NURSA Protein-Protein Interactions Dataset

Description protein-protein interactions inferred from membership in complexes
Measurement protein complex by immuno-precipitation followed by mass spectrometry
Association protein-protein associations by co-occurrence of proteins in complexes recovered using IP-MS
Category proteomics
Resource Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas
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  1. 1127 genes
  2. 1127 interacting proteins
  3. 4258 gene-interacting protein associations

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interacting protein Gene Sets

1127 sets of interacting proteins for proteins from the NURSA Protein-Protein Interactions dataset.

Gene Set Description
AASDH aminoadipate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase|
ABCF3 ATP-binding cassette, sub-family F (GCN20), member 3|
ACACA acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha|Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a complex multifunctional enzyme system. ACC is a biotin-containing enzyme which catalyzes the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, the rate-limiting step in fatty acid synthesis. There are two ACC forms, alpha and beta, encoded by two different genes. ACC-alpha is highly enriched in lipogenic tissues. The enzyme is under long term control at the transcriptional and translational levels and under short term regulation by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of targeted serine residues and by allosteric transformation by citrate or palmitoyl-CoA. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants divergent in the 5' sequence and encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACD adrenocortical dysplasia homolog (mouse)|This gene encodes a protein that is involved in telomere function. This protein is one of six core proteins in the telosome/shelterin telomeric complex, which functions to maintain telomere length and to protect telomere ends. Through its interaction with other components, this protein plays a key role in the assembly and stabilization of this complex, and it mediates the access of telomerase to the telomere. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. This gene, which is also referred to as TPP1, is distinct from the unrelated TPP1 gene on chromosome 11, which encodes tripeptidyl-peptidase I. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACLY ATP citrate lyase|ATP citrate lyase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. The enzyme is a tetramer (relative molecular weight approximately 440,000) of apparently identical subunits. It catalyzes the formation of acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate from citrate and CoA with a concomitant hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and phosphate. The product, acetyl-CoA, serves several important biosynthetic pathways, including lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis. In nervous tissue, ATP citrate-lyase may be involved in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ACTA2 actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the actin family of proteins, which are highly conserved proteins that play a role in cell motility, structure and integrity. Alpha, beta and gamma actin isoforms have been identified, with alpha actins being a major constituent of the contractile apparatus, while beta and gamma actins are involved in the regulation of cell motility. This actin is an alpha actin that is found in skeletal muscle. Defects in this gene cause aortic aneurysm familial thoracic type 6. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
ACTB actin, beta|This gene encodes one of six different actin proteins. Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in cell motility, structure, and integrity. This actin is a major constituent of the contractile apparatus and one of the two nonmuscle cytoskeletal actins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACTBL2 actin, beta-like 2|
ACTR1A ARP1 actin-related protein 1 homolog A, centractin alpha (yeast)|This gene encodes a 42.6 kD subunit of dynactin, a macromolecular complex consisting of 10-11 subunits ranging in size from 22 to 150 kD. Dynactin binds to both microtubules and cytoplasmic dynein. It is involved in a diverse array of cellular functions, including ER-to-Golgi transport, the centripetal movement of lysosomes and endosomes, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear positioning, and axonogenesis. This subunit is present in 8-13 copies per dynactin molecule, and is the most abundant molecule in the dynactin complex. It is an actin-related protein, and is approximately 60% identical at the amino acid level to conventional actin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACTR5 ARP5 actin-related protein 5 homolog (yeast)|
ADAMTS10 ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 10|This gene belongs to the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain with thrombospondin type-1 motifs) family of zinc-dependent proteases. ADAMTS proteases are complex secreted enzymes containing a prometalloprotease domain of the reprolysin type attached to an ancillary domain with a highly conserved structure that includes at least one thrombospondin type 1 repeat. They have been demonstrated to have important roles in connective tissue organization, coagulation, inflammation, arthritis, angiogenesis and cell migration. The product of this gene plays a major role in growth and in skin, lens, and heart development. It is also a candidate gene for autosomal recessive Weill-Marchesani syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADD1 adducin 1 (alpha)|Adducins are a family of cytoskeleton proteins encoded by three genes (alpha, beta, gamma). Adducin is a heterodimeric protein that consists of related subunits, which are produced from distinct genes but share a similar structure. Alpha- and beta-adducin include a protease-resistant N-terminal region and a protease-sensitive, hydrophilic C-terminal region. Alpha- and gamma-adducins are ubiquitously expressed. In contrast, beta-adducin is expressed at high levels in brain and hematopoietic tissues. Adducin binds with high affinity to Ca(2+)/calmodulin and is a substrate for protein kinases A and C. Alternative splicing results in multiple variants encoding distinct isoforms; however, not all variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ADD3 adducin 3 (gamma)|Adducins are heteromeric proteins composed of different subunits referred to as adducin alpha, beta and gamma. The three subunits are encoded by distinct genes and belong to a family of membrane skeletal proteins involved in the assembly of spectrin-actin network in erythrocytes and at sites of cell-cell contact in epithelial tissues. While adducins alpha and gamma are ubiquitously expressed, the expression of adducin beta is restricted to brain and hematopoietic tissues. Adducin, originally purified from human erythrocytes, was found to be a heterodimer of adducins alpha and beta. Polymorphisms resulting in amino acid substitutions in these two subunits have been associated with the regulation of blood pressure in an animal model of hypertension. Heterodimers consisting of alpha and gamma subunits have also been described. Structurally, each subunit is comprised of two distinct domains. The amino-terminal region is protease resistant and globular in shape, while the carboxy-terminal region is protease sensitive. The latter contains multiple phosphorylation sites for protein kinase C, the binding site for calmodulin, and is required for association with spectrin and actin. Alternatively spliced adducin gamma transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. The functions of the different isoforms are not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AFAP1L2 actin filament associated protein 1-like 2|
AFF1 AF4/FMR2 family, member 1|
AFF4 AF4/FMR2 family, member 4|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the AF4 family of transcription factors involved in leukemia. It is a component of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex. A chromosomal translocation involving this gene and MLL gene on chromosome 11 is found in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia with ins(5;11)(q31;q31q23). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
AFG3L2 AFG3-like AAA ATPase 2|This gene encodes a protein localized in mitochondria and closely related to paraplegin. The paraplegin gene is responsible for an autosomal recessive form of hereditary spastic paraplegia. This gene is a candidate gene for other hereditary spastic paraplegias or neurodegenerative disorders. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AGAP1 ArfGAP with GTPase domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 1|This gene encodes a member of an ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein family involved in membrane trafficking and cytoskeleton dynamics. This gene functions as a direct regulator of the adaptor-related protein complex 3 on endosomes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
AGAP3 ArfGAP with GTPase domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 3|
AHNAK AHNAK nucleoprotein|
AIMP2 aminoacyl tRNA synthetase complex-interacting multifunctional protein 2|The JTV1 gene is located on chromosome 7p22 flanked by two genes, HRI and PMS2. JTV1 and HRI overlap slightly and are arranged in a tail-to-tail fashion. JTV1 and PMS2 are separated by approximately 200 base pairs and are arranged head-to-head. JTV1 is transcribed in the opposite direction compared to HRI and PMS2. The function of the JTV1 gene product is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AKAP13 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 13|The A-kinase anchor proteins (AKAPs) are a group of structurally diverse proteins which have the common function of binding to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and confining the holoenzyme to discrete locations within the cell. This gene encodes a member of the AKAP family. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms containing c-terminal dbl oncogene homology (DH) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains. The DH domain is associated with guanine nucleotide exchange activation for the Rho/Rac family of small GTP binding proteins, resulting in the conversion of the inactive GTPase to the active form capable of transducing signals. The PH domain has multiple functions. Therefore, these isoforms function as scaffolding proteins to coordinate a Rho signaling pathway, function as protein kinase A-anchoring proteins and, in addition, enhance ligand-dependent activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
AKAP8 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 8|This gene encodes a member of the A-kinase anchor protein family. A-kinase anchor proteins are scaffold proteins that contain a binding domain for the RI/RII subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) and recruit PKA and other signaling molecules to specific subcellular locations. This gene encodes a nuclear A-kinase anchor protein that binds to the RII alpha subunit of PKA and may play a role in chromosome condensation during mitosis by targeting PKA and the condensin complex to chromatin. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
ALPI alkaline phosphatase, intestinal|There are at least four distinct but related alkaline phosphatases: intestinal, placental, placental-like, and liver/bone/kidney (tissue non-specific). The intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene encodes a digestive brush-border enzyme. This enzyme is a component of the gut mucosal defense system and is thought to function in the detoxification of lipopolysaccharide, and in the prevention of bacterial translocation in the gut. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ALS2CR12 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) chromosome region, candidate 12|
AMBRA1 autophagy/beclin-1 regulator 1|
ANAPC1 anaphase promoting complex subunit 1|This gene encodes a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. This complex is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through the metaphase to anaphase portion of the cell cycle by ubiquitinating proteins which targets them for degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
ANAPC2 anaphase promoting complex subunit 2|A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition by ubiquitinating its specific substrates such as mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitor, which are subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. Biochemical studies have shown that the vertebrate APC contains eight subunits. The composition of the APC is highly conserved in organisms from yeast to humans. The product of this gene is a component of the complex and shares sequence similarity with a recently identified family of proteins called cullins, which may also be involved in ubiquitin-mediated degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ANAPC4 anaphase promoting complex subunit 4|A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition by ubiquitinating its specific substrates such as mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitor, which are subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. Biochemical studies have shown that the vertebrate APC contains eight subunits. The composition of the APC is highly conserved in organisms from yeast to humans. The exact function of this gene product is not known. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
ANAPC5 anaphase promoting complex subunit 5|This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat-containing component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls cell cycle progression by targeting a number of cell cycle regulators such as B-type cyclins for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation through ubiquitination. The encoded protein is required for the proper ubiquitination function of APC/C and for the interaction of APC/C with transcription coactivators. It also interacts with polyA binding protein and represses internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. These differences cause translation initiation at a downstream AUG and result in a shorter protein (isoform b), compared to isoform a. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
ANAPC7 anaphase promoting complex subunit 7|This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat containing component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls cell cycle progression by targeting a number of cell cycle regulators such as B-type cyclins for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation through ubiquitination. The encoded protein is required for proper protein ubiquitination function of APC/C and for the interaction of APC/C with certain transcription coactivators. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
ANKRD11 ankyrin repeat domain 11|This locus encodes an ankryin repeat domain-containing protein. The encoded protein inhibits ligand-dependent activation of transcription. Mutations in this gene have been associated with KBG syndrome, which is characterized by macrodontia, distinctive craniofacial features, short stature, skeletal anomalies, global developmental delay, seizures and intellectual disability. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. Related pseudogenes exist on chromosomes 2 and X. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
ANKRD28 ankyrin repeat domain 28|
ANKRD52 ankyrin repeat domain 52|
ANLN anillin, actin binding protein|This gene encodes an actin-binding protein that plays a role in cell growth and migration, and in cytokinesis. The encoded protein is thought to regulate actin cytoskeletal dynamics in podocytes, components of the glomerulus. Mutations in this gene are associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 8. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
ANP32A acidic (leucine-rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member A|
ANP32B acidic (leucine-rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member B|
ANP32C acidic (leucine-rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member C|Phosphoprotein 32 (PP32) is a tumor suppressor that can inhibit several types of cancers, including prostate and breast cancers. The protein encoded by this gene is one of at least two proteins that are similar in amino acid sequence to PP32 and are part of the same acidic nuclear phosphoprotein gene family. However, unlike PP32, the encoded protein is tumorigenic. The tumor suppressor function of PP32 has been localized to a 25 amino acid region that is divergent between PP32 and the protein encoded by this gene. This gene does not contain introns. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AP2B1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit|The protein encoded by this gene is one of two large chain components of the assembly protein complex 2, which serves to link clathrin to receptors in coated vesicles. The encoded protein is found on the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles in the plasma membrane. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APC adenomatous polyposis coli|This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein that acts as an antagonist of the Wnt signaling pathway. It is also involved in other processes including cell migration and adhesion, transcriptional activation, and apoptosis. Defects in this gene cause familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal dominant pre-malignant disease that usually progresses to malignancy. Disease-associated mutations tend to be clustered in a small region designated the mutation cluster region (MCR) and result in a truncated protein product. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
APC2 adenomatosis polyposis coli 2|
APPL1 adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1|The protein encoded by this gene has been shown to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, and in the crosstalk between the adiponectin signalling and insulin signalling pathways. The encoded protein binds many other proteins, including RAB5A, DCC, AKT2, PIK3CA, adiponectin receptors, and proteins of the NuRD/MeCP1 complex. This protein is found associated with endosomal membranes, but can be released by EGF and translocated to the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARAP2 ArfGAP with RhoGAP domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 2|The protein encoded by this gene contains ARF-GAP, RHO-GAP, ankyrin repeat, RAS-associating, and pleckstrin homology domains. The protein is a phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate-dependent Arf6 GAP that binds RhoA-GTP, but it lacks the predicted catalytic arginine in the RHO-GAP domain and does not have RHO-GAP activity. The protein associates with focal adhesions and functions downstream of RhoA to regulate focal adhesion dynamics. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
ARCN1 archain 1|This gene maps in a region, which include the mixed lineage leukemia and Friend leukemia virus integration 1 genes, where multiple disease-associated chromosome translocations occur. It is an intracellular protein. Archain sequences are well conserved among eukaryotes and this protein may play a fundamental role in eukaryotic cell biology. It has similarities to heat shock proteins and clathrin-associated proteins, and may be involved in vesicle structure or trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARFGEF1 ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 1 (brefeldin A-inhibited)|ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) play an important role in intracellular vesicular trafficking. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the activation of ARFs by accelerating replacement of bound GDP with GTP. It contains a Sec7 domain, which may be responsible for guanine-nucleotide exchange activity and also brefeldin A inhibition. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
ARFGEF2 ADP-ribosylation factor guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 2 (brefeldin A-inhibited)|ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) play an important role in intracellular vesicular trafficking. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the activation of ARFs by accelerating replacement of bound GDP with GTP and is involved in Golgi transport. It contains a Sec7 domain, which may be responsible for its guanine-nucleotide exchange activity and also brefeldin A inhibition. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARG1 arginase 1|Arginase catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. At least two isoforms of mammalian arginase exist (types I and II) which differ in their tissue distribution, subcellular localization, immunologic crossreactivity and physiologic function. The type I isoform encoded by this gene, is a cytosolic enzyme and expressed predominantly in the liver as a component of the urea cycle. Inherited deficiency of this enzyme results in argininemia, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hyperammonemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
ARHGAP1 Rho GTPase activating protein 1|This gene encodes a member of a large family of proteins that activate Rho-type guanosine triphosphate (GTP) metabolizing enzymes. The encoded protein contains a SRC homology 3 domain and interacts with Bcl-2-associated protein family members. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
ARHGAP9 Rho GTPase activating protein 9|This gene encodes a member of the Rho-GAP family of GTPase activating proteins. The protein has substantial GAP activity towards several Rho-family GTPases in vitro, converting them to an inactive GDP-bound state. It is implicated in regulating adhesion of hematopoietic cells to the extracellular matrix. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGEF10 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10|This gene encodes a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Rho GEFs regulate the activity of small Rho GTPases by stimulating the exchange of guanine diphosphate (GDP) for guanine triphosphate (GTP) and may play a role in neural morphogenesis. Mutations in this gene are associated with slowed nerve conduction velocity (SNCV). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]
ARHGEF12 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 12|Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli working through G protein-coupled receptors. The encoded protein may form a complex with G proteins and stimulate Rho-dependent signals. This protein has been observed to form a myeloid/lymphoid fusion partner in acute myeloid leukemia. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
ARHGEF18 Rho/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 18|Rho GTPases are GTP binding proteins that regulate a wide spectrum of cellular functions. These cellular processes include cytoskeletal rearrangements, gene transcription, cell growth and motility. Activation of Rho GTPases is under the direct control of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). The protein encoded by this gene is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor and belongs to the Rho GTPase GFE family. Family members share a common feature, a Dbl (DH) homology domain followed by a pleckstrin (PH) homology domain. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
ARHGEF25 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 25|Rho GTPases alternate between an inactive GDP-bound state and an active GTP-bound state, and GEFs facilitate GDP/GTP exchange. This gene encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) which interacts with Rho GTPases involved in contraction of vascular smooth muscles, regulation of responses to angiotensin II and lens cell differentiation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
ARHGEF6 Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 6|Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes that are initiated by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein belongs to a family of cytoplasmic proteins that activate the Ras-like family of Rho proteins by exchanging bound GDP for GTP. It may form a complex with G proteins and stimulate Rho-dependent signals. This protein is activated by PI3-kinase. Mutations in this gene can cause X-chromosomal non-specific mental retardation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARHGEF7 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 7|Rho GTPases play a fundamental role in numerous cellular processes triggered by extracellular stimuli that work through G protein coupled receptors. The encoded protein belongs to a family of cytoplasmic proteins that activate the Ras-like family of Rho proteins by exchanging bound GDP for GTP. It forms a complex with the small GTP binding protein Rac1 and recruits Rac1 to membrane ruffles and to focal adhesions. This protein can induce membrane ruffling. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARID1A AT rich interactive domain 1A (SWI-like)|This gene encodes a member of the SWI/SNF family, whose members have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. It possesses at least two conserved domains that could be important for its function. First, it has a DNA-binding domain that can specifically bind an AT-rich DNA sequence known to be recognized by a SNF/SWI complex at the beta-globin locus. Second, the C-terminus of the protein can stimulate glucocorticoid receptor-dependent transcriptional activation. It is thought that the protein encoded by this gene confers specificity to the SNF/SWI complex and may recruit the complex to its targets through either protein-DNA or protein-protein interactions. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARID1B AT rich interactive domain 1B (SWI1-like)|This locus encodes an AT-rich DNA interacting domain-containing protein. The encoded protein is a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and may play a role in cell-cycle activation. The protein encoded by this locus is similar to AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A. These two proteins function as alternative, mutually exclusive ARID-subunits of the SWI/SNF complex. The associated complexes play opposing roles. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
