membrane protein that blocks a step in a pathway leading to apoptosis or programmed cell death. The protein encoded by this gene binds to BCL2 and is referred to as BCL2-associated athanogene. It enhances the anti-apoptotic effects of BCL2 and represents a link between growth factor receptors and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Multiple protein isoforms are encoded by this mRNA through the use of a non-AUG (CUG) initiation codon, and three alternative downstream AUG initiation codons. A related pseudogene has been defined on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
BAG2 BCL2-associated athanogene 2|BAG proteins compete with Hip for binding to the Hsc70/Hsp70 ATPase domain and promote substrate release. All the BAG proteins have an approximately 45-amino acid BAG domain near the C terminus but differ markedly in their N-terminal regions. The predicted BAG2 protein contains 211 amino acids. The BAG domains of BAG1, BAG2, and BAG3 interact specifically with the Hsc70 ATPase domain in vitro and in mammalian cells. All 3 proteins bind with high affinity to the ATPase domain of Hsc70 and inhibit its chaperone activity in a Hip-repressible manner. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BAG3 BCL2-associated athanogene 3|BAG proteins compete with Hip for binding to the Hsc70/Hsp70 ATPase domain and promote substrate release. All the BAG proteins have an approximately 45-amino acid BAG domain near the C terminus but differ markedly in their N-terminal regions. The protein encoded by this gene contains a WW domain in the N-terminal region and a BAG domain in the C-terminal region. The BAG domains of BAG1, BAG2, and BAG3 interact specifically with the Hsc70 ATPase domain in vitro and in mammalian cells. All 3 proteins bind with high affinity to the ATPase domain of Hsc70 and inhibit its chaperone activity in a Hip-repressible manner. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BAG4 BCL2-associated athanogene 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BAG1-related protein family. BAG1 is an anti-apoptotic protein that functions through interactions with a variety of cell apoptosis and growth related proteins including BCL-2, Raf-protein kinase, steroid hormone receptors, growth factor receptors and members of the heat shock protein 70 kDa family. This protein contains a BAG domain near the C-terminus, which could bind and inhibit the chaperone activity of Hsc70/Hsp70. This protein was found to be associated with the death domain of tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNF-R1) and death receptor-3 (DR3), and thereby negatively regulates downstream cell death signaling. The regulatory role of this protein in cell death was demonstrated in epithelial cells which undergo apoptosis while integrin mediated matrix contacts are lost. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
BAG5 BCL2-associated athanogene 5|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BAG1-related protein family. BAG1 is an anti-apoptotic protein that functions through interactions with a variety of cell apoptosis and growth related proteins including BCL-2, Raf-protein kinase, steroid hormone receptors, growth factor receptors and members of the heat shock protein 70 kDa family. This protein contains a BAG domain near the C-terminus, which could bind and inhibit the chaperone activity of Hsc70/Hsp70. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BAG6 BCL2-associated athanogene 6|This gene was first characterized as part of a cluster of genes located within the human major histocompatibility complex class III region. This gene encodes a nuclear protein that is cleaved by caspase 3 and is implicated in the control of apoptosis. In addition, the protein forms a complex with E1A binding protein p300 and is required for the acetylation of p53 in response to DNA damage. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BAHCC1 BAH domain and coiled-coil containing 1|
BAHD1 bromo adjacent homology domain containing 1|
BAI1 adhesion G protein-coupled receptor B1|Angiogenesis is controlled by a local balance between stimulators and inhibitors of new vessel growth and is suppressed under normal physiologic conditions. Angiogenesis has been shown to be essential for growth and metastasis of solid tumors. In order to obtain blood supply for their growth, tumor cells are potently angiogenic and attract new vessels as results of increased secretion of inducers and decreased production of endogenous negative regulators. BAI1 contains at least one 'functional' p53-binding site within an intron, and its expression has been shown to be induced by wildtype p53. There are two other brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor genes, designated BAI2 and BAI3 which along with BAI1 have similar tissue specificities and structures, however only BAI1 is transcriptionally regulated by p53. BAI1 is postulated to be a member of the secretin receptor family, an inhibitor of angiogenesis and a growth suppressor of glioblastomas [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BAI2 adhesion G protein-coupled receptor B2|This gene encodes a a seven-span transmembrane protein that is thought to be a member of the secretin receptor family. The encoded protein is a brain-specific inhibitor of angiogenesis. The mature peptide may be further cleaved into additional products (PMID:20367554). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