ARID3A AT rich interactive domain 3A (BRIGHT-like)|This gene encodes a member of the ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) family of DNA binding proteins. It was found by homology to the Drosophila dead ringer gene, which is important for normal embryogenesis. Other ARID family members have roles in embryonic patterning, cell lineage gene regulation, cell cycle control, transcriptional regulation, and possibly in chromatin structure modification. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARID3B AT rich interactive domain 3B (BRIGHT-like)|This gene encodes a member of the ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) family of DNA-binding proteins. The encoded protein is homologous with two proteins that bind to the retinoblastoma gene product, and also with the mouse Bright and Drosophila dead ringer proteins. A pseudogene on chromosome 1p31 exists for this gene. Members of the ARID family have roles in embryonic patterning, cell lineage gene regulation, cell cycle control, transcriptional regulation and possibly in chromatin structure modification. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARID4A AT rich interactive domain 4A (RBP1-like)|The protein encoded by this gene is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein. It binds directly, with several other proteins, to retinoblastoma protein (pRB) which regulates cell proliferation. pRB represses transcription by recruiting the encoded protein. This protein, in turn, serves as a bridging molecule to recruit HDACs and, in addition, provides a second HDAC-independent repression function. The encoded protein possesses transcriptional repression activity. Multiple alternatively spliced transcripts have been observed for this gene, although not all transcript variants have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARID4B AT rich interactive domain 4B (RBP1-like)|This gene encodes a protein with sequence similarity to retinoblastoma-binding protein-1. The encoded protein is a subunit of the histone deacetylase-dependant SIN3A transcriptional corepressor complex, which functions in diverse cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, oncogenesis, and cell fate determination. The gene product is recognized by IgG antibody isolated from a breast cancer patient and appears to be a molecular marker associated with a broad range of human malignancies. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARL14EP ADP-ribosylation factor-like 14 effector protein|The protein encoded by this gene is an effector protein. It interacts with ADP-ribosylation factor-like 14 [ARL14, also known as ADP-ribosylation factor 7 (ARF7)], beta-actin (ACTB) and actin-based motor protein myosin 1E (MYO1E). ARL14 is a small GTPase; it controls the export of major histocompatibility class II molecules by connecting to the actin network via this effector protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
ARMC3 armadillo repeat containing 3|Armadillo/beta-catenin (CTNNB1; MIM 116806)-like (ARM) domains are imperfect 45-amino acid repeats involved in protein-protein interactions. ARM domain-containing proteins, such as ARMC3, function in signal transduction, development, cell adhesion and mobility, and tumor initiation and metastasis (Li et al., 2006 [PubMed 16915934]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
ARMC7 armadillo repeat containing 7|
ARMC8 armadillo repeat containing 8|
ARNT aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator|This gene encodes a protein containing a basic helix-loop-helix domain and two characteristic PAS domains along with a PAC domain. The encoded protein binds to ligand-bound aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aids in the movement of this complex to the nucleus, where it promotes the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. This protein is also a co-factor for transcriptional regulation by hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Chromosomal translocation of this locus with the ETV6 (ets variant 6) gene on chromosome 12 have been described in leukemias. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]
ARSG arylsulfatase G|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the sulfatase enzyme family. Sulfatases hydrolyze sulfate esters from sulfated steroids, carbohydrates, proteoglycans, and glycolipids. They are involved in hormone biosynthesis, modulation of cell signaling, and degradation of macromolecules. This protein displays arylsulfatase activity at acidic pH, as is typical of lysosomal sulfatases, and has been shown to localize in the lysosomes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
ASAP2 ArfGAP with SH3 domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 2|This gene encodes a multidomain protein containing an N-terminal alpha-helical region with a coiled-coil motif, followed by a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, an Arf-GAP domain, an ankyrin homology region, a proline-rich region, and a C-terminal Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. The protein localizes in the Golgi apparatus and at the plasma membrane, where it colocalizes with protein tyrosine kinase 2-beta (PYK2). The encoded protein forms a stable complex with PYK2 in vivo. This interaction appears to be mediated by binding of its SH3 domain to the C-terminal proline-rich domain of PYK2. The encoded protein is tyrosine phosphorylated by activated PYK2. It has catalytic activity for class I and II ArfGAPs in vitro, and can bind the class III Arf ARF6 without immediate GAP activity. The encoded protein is believed to function as an ARF GAP that controls ARF-mediated vesicle budding when recruited to Golgi membranes. In addition, it functions as a substrate and downstream target for PYK2 and SRC, a pathway that may be involved in the regulation of vesicular transport. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
ASB2 ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing 2|This gene encodes a member of the ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing (ASB) protein family. These proteins play a role in protein degradation by coupling suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins with the elongin BC complex. The encoded protein is a subunit of a multimeric E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that mediates the degradation of actin-binding proteins. This gene plays a role in retinoic acid-induced growth inhibition and differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ASH2L ash2 (absent, small, or homeotic)-like (Drosophila)|
ATAD5 ATPase family, AAA domain containing 5|
ATE1 arginyltransferase 1|This gene encodes an arginyltransferase, an enzyme that is involved in posttranslational conjugation of arginine to N-terminal aspartate or glutamate residues. Conjugation of arginine to the N-terminal aspartate or glutamate targets proteins for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
ATF2 activating transcription factor 2|This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. The encoded protein may also be involved in cell's DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
ATF7 activating transcription factor 7|
ATF7IP activating transcription factor 7 interacting protein|ATF7IP is a multifunctional nuclear protein that associates with heterochromatin. It can act as a transcriptional coactivator or corepressor depending upon its binding partners (summary by Liu et al., 2009 [PubMed 19106100]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
ATG2B autophagy related 2B|
ATM ATM serine/threonine kinase|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. This protein is an important cell cycle checkpoint kinase that phosphorylates; thus, it functions as a regulator of a wide variety of downstream proteins, including tumor suppressor proteins p53 and BRCA1, checkpoint kinase CHK2, checkpoint proteins RAD17 and RAD9, and DNA repair protein NBS1. This protein and the closely related kinase ATR are thought to be master controllers of cell cycle checkpoint signaling pathways that are required for cell response to DNA damage and for genome stability. Mutations in this gene are associated with ataxia telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
ATP5A1 ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1, cardiac muscle|This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, using an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the catalytic core. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the different isoforms have been identified. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 9, 2, and 16. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
ATP5B ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide|This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the beta subunit of the catalytic core. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATR ATR serine/threonine kinase|The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia. This protein and ATM share similarity with Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3, a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This kinase has been shown to phosphorylate checkpoint kinase CHK1, checkpoint proteins RAD17, and RAD9, as well as tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. Mutations of this gene are associated with Seckel syndrome. An alternatively spliced transcript variant of this gene has been reported, however, its full length nature is not known. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA sites exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATRIP ATR interacting protein|This gene encodes an essential component of the DNA damage checkpoint. The encoded protein binds to single-stranded DNA coated with replication protein A. The protein also interacts with the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related protein kinase, resulting in its accumulation at intranuclear foci induced by DNA damage. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
ATXN1 ataxin 1|The autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of the cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord. Clinically, ADCA has been divided into three groups: ADCA types I-III. ADCAI is genetically heterogeneous, with five genetic loci, designated spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6, being assigned to five different chromosomes. ADCAII, which always presents with retinal degeneration (SCA7), and ADCAIII often referred to as the `pure' cerebellar syndrome (SCA5), are most likely homogeneous disorders. Several SCA genes have been cloned and shown to contain CAG repeats in their coding regions. ADCA is caused by the expansion of the CAG repeats, producing an elongated polyglutamine tract in the corresponding protein. The expanded repeats are variable in size and unstable, usually increasing in size when transmitted to successive generations. The function of the ataxins is not known. This locus has been mapped to chromosome 6, and it has been determined that the diseased allele contains 41-81 CAG repeats, compared to 6-39 in the normal allele, and is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1). At least two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
ATXN1L ataxin 1-like|
ATXN2 ataxin 2|The autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive degeneration of the cerebellum, brain stem and spinal cord. Clinically, ADCA has been divided into three groups: ADCA types I-III. Defects in this gene are the cause of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2). SCA2 belongs to the autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias type I (ADCA I) which are characterized by cerebellar ataxia in combination with additional clinical features like optic atrophy, ophthalmoplegia, bulbar and extrapyramidal signs, peripheral neuropathy and dementia. SCA2 is caused by expansion of a CAG repeat in the coding region of this gene. This locus has been mapped to chromosome 12, and it has been determined that the diseased allele contains 37-50 CAG repeats, compared to 17-29 in the normal allele. Longer expansions result in earlier onset of the disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified but their full length sequence has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
BABAM1 BRISC and BRCA1 A complex member 1|
BAG2 BCL2-associated athanogene 2|BAG proteins compete with Hip for binding to the Hsc70/Hsp70 ATPase domain and promote substrate release. All the BAG proteins have an approximately 45-amino acid BAG domain near the C terminus but differ markedly in their N-terminal regions. The predicted BAG2 protein contains 211 amino acids. The BAG domains of BAG1, BAG2, and BAG3 interact specifically with the Hsc70 ATPase domain in vitro and in mammalian cells. All 3 proteins bind with high affinity to the ATPase domain of Hsc70 and inhibit its chaperone activity in a Hip-repressible manner. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BAG6 BCL2-associated athanogene 6|This gene was first characterized as part of a cluster of genes located within the human major histocompatibility complex class III region. This gene encodes a nuclear protein that is cleaved by caspase 3 and is implicated in the control of apoptosis. In addition, the protein forms a complex with E1A binding protein p300 and is required for the acetylation of p53 in response to DNA damage. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BANP BTG3 associated nuclear protein|This gene encodes a protein that binds to matrix attachment regions. The protein forms a complex with p53 and negatively regulates p53 transcription, and functions as a tumor suppressor and cell cycle regulator. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
BARD1 BRCA1 associated RING domain 1|This gene encodes a protein which interacts with the N-terminal region of BRCA1. In addition to its ability to bind BRCA1 in vivo and in vitro, it shares homology with the 2 most conserved regions of BRCA1: the N-terminal RING motif and the C-terminal BRCT domain. The RING motif is a cysteine-rich sequence found in a variety of proteins that regulate cell growth, including the products of tumor suppressor genes and dominant protooncogenes. This protein also contains 3 tandem ankyrin repeats. The BARD1/BRCA1 interaction is disrupted by tumorigenic amino acid substitutions in BRCA1, implying that the formation of a stable complex between these proteins may be an essential aspect of BRCA1 tumor suppression. This protein may be the target of oncogenic mutations in breast or ovarian cancer. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
BCAM basal cell adhesion molecule (Lutheran blood group)|This gene encodes Lutheran blood group glycoprotein, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and a receptor for the extracellular matrix protein, laminin. The protein contains five extracellular immunoglobulin domains, a single transmembrane domain, and a short C-terminal cytoplasmic tail. This protein may play a role in epithelial cell cancer and in vaso-occlusion of red blood cells in sickle cell disease. Polymorphisms in this gene define some of the antigens in the Lutheran system and also the Auberger system. Inactivating variants of this gene result in the recessive Lutheran null phenotype, Lu(a-b-), of the Lutheran blood group. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
BCAS2 breast carcinoma amplified sequence 2|
BCL7C B-cell CLL/lymphoma 7C|This gene is identified by the similarity of its product to the N-terminal region of BCL7A protein. The BCL7A protein is encoded by the gene known to be directly involved in a three-way gene translocation in a Burkitt lymphoma cell line. The function of this gene has not yet been determined. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
BECN1 beclin 1, autophagy related|Beclin-1 participates in the regulation of autophagy and has an important role in development, tumorigenesis, and neurodegeneration (Zhong et al., 2009 [PubMed 19270693]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]
BEND3 BEN domain containing 3|
BLOC1S4 biogenesis of lysosomal organelles complex-1, subunit 4, cappuccino|This intronless gene encodes a protein that may play a role in organelle biogenesis associated with melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. A similar protein in mouse is a component of a protein complex termed biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1), and is a model for Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. The encoded protein may play a role in intracellular vesicular trafficking. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BPHL biphenyl hydrolase-like (serine hydrolase)|This gene encodes a member of the serine protease family of hydrolytic enzymes which contain a serine in their active site. The encoded protein may play a role in activation of the antiviral prodrug valacyclovir. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
BPIFB6 BPI fold containing family B, member 6|
BPTF bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor|This gene was identified by the reactivity of its encoded protein to a monoclonal antibody prepared against brain homogenates from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Analysis of the original protein (fetal Alz-50 reactive clone 1, or FAC1), identified as an 810 aa protein containing a DNA-binding domain and a zinc finger motif, suggested it might play a role in the regulation of transcription. High levels of FAC1 were detected in fetal brain and in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The protein encoded by this gene is actually much larger than originally thought, and it also contains a C-terminal bromodomain characteristic of proteins that regulate transcription during proliferation. The encoded protein is highly similar to the largest subunit of the Drosophila NURF (nucleosome remodeling factor) complex. In Drosophila, the NURF complex, which catalyzes nucleosome sliding on DNA and interacts with sequence-specific transcription factors, is necessary for the chromatin remodeling required for transcription. Two alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described completely. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BRCA1 breast cancer 1, early onset|This gene encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in maintaining genomic stability, and it also acts as a tumor suppressor. The encoded protein combines with other tumor suppressors, DNA damage sensors, and signal transducers to form a large multi-subunit protein complex known as the BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex (BASC). This gene product associates with RNA polymerase II, and through the C-terminal domain, also interacts with histone deacetylase complexes. This protein thus plays a role in transcription, DNA repair of double-stranded breaks, and recombination. Mutations in this gene are responsible for approximately 40% of inherited breast cancers and more than 80% of inherited breast and ovarian cancers. Alternative splicing plays a role in modulating the subcellular localization and physiological function of this gene. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants, some of which are disease-associated mutations, have been described for this gene, but the full-length natures of only some of these variants has been described. A related pseudogene, which is also located on chromosome 17, has been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
BRCC3 BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex, subunit 3|This gene encodes a subunit of the BRCA1-BRCA2-containing complex (BRCC), which is an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This complex plays a role in the DNA damage response, where it is responsible for the stable accumulation of BRCA1 at DNA break sites. The component encoded by this gene can specifically cleave Lys 63-linked polyubiquitin chains, and it regulates the abundance of these polyubiquitin chains in chromatin. The loss of this gene results in abnormal angiogenesis and is associated with syndromic moyamoya, a cerebrovascular angiopathy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
BRD8 bromodomain containing 8|The protein encoded by this gene interacts with thyroid hormone receptor in a ligand-dependent manner and enhances thyroid hormone-dependent activation from thyroid response elements. This protein contains a bromodomain and is thought to be a nuclear receptor coactivator. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
BRE brain and reproductive organ-expressed (TNFRSF1A modulator)|
BRMS1 breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1|This gene reduces the metastatic potential, but not the tumorogenicity, of human breast cancer and melanoma cell lines. The protein encoded by this gene localizes primarily to the nucleus and is a component of the mSin3a family of histone deacetylase complexes (HDAC). The protein contains two coiled-coil motifs and several imperfect leucine zipper motifs. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BTBD10 BTB (POZ) domain containing 10|
BYSL bystin-like|Bystin is expressed as a 2-kb major transcript and a 3.6-kb minor transcript in SNG-M cells and in human trophoblastic teratocarcinoma HT-H cells. Protein binding assays determined that bystin binds directly to trophinin and tastin, and that binding is enhanced when cytokeratins 8 and 18 are present. Immunocytochemistry of HT-H cells showed that bystin colocalizes with trophinin, tastin, and the cytokeratins, suggesting that these molecules form a complex in trophectoderm cells at the time of implantation. Using immunohistochemistry it was determined that trophinin and bystin are found in the placenta from the sixth week of pregnancy. Both proteins were localized in the cytoplasm of the syncytiotrophoblast in the chorionic villi and in endometrial decidual cells at the uteroplacental interface. After week 10, the levels of trophinin, tastin, and bystin decreased and then disappeared from placental villi. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
C11ORF30 chromosome 11 open reading frame 30|
C12ORF10 chromosome 12 open reading frame 10|
C12ORF43 chromosome 12 open reading frame 43|
C17ORF59 chromosome 17 open reading frame 59|
C17ORF75 chromosome 17 open reading frame 75|
C1ORF112 chromosome 1 open reading frame 112|
C1ORF226 chromosome 1 open reading frame 226|
C20ORF195 chromosome 20 open reading frame 195|
C4A complement component 4A (Rodgers blood group)|This gene encodes the acidic form of complement factor 4, part of the classical activation pathway. The protein is expressed as a single chain precursor which is proteolytically cleaved into a trimer of alpha, beta, and gamma chains prior to secretion. The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha chain is cleaved to release C4 anaphylatoxin, an antimicrobial peptide and a mediator of local inflammation. Deficiency of this protein is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and type I diabetes mellitus. This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Varying haplotypes of this gene cluster exist, such that individuals may have 1, 2, or 3 copies of this gene. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
CA9 carbonic anhydrase IX|Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a large family of zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. They participate in a variety of biological processes, including respiration, calcification, acid-base balance, bone resorption, and the formation of aqueous humor, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and gastric acid. They show extensive diversity in tissue distribution and in their subcellular localization. CA IX is a transmembrane protein and is one of only two tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes known. It is expressed in all clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, but is not detected in normal kidney or most other normal tissues. It may be involved in cell proliferation and transformation. This gene was mapped to 17q21.2 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, however, radiation hybrid mapping localized it to 9p13-p12. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
CABIN1 calcineurin binding protein 1|Calcineurin plays an important role in the T-cell receptor-mediated signal transduction pathway. The protein encoded by this gene binds specifically to the activated form of calcineurin and inhibits calcineurin-mediated signal transduction. The encoded protein is found in the nucleus and contains a leucine zipper domain as well as several PEST motifs, sequences which confer targeted degradation to those proteins which contain them. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding two different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
CAD carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase|The de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides is required for mammalian cells to proliferate. This gene encodes a trifunctional protein which is associated with the enzymatic activities of the first 3 enzymes in the 6-step pathway of pyrimidine biosynthesis: carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS II), aspartate transcarbamoylase, and dihydroorotase. This protein is regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, which indicates a direct link between activation of the MAPK cascade and de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]
CALM1 calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta)|This gene encodes a member of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein family. It is one of three genes which encode an identical calcium binding protein which is one of the four subunits of phosphorylase kinase. Two pseudogenes have been identified on chromosome 7 and X. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
CALML3 calmodulin-like 3|
CALML5 calmodulin-like 5|This gene encodes a novel calcium binding protein expressed in the epidermis and related to the calmodulin family of calcium binding proteins. Functional studies with recombinant protein demonstrate it does bind calcium and undergoes a conformational change when it does so. Abundant expression is detected only in reconstructed epidermis and is restricted to differentiating keratinocytes. In addition, it can associate with transglutaminase 3, shown to be a key enzyme in the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CAMK2B calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta|The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a beta chain. It is possible that distinct isoforms of this chain have different cellular localizations and interact differently with calmodulin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
CAMK2D calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta|The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells, the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a delta chain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Distinct isoforms of this chain have different expression patterns.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
CAMK2G calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma|The product of this gene is one of the four subunits of an enzyme which belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. Calcium signaling is crucial for several aspects of plasticity at glutamatergic synapses. In mammalian cells the enzyme is composed of four different chains: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. The product of this gene is a gamma chain. Many alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described but the full-length nature of all the variants has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
CAPNS1 calpain, small subunit 1|This gene is a member of the calpain small subunit family. Calpains are calcium-dependent cysteine proteinases that are widely distributed in mammalian cells. Calpains operate as heterodimers, comprising a specific large catalytic subunit (calpain 1 subunit in Calpain I, and calpain 2 subunit in Calpain II), and a common small regulatory subunit encoded by this gene. This encoded protein is essential for the stability and function of both calpain heterodimers, whose proteolytic activities influence various cellular functions including apoptosis, proliferation, migration, adhesion, and autophagy. Calpains have been implicated in neurodegenerative processes, such as myotonic dystrophy. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
CAPRIN1 cell cycle associated protein 1|
CAPZA1 capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 1|CAPZA1 is a member of the F-actin capping protein alpha subunit family. This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein. The protein regulates growth of the actin filament by capping the barbed end of growing actin filaments. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CAPZA2 capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the F-actin capping protein alpha subunit family. It is the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein Cap Z. By capping the barbed end of actin filaments, Cap Z regulates the growth of the actin filaments at the barbed end. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CAPZB capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, beta|This gene encodes the beta subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein, which belongs to the F-actin capping protein family. The capping protein is a heterodimeric actin capping protein that blocks actin filament assembly and disassembly at the fast growing (barbed) filament ends and functions in regulating actin filament dynamics as well as in stabilizing actin filament lengths in muscle and nonmuscle cells. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 2. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
CASC5 cancer susceptibility candidate 5|The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the multiprotein assembly that is required for creation of kinetochore-microtubule attachments and chromosome segregation. The encoded protein functions as a scaffold for proteins that influence the spindle assembly checkpoint during the eukaryotic cell cycle and it interacts with at least five different kinetochore proteins and two checkpoint kinases. In adults, this gene is predominantly expressed in normal testes, various cancer cell lines and primary tumors from other tissues and is ubiquitously expressed in fetal tissues. This gene was originally identified as a fusion partner with the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene in t(11;15)(q23;q14). Mutations in this gene cause autosomal recessive primary microcephaly-4 (MCPH4). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Additional splice variants have been described but their biological validity has not been confirmed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
CASP7 caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase|This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. The precursor of the encoded protein is cleaved by caspase 3 and 10, is activated upon cell death stimuli and induces apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
CAST calpastatin|The protein encoded by this gene is an endogenous calpain (calcium-dependent cysteine protease) inhibitor. It consists of an N-terminal domain L and four repetitive calpain-inhibition domains (domains 1-4), and it is involved in the proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein. The calpain/calpastatin system is involved in numerous membrane fusion events, such as neural vesicle exocytosis and platelet and red-cell aggregation. The encoded protein is also thought to affect the expression levels of genes encoding structural or regulatory proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
CBLC Cbl proto-oncogene C, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|This gene encodes a member of the Cbl family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. Cbl proteins play important roles in cell signaling through the ubiquitination and subsequent downregulation of tyrosine kinases. Expression of this gene may be restricted to epithelial cells, and alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
CBLL1 Cbl proto-oncogene-like 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|This gene encodes an E3 ubiquitin-ligase for the E-cadherin complex and mediates its ubiquitination, endocytosis, and degradation in the lysosomes. The encoded protein contains a RING-finger domain and is also thought to have a role in control of cell proliferation. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome X. Alternative splicing results in a non-coding transcript variant. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
CBR1 carbonyl reductase 1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) family, which function as NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases having wide specificity for carbonyl compounds, such as quinones, prostaglandins, and various xenobiotics. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
CCAR1 cell division cycle and apoptosis regulator 1|
CCDC106 coiled-coil domain containing 106|
CCDC157 coiled-coil domain containing 157|
CCDC18 coiled-coil domain containing 18|
CCDC25 coiled-coil domain containing 25|
CCDC37 coiled-coil domain containing 37|
CCDC65 coiled-coil domain containing 65|This gene encodes a sperm tail protein that is highly expressed in adult testis, spermatocytes and spermatids. The protein plays a critical role in the assembly of the nexin-dynein regulatory complex. Mutations in this gene result in primary ciliary dyskinesia. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
CCDC88C coiled-coil domain containing 88C|This gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed coiled-coil domain-containing protein that interacts with the dishevelled protein and is a negative regulator of the Wnt signalling pathway. The protein encoded by this gene has a PDZ-domain binding motif in its C-terminus with which it interacts with the dishevelled protein. Dishevelled is a scaffold protein involved in the regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in embryonic development, tissue maintenance, and cancer progression. Mutations in this gene cause autosomal recessive, primary non-syndromic congenital hydrocephalus; a condition characterized by excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
CCNT1 cyclin T1|This gene encodes a member of the highly conserved cyclin C subfamily. The encoded protein tightly associates with cyclin-dependent kinase 9, and is a major subunit of positive transcription elongation factor b (p-TEFb). In humans, there are multiple forms of positive transcription elongation factor b, which may include one of several different cyclins along with cyclin-dependent kinase 9. The complex containing the encoded cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 acts as a cofactor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein, and is both necessary and sufficient for full activation of viral transcription. This cyclin and its kinase partner are also involved in triggering transcript elongation through phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest RNA polymerase II subunit. Overexpression of this gene is implicated in tumor growth. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2013]
CCP110 centriolar coiled coil protein 110kDa|
CD1E CD1e molecule|This gene encodes a member of the CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins, which are structurally related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins and form heterodimers with beta-2-microglobulin. The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. The human genome contains five CD1 family genes organized in a cluster on chromosome 1. The CD1 family members are thought to differ in their cellular localization and specificity for particular lipid ligands. The protein encoded by this gene localizes within Golgi compartments, endosomes, and lysosomes, and is cleaved into a stable soluble form. The soluble form is required for the intracellular processing of some glycolipids into a form that can be presented by other CD1 family members. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. Additional transcript variants have been found; however, their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
CD2AP CD2-associated protein|This gene encodes a scaffolding molecule that regulates the actin cytoskeleton. The protein directly interacts with filamentous actin and a variety of cell membrane proteins through multiple actin binding sites, SH3 domains, and a proline-rich region containing binding sites for SH3 domains. The cytoplasmic protein localizes to membrane ruffles, lipid rafts, and the leading edges of cells. It is implicated in dynamic actin remodeling and membrane trafficking that occurs during receptor endocytosis and cytokinesis. Haploinsufficiency of this gene is implicated in susceptibility to glomerular disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CDC16 cell division cycle 16|This gene encodes a component protein of the APC complex, which is composed of eight proteins and functions as a protein ubiquitin ligase. The APC complex is a cyclin degradation system that governs exit from mitosis. Each component protein of the APC complex is highly conserved among eukaryotic organisms. This protein and two other APC complex proteins, CDC23 and CDC27, contain a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR), a protein domain that may be involved in protein-protein interaction. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CDC23 cell division cycle 23|The protein encoded by this gene shares strong similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc23, a protein essential for cell cycle progression through the G2/M transition. This protein is a component of anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which is composed of eight protein subunits and highly conserved in eukaryotic cells. APC catalyzes the formation of cyclin B-ubiquitin conjugate that is responsible for the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of B-type cyclins. This protein and 3 other members of the APC complex contain the TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat), a protein domain important for protein-protein interaction. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CDC27 cell division cycle 27|The protein encoded by this gene shares strong similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Cdc27, and the gene product of Schizosaccharomyces pombe nuc 2. This protein is a component of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which is composed of eight protein subunits and is highly conserved in eukaryotic cells. This complex catalyzes the formation of cyclin B-ubiquitin conjugate, which is responsible for the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of B-type cyclins. The protein encoded by this gene and three other members of the APC complex contain tetratricopeptide (TPR) repeats, which are important for protein-protein interactions. This protein was shown to interact with mitotic checkpoint proteins including Mad2, p55CDC and BUBR1, and it may thus be involved in controlling the timing of mitosis. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 2, 22 and Y. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
CDC37 cell division cycle 37|The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to Cdc 37, a cell division cycle control protein of Sacchromyces cerevisiae. This protein is a molecular chaperone with specific function in cell signal transduction. It has been shown to form complex with Hsp90 and a variety of protein kinases including CDK4, CDK6, SRC, RAF-1, MOK, as well as eIF2 alpha kinases. It is thought to play a critical role in directing Hsp90 to its target kinases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CDC42BPA CDC42 binding protein kinase alpha (DMPK-like)|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family. This kinase contains multiple functional domains. Its kinase domain is highly similar to that of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK). This kinase also contains a Rac interactive binding (CRIB) domain, and has been shown to bind CDC42. It may function as a CDC42 downstream effector mediating CDC42 induced peripheral actin formation, and promoting cytoskeletal reorganization. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, and the full-length nature of two of them has been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CDC42BPG CDC42 binding protein kinase gamma (DMPK-like)|
CDC73 cell division cycle 73|This gene encodes a tumor suppressor that is involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional control pathways. The protein is a component of the the PAF protein complex, which associates with the RNA polymerase II subunit POLR2A and with a histone methyltransferase complex. This protein appears to facilitate the association of 3' mRNA processing factors with actively-transcribed chromatin. Mutations in this gene have been linked to hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, and parathyroid carcinoma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
CDHR5 cadherin-related family member 5|This gene is a novel mucin-like gene that is a member of the cadherin superfamily. While encoding nonpolymorphic tandem repeats rich in proline, serine and threonine similar to mucin proteins, the gene also contains sequence encoding calcium-binding motifs found in all cadherins. The role of the hybrid extracellular region and the specific function of this protein have not yet been determined. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
CDK11A cyclin-dependent kinase 11A|This gene encodes a member of the p34Cdc2 protein kinase family. p34Cdc2 kinase family members are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. This gene is in close proximity to CDC2L1, a nearly identical gene in the same chromosomal region. The gene loci including this gene, CDC2L1, as well as metalloprotease MMP21/22, consist of two identical, tandemly linked genomic regions, which are thought to be a part of the larger region that has been duplicated. This gene and CDC2L1 were shown to be deleted or altered frequently in neuroblastoma with amplified MYCN genes. The protein kinase encoded by this gene could be cleaved by caspases and was demonstrated to play roles in cell apoptosis. Many transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene, but the full-length nature of only two have been determined so far. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CDK11B cyclin-dependent kinase 11B|This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. Members of this kinase family are known to be essential for eukaryotic cell cycle control. Due to a segmental duplication, this gene shares very high sequence identity with a neighboring gene. These two genes are frequently deleted or altered in neuroblastoma. The protein kinase encoded by this gene can be cleaved by caspases and may play a role in cell apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
CDK5 cyclin-dependent kinase 5|This gene encodes a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase that is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family of proteins. Unlike other members of the family, the protein encoded by this gene does not directly control cell cycle regulation. Instead the protein, which is predominantly expressed at high levels in mammalian postmitotic central nervous system neurons, functions in diverse processes such as synaptic plasticity and neuronal migration through phosphorylation of proteins required for cytoskeletal organization, endocytosis and exocytosis, and apoptosis. In humans, an allelic variant of the gene that results in undetectable levels of the protein has been associated with lethal autosomal recessive lissencephaly-7. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2015]
CDK5RAP2 CDK5 regulatory subunit associated protein 2|This gene encodes a regulator of CDK5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) activity. The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the centrosome and Golgi complex, interacts with CDK5R1 and pericentrin (PCNT), plays a role in centriole engagement and microtubule nucleation, and has been linked to primary microcephaly and Alzheimer's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
CDK9 cyclin-dependent kinase 9|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) family. CDK family members are highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28, and S. pombe cdc2, and known as important cell cycle regulators. This kinase was found to be a component of the multiprotein complex TAK/P-TEFb, which is an elongation factor for RNA polymerase II-directed transcription and functions by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. This protein forms a complex with and is regulated by its regulatory subunit cyclin T or cyclin K. HIV-1 Tat protein was found to interact with this protein and cyclin T, which suggested a possible involvement of this protein in AIDS. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CDKN2AIP CDKN2A interacting protein|
CDSN corneodesmosin|This gene encodes a protein found in corneodesmosomes, which localize to human epidermis and other cornified squamous epithelia. The encoded protein undergoes a series of cleavages during corneocyte maturation. This gene is highly polymorphic in human populations, and variation has been associated with skin diseases such as psoriasis, hypotrichosis and peeling skin syndrome. The gene is located in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
CDT1 chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1|The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the formation of the pre-replication complex that is necessary for DNA replication. The encoded protein can bind geminin, which prevents replication and may function to prevent this protein from initiating replication at inappropriate origins. Phosphorylation of this protein by cyclin A-dependent kinases results in degradation of the protein. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
CDYL chromodomain protein, Y-like|Chromodomain Y is a primate-specific Y-chromosomal gene family expressed exclusively in the testis and implicated in infertility. Although the Y-linked genes are testis-specific, this autosomal gene is ubiquitously expressed. The Y-linked genes arose by retrotransposition of an mRNA from this gene, followed by amplification of the retroposed gene. Proteins encoded by this gene superfamily possess a chromodomain, a motif implicated in chromatin binding and gene suppression, and a catalytic domain believed to be involved in histone acetylation. Multiple proteins are encoded by transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CENPH centromere protein H|Centromere and kinetochore proteins play a critical role in centromere structure, kinetochore formation, and sister chromatid separation. The protein encoded by this gene colocalizes with inner kinetochore plate proteins CENP-A and CENP-C in both interphase and metaphase. It localizes outside of centromeric heterochromatin, where CENP-B is localized, and inside the kinetochore corona, where CENP-E is localized during prometaphase. It is thought that this protein can bind to itself, as well as to CENP-A, CENP-B or CENP-C. Multimers of the protein localize constitutively to the inner kinetochore plate and play an important role in the organization and function of the active centromere-kinetochore complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CEP131 centrosomal protein 131kDa|
CEP152 centrosomal protein 152kDa|This gene encodes a protein that is thought to be involved with centrosome function. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary microcephaly (MCPH4). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
CEP170 centrosomal protein 170kDa|The product of this gene is a component of the centrosome, a non-membraneous organelle that functions as the major microtubule-organizing center in animal cells. During interphase, the encoded protein localizes to the sub-distal appendages of mature centrioles, which are microtubule-based structures thought to help organize centrosomes. During mitosis, the protein associates with spindle microtubules near the centrosomes. The protein interacts with and is phosphorylated by polo-like kinase 1, and functions in maintaining microtubule organization and cell morphology. The human genome contains a putative transcribed pseudogene. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been found, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CEP44 centrosomal protein 44kDa|
CEP85 centrosomal protein 85kDa|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the centrosome-associated family of proteins. The centrosome is a subcellular organelle in the animal cell that functions as a microtubule organizing center and is involved in cell-cycle progression. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
CEP97 centrosomal protein 97kDa|
CFAP61 cilia and flagella associated protein 61|
CFL1 cofilin 1 (non-muscle)|The protein encoded by this gene can polymerize and depolymerize F-actin and G-actin in a pH-dependent manner. Increased phosphorylation of this protein by LIM kinase aids in Rho-induced reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Cofilin is a widely distributed intracellular actin-modulating protein that binds and depolymerizes filamentous F-actin and inhibits the polymerization of monomeric G-actin in a pH-dependent manner. It is involved in the translocation of actin-cofilin complex from cytoplasm to nucleus.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]
CFL2 cofilin 2 (muscle)|This gene encodes an intracellular protein that is involved in the regulation of actin-filament dynamics. This protein is a major component of intranuclear and cytoplasmic actin rods. It can bind G- and F-actin in a 1:1 ratio of cofilin to actin, and it reversibly controls actin polymerization and depolymerization in a pH-dependent manner. Mutations in this gene cause nemaline myopathy type 7, a form of congenital myopathy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
CHD4 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 4|The product of this gene belongs to the SNF2/RAD54 helicase family. It represents the main component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex and plays an important role in epigenetic transcriptional repression. Patients with dermatomyositis develop antibodies against this protein. Somatic mutations in this gene are associated with serous endometrial tumors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
CHUK conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase|This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein, a component of a cytokine-activated protein complex that is an inhibitor of the essential transcription factor NF-kappa-B complex, phosphorylates sites that trigger the degradation of the inhibitor via the ubiquination pathway, thereby activating the transcription factor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CIC capicua transcriptional repressor|The protein encoded by this gene is an ortholog of the Drosophila melanogaster capicua gene, and is a member of the high mobility group (HMG)-box superfamily of transcriptional repressors. This protein contains a conserved HMG domain that is involved in DNA binding and nuclear localization, and a conserved C-terminus. Studies suggest that the N-terminal region of this protein interacts with Atxn1 (GeneID:6310), to form a transcription repressor complex, and in vitro studies suggest that polyglutamine-expansion of ATXN1 may alter the repressor activity of this complex. Mutations in this gene have been associated with olidogdendrogliomas (PMID:21817013). In addition, translocation events resulting in gene fusions of this gene with both DUX4 (GeneID:100288687) and FOXO4 (GeneID:4303) have been associated with round cell sarcomas. There are multiple pseudogenes of this gene found on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 7, 16, 20, and the Y chromosome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]
CINP cyclin-dependent kinase 2 interacting protein|The protein encoded by this gene is reported to be a component of the DNA replication complex as well as a genome-maintenance protein. It may interact with proteins important for replication initiation and has been shown to bind chromatin at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and dissociate from chromatin with replication initiation. It may also serve to regulate checkpoint signaling as part of the DNA damage response. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
CIZ1 CDKN1A interacting zinc finger protein 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger DNA binding protein that interacts with CIP1, part of a complex with cyclin E. The encoded protein may regulate the cellular localization of CIP1. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
CLCF1 cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1|This gene is a member of the glycoprotein (gp)130 cytokine family and encodes cardiotrophin-like cytokine factor 1 (CLCF1). CLCF1 forms a heterodimer complex with cytokine receptor-like factor 1 (CRLF1). This dimer competes with ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) for binding to the ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor (CNTFR) complex, and activates the Jak-STAT signaling cascade. CLCF1 can be actively secreted from cells by forming a complex with soluble type I CRLF1 or soluble CNTFR. CLCF1 is a potent neurotrophic factor, B-cell stimulatory agent and neuroendocrine modulator of pituitary corticotroph function. Defects in CLCF1 cause cold-induced sweating syndrome 2 (CISS2). This syndrome is characterized by a profuse sweating after exposure to cold as well as congenital physical abnormalities of the head and spine. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