BAI3 adhesion G protein-coupled receptor B3|This p53-target gene encodes a brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor, a seven-span transmembrane protein, and is thought to be a member of the secretin receptor family. Brain-specific angiogenesis proteins BAI2 and BAI3 are similar to BAI1 in structure, have similar tissue specificities, and may also play a role in angiogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BAIAP2 BAI1-associated protein 2|The protein encoded by this gene has been identified as a brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor (BAI1)-binding protein. This adaptor protein links membrane bound G-proteins to cytoplasmic effector proteins. This protein functions as an insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate and suggests a role for insulin in the central nervous system. It also associates with a downstream effector of Rho small G proteins, which is associated with the formation of stress fibers and cytokinesis. This protein is involved in lamellipodia and filopodia formation in motile cells and may affect neuronal growth-cone guidance. This protein has also been identified as interacting with the dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy gene, which is associated with an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
BAIAP2L1 BAI1-associated protein 2-like 1|This gene encodes a member of the IMD (IRSp53/MIM homology domain) family. Members of this family can be subdivided in two groups, the IRSp53-like and MIM-like, based on the presence or absence of the SH3 (Src homology 3) domain. The protein encoded by this gene contains a conserved IMD, also known as F-actin bundling domain, at the N-terminus, and a canonical SH3 domain near the C-terminus, so it belongs to the IRSp53-like group. This protein is the substrate for insulin receptor tyrosine kinase and binds to the small GTPase Rac. It is involved in signal transduction pathways that link deformation of the plasma membrane and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. It also promotes actin assembly and membrane protrusions when overexpressed in mammalian cells, and is essential to the formation of a potent actin assembly complex during EHEC (Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli) pedestal formation. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
BAIAP3 BAI1-associated protein 3|This p53-target gene encodes a brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor. The protein is a seven-span transmembrane protein and a member of the secretin receptor family. It interacts with the cytoplasmic region of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1. This protein also contains two C2 domains, which are often found in proteins involved in signal transduction or membrane trafficking. Its expression pattern and similarity to other proteins suggest that it may be involved in synaptic functions. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
BAK1 BCL2-antagonist/killer 1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL2 protein family. BCL2 family members form oligomers or heterodimers and act as anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities. This protein localizes to mitochondria, and functions to induce apoptosis. It interacts with and accelerates the opening of the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel, which leads to a loss in membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c. This protein also interacts with the tumor suppressor P53 after exposure to cell stress. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BAMBI BMP and activin membrane-bound inhibitor|This gene encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein related to the type I receptors of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family, whose members play important roles in signal transduction in many developmental and pathological processes. The encoded protein however is a pseudoreceptor, lacking an intracellular serine/threonine kinase domain required for signaling. Similar proteins in frog, mouse and zebrafish function as negative regulators of TGF-beta, which has led to the suggestion that the encoded protein may function to limit the signaling range of the TGF-beta family during early embryogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BANF1 barrier to autointegration factor 1|The protein encoded by this gene was first identified by its ability to protect retroviruses from intramolecular integration and therefore promote intermolecular integration into the host cell genome. The protein forms a homodimer which localizes to both the nucleus and cytoplasm and is specifically associated with chromosomes during mitosis. This protein binds to double stranded DNA in a non-specific manner and also binds to LEM-domain containing proteins of the nuclear envelope. This protein is thought to facilitate nuclear reassembly by binding with both DNA and inner nuclear membrane proteins and thereby recruit chromatin to the nuclear periphery. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
BANK1 B-cell scaffold protein with ankyrin repeats 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a B-cell-specific scaffold protein that functions in B-cell receptor-induced calcium mobilization from intracellular stores. This protein can also promote Lyn-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
BANP BTG3 associated nuclear protein|This gene encodes a protein that binds to matrix attachment regions. The protein forms a complex with p53 and negatively regulates p53 transcription, and functions as a tumor suppressor and cell cycle regulator. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