CLCN1 chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 1|The CLCN family of voltage-dependent chloride channel genes comprises nine members (CLCN1-7, Ka and Kb) which demonstrate quite diverse functional characteristics while sharing significant sequence homology. The protein encoded by this gene regulates the electric excitability of the skeletal muscle membrane. Mutations in this gene cause two forms of inherited human muscle disorders: recessive generalized myotonia congenita (Becker) and dominant myotonia (Thomsen). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
CLIC1 chloride intracellular channel 1|Chloride channels are a diverse group of proteins that regulate fundamental cellular processes including stabilization of cell membrane potential, transepithelial transport, maintenance of intracellular pH, and regulation of cell volume. Chloride intracellular channel 1 is a member of the p64 family; the protein localizes principally to the cell nucleus and exhibits both nuclear and plasma membrane chloride ion channel activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CLINT1 clathrin interactor 1|This gene encodes a protein with similarity to the epsin family of endocytic adapter proteins. The encoded protein interacts with clathrin, the adapter protein AP-1 and phosphoinositides. This protein may be involved in the formation of clathrin coated vesicles and trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and endosomes. Mutations in this gene are associated with a susceptibility to schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
CLIP1 CAP-GLY domain containing linker protein 1|The protein encoded by this gene links endocytic vesicles to microtubules. This gene is highly expressed in Reed-Sternberg cells of Hodgkin disease. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
CLIP2 CAP-GLY domain containing linker protein 2|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of cytoplasmic linker proteins, which have been proposed to mediate the interaction between specific membranous organelles and microtubules. This protein was found to associate with both microtubules and an organelle called the dendritic lamellar body. This gene is hemizygously deleted in Williams syndrome, a multisystem developmental disorder caused by the deletion of contiguous genes at 7q11.23. Alternative splicing of this gene generates 2 transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CLPP caseinolytic mitochondrial matrix peptidase proteolytic subunit|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the peptidase family S14 and hydrolyzes proteins into small peptides in the presence of ATP and magnesium. The protein is transported into mitochondrial matrix and is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CMTR1 cap methyltransferase 1|
CNOT10 CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 10|
CNOT3 CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 3|
CNOT7 CCR4-NOT transcription complex, subunit 7|The protein encoded by this gene binds to an anti-proliferative protein, B-cell translocation protein 1, which negatively regulates cell proliferation. Binding of the two proteins, which is driven by phosphorylation of the anti-proliferative protein, causes signaling events in cell division that lead to changes in cell proliferation associated with cell-cell contact. The encoded protein downregulates the innate immune response and therefore provides a therapeutic target for enhancing its antimicrobial activity against foreign agents. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
COLGALT1 collagen beta(1-O)galactosyltransferase 1|
COPB1 coatomer protein complex, subunit beta 1|This gene encodes a protein subunit of the coatomer complex associated with non-clathrin coated vesicles. The coatomer complex, also known as the coat protein complex 1, forms in the cytoplasm and is recruited to the Golgi by activated guanosine triphosphatases. Once at the Golgi membrane, the coatomer complex may assist in the movement of protein and lipid components back to the endoplasmic reticulum. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
CORO1C coronin, actin binding protein, 1C|This gene encodes a member of the WD repeat protein family. WD repeats are minimally conserved regions of approximately 40 amino acids typically bracketed by gly-his and trp-asp (GH-WD), which may facilitate formation of heterotrimeric or multiprotein complexes. Members of this family are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, apoptosis, and gene regulation. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]
COX4I1 cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1|Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. It is a multi-subunit enzyme complex that couples the transfer of electrons from cytochrome c to molecular oxygen and contributes to a proton electrochemical gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The complex consists of 13 mitochondrial- and nuclear-encoded subunits. The mitochondrially-encoded subunits perform the electron transfer and proton pumping activities. The functions of the nuclear-encoded subunits are unknown but they may play a role in the regulation and assembly of the complex. This gene encodes the nuclear-encoded subunit IV isoform 1 of the human mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme. It is located at the 3' of the NOC4 (neighbor of COX4) gene in a head-to-head orientation, and shares a promoter with it. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CPD carboxypeptidase D|The metallocarboxypeptidase family of enzymes is divided into 2 subfamilies based on sequence similarities. The pancreatic carboxypeptidase-like and the regulatory B-type carboxypeptidase subfamilies. Carboxypeptidase D has been identified as a regulatory B-type carboxypeptidase. CPD is a homolog of duck gp180, a hepatitis B virus-binding protein. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyadenylation signals exist for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CPS1 carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1, mitochondrial|The mitochondrial enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from ammonia and bicarbonate. This reaction is the first committed step of the urea cycle, which is important in the removal of excess urea from cells. The encoded protein may also represent a core mitochondrial nucleoid protein. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The shortest isoform may not be localized to the mitochondrion. Mutations in this gene have been associated with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency, susceptibility to persistent pulmonary hypertension, and susceptibility to venoocclusive disease after bone marrow transplantation.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
CPSF1 cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 1, 160kDa|Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) is a multisubunit complex that plays a central role in 3-prime processing of pre-mRNAs. CPSF recognizes the AAUAAA signal in the pre-mRNA and interacts with other proteins to facilitate both RNA cleavage and poly(A) synthesis. CPSF1 is the largest subunit of the CPSF complex (Murthy and Manley, 1995 [PubMed 7590244]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
CPSF2 cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 2, 100kDa|
CPSF3 cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 3, 73kDa|This gene encodes a member of the metallo-beta-lactamase family. The encoded protein is a 73kDa subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor and functions as an endonuclease that recognizes the pre-mRNA 3'-cleavage site AAUAAA prior to polyadenylation. It also cleaves after the pre-mRNA sequence ACCCA during histone 3'-end pre-mRNA processing. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]
CPSF4 cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4, 30kDa|Inhibition of the nuclear export of poly(A)-containing mRNAs caused by the influenza A virus NS1 protein requires its effector domain. The NS1 effector domain functionally interacts with the cellular 30 kDa subunit of cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4, an essential component of the 3' end processing machinery of cellular pre-mRNAs. In influenza virus-infected cells, the NS1 protein is physically associated with cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 4, 30kD subunit. Binding of the NS1 protein to the 30 kDa protein in vitro prevents CPSF binding to the RNA substrate and inhibits 3' end cleavage and polyadenylation of host pre-mRNAs. Thus the NS1 protein selectively inhibits the nuclear export of cellular, and not viral, mRNAs. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CPSF6 cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 6, 68kDa|The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a cleavage factor required for 3' RNA cleavage and polyadenylation processing. The interaction of the protein with the RNA is one of the earliest steps in the assembly of the 3' end processing complex and facilitates the recruitment of other processing factors. The cleavage factor complex is composed of four polypeptides. This gene encodes the 68kD subunit. It has a domain organization reminiscent of spliceosomal proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CPSF7 cleavage and polyadenylation specific factor 7, 59kDa|
CREBBP CREB binding protein|This gene is ubiquitously expressed and is involved in the transcriptional coactivation of many different transcription factors. First isolated as a nuclear protein that binds to cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), this gene is now known to play critical roles in embryonic development, growth control, and homeostasis by coupling chromatin remodeling to transcription factor recognition. The protein encoded by this gene has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity and also acts as a scaffold to stabilize additional protein interactions with the transcription complex. This protein acetylates both histone and non-histone proteins. This protein shares regions of very high sequence similarity with protein p300 in its bromodomain, cysteine-histidine-rich regions, and histone acetyltransferase domain. Mutations in this gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). Chromosomal translocations involving this gene have been associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
CRMP1 collapsin response mediator protein 1|This gene encodes a member of a family of cytosolic phosphoproteins expressed exclusively in the nervous system. The encoded protein is thought to be a part of the semaphorin signal transduction pathway implicated in semaphorin-induced growth cone collapse during neural development. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CRTC1 CREB regulated transcription coactivator 1|
CRY2 cryptochrome circadian clock 2|This gene encodes a flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding protein that is a key component of the circadian core oscillator complex, which regulates the circadian clock. This gene is upregulated by CLOCK/ARNTL heterodimers but then represses this upregulation in a feedback loop using PER/CRY heterodimers to interact with CLOCK/ARNTL. Polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with altered sleep patterns. The encoded protein is widely conserved across plants and animals. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
CSNK2A1 casein kinase 2, alpha 1 polypeptide|Casein kinase II is a serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates acidic proteins such as casein. It is involved in various cellular processes, including cell cycle control, apoptosis, and circadian rhythm. The kinase exists as a tetramer and is composed of an alpha, an alpha-prime, and two beta subunits. The alpha subunits contain the catalytic activity while the beta subunits undergo autophosphorylation. The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit. While this gene is found on chromosome 20, a related transcribed pseudogene is found on chromosome 11. Three transcript variants encoding two different proteins have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
CSNK2A2 casein kinase 2, alpha prime polypeptide|
CSNK2B casein kinase 2, beta polypeptide|This gene encodes the beta subunit of casein kinase II, a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and replication. The enzyme is composed of three subunits, alpha, alpha prime and beta, which form a tetrameric holoenzyme. The alpha and alpha prime subunits are catalytic, while the beta subunit serves regulatory functions. The enzyme localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
CSRP2BP CSRP2 binding protein|CSRP2 is a protein containing two LIM domains, which are double zinc finger motifs found in proteins of diverse function. CSRP2 and some related proteins are thought to act as protein adapters, bridging two or more proteins to form a larger protein complex. The protein encoded by this gene binds to one of the LIM domains of CSRP2 and contains an acetyltransferase domain. Although the encoded protein has been detected in the cytoplasm, it is predominantly a nuclear protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
CSTF1 cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 1, 50kDa|This gene encodes one of three subunits which combine to form cleavage stimulation factor (CSTF). CSTF is involved in the polyadenylation and 3'end cleavage of pre-mRNAs. Similar to mammalian G protein beta subunits, this protein contains transducin-like repeats. Several transcript variants with different 5' UTR, but encoding the same protein, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CSTF2 cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 2, 64kDa|This gene encodes a nuclear protein with an RRM (RNA recognition motif) domain. The protein is a member of the cleavage stimulation factor (CSTF) complex that is involved in the 3' end cleavage and polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs. Specifically, this protein binds GU-rich elements within the 3'-untranslated region of mRNAs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CSTF2T cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 2, 64kDa, tau variant|
CSTF3 cleavage stimulation factor, 3' pre-RNA, subunit 3, 77kDa|The protein encoded by this gene is one of three (including CSTF1 and CSTF2) cleavage stimulation factors that combine to form the cleavage stimulation factor complex (CSTF). This complex is involved in the polyadenylation and 3' end cleavage of pre-mRNAs. The encoded protein functions as a homodimer and interacts directly with both CSTF1 and CSTF2 in the CSTF complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CTBP1 C-terminal binding protein 1|This gene encodes a protein that binds to the C-terminus of adenovirus E1A proteins. This phosphoprotein is a transcriptional repressor and may play a role during cellular proliferation. This protein and the product of a second closely related gene, CTBP2, can dimerize. Both proteins can also interact with a polycomb group protein complex which participates in regulation of gene expression during development. Alternative splicing of transcripts from this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CTBP2 C-terminal binding protein 2|This gene produces alternative transcripts encoding two distinct proteins. One protein is a transcriptional repressor, while the other isoform is a major component of specialized synapses known as synaptic ribbons. Both proteins contain a NAD+ binding domain similar to NAD+-dependent 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases. A portion of the 3' untranslated region was used to map this gene to chromosome 21q21.3; however, it was noted that similar loci elsewhere in the genome are likely. Blast analysis shows that this gene is present on chromosome 10. Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
CTNNA1 catenin (cadherin-associated protein), alpha 1, 102kDa|
CTR9 CTR9, Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex component|CTR9, parafibromin (CDC73; MIM 607393), LEO1 (MIM 610507), and PAF1 (MIM 610506) form the PAF protein complex, which associates with the RNA polymerase II subunit POLR2A (MIM 180660) and with a histone methyltransferase complex (Rozenblatt-Rosen et al., 2005 [PubMed 15632063]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
CTSD cathepsin D|This gene encodes a lysosomal aspartyl protease composed of a dimer of disulfide-linked heavy and light chains, both produced from a single protein precursor. This proteinase, which is a member of the peptidase C1 family, has a specificity similar to but narrower than that of pepsin A. Transcription of this gene is initiated from several sites, including one which is a start site for an estrogen-regulated transcript. Mutations in this gene are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including breast cancer and possibly Alzheimer disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CTTNBP2NL CTTNBP2 N-terminal like|
CUEDC2 CUE domain containing 2|
CUL1 cullin 1|
CUL4A cullin 4A|CUL4A is the ubiquitin ligase component of a multimeric complex involved in the degradation of DNA damage-response proteins (Liu et al., 2009 [PubMed 19481525]).[supplied by OMIM, Oct 2009]
CUL4B cullin 4B|This gene is a member of the cullin family. The encoded protein forms a complex that functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase and catalyzes the polyubiquitination of specific protein substrates in the cell. The protein interacts with a ring finger protein, and is required for the proteolysis of several regulators of DNA replication including chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1 and cyclin E. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CUL5 cullin 5|
CUTA cutA divalent cation tolerance homolog (E. coli)|
CUTC cutC copper transporter|Members of the CUT family of copper transporters are associated with copper homeostasis and are involved in the uptake, storage, delivery, and efflux of copper (Gupta et al., 1995 [PubMed 7635807]; Li et al., 2005 [PubMed 16182249]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
CUX1 cut-like homeobox 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the homeodomain family of DNA binding proteins. It may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation and it may also play a role in the cell cycle progession. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
CYFIP1 cytoplasmic FMR1 interacting protein 1|
DBT dihydrolipoamide branched chain transacylase E2|The branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD) is an inner-mitochondrial enzyme complex involved in the breakdown of the branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine. The BCKD complex is thought to be composed of a core of 24 transacylase (E2) subunits, and associated decarboxylase (E1), dehydrogenase (E3), and regulatory subunits. This gene encodes the transacylase (E2) subunit. Mutations in this gene result in maple syrup urine disease, type 2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DCP1A decapping mRNA 1A|Decapping is a key step in general and regulated mRNA decay. The protein encoded by this gene is a decapping enzyme. This protein and another decapping enzyme form a decapping complex, which interacts with the nonsense-mediated decay factor hUpf1 and may be recruited to mRNAs containing premature termination codons. This protein also participates in the TGF-beta signaling pathway. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
DCTN1 dynactin 1|This gene encodes the largest subunit of dynactin, a macromolecular complex consisting of 10 subunits ranging in size from 22 to 150 kD. Dynactin binds to both microtubules and cytoplasmic dynein. Dynactin is involved in a diverse array of cellular functions, including ER-to-Golgi transport, the centripetal movement of lysosomes and endosomes, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear positioning, and axonogenesis. This subunit interacts with dynein intermediate chain by its domains directly binding to dynein and binds to microtubules via a highly conserved glycine-rich cytoskeleton-associated protein (CAP-Gly) domain in its N-terminus. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Mutations in this gene cause distal hereditary motor neuronopathy type VIIB (HMN7B) which is also known as distal spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (dSBMA). [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
DCTN2 dynactin 2 (p50)|This gene encodes a 50-kD subunit of dynactin, a macromolecular complex consisting of 10-11 subunits ranging in size from 22 to 150 kD. Dynactin binds to both microtubules and cytoplasmic dynein. It is involved in a diverse array of cellular functions, including ER-to-Golgi transport, the centripetal movement of lysosomes and endosomes, spindle formation, chromosome movement, nuclear positioning, and axonogenesis. This subunit is present in 4-5 copies per dynactin molecule. It contains three short alpha-helical coiled-coil domains that may mediate association with self or other dynactin subunits. It may interact directly with the largest subunit (p150) of dynactin and may affix p150 in place. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
DDB1 damage-specific DNA binding protein 1, 127kDa|The protein encoded by this gene is the large subunit (p127) of the heterodimeric DNA damage-binding (DDB) complex while another protein (p48) forms the small subunit. This protein complex functions in nucleotide-excision repair and binds to DNA following UV damage. Defective activity of this complex causes the repair defect in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E (XPE) - an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by photosensitivity and early onset of carcinomas. However, it remains for mutation analysis to demonstrate whether the defect in XPE patients is in this gene or the gene encoding the small subunit. In addition, Best vitelliform mascular dystrophy is mapped to the same region as this gene on 11q, but no sequence alternations of this gene are demonstrated in Best disease patients. The protein encoded by this gene also functions as an adaptor molecule for the cullin 4 (CUL4) ubiquitin E3 ligase complex by facilitating the binding of substrates to this complex and the ubiquitination of proteins. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
DDHD2 DDHD domain containing 2|This gene encodes a phospholipase enzyme containing sterile-alpha-motif (SAM), WWE, and DDHD domains. This protein participates in membrane trafficking between the endoplastic reticulum and the Golgi body. Mutations in this gene can cause autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia 54. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
DDX19B DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 19B|DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, which exhibits RNA-dependent ATPase and ATP-dependent RNA-unwinding activities. This protein is recruited to the cytoplasmic fibrils of the nuclear pore complex, where it participates in the export of mRNA from the nucleus. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DDX20 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 20|DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, which has an ATPase activity and is a component of the survival of motor neurons (SMN) complex. This protein interacts directly with SMN, the spinal muscular atrophy gene product, and may play a catalytic role in the function of the SMN complex on RNPs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DDX23 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 23|This gene encodes a member of the DEAD box protein family. DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure, such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the U5 snRNP complex; it may facilitate conformational changes in the spliceosome during nuclear pre-mRNA splicing. An alternatively spliced transcript variant has been found for this gene, but its biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DDX27 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 27|DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, the function of which has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DDX42 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 42|This gene encodes a member of the Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD) box protein family. Members of this protein family are putative RNA helicases, and are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DDX47 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 47|This gene encodes a member of the DEAD box protein family. DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure, such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. The protein encoded by this gene can shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and has an RNA-independent ATPase activity. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DDX56 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 56|This gene encodes a member of the DEAD box protein family. DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. The protein encoded by this gene shows ATPase activity in the presence of polynucleotides and associates with nucleoplasmic 65S preribosomal particles. This gene may be involved in ribosome synthesis, most likely during assembly of the large 60S ribosomal subunit. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
DES desmin|This gene encodes a muscle-specific class III intermediate filament. Homopolymers of this protein form a stable intracytoplasmic filamentous network connecting myofibrils to each other and to the plasma membrane. Mutations in this gene are associated with desmin-related myopathy, a familial cardiac and skeletal myopathy (CSM), and with distal myopathies. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DFFA DNA fragmentation factor, 45kDa, alpha polypeptide|Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for caspase-3 and triggers DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. DFF becomes activated when DFFA is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFFA dissociate from DFFB, the active component of DFF. DFFB has been found to trigger both DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DFFB DNA fragmentation factor, 40kDa, beta polypeptide (caspase-activated DNase)|Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for caspase-3 and triggers DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. DFF becomes activated when DFFA is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFFA dissociate from DFFB, the active component of DFF. DFFB has been found to trigger both DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene but the biological validity of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
DGCR6 DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 6|DiGeorge syndrome, and more widely, the CATCH 22 syndrome, are associated with microdeletions in chromosomal region 22q11.2. The product of this gene shares homology with the Drosophila melanogaster gonadal protein, which participates in gonadal and germ cell development, and with the gamma-1 subunit of human laminin. This gene is a candidate for involvement in DiGeorge syndrome pathology and in schizophrenia. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
DGKI diacylglycerol kinase, iota|This gene is a member of the type IV diacylglycerol kinase subfamily. Diacylglycerol kinases regulate the intracellular concentration of diacylglycerol through its phosphorylation, producing phosphatidic acid. The specific role of the enzyme encoded by this gene is undetermined, however, it may play a crucial role in the production of phosphatidic acid in the retina or in recessive forms of retinal degeneration. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DIAPH1 diaphanous-related formin 1|This gene is a homolog of the Drosophila diaphanous gene, and has been linked to autosomal dominant, fully penetrant, nonsyndromic sensorineural progressive low-frequency hearing loss. Actin polymerization involves proteins known to interact with diaphanous protein in Drosophila and mouse. It has therefore been speculated that this gene may have a role in the regulation of actin polymerization in hair cells of the inner ear. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DIO1 deiodinase, iodothyronine, type I|The protein encoded by this gene is a thiol-requiring propylthiouracil-sensitive oxidoreductase. It activates thyroid hormone by converting the prohormone thyroxine (T4) by outer ring deiodination (ORD) to bioactive 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3). It also degrades both hormones by inner ring deiodination (IRD). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Some, but not all, isoforms contain a selenocysteine (Sec) residue encoded by the UGA codon, which normally signals translation termination. The 3' UTR of Sec-containing genes have a common stem-loop structure, the sec insertion sequence (SECIS), which is necessary for the recognition of UGA as a Sec codon rather than as a stop signal. Additional transcript variants have been described but are not supported by experimental evidence. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DIP2B DIP2 disco-interacting protein 2 homolog B (Drosophila)|This gene encodes a member of the disco-interacting protein homolog 2 protein family. The encoded protein contains a binding site for the transcriptional regulator DNA methyltransferase 1 associated protein 1 as well as AMP-binding sites. The presence of these sites suggests that the encoded protein may participate in DNA methylation. This gene is located near a folate-sensitive fragile site, and CGG-repeat expansion in the promoter of this gene which affects transcription has been detected in individuals containing this fragile site on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
DIRAS2 DIRAS family, GTP-binding RAS-like 2|DIRAS2 belongs to a distinct branch of the functionally diverse Ras (see HRAS; MIM 190020) superfamily of monomeric GTPases.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]
DLAT dihydrolipoamide S-acetyltransferase|This gene encodes component E2 of the multi-enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). PDC resides in the inner mitochondrial membrane and catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A. The protein product of this gene, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, accepts acetyl groups formed by the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and transfers them to coenzyme A. Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase is the antigen for antimitochondrial antibodies. These autoantibodies are present in nearly 95% of patients with the autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In PBC, activated T lymphocytes attack and destroy epithelial cells in the bile duct where this protein is abnormally distributed and overexpressed. PBC enventually leads to cirrhosis and liver failure. Mutations in this gene are also a cause of pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency which causes primary lactic acidosis in infancy and early childhood.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
DLD dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase|This gene encodes a member of the class-I pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase family. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions. In homodimeric form, the encoded protein functions as a dehydrogenase and is found in several multi-enzyme complexes that regulate energy metabolism. However, as a monomer, this protein can function as a protease. Mutations in this gene have been identified in patients with E3-deficient maple syrup urine disease and lipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
DLST dihydrolipoamide S-succinyltransferase (E2 component of 2-oxo-glutarate complex)|This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein that belongs to the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase family. This protein is one of the three components (the E2 component) of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex that catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinyl-CoA and CO(2). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
DMAP1 DNA methyltransferase 1 associated protein 1|This gene encodes a subunit of several, distinct complexes involved in the repression or activation of transcription. The encoded protein can independently repress transcription and is targeted to replication foci throughout S phase by interacting directly with the N-terminus of DNA methyltransferase 1. During late S phase, histone deacetylase 2 is added to this complex, providing a means to deacetylate histones in transcriptionally inactive heterochromatin following replication. The encoded protein is also a component of the nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4 complex and interacts with the transcriptional corepressor tumor susceptibility gene 101 and the pro-apoptotic death-associated protein 6, among others. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DMBT1 deleted in malignant brain tumors 1|Loss of sequences from human chromosome 10q has been associated with the progression of human cancers. The gene DMBT1 was originally isolated based on its deletion in a medulloblastoma cell line. DMBT1 is expressed with transcripts of 6.0, 7.5, and 8.0 kb in fetal lung and with one transcript of 8.0 kb in adult lung, although the 7.5 kb transcript has not been characterized. The DMBT1 protein is a glycoprotein containing multiple scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains separated by SRCR-interspersed domains (SID). Transcript variant 2 (8.0 kb) has been shown to bind surfactant protein D independently of carbohydrate recognition. This indicates that DMBT1 may not be a classical tumor suppressor gene, but rather play a role in the interaction of tumor cells and the immune system. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
DMXL2 Dmx-like 2|This gene encodes a protein with 12 WD domains. Proteins with WD domains are involved in many functions including participation in signal transduction pathways. Participation of the encoded protein in regulation of the Notch signaling pathway has been demonstrated in vitro using several human cell lines (PMID:20810660). A gene encoding a similar protein is located on chromosome 5. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
DNAH2 dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 2|Dyneins are microtubule-associated motor protein complexes composed of several heavy, light, and intermediate chains. The axonemal dyneins, found in cilia and flagella, are components of the outer and inner dynein arms attached to the peripheral microtubule doublets. DNAH2 is an axonemal inner arm dynein heavy chain (Chapelin et al., 1997 [PubMed 9256245]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
DNAH3 dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 3|
DNAH5 dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 5|This gene encodes a dynein protein, which is part of a microtubule-associated motor protein complex consisting of heavy, light, and intermediate chains. This protein is an axonemal heavy chain dynein. It functions as a force-generating protein with ATPase activity, whereby the release of ADP is thought to produce the force-producing power stroke. Mutations in this gene cause primary ciliary dyskinesia type 3, as well as Kartagener syndrome, which are both diseases due to ciliary defects. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
DNAH7 dynein, axonemal, heavy chain 7|DNAH7 is a component of the inner dynein arm of ciliary axonemes (Zhang et al., 2002 [PubMed 11877439]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
DNAJB1 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 1|
DNAJB4 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily B, member 4|DNAJB4 belongs to the evolutionarily conserved DNAJ/HSP40 protein family. For background information on the DNAJ family, see MIM 608375.[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
DNAJC15 DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 15|
DNAJC5B DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 5 beta|
DNM2 dynamin 2|Dynamins represent one of the subfamilies of GTP-binding proteins. These proteins share considerable sequence similarity over the N-terminal portion of the molecule, which contains the GTPase domain. Dynamins are associated with microtubules. They have been implicated in cell processes such as endocytosis and cell motility, and in alterations of the membrane that accompany certain activities such as bone resorption by osteoclasts. Dynamins bind many proteins that bind actin and other cytoskeletal proteins. Dynamins can also self-assemble, a process that stimulates GTPase activity. Five alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different proteins have been described. Additional alternatively spliced transcripts may exist, but their full-length nature has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
DNM3 dynamin 3|This gene encodes a member of a family of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins that associate with microtubules and are involved in vesicular transport. The encoded protein functions in the development of megakaryocytes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
DNTTIP1 deoxynucleotidyltransferase, terminal, interacting protein 1|DNTTIP1 binds DNA and enhances the activity of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase (TDT, or DNTT; MIM 187410), a DNA polymerase that catalyzes the polymerization of DNA in the absence of a DNA template (Yamashita et al., 2001 [PubMed 11473582]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
DOCK3 dedicator of cytokinesis 3|This gene is specifically expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). It encodes a member of the DOCK (dedicator of cytokinesis) family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). This protein, dedicator of cytokinesis 3 (DOCK3), is also known as modifier of cell adhesion (MOCA) and presenilin-binding protein (PBP). The DOCK3 and DOCK1, -2 and -4 share several conserved amino acids in their DHR-2 (DOCK homology region 2) domains that are required for GEF activity, and bind directly to WAVE proteins [Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family Verprolin-homologous proteins] via their DHR-1 domains. The DOCK3 induces axonal outgrowth in CNS by stimulating membrane recruitment of the WAVE complex and activating the small G protein Rac1. This gene is associated with an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like phenotype by a complex chromosomal rearrangement. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
DOCK4 dedicator of cytokinesis 4|This gene is a member of the dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family and encodes a protein with a DHR-1 (CZH-1) domain, a DHR-2 (CZH-2) domain and an SH3 domain. This membrane-associated, cytoplasmic protein functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor and is involved in regulation of adherens junctions between cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with ovarian, prostate, glioma, and colorectal cancers. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described, but only one has been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DOCK5 dedicator of cytokinesis 5|
DOCK6 dedicator of cytokinesis 6|This gene encodes a member of the dedicator of cytokinesis (DOCK) family of atypical guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors interact with small GTPases and are components of intracellular signaling networks. The encoded protein is a group C DOCK protein and plays a role in actin cytoskeletal reorganization by activating the Rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1. Mutations in this gene are associated with Adams-Oliver syndrome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
DOCK7 dedicator of cytokinesis 7|The protein encoded by this gene is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that plays a role in axon formation and neuronal polarization. The encoded protein displays GEF activity toward RAC1 and RAC3 Rho small GTPases but not toward CDC42. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
DOCK8 dedicator of cytokinesis 8|This gene encodes a member of the DOCK180 family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors interact with Rho GTPases and are components of intracellular signaling networks. Mutations in this gene result in the autosomal recessive form of the hyper-IgE syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
DPF2 D4, zinc and double PHD fingers family 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the d4 domain family, characterized by a zinc finger-like structural motif. This protein functions as a transcription factor which is necessary for the apoptotic response following deprivation of survival factors. It likely serves a regulatory role in rapid hematopoietic cell growth and turnover. This gene is considered a candidate gene for multiple endocrine neoplasia type I, an inherited cancer syndrome involving multiple parathyroid, enteropancreatic, and pituitary tumors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DPY30 dpy-30 homolog (C. elegans)|DPY30 is a component of a Set1-like multiprotein histone methyltransferase complex (Cho et al., 2007 [PubMed 17500065]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2008]
DPYSL2 dihydropyrimidinase-like 2|This gene encodes a member of the collapsin response mediator protein family. Collapsin response mediator proteins form homo- and hetero-tetramers and facilitate neuron guidance, growth and polarity. The encoded protein promotes microtubule assembly and is required for Sema3A-mediated growth cone collapse, and also plays a role in synaptic signaling through interactions with calcium channels. This gene has been implicated in multiple neurological disorders, and hyperphosphorylation of the encoded protein may play a key role in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
DPYSL3 dihydropyrimidinase-like 3|
DYNC1H1 dynein, cytoplasmic 1, heavy chain 1|Dyneins are a group of microtubule-activated ATPases that function as molecular motors. They are divided into two subgroups of axonemal and cytoplasmic dyneins. The cytoplasmic dyneins function in intracellular motility, including retrograde axonal transport, protein sorting, organelle movement, and spindle dynamics. Molecules of conventional cytoplasmic dynein are comprised of 2 heavy chain polypeptides and a number of intermediate and light chains.This gene encodes a member of the cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain family. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
DYNC1LI1 dynein, cytoplasmic 1, light intermediate chain 1|
E2F1 E2F transcription factor 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein and another 2 members, E2F2 and E2F3, have an additional cyclin binding domain. This protein binds preferentially to retinoblastoma protein pRB in a cell-cycle dependent manner. It can mediate both cell proliferation and p53-dependent/independent apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
E2F4 E2F transcription factor 4, p107/p130-binding|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein binds to all three of the tumor suppressor proteins pRB, p107 and p130, but with higher affinity to the last two. It plays an important role in the suppression of proliferation-associated genes, and its gene mutation and increased expression may be associated with human cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
E4F1 E4F transcription factor 1|The zinc finger protein encoded by this gene is one of several cellular transcription factors whose DNA-binding activities are regulated through the action of adenovirus E1A. A 50-kDa amino-terminal product is generated from the full-length protein through proteolytic cleavage. The protein is differentially regulated by E1A-induced phosphorylation. The full-length gene product represses transcription from the E4 promoter in the absence of E1A, while the 50-kDa form acts as a transcriptional activator in its presence. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcripts encoding different proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
EAF1 ELL associated factor 1|
ECT2 epithelial cell transforming 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor and transforming protein that is related to Rho-specific exchange factors and yeast cell cycle regulators. The expression of this gene is elevated with the onset of DNA synthesis and remains elevated during G2 and M phases. In situ hybridization analysis showed that expression is at a high level in cells undergoing mitosis in regenerating liver. Thus, this protein is expressed in a cell cycle-dependent manner during liver regeneration, and is thought to have an important role in the regulation of cytokinesis. Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
EDC3 enhancer of mRNA decapping 3|EDC3 is associated with an mRNA-decapping complex required for removal of the 5-prime cap from mRNA prior to its degradation from the 5-prime end (Fenger-Gron et al., 2005 [PubMed 16364915]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
EDC4 enhancer of mRNA decapping 4|
EEF1B2 eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 beta 2|This gene encodes a translation elongation factor. The protein is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor involved in the transfer of aminoacylated tRNAs to the ribosome. Alternative splicing results in three transcript variants which differ only in the 5' UTR. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EHMT1 euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a histone methyltransferase that is part of the E2F6 complex, which represses transcription. The encoded protein methylates the Lys-9 position of histone H3, which tags it for transcriptional repression. This protein may be involved in the silencing of MYC- and E2F-responsive genes and therefore could play a role in the G0/G1 cell cycle transition. Defects in this gene are a cause of chromosome 9q subtelomeric deletion syndrome (9q-syndrome, also known as Kleefstra syndrome). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
EHMT2 euchromatic histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2|This gene is located in a gene cluster within the human major histocompatibility complex class III region on chromosome 6. This gene was thought to be two different genes, NG36 and G9a, adjacent to each other but recent publications show that there is only a single gene at this locus. The encoded protein is a histone methyltransferase, which may be involved in repression of transcription. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
EIF2S2 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 2 beta, 38kDa|Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (EIF-2) functions in the early steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA and binding to a 40S ribosomal subunit. EIF-2 is composed of three subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma, with the protein encoded by this gene representing the beta subunit. The beta subunit catalyzes the exchange of GDP for GTP, which recycles the EIF-2 complex for another round of initiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EIF2S3 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2, subunit 3 gamma, 52kDa|The protein encoded by this gene is the largest subunit of a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein involved in the recruitment of methionyl-tRNA(i) to the 40 S ribosomal subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
EIF3A eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit A|
EIF3B eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit B|
EIF3C eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit C|
EIF3F eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit F|
EIF3I eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit I|
EIF3J eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit J|This gene encodes a core subunit of the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 complex, which participates in the initiation of translation by aiding in the recruitment of protein and mRNA components to the 40S ribosome. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 1, 3, and 9. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
EIF3L eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit L|
EIF4ENIF1 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E nuclear import factor 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein for the translation initiation factor eIF4E. This shuttle protein interacts with the importin alpha-beta complex to mediate nuclear import of eIF4E. It is predominantly cytoplasmic; its own nuclear import is regulated by a nuclear localization signal and nuclear export signals. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]
EIF4G3 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 3|
EIF5B eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B|Accurate initiation of translation in eukaryotes is complex and requires many factors, some of which are composed of multiple subunits. The process is simpler in prokaryotes which have only three initiation factors (IF1, IF2, IF3). Two of these factors are conserved in eukaryotes: the homolog of IF1 is eIF1A and the homolog of IF2 is eIF5B. This gene encodes eIF5B. Factors eIF1A and eIF5B interact on the ribosome along with other initiation factors and GTP to position the initiation methionine tRNA on the start codon of the mRNA so that translation initiates accurately. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ELF1 E74-like factor 1 (ets domain transcription factor)|This gene encodes an E26 transformation-specific related transcription factor. The encoded protein is primarily expressed in lymphoid cells and acts as both an enhancer and a repressor to regulate transcription of various genes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
ELL2 elongation factor, RNA polymerase II, 2|
ELMO2 engulfment and cell motility 2|The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the dedicator of cyto-kinesis 1 protein. Similarity to a C. elegans protein suggests that this protein may function in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and in cell migration. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ELMSAN1 ELM2 and Myb/SANT-like domain containing 1|
ELP4 elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 4|This gene encodes a component of the six subunit elongator complex, a histone acetyltransferase complex that associates directly with RNA polymerase II during transcriptional elongation. The human gene can partially complement sensitivity phenotypes of yeast ELP4 deletion mutants. This gene has also been associated with Rolandic epilepsy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
ELP6 elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 6|
EML2 echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 2|
EML4 echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4|This gene is a member of the echinoderm microtubule associated protein-like family. The encoded WD-repeat protein may be involved in microtubule formation. Abnormal fusion of parts of this gene with portions of the anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene, which generates EML4-ALK fusion transcripts, is one of the primary mutations associated with non-small cell lung cancer. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
ENAH enabled homolog (Drosophila)|
ENPP2 ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2|The protein encoded by this gene functions as both a phosphodiesterase, which cleaves phosphodiester bonds at the 5' end of oligonucleotides, and a phospholipase, which catalyzes production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in extracellular fluids. LPA evokes growth factor-like responses including stimulation of cell proliferation and chemotaxis. This gene product stimulates the motility of tumor cells and has angiogenic properties, and its expression is upregulated in several kinds of carcinomas. The gene product is secreted and further processed to make the biologically active form. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
EP300 E1A binding protein p300|This gene encodes the adenovirus E1A-associated cellular p300 transcriptional co-activator protein. It functions as histone acetyltransferase that regulates transcription via chromatin remodeling and is important in the processes of cell proliferation and differentiation. It mediates cAMP-gene regulation by binding specifically to phosphorylated CREB protein. This gene has also been identified as a co-activator of HIF1A (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha), and thus plays a role in the stimulation of hypoxia-induced genes such as VEGF. Defects in this gene are a cause of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome and may also play a role in epithelial cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EP400 E1A binding protein p400|
EPHA4 EPH receptor A4|This gene belongs to the ephrin receptor subfamily of the protein-tyrosine kinase family. EPH and EPH-related receptors have been implicated in mediating developmental events, particularly in the nervous system. Receptors in the EPH subfamily typically have a single kinase domain and an extracellular region containing a Cys-rich domain and 2 fibronectin type III repeats. The ephrin receptors are divided into 2 groups based on the similarity of their extracellular domain sequences and their affinities for binding ephrin-A and ephrin-B ligands. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
EPM2A epilepsy, progressive myoclonus type 2A, Lafora disease (laforin)|This gene encodes a dual-specificity phosphatase that associates with polyribosomes. The encoded protein may be involved in the regulation of glycogen metabolism. Mutations in this gene have been associated with myoclonic epilepsy of Lafora. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EPPK1 epiplakin 1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the plakin family of proteins, which play a role in the organization of cytoskeletal architecture. This family member is composed of several highly homologous plakin repeats. It may function to maintain the integrity of keratin intermediate filament networks in epithelial cells. Studies of the orthologous mouse protein suggest that it accelerates keratinocyte migration during wound healing. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]
ERC1 ELKS/RAB6-interacting/CAST family member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of RIM-binding proteins. RIMs are active zone proteins that regulate neurotransmitter release. This gene has been found fused to the receptor-type tyrosine kinase gene RET by gene rearrangement due to the translocation t(10;12)(q11;p13) in thyroid papillary carcinoma. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
ERC2 ELKS/RAB6-interacting/CAST family member 2|
ERCC1 excision repair cross-complementation group 1|The product of this gene functions in the nucleotide excision repair pathway, and is required for the repair of DNA lesions such as those induced by UV light or formed by electrophilic compounds including cisplatin. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with the XPF endonuclease (also known as ERCC4), and the heterodimeric endonuclease catalyzes the 5' incision in the process of excising the DNA lesion. The heterodimeric endonuclease is also involved in recombinational DNA repair and in the repair of inter-strand crosslinks. Mutations in this gene result in cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome, and polymorphisms that alter expression of this gene may play a role in carcinogenesis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The last exon of this gene overlaps with the CD3e molecule, epsilon associated protein gene on the opposite strand. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
ERCC4 excision repair cross-complementation group 4|The protein encoded by this gene forms a complex with ERCC1 and is involved in the 5' incision made during nucleotide excision repair. This complex is a structure specific DNA repair endonuclease that interacts with EME1. Defects in this gene are a cause of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XP-F), or xeroderma pigmentosum VI (XP6).[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
ERH enhancer of rudimentary homolog (Drosophila)|
ERICH3 glutamate-rich 3|
ESCO2 establishment of sister chromatid cohesion N-acetyltransferase 2|This gene encodes a protein that may have acetyltransferase activity and may be required for the establishment of sister chromatid cohesion during the S phase of mitosis. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Roberts syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EXOC8 exocyst complex component 8|
EXOSC3 exosome component 3|This gene encodes a non-catalytic component of the human exosome, a complex with 3'-5' exoribonuclease activity that plays a role in numerous RNA processing and degradation activities. Related pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosome 19 and 21. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
EZR ezrin|The cytoplasmic peripheral membrane protein encoded by this gene functions as a protein-tyrosine kinase substrate in microvilli. As a member of the ERM protein family, this protein serves as an intermediate between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton. This protein plays a key role in cell surface structure adhesion, migration and organization, and it has been implicated in various human cancers. A pseudogene located on chromosome 3 has been identified for this gene. Alternatively spliced variants have also been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FABP5 fatty acid binding protein 5 (psoriasis-associated)|This gene encodes the fatty acid binding protein found in epidermal cells, and was first identified as being upregulated in psoriasis tissue. Fatty acid binding proteins are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. FABPs may play roles in fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with type 2 diabetes. The human genome contains many pseudogenes similar to this locus.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
FADD Fas (TNFRSF6)-associated via death domain|The protein encoded by this gene is an adaptor molecule that interacts with various cell surface receptors and mediates cell apoptotic signals. Through its C-terminal death domain, this protein can be recruited by TNFRSF6/Fas-receptor, tumor necrosis factor receptor, TNFRSF25, and TNFSF10/TRAIL-receptor, and thus it participates in the death signaling initiated by these receptors. Interaction of this protein with the receptors unmasks the N-terminal effector domain of this protein, which allows it to recruit caspase-8, and thereby activate the cysteine protease cascade. Knockout studies in mice also suggest the importance of this protein in early T cell development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FAM122A family with sequence similarity 122A|
FAM124B family with sequence similarity 124B|
FAM160B1 family with sequence similarity 160, member B1|
FAM161A family with sequence similarity 161, member A|This gene belongs to the FAM161 family. It is expressed mainly in the retina. Mouse studies suggested that this gene is involved in development of retinal progenitors during embryogenesis, and that its activity is restricted to mature photoreceptors after birth. Mutations in this gene cause autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa-28. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
FAM175A family with sequence similarity 175, member A|
FAM175B family with sequence similarity 175, member B|
FAM207A family with sequence similarity 207, member A|
FAM21A family with sequence similarity 21, member A|
FAM83D family with sequence similarity 83, member D|
FAM91A1 family with sequence similarity 91, member A1|
FANCA Fanconi anemia, complementation group A|The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group A. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Mutations in this gene are the most common cause of Fanconi anemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FANCD2 Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2|The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group D2. This protein is monoubiquinated in response to DNA damage, resulting in its localization to nuclear foci with other proteins (BRCA1 AND BRCA2) involved in homology-directed DNA repair. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FANCE Fanconi anemia, complementation group E|The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group E. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FANCG Fanconi anemia, complementation group G|The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group G. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FAT1 FAT atypical cadherin 1|This gene is an ortholog of the Drosophila fat gene, which encodes a tumor suppressor essential for controlling cell proliferation during Drosophila development. The gene product is a member of the cadherin superfamily, a group of integral membrane proteins characterized by the presence of cadherin-type repeats. In addition to containing 34 tandem cadherin-type repeats, the gene product has five epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and one laminin A-G domain. This gene is expressed at high levels in a number of fetal epithelia. Its product probably functions as an adhesion molecule and/or signaling receptor, and is likely to be important in developmental processes and cell communication. Transcript variants derived from alternative splicing and/or alternative promoter usage exist, but they have not been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FBXO11 F-box protein 11|This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbxs class. It can function as an arginine methyltransferase that symmetrically dimethylates arginine residues, and it acts as an adaptor protein to mediate the neddylation of p53, which leads to the suppression of p53 function. This gene is known to be down-regulated in melanocytes from patients with vitiligo, a skin disorder that results in depigmentation. Polymorphisms in this gene are associated with chronic otitis media with effusion and recurrent otitis media (COME/ROM), a hearing loss disorder, and the knockout of the homologous mouse gene results in the deaf mouse mutant Jeff (Jf), a single gene model of otitis media. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
FECH ferrochelatase|The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the mitochondrion, where it catalyzes the insertion of the ferrous form of iron into protoporphyrin IX in the heme synthesis pathway. Mutations in this gene are associated with erythropoietic protoporphyria. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 3.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
FGF20 fibroblast growth factor 20|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family. The fibroblast growth factors possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene product is a secreted neurotrophic factor but lacks a typical signal peptide. It is expressed in normal brain, particularly the cerebellum, and may regulate central nervous system development and function. Homodimerization of this protein was shown to regulate its receptor binding activity and concentration gradient in the extracellular matrix. Genetic variations of this gene have been associated with Parkinson disease susceptibility. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
FGR FGR proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase|This gene is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). The encoded protein contains N-terminal sites for myristylation and palmitylation, a PTK domain, and SH2 and SH3 domains which are involved in mediating protein-protein interactions with phosphotyrosine-containing and proline-rich motifs, respectively. The protein localizes to plasma membrane ruffles, and functions as a negative regulator of cell migration and adhesion triggered by the beta-2 integrin signal transduction pathway. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus results in the overexpression of this gene. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FIG4 FIG4 phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SAC domain-containing protein gene family. The SAC domain, approximately 400 amino acids in length and consisting of seven conserved motifs, has been shown to possess phosphoinositide phosphatase activity. The yeast homolog, Sac1p, is involved in the regulation of various phosphoinositides, and affects diverse cellular functions such as actin cytoskeleton organization, Golgi function, and maintenance of vacuole morphology. Membrane-bound phosphoinositides function as signaling molecules and play a key role in vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic cells. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4J. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FIGNL1 fidgetin-like 1|
FIS1 fission 1 (mitochondrial outer membrane) homolog (S. cerevisiae)|The balance between fission and fusion regulates the morphology of mitochondria. TTC11 is a component of a mitochondrial complex that promotes mitochondrial fission (James et al., 2003 [PubMed 12783892]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
FIZ1 FLT3-interacting zinc finger 1|This gene encodes zinc finger protein, which interacts with a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the regulation of hematopoietic and lymphoid cells. This gene product also interacts with a transcription factor that regulates the expression of rod-specific genes in retina. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FKBP15 FK506 binding protein 15, 133kDa|
FKBP5 FK506 binding protein 5|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunophilin protein family, which play a role in immunoregulation and basic cellular processes involving protein folding and trafficking. This encoded protein is a cis-trans prolyl isomerase that binds to the immunosuppressants FK506 and rapamycin. It is thought to mediate calcineurin inhibition. It also interacts functionally with mature hetero-oligomeric progesterone receptor complexes along with the 90 kDa heat shock protein and P23 protein. This gene has been found to have multiple polyadenylation sites. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
FLAD1 flavin adenine dinucleotide synthetase 1|This gene encodes the enzyme that catalyzes adenylation of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) to form flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) coenzyme. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FLG filaggrin|The protein encoded by this gene is an intermediate filament-associated protein that aggregates keratin intermediate filaments in mammalian epidermis. It is initially synthesized as a polyprotein precursor, profilaggrin (consisting of multiple filaggrin units of 324 aa each), which is localized in keratohyalin granules, and is subsequently proteolytically processed into individual functional filaggrin molecules. Mutations in this gene are associated with ichthyosis vulgaris.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
FLII flightless I homolog (Drosophila)|This gene encodes a protein with a gelsolin-like actin binding domain and an N-terminal leucine-rich repeat-protein protein interaction domain. The protein is similar to a Drosophila protein involved in early embryogenesis and the structural organization of indirect flight muscle. The gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FN1 fibronectin 1|This gene encodes fibronectin, a glycoprotein present in a soluble dimeric form in plasma, and in a dimeric or multimeric form at the cell surface and in extracellular matrix. Fibronectin is involved in cell adhesion and migration processes including embryogenesis, wound healing, blood coagulation, host defense, and metastasis. The gene has three regions subject to alternative splicing, with the potential to produce 20 different transcript variants. However, the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FNBP4 formin binding protein 4|
FOXK1 forkhead box K1|
FOXK2 forkhead box K2|The protein encoded by this gene contains a fork head DNA binding domain. This protein can bind to the purine-rich motifs of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR), and to the similar purine-rich motif in the interleukin 2 (IL2) promoter. It may be involved in the regulation of viral and cellular promoter elements. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FOXO4 forkhead box O4|This gene encodes a member of the O class of winged helix/forkhead transcription factor family. Proteins encoded by this class are regulated by factors involved in growth and differentiation indicating they play a role in these processes. A translocation involving this gene on chromosome X and the homolog of the Drosophila trithorax gene, encoding a DNA binding protein, located on chromosome 11 is associated with leukemia. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
FRMPD3 FERM and PDZ domain containing 3|
FRYL FRY-like|
FTH1 ferritin, heavy polypeptide 1|This gene encodes the heavy subunit of ferritin, the major intracellular iron storage protein in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It is composed of 24 subunits of the heavy and light ferritin chains. Variation in ferritin subunit composition may affect the rates of iron uptake and release in different tissues. A major function of ferritin is the storage of iron in a soluble and nontoxic state. Defects in ferritin proteins are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. This gene has multiple pseudogenes. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FTL ferritin, light polypeptide|This gene encodes the light subunit of the ferritin protein. Ferritin is the major intracellular iron storage protein in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. It is composed of 24 subunits of the heavy and light ferritin chains. Variation in ferritin subunit composition may affect the rates of iron uptake and release in different tissues. A major function of ferritin is the storage of iron in a soluble and nontoxic state. Defects in this light chain ferritin gene are associated with several neurodegenerative diseases and hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome. This gene has multiple pseudogenes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
G3BP1 GTPase activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 1|This gene encodes one of the DNA-unwinding enzymes which prefers partially unwound 3'-tailed substrates and can also unwind partial RNA/DNA and RNA/RNA duplexes in an ATP-dependent fashion. This enzyme is a member of the heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding proteins and is also an element of the Ras signal transduction pathway. It binds specifically to the Ras-GTPase-activating protein by associating with its SH3 domain. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
G3BP2 GTPase activating protein (SH3 domain) binding protein 2|
G6PD glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase|This gene encodes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This protein is a cytosolic enzyme encoded by a housekeeping X-linked gene whose main function is to produce NADPH, a key electron donor in the defense against oxidizing agents and in reductive biosynthetic reactions. G6PD is remarkable for its genetic diversity. Many variants of G6PD, mostly produced from missense mutations, have been described with wide ranging levels of enzyme activity and associated clinical symptoms. G6PD deficiency may cause neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis, or severe chronic non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GALNT5 polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 5|
GANAB glucosidase, alpha; neutral AB|
GAPVD1 GTPase activating protein and VPS9 domains 1|
GATAD2A GATA zinc finger domain containing 2A|
GATAD2B GATA zinc finger domain containing 2B|
GEMIN4 gem (nuclear organelle) associated protein 4|The product of this gene is part of a large complex localized to the cytoplasm, nucleoli, and to discrete nuclear bodies called Gemini bodies (gems). The complex functions in spliceosomal snRNP assembly in the cytoplasm, and regenerates spliceosomes required for pre-mRNA splicing in the nucleus. The encoded protein directly interacts with a DEAD box protein and several spliceosome core proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GEMIN5 gem (nuclear organelle) associated protein 5|This gene encodes a WD repeat protein that is a component of the survival of motor neurons (SMN) complex. The SMN complex plays a critical role in mRNA splicing through the assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), and may also mediate the assembly and transport of other classes of ribonucleoproteins. The encoded protein is the snRNA-binding component of the SMN complex. Dysregulation of this gene may play a role in alternative mRNA splicing and tumor cell motility. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
GEN1 GEN1 Holliday junction 5' flap endonuclease|
GET4 golgi to ER traffic protein 4 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
GHDC GH3 domain containing|
GID8 GID complex subunit 8|
GIT1 G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting ArfGAP 1|
GIT2 G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting ArfGAP 2|This gene encodes a member of the GIT protein family, which interact with G protein-coupled receptor kinases and possess ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity. GIT proteins traffic between cytoplasmic complexes, focal adhesions, and the cell periphery, and interact with Pak interacting exchange factor beta (PIX) to form large oligomeric complexes that transiently recruit other proteins. GIT proteins regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and participate in receptor internalization and membrane trafficking. This gene has been shown to repress lamellipodial extension and focal adhesion turnover, and is thought to regulate cell motility. This gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing to generate multiple isoforms, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. The various isoforms have functional differences, with respect to ARF GAP activity and to G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 binding. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
GMIP GEM interacting protein|This gene encodes a member of the ARHGAP family of Rho/Rac/Cdc42-like GTPase activating proteins. The encoded protein interacts with the Ras-related protein Gem through its N-terminal domain. Separately, it interacts with RhoA through a RhoGAP domain, and stimulates RhoA-dependent GTPase activity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
GMNN geminin, DNA replication inhibitor|This gene encodes a protein that plays a critical role in cell cycle regulation. The encoded protein inhibits DNA replication by binding to DNA replication factor Cdt1, preventing the incorporation of minichromosome maintenance proteins into the pre-replication complex. The encoded protein is expressed during the S and G2 phases of the cell cycle and is degraded by the anaphase-promoting complex during the metaphase-anaphase transition. Increased expression of this gene may play a role in several malignancies including colon, rectal and breast cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene, and two pseudogenes of this gene are located on the short arm of chromosome 16. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
GNGT1 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 1|Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) transduce extracellular signals received by transmembrane receptors to effector proteins. Transducin is a guanine nucleotide-binding protein found specifically in rod outer segments, where it mediates activation by rhodopsin of a cyclic GTP-specific (guanosine monophosphate) phosphodiesterase. Transducin is also referred to as GMPase. GNGT1 encodes the gamma subunit of transducin (Hurley et al., 1984 [PubMed 6438626]; Scherer et al., 1996 [PubMed 8661128]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
GNL3 guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3 (nucleolar)|The protein encoded by this gene may interact with p53 and may be involved in tumorigenesis. The encoded protein also appears to be important for stem cell proliferation. This protein is found in both the nucleus and nucleolus. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
GOLGA2 golgin A2|The Golgi apparatus, which participates in glycosylation and transport of proteins and lipids in the secretory pathway, consists of a series of stacked cisternae (flattened membrane sacs). Interactions between the Golgi and microtubules are thought to be important for the reorganization of the Golgi after it fragments during mitosis. This gene encodes one of the golgins, a family of proteins localized to the Golgi. This encoded protein has been postulated to play roles in the stacking of Golgi cisternae and in vesicular transport. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
GOLGB1 golgin B1|
GPATCH4 G patch domain containing 4|
GPS2 G protein pathway suppressor 2|This gene encodes a protein involved in G protein-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades. When overexpressed in mammalian cells, this gene could potently suppress a RAS- and MAPK-mediated signal and interfere with JNK activity, suggesting that the function of this gene may be signal repression. The encoded protein is an integral subunit of the NCOR1-HDAC3 (nuclear receptor corepressor 1-histone deacetylase 3) complex, and it was shown that the complex inhibits JNK activation through this subunit and thus could potentially provide an alternative mechanism for hormone-mediated antagonism of AP1 (activator protein 1) function. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GPSM1 G-protein signaling modulator 1|G-protein signaling modulators (GPSMs) play diverse functional roles through their interaction with G-protein subunits. This gene encodes a receptor-independent activator of G protein signaling, which is one of several factors that influence the basal activity of G-protein signaling systems. The protein contains seven tetratricopeptide repeats in its N-terminal half and four G-protein regulatory (GPR) motifs in its C-terminal half. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
GRHL1 grainyhead-like 1 (Drosophila)|This gene encodes a member of the grainyhead family of transcription factors. The encoded protein can exist as a homodimer or can form heterodimers with sister-of-mammalian grainyhead or brother-of-mammalian grainyhead. This protein functions as a transcription factor during development. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]
GSE1 Gse1 coiled-coil protein|
GSTM3 glutathione S-transferase mu 3 (brain)|Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3 and are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. Mutations of this class mu gene have been linked with a slight increase in a number of cancers, likely due to exposure with environmental toxins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
GSTP1 glutathione S-transferase pi 1|Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes that play an important role in detoxification by catalyzing the conjugation of many hydrophobic and electrophilic compounds with reduced glutathione. Based on their biochemical, immunologic, and structural properties, the soluble GSTs are categorized into 4 main classes: alpha, mu, pi, and theta. This GST family member is a polymorphic gene encoding active, functionally different GSTP1 variant proteins that are thought to function in xenobiotic metabolism and play a role in susceptibility to cancer, and other diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GTF2H1 general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 1, 62kDa|
GTF2H2B general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 2B (pseudogene)|
GTF2H3 general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 3, 34kDa|This gene encodes a member of the TFB4 family. The encoded protein is a subunit of the core-TFIIH basal transcription factor and localizes to the nucleus. The encoded protein is involved in RNA transcription by RNA polymerase II and nucleotide excision repair and associates with the Cdk-activating kinase complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
GTF2H4 general transcription factor IIH, polypeptide 4, 52kDa|
GTF2IRD1 GTF2I repeat domain containing 1|The protein encoded by this gene contains five GTF2I-like repeats and each repeat possesses a potential helix-loop-helix (HLH) motif. It may have the ability to interact with other HLH-proteins and function as a transcription factor or as a positive transcriptional regulator under the control of Retinoblastoma protein. This gene plays a role in craniofacial and cognitive development and mutations have been associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome, a multisystem developmental disorder caused by deletion of multiple genes at 7q11.23. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
GTF3C3 general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 3, 102kDa|The protein encoded by this gene is part of the TFIIIC2 complex, which binds to the promoters of small nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA genes in order to recruit RNA polymerase III. The TFIIIC2 complex is composed of six subunits. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
GTF3C5 general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 5, 63kDa|
GTPBP1 GTP binding protein 1|This gene is upregulated by interferon-gamma and encodes a protein that is a member of the AGP11/GTPBP1 family of GTP-binding proteins. A structurally similar protein has been found in mouse, where disruption of the gene for that protein had no observable phenotype. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
H2AFV H2A histone family, member V|Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Nucleosomes consist of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer composed of pairs of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). The chromatin fiber is further compacted through the interaction of a linker histone, H1, with the DNA between the nucleosomes to form higher order chromatin structures. This gene encodes a member of the histone H2A family. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms, have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HDAC3 histone deacetylase 3|Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone acetylation/deacetylation alters chromosome structure and affects transcription factor access to DNA. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family. It has histone deacetylase activity and represses transcription when tethered to a promoter. It may participate in the regulation of transcription through its binding with the zinc-finger transcription factor YY1. This protein can also down-regulate p53 function and thus modulate cell growth and apoptosis. This gene is regarded as a potential tumor suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HEATR5A HEAT repeat containing 5A|
HECTD3 HECT domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 3|The protein encoded by this gene transfers ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme to targeted substrates, leading to the degradation of those substrates. The encoded protein has been shown to transfer ubiquitin to TRIOBP to facilitate cell cycle progression, and to STX8. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2012]
HEXIM1 hexamethylene bis-acetamide inducible 1|Expression of this gene is induced by hexamethylene-bis-acetamide in vascular smooth muscle cells. This gene has no introns. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HIP1 huntingtin interacting protein 1|The product of this gene is a membrane-associated protein that functions in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and protein trafficking within the cell. The encoded protein binds to the huntingtin protein in the brain; this interaction is lost in Huntington's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
HIP1R huntingtin interacting protein 1 related|
HIRA histone cell cycle regulator|This gene encodes a histone chaperone that preferentially places the variant histone H3.3 in nucleosomes. Orthologs of this gene in yeast, flies, and plants are necessary for the formation of transcriptionally silent heterochomatin. This gene plays an important role in the formation of the senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. These foci likely mediate the irreversible cell cycle changes that occur in senescent cells. It is considered the primary candidate gene in some haploinsufficiency syndromes such as DiGeorge syndrome, and insufficient production of the gene may disrupt normal embryonic development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HIST1H1C histone cluster 1, H1c|Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H1 family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HIST1H1T histone cluster 1, H1t|Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H1 family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HIST1H2AD histone cluster 1, H2ad|Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. This structure consists of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a nucleosome, an octamer composed of pairs of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). The chromatin fiber is further compacted through the interaction of a linker histone, H1, with the DNA between the nucleosomes to form higher order chromatin structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H2A family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails; instead, they contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6p22-p21.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HIST1H2AH histone cluster 1, H2ah|Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H2A family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the histone microcluster on chromosome 6p21.33. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HIST1H2AJ histone cluster 1, H2aj|Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H2A family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the small histone gene cluster on chromosome 6p22-p21.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HIST1H2BB histone cluster 1, H2bb|Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Nucleosomes consist of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer composed of pairs of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). The chromatin fiber is further compacted through the interaction of a linker histone, H1, with the DNA between the nucleosomes to form higher order chromatin structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H2B family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails; instead, they contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6p22-p21.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HIST1H2BL histone cluster 1, H2bl|Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H2B family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the small histone gene cluster on chromosome 6p22-p21.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HIST1H2BO histone cluster 1, H2bo|Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H2B family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the small histone gene cluster on chromosome 6p22-p21.3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HIST1H4A histone cluster 1, H4a|Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H4 family. Transcripts from this gene lack polyA tails but instead contain a palindromic termination element. This gene is found in the large histone gene cluster on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HIST2H2BE histone cluster 2, H2be|Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene encodes a member of the histone H2B family, and generates two transcripts through the use of the conserved stem-loop termination motif, and the polyA addition motif. The protein has antibacterial and antifungal antimicrobial activity. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
HIST3H2A histone cluster 3, H2a|Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Nucleosomes consist of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer composed of pairs of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). The chromatin fiber is further compacted through the interaction of a linker histone, H1, with the DNA between the nucleosomes to form higher order chromatin structures. This gene is intronless and encodes a member of the histone H2A family. Transcripts from this gene contain a palindromic termination element. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HK1 hexokinase 1|Hexokinases phosphorylate glucose to produce glucose-6-phosphate, the first step in most glucose metabolism pathways. This gene encodes a ubiquitous form of hexokinase which localizes to the outer membrane of mitochondria. Mutations in this gene have been associated with hemolytic anemia due to hexokinase deficiency. Alternative splicing of this gene results in five transcript variants which encode different isoforms, some of which are tissue-specific. Each isoform has a distinct N-terminus; the remainder of the protein is identical among all the isoforms. A sixth transcript variant has been described, but due to the presence of several stop codons, it is not thought to encode a protein. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
HLCS holocarboxylase synthetase (biotin-(proprionyl-CoA-carboxylase (ATP-hydrolysing)) ligase)|This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the binding of biotin to carboxylases and histones. The protein plays an important role in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis and branched chain amino acid catabolism. Defects in this gene are the cause of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
HMBOX1 homeobox containing 1|
HMG20A high mobility group 20A|
HMG20B high mobility group 20B|
HMGXB4 HMG box domain containing 4|High mobility group (HMG) proteins are nonhistone chromosomal proteins. See HMG2 (MIM 163906) for additional information on HMG proteins.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
HMMR hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM)|The protein encoded by this gene is involved in cell motility. It is expressed in breast tissue and together with other proteins, it forms a complex with BRCA1 and BRCA2, thus is potentially associated with higher risk of breast cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
HOOK2 hook microtubule-tethering protein 2|Hook proteins are cytosolic coiled-coil proteins that contain conserved N-terminal domains, which attach to microtubules, and more divergent C-terminal domains, which mediate binding to organelles. The Drosophila Hook protein is a component of the endocytic compartment.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2004]
HPS6 Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 6|This intronless gene encodes a protein that may play a role in organelle biogenesis associated with melanosomes, platelet dense granules, and lysosomes. This protein interacts with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5 protein. Mutations in this gene are associated with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HS3ST3A1 heparan sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 3A1|Heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes are key components in generating a myriad of distinct heparan sulfate fine structures that carry out multiple biologic activities. The enzyme encoded by this gene is a member of the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme family. It is a type II integral membrane protein and possesses heparan sulfate glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase activity. The sulfotransferase domain of this enzyme is highly similar to the same domain of heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase 3B1, and these two enzymes sulfate an identical disaccharide. This gene is widely expressed, with the most abundant expression in liver and placenta. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
HSCB HscB mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster co-chaperone|
HSPA13 heat shock protein 70kDa family, member 13|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the heat shock protein 70 family and is found associated with microsomes. Members of this protein family play a role in the processing of cytosolic and secretory proteins, as well as in the removal of denatured or incorrectly-folded proteins. The encoded protein contains an ATPase domain and has been shown to associate with a ubiquitin-like protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HSPA4L heat shock 70kDa protein 4-like|
HUWE1 HECT, UBA and WWE domain containing 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|This gene encodes a protein containing a C-terminal HECT (E6AP type E3 ubiquitin protein ligase) domain that functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. The encoded protein is required for the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl1 (myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (BCL2-related)). This protein also ubiquitinates the p53 tumor suppressor, core histones, and DNA polymerase beta. Mutations in this gene are associated with Turner type X-linked syndromic mental retardation. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
IDH3G isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 (NAD+) gamma|Isocitrate dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to 2-oxoglutarate. These enzymes belong to two distinct subclasses, one of which utilizes NAD(+) as the electron acceptor and the other NADP(+). Five isocitrate dehydrogenases have been reported: three NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, which localize to the mitochondrial matrix, and two NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, one of which is mitochondrial and the other predominantly cytosolic. NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases catalyze the allosterically regulated rate-limiting step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Each isozyme is a heterotetramer that is composed of two alpha subunits, one beta subunit, and one gamma subunit. The protein encoded by this gene is the gamma subunit of one isozyme of NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase. This gene is a candidate gene for periventricular heterotopia. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but only some of their full length natures have been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IFT172 intraflagellar transport 172|This gene encodes a subunit of the intraflagellar transport subcomplex IFT-B. Subcomplexes IFT-A and IFT-B are necessary for ciliary assembly and maintenance. Mutations in this gene have been associated with skeletal ciliopathies, with or without polydactyly, such as such short-rib thoracic dysplasias 1, 9 or 10. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
IGF2BP2 insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2|This gene encodes a member of the IGF-II mRNA-binding protein (IMP) family. The protein encoded by this gene contains four KH domains and two RRM domains. It functions by binding to the 5' UTR of the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) mRNA and regulating IGF2 translation. Alternative promoter usage and alternate splicing result in multiple variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
IKBKB inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase beta|The protein encoded by this gene phosphorylates the inhibitor in the inhibitor/NF-kappa-B complex, causing dissociation of the inhibitor and activation of NF-kappa-B. The encoded protein itself is found in a complex of proteins. Several transcript variants, some protein-coding and some not, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
IKBKG inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma|This gene encodes the regulatory subunit of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex, which activates NF-kappaB resulting in activation of genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and other pathways. Mutations in this gene result in incontinentia pigmenti, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and several other types of immunodeficiencies. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. A pseudogene highly similar to this locus is located in an adjacent region of the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
INF2 inverted formin, FH2 and WH2 domain containing|This gene represents a member of the formin family of proteins. It is considered a diaphanous formin due to the presence of a diaphanous inhibitory domain located at the N-terminus of the encoded protein. Studies of a similar mouse protein indicate that the protein encoded by this locus may function in polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments. Mutations at this locus have been associated with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis 5.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
INO80 INO80 complex subunit|This gene encodes a subunit of the chromatin remodeling complex, which is classified into subfamilies depending on sequence features apart from the conserved ATPase domain. This protein is the catalytic ATPase subunit of the INO80 chromatin remodeling complex, which is characterized by a DNA-binding domain. This protein is proposed to bind DNA and be recruited by the YY1 transcription factor to activate certain genes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
INO80E INO80 complex subunit E|
INPPL1 inositol polyphosphate phosphatase-like 1|The protein encoded by this gene is an SH2-containing 5'-inositol phosphatase that is involved in the regulation of insulin function. The encoded protein also plays a role in the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor turnover and actin remodelling. Additionally, this gene supports metastatic growth in breast cancer and is a valuable biomarker for breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
INTS1 integrator complex subunit 1|INTS1 is a subunit of the Integrator complex, which associates with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II large subunit (POLR2A; MIM 180660) and mediates 3-prime end processing of small nuclear RNAs U1 (RNU1; MIM 180680) and U2 (RNU2; MIM 180690) (Baillat et al., 2005 [PubMed 16239144]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
INTS3 integrator complex subunit 3|INTS3 is a subunit of the Integrator complex, which associates with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II large subunit (POLR2A; MIM 180660) and mediates 3-prime end processing of small nuclear RNAs U1 (RNU1; MIM 180680) and U2 (RNU2; MIM 180690) (Baillat et al., 2005 [PubMed 16239144]). INTS3 is also a subunit of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding complexes involved in the maintenance of genome stability (Huang et al., 2009) [PubMed 19683501].[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]
INTS5 integrator complex subunit 5|INTS5 is a subunit of the Integrator complex, which associates with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II large subunit (POLR2A; MIM 180660) and mediates 3-prime end processing of small nuclear RNAs U1 (RNU1; MIM 180680) and U2 (RNU2; MIM 180690) (Baillat et al., 2005 [PubMed 16239144]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
INTS6 integrator complex subunit 6|DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. The protein encoded by this gene is a DEAD box protein that is part of a complex that interacts with the C-terminus of RNA polymerase II and is involved in 3' end processing of snRNAs. In addition, this gene is a candidate tumor suppressor and is located in the critical region of loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]
INTS7 integrator complex subunit 7|This gene encodes a subunit of the integrator complex. The integrator complex associates with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and mediates 3'-end processing of the small nuclear RNAs U1 and U2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
IPO11 importin 11|Importins, including IPO11, are a members of the karyopherin/importin-beta family of transport receptors (see KPNB1; 602738) that mediate nucleocytoplasmic transport of protein and RNA cargoes (Plafker and Macara, 2000 [PubMed 11032817]).[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2008]
IPO7 importin 7|The importin-alpha/beta complex and the GTPase Ran mediate nuclear import of proteins with a classical nuclear localization signal. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a class of approximately 20 potential Ran targets that share a sequence motif related to the Ran-binding site of importin-beta. Similar to importin-beta, this protein prevents the activation of Ran's GTPase by RanGAP1 and inhibits nucleotide exchange on RanGTP, and also binds directly to nuclear pore complexes where it competes for binding sites with importin-beta and transportin. This protein has a Ran-dependent transport cycle and it can cross the nuclear envelope rapidly and in both directions. At least four importin beta-like transport receptors, namely importin beta itself, transportin, RanBP5 and RanBP7, directly bind and import ribosomal proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IPO8 importin 8|The importin-alpha/beta complex and the GTPase Ran mediate nuclear import of proteins with a classical nuclear localization signal. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a class of approximately 20 potential Ran targets that share a sequence motif related to the Ran-binding site of importin-beta. This protein binds to the nuclear pore complex and, along with RanGTP and RANBP1, inhibits the GAP stimulation of the Ran GTPase. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
IPO9 importin 9|
IRF2BP1 interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 1|
IRF2BP2 interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 2|This gene encodes an interferon regulatory factor-2 (IRF2) binding protein that interacts with the C-terminal transcriptional repression domain of IRF2. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ISX intestine-specific homeobox|Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This gene is a member of the RAXLX homeobox gene family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ITCH itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|This gene encodes a member of the Nedd4 family of HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases. HECT domain E3 ubiquitin ligases transfer ubiquitin from E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes to protein substrates, thus targeting specific proteins for lysosomal degradation. The encoded protein plays a role in multiple cellular processes including erythroid and lymphoid cell differentiation and the regulation of immune responses. Mutations in this gene are a cause of syndromic multisystem autoimmune disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
ITGAM integrin, alpha M (complement component 3 receptor 3 subunit)|This gene encodes the integrin alpha M chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form a leukocyte-specific integrin referred to as macrophage receptor 1 ('Mac-1'), or inactivated-C3b (iC3b) receptor 3 ('CR3'). The alpha M beta 2 integrin is important in the adherence of neutrophils and monocytes to stimulated endothelium, and also in the phagocytosis of complement coated particles. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
ITIH2 inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 2|The inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitors (ITI) are a family of structurally related plasma serine protease inhibitors involved in extracellular matrix stabilization and in prevention of tumor metastasis. The ITI family contains multiple proteins made up of a light chain (see MIM 176870) and a variable number of heavy chains (Salier et al., 1987 [PubMed 2446322]; Himmelfarb et al., 2004 [PubMed 14744536]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2009]
ITPKA inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase A|Regulates inositol phosphate metabolism by phosphorylation of second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. The activity of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase is responsible for regulating the levels of a large number of inositol polyphosphates that are important in cellular signaling. Both calcium/calmodulin and protein phosphorylation mechanisms control its activity. It is also a substrate for the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, calcium/calmodulin- dependent protein kinase II, and protein kinase C in vitro.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
ITPKB inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase B|The protein encoded by this protein regulates inositol phosphate metabolism by phosphorylation of second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. The activity of this encoded protein is responsible for regulating the levels of a large number of inositol polyphosphates that are important in cellular signaling. Both calcium/calmodulin and protein phosphorylation mechanisms control its activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
JAKMIP2 janus kinase and microtubule interacting protein 2|The protein encoded by this gene is reported to be a component of the Golgi matrix. It may act as a golgin protein by negatively regulating transit of secretory cargo and by acting as a structural scaffold of the Golgi. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
JAKMIP3 Janus kinase and microtubule interacting protein 3|
JARID2 jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2|This gene encodes a Jumonji- and AT-rich interaction domain (ARID)-domain-containing protein. The encoded protein is a DNA-binding protein that functions as a transcriptional repressor. This protein interacts with the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) which plays an essential role in regulating gene expression during embryonic development. This protein facilitates the recruitment of the PRC2 complex to target genes. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Mutations in this gene are associated with chronic myeloid malignancies. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
JUNB jun B proto-oncogene|
KANK2 KN motif and ankyrin repeat domains 2|
KAT8 K(lysine) acetyltransferase 8|This gene encodes a member of the MYST histone acetylase protein family. The encoded protein has a characteristic MYST domain containing an acetyl-CoA-binding site, a chromodomain typical of proteins which bind histones, and a C2HC-type zinc finger. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
KCNQ2 potassium channel, voltage gated KQT-like subfamily Q, member 2|The M channel is a slowly activating and deactivating potassium channel that plays a critical role in the regulation of neuronal excitability. The M channel is formed by the association of the protein encoded by this gene and a related protein encoded by the KCNQ3 gene, both integral membrane proteins. M channel currents are inhibited by M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and activated by retigabine, a novel anti-convulsant drug. Defects in this gene are a cause of benign familial neonatal convulsions type 1 (BFNC), also known as epilepsy, benign neonatal type 1 (EBN1). At least five transcript variants encoding five different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
KCTD1 potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 1|
KCTD15 potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 15|
KCTD20 potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 20|
KCTD3 potassium channel tetramerization domain containing 3|
KDM1A lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1A|This gene encodes a nuclear protein containing a SWIRM domain, a FAD-binding motif, and an amine oxidase domain. This protein is a component of several histone deacetylase complexes, though it silences genes by functioning as a histone demethylase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
KDM3B lysine (K)-specific demethylase 3B|
KDM5A lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5A|This gene encodes a member of the Jumonji, AT-rich interactive domain 1 (JARID1) histone demethylase protein family. The encoded protein plays a role in gene regulation through the histone code by specifically demethylating lysine 4 of histone H3. The encoded protein interacts with many other proteins, including retinoblastoma protein, and is implicated in the transcriptional regulation of Hox genes and cytokines. This gene may play a role in tumor progression. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
KIAA0196 KIAA0196|This gene encodes a 134 kDa protein named strumpellin that is predicted to have multiple transmembrane domains and a spectrin-repeat-containing domain. This ubiquitously expressed gene has its highest expression in skeletal muscle. The protein is named for Strumpell disease; a form of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). Spastic paraplegias are a diverse group of disorders in which the autosomal dominant forms are characterized by progressive, lower extremity spasticity caused by axonal degeneration in the terminal portions of the longest descending and ascending corticospinal tracts. More than 30 loci (SPG1-33) have been implicated in hereditary spastic paraplegia diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]
KIAA0226 KIAA0226|The protein encoded by this gene is a negative regulator of autophagy and endocytic trafficking and controls endosome maturation. This protein contains two conserved domains, an N-terminal RUN domain and a C-terminal DUF4206 domain. The RUN domain is involved in Ras-like GTPase signaling, and the DUF4206 domain contains a diacylglycerol (DAG) binding-like motif. Mutation in this gene results in deletion of the DAG binding-like motif and causes a recessive ataxia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
KIAA0513 KIAA0513|
KIAA1429 KIAA1429|
KIAA1468 KIAA1468|
KIAA2018 KIAA2018|
KIF13A kinesin family member 13A|This gene encodes a member of the kinesin family of microtubule-based motor proteins that function in the positioning of endosomes. This family member can direct mannose-6-phosphate receptor-containing vesicles from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane, and it is necessary for the steady-state distribution of late endosomes/lysosomes. It is also required for the translocation of FYVE-CENT and TTC19 from the centrosome to the midbody during cytokinesis, and it plays a role in melanosome maturation. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
KIF15 kinesin family member 15|
KIF20A kinesin family member 20A|
KIF21A kinesin family member 21A|This gene encodes a member of the KIF4 subfamily of kinesin-like motor proteins. The encoded protein is characterized by an N-terminal motor domain a coiled-coil stalk domain and a C-terminal WD-40 repeat domain. This protein may be involved in microtubule dependent transport. Mutations in this gene are the cause of congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles-1. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
KIF23 kinesin family member 23|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of kinesin-like protein family. This family includes microtubule-dependent molecular motors that transport organelles within cells and move chromosomes during cell division. This protein has been shown to cross-bridge antiparallel microtubules and drive microtubule movement in vitro. Alternate splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
KIF2A kinesin heavy chain member 2A|The protein encoded by this gene is a plus end-directed motor required for normal mitotic progression. The encoded protein is required for normal spindle activity during mitosis and is necessary for normal brain development. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
KIF4A kinesin family member 4A|This gene encodes a member of the kinesin 4 subfamily of kinesin related proteins. The encoded protein is an ATP dependent microtubule-based motor protein that is involved in the intracellular transport of membranous organelles. This protein also associates with condensed chromosome arms and may be involved in maintaining chromosome integrity during mitosis. This protein may also be involved in the organization of the central spindle prior to cytokinesis. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome X.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
KIF4B kinesin family member 4B|
KIF5A kinesin family member 5A|This gene encodes a member of the kinesin family of proteins. Members of this family are part of a multisubunit complex that functions as a microtubule motor in intracellular organelle transport. Mutations in this gene cause autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia 10. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
KIF5B kinesin family member 5B|
KLC1 kinesin light chain 1|Conventional kinesin is a tetrameric molecule composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, and transports various cargos along microtubules toward their plus ends. The heavy chains provide the motor activity, while the light chains bind to various cargos. This gene encodes a member of the kinesin light chain family. It associates with kinesin heavy chain through an N-terminal domain, and six tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs are thought to be involved in binding of cargos such as vesicles, mitochondria, and the Golgi complex. Thus, kinesin light chains function as adapter molecules and not motors per se. Although previously named "kinesin 2", this gene is not a member of the kinesin-2 / kinesin heavy chain subfamily of kinesin motor proteins. Extensive alternative splicing produces isoforms with different C-termini that are proposed to bind to different cargos; however, the full-length nature and/or biological validity of most of these variants have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
KLC2 kinesin light chain 2|Kinesin is a molecular motor that generates ATP-dependent movement of vesicles and organelles along microtubules. Kinesin consists of 2 light chains, such as KLC2, and 2 heavy chains (see KIF5B; MIM 602809) in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio (Rahman et al., 1998 [PubMed 9624122]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
KLC3 kinesin light chain 3|This gene encodes a member of the kinesin light chain gene family. Kinesins are molecular motors involved in the transport of cargo along microtubules, and are composed of two kinesin heavy chain (KHC) and two kinesin light chain (KLC) molecules. KLCs are thought to typically be involved in binding cargo and regulating kinesin activity. In the rat, a protein similar to this gene product is expressed in post-meiotic spermatids, where it associates with structural components of sperm tails and mitochondria. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
KLHL7 kelch-like family member 7|This gene encodes a BTB-Kelch-related protein. The encoded protein may be involved in protein degradation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with retinitis pigmentosa 42. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
KMT2A lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2A|This gene encodes a transcriptional coactivator that plays an essential role in regulating gene expression during early development and hematopoiesis. The encoded protein contains multiple conserved functional domains. One of these domains, the SET domain, is responsible for its histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase activity which mediates chromatin modifications associated with epigenetic transcriptional activation. This protein is processed by the enzyme Taspase 1 into two fragments, MLL-C and MLL-N. These fragments reassociate and further assemble into different multiprotein complexes that regulate the transcription of specific target genes, including many of the HOX genes. Multiple chromosomal translocations involving this gene are the cause of certain acute lymphoid leukemias and acute myeloid leukemias. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
KNOP1 lysine-rich nucleolar protein 1|
KNSTRN kinetochore-localized astrin/SPAG5 binding protein|
KPNA1 karyopherin alpha 1 (importin alpha 5)|The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC), which consists of 60-100 proteins. Small molecules (up to 70 kD) can pass through the nuclear pore by nonselective diffusion while larger molecules are transported by an active process. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the importin alpha family, and is involved in nuclear protein import. This protein interacts with the recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1) protein and is a putative substrate of the RAG1 ubiquitin ligase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
KPNA5 karyopherin alpha 5 (importin alpha 6)|The transport of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is mediated by the nuclear pore complex (NPC) which consists of 60-100 proteins and is probably 120 million daltons in molecular size. Small molecules (up to 70 kD) can pass through the nuclear pore by nonselective diffusion; larger molecules are transported by an active process. Most nuclear proteins contain short basic amino acid sequences known as nuclear localization signals (NLSs). KPNA5 protein belongs to the importin alpha protein family and is thought to be involved in NLS-dependent protein import into the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
KPNA6 karyopherin alpha 6 (importin alpha 7)|Nucleocytoplasmic transport, a signal- and energy-dependent process, takes place through nuclear pore complexes embedded in the nuclear envelope. The import of proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) requires the NLS import receptor, a heterodimer of importin alpha and beta subunits also known as karyopherins. Importin alpha binds the NLS-containing cargo in the cytoplasm and importin beta docks the complex at the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex. In the presence of nucleoside triphosphates and the small GTP binding protein Ran, the complex moves into the nuclear pore complex and the importin subunits dissociate. Importin alpha enters the nucleoplasm with its passenger protein and importin beta remains at the pore. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the importin alpha family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LACE1 lactation elevated 1|This gene encodes a protein with possible ATPase function. The protein contains a P-loop motif and a five-domain structure that is conserved in fly, yeast, and bacteria. Two conserved estrogen receptor binding sites are located within 2.5 kb of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LACRT lacritin|The protein encoded by this gene is highly expressed in the lacrimal glands and localized primarily to secretory granules and secretory fluid. It augments lacrimal acinar cell secretion, promotes ductal cell proliferation, and stimulates signaling through tyrosine phosphorylation and release of calcium. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LAMA2 laminin, alpha 2|Laminin, an extracellular protein, is a major component of the basement membrane. It is thought to mediate the attachment, migration, and organization of cells into tissues during embryonic development by interacting with other extracellular matrix components. It is composed of three subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma, which are bound to each other by disulfide bonds into a cross-shaped molecule. This gene encodes the alpha 2 chain, which constitutes one of the subunits of laminin 2 (merosin) and laminin 4 (s-merosin). Mutations in this gene have been identified as the cause of congenital merosin-deficient muscular dystrophy. Two transcript variants encoding different proteins have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LARP7 La ribonucleoprotein domain family, member 7|This gene encodes a protein which is found in the 7SK snRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoprotein). This snRNP complex inhibits a cyclin-dependent kinase, positive transcription elongation factor b, which is required for paused RNA polymerase II at a promoter to begin transcription elongation. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 3. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
LARS leucyl-tRNA synthetase|This gene encodes a cytosolic leucine-tRNA synthetase, a member of the class I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of L-leucine to tRNA(Leu). It is found in the cytoplasm as part of a multisynthetase complex and interacts with the arginine tRNA synthetase through its C-terminal domain. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been found; however, their full-length nature is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LCN1 lipocalin 1|This gene encodes a member of the lipocalin family of small secretory proteins. Lipocalins are extracellular transport proteins that bind to a variety of hydrophobic ligands. The encoded protein is the primary lipid binding protein in tears and is overproduced in response to multiple stimuli including infection and stress. The encoded protein may be a marker for chromosome aneuploidy as well as an autoantigen in Sjogren's syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and two pseudogenes of this gene are also located on the long arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
LDB1 LIM domain binding 1|
LEO1 Leo1, Paf1/RNA polymerase II complex component, homolog (S. cerevisiae)|LEO1, parafibromin (CDC73; MIM 607393), CTR9 (MIM 609366), and PAF1 (MIM 610506) form the PAF protein complex that associates with the RNA polymerase II subunit POLR2A (MIM 180660) and with a histone methyltransferase complex (Rozenblatt-Rosen et al., 2005 [PubMed 15632063]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
LEPRE1 prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1|This gene encodes an enzyme that is a member of the collagen prolyl hydroxylase family. These enzymes are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and their activity is required for proper collagen synthesis and assembly. Mutations in this gene are associated with osteogenesis imperfecta type VIII. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. Other variants may exist, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
LGALS3 lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3|This gene encodes a member of the galectin family of carbohydrate binding proteins. Members of this protein family have an affinity for beta-galactosides. The encoded protein is characterized by an N-terminal proline-rich tandem repeat domain and a single C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain. This protein can self-associate through the N-terminal domain allowing it to bind to multivalent saccharide ligands. This protein localizes to the extracellular matrix, the cytoplasm and the nucleus. This protein plays a role in numerous cellular functions including apoptosis, innate immunity, cell adhesion and T-cell regulation. The protein exhibits antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
LGALS7B lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 7B|The galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins implicated in modulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Differential and in situ hybridization studies indicate that this lectin is specifically expressed in keratinocytes and found mainly in stratified squamous epithelium. A duplicate copy of this gene (GeneID:3963) is found adjacent to, but on the opposite strand on chromosome 19. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LIG3 ligase III, DNA, ATP-dependent|This gene is a member of the DNA ligase family. Each member of this family encodes a protein that catalyzes the joining of DNA ends but they each have a distinct role in DNA metabolism. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in excision repair and is located in both the mitochondria and nucleus, with translation initiation from the upstream start codon allowing for transport to the mitochondria and translation initiation from a downstream start codon allowing for transport to the nucleus. Additionally, alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LIMK1 LIM domain kinase 1|There are approximately 40 known eukaryotic LIM proteins, so named for the LIM domains they contain. LIM domains are highly conserved cysteine-rich structures containing 2 zinc fingers. Although zinc fingers usually function by binding to DNA or RNA, the LIM motif probably mediates protein-protein interactions. LIM kinase-1 and LIM kinase-2 belong to a small subfamily with a unique combination of 2 N-terminal LIM motifs and a C-terminal protein kinase domain. LIMK1 is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates actin polymerization via phosphorylation and inactivation of the actin binding factor cofilin. This protein is ubiquitously expressed during development and plays a role in many cellular processes associated with cytoskeletal structure. This protein also stimulates axon growth and may play a role in brain development. LIMK1 hemizygosity is implicated in the impaired visuospatial constructive cognition of Williams syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
LIMS2 LIM and senescent cell antigen-like domains 2|This gene encodes a member of a small family of focal adhesion proteins which interacts with ILK (integrin-linked kinase), a protein which effects protein-protein interactions with the extraceullar matrix. The encoded protein has five LIM domains, each domain forming two zinc fingers, which permit interactions which regulate cell shape and migration. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 4. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
LMNB2 lamin B2|This gene encodes a B type nuclear lamin. The nuclear lamina consists of a two-dimensional matrix of proteins located next to the inner nuclear membrane. The lamin family of proteins make up the matrix and are highly conserved in evolution. During mitosis, the lamina matrix is reversibly disassembled as the lamin proteins are phosphorylated. Lamin proteins are thought to be involved in nuclear stability, chromatin structure and gene expression. Vertebrate lamins consist of two types, A and B. Mutations in this gene are associated with acquired partial lipodystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
LMO7 LIM domain 7|This gene encodes a protein containing a calponin homology (CH) domain, a PDZ domain, and a LIM domain, and may be involved in protein-protein interactions. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, however, the full-length nature of some variants is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
LOC100130283 uncharacterized LOC100130283|
LOC729696 uncharacterized LOC729696|
LRCH1 leucine-rich repeats and calponin homology (CH) domain containing 1|This gene encodes a protein with a leucine-rich repeat and a calponin homology domain. Polymorphism in this gene may be associated with susceptibililty to knee osteoarthritis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
LRCH2 leucine-rich repeats and calponin homology (CH) domain containing 2|This gene encodes a member of the leucine-rich repeat and calponin homology domain-containing protein family. These family members contain multiple N-terminal leucine-rich repeats, in addition to a C-terminal calponin homology domain, a type of domain that mediates interactions with actin filaments. These proteins are conserved across animal species, and studies of a similar Drosophila protein indicate a function as a cytoskeletal scaffolding protein. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
LRIG1 leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1|
LRMP lymphoid-restricted membrane protein|The protein encode dby this gene is expressed in a developmentally regulated manner in lymphoid cell lines and tissues. The protein is localized to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LRRC1 leucine rich repeat containing 1|
LRRC10 leucine rich repeat containing 10|
LRRFIP1 leucine rich repeat (in FLII) interacting protein 1|
LRRFIP2 leucine rich repeat (in FLII) interacting protein 2|
LSM12 LSM12 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
LTBP2 latent transforming growth factor beta binding protein 2|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of latent transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta binding proteins (LTBP), which are extracellular matrix proteins with multi-domain structure. This protein is the largest member of the LTBP family possessing unique regions and with most similarity to the fibrillins. It has thus been suggested that it may have multiple functions: as a member of the TGF-beta latent complex, as a structural component of microfibrils, and a role in cell adhesion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LTF lactotransferrin|This gene is a member of the transferrin family of genes and its protein product is found in the secondary granules of neutrophils. The protein is a major iron-binding protein in milk and body secretions with an antimicrobial activity, making it an important component of the non-specific immune system. The protein demonstrates a broad spectrum of properties, including regulation of iron homeostasis, host defense against a broad range of microbial infections, anti-inflammatory activity, regulation of cellular growth and differentiation and protection against cancer development and metastasis. Antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic activity has been found for this protein and its peptides. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
LYZ lysozyme|This gene encodes human lysozyme, whose natural substrate is the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan (cleaving the beta[1-4]glycosidic linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine). Lysozyme is one of the antimicrobial agents found in human milk, and is also present in spleen, lung, kidney, white blood cells, plasma, saliva, and tears. The protein has antibacterial activity against a number of bacterial species. Missense mutations in this gene have been identified in heritable renal amyloidosis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
MAGEH1 melanoma antigen family H1|This gene belongs to the non-CT (non cancer/testis) subgroup of the melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) superfamily. The encoded protein is likely associated with apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, growth inhibition or cell differentiation. The protein may be involved in the atRA (all-trans retinoic acid) signaling through the STAT1-alpha (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-alpha) pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
MAP2K1 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which acts as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals. This protein kinase lies upstream of MAP kinases and stimulates the enzymatic activity of MAP kinases upon wide variety of extra- and intracellular signals. As an essential component of MAP kinase signal transduction pathway, this kinase is involved in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAP2K2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK2/ERK3. The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. Mutations in this gene cause cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC syndrome), a disease characterized by heart defects, mental retardation, and distinctive facial features similar to those found in Noonan syndrome. The inhibition or degradation of this kinase is also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of Yersinia and anthrax. A pseudogene, which is located on chromosome 7, has been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAP2K7 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7|The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase specifically activates MAPK8/JNK1 and MAPK9/JNK2, and this kinase itself is phosphorylated and activated by MAP kinase kinase kinases including MAP3K1/MEKK1, MAP3K2/MEKK2,MAP3K3/MEKK5, and MAP4K2/GCK. This kinase is involved in the signal transduction mediating the cell responses to proinflammatory cytokines, and environmental stresses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
MAP3K7 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase mediates the signaling transduction induced by TGF beta and morphogenetic protein (BMP), and controls a variety of cell functions including transcription regulation and apoptosis. In response to IL-1, this protein forms a kinase complex including TRAF6, MAP3K7P1/TAB1 and MAP3K7P2/TAB2; this complex is required for the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. This kinase can also activate MAPK8/JNK, MAP2K4/MKK4, and thus plays a role in the cell response to environmental stresses. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAP4 microtubule-associated protein 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a major non-neuronal microtubule-associated protein. This protein contains a domain similar to the microtubule-binding domains of neuronal microtubule-associated protein (MAP2) and microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT/TAU). This protein promotes microtubule assembly, and has been shown to counteract destabilization of interphase microtubule catastrophe promotion. Cyclin B was found to interact with this protein, which targets cell division cycle 2 (CDC2) kinase to microtubules. The phosphorylation of this protein affects microtubule properties