BAP1 BRCA1 associated protein-1 (ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase)|This gene belongs to the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes that are involved in the removal of ubiquitin from proteins. The encoded enzyme binds to the breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) via the RING finger domain of the latter and acts as a tumor suppressor. In addition, the enzyme may be involved in regulation of transcription, regulation of cell cycle and growth, response to DNA damage and chromatin dynamics. Germline mutations in this gene may be associated with tumor predisposition syndrome (TPDS), which involves increased risk of cancers including malignant mesothelioma, uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
BARD1 BRCA1 associated RING domain 1|This gene encodes a protein which interacts with the N-terminal region of BRCA1. In addition to its ability to bind BRCA1 in vivo and in vitro, it shares homology with the 2 most conserved regions of BRCA1: the N-terminal RING motif and the C-terminal BRCT domain. The RING motif is a cysteine-rich sequence found in a variety of proteins that regulate cell growth, including the products of tumor suppressor genes and dominant protooncogenes. This protein also contains 3 tandem ankyrin repeats. The BARD1/BRCA1 interaction is disrupted by tumorigenic amino acid substitutions in BRCA1, implying that the formation of a stable complex between these proteins may be an essential aspect of BRCA1 tumor suppression. This protein may be the target of oncogenic mutations in breast or ovarian cancer. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
BARHL1 BarH-like homeobox 1|
BARX1 BARX homeobox 1|This gene encodes a member of the Bar subclass of homeobox transcription factors. Studies of the mouse and chick homolog suggest the encoded protein may play a role in developing teeth and craniofacial mesenchyme of neural crest origin. The protein may also be associated with differentiation of stomach epithelia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BARX2 BARX homeobox 2|This gene encodes a member of the homeobox transcription factor family. A highly related protein in mouse has been shown to influence cellular processes that control cell adhesion and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in myoblast fusion and chondrogenesis. The encoded protein may also play a role in cancer progression. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BASP1 brain abundant, membrane attached signal protein 1|This gene encodes a membrane bound protein with several transient phosphorylation sites and PEST motifs. Conservation of proteins with PEST sequences among different species supports their functional significance. PEST sequences typically occur in proteins with high turnover rates. Immunological characteristics of this protein are species specific. This protein also undergoes N-terminal myristoylation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]
BATF basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like|The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear basic leucine zipper protein that belongs to the AP-1/ATF superfamily of transcription factors. The leucine zipper of this protein mediates dimerization with members of the Jun family of proteins. This protein is thought to be a negative regulator of AP-1/ATF transcriptional events. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BATF2 basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like 2|
BATF3 basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like 3|This gene encodes a member of the basic leucine zipper protein family. The encoded protein functions as a transcriptional repressor when heterodimerizing with JUN. The protein may play a role in repression of interleukin-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 transcription.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
BAX BCL2-associated X protein|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL2 protein family. BCL2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities. This protein forms a heterodimer with BCL2, and functions as an apoptotic activator. This protein is reported to interact with, and increase the opening of, the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which leads to the loss in membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c. The expression of this gene is regulated by the tumor suppressor P53 and has been shown to be involved in P53-mediated apoptosis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode different isoforms, have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BAZ1A bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger domain, 1A|The BAZ1A gene encodes the accessory subunit of the ATP-dependent chromatin assembly factor (ACF), a member of the ISWI ('imitation switch') family of chromatin remodeling complexes (summarized by Racki et al., 2009 [PubMed 20033039]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]
BAZ1B bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger domain, 1B|This gene encodes a member of the bromodomain protein family. The bromodomain is a structural motif characteristic of proteins involved in chromatin-dependent regulation of transcription. This gene is deleted in Williams-Beuren syndrome, a developmental disorder caused by deletion of multiple genes at 7q11.23. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BAZ2A bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger domain, 2A|
BAZ2B bromodomain adjacent to zinc finger domain, 2B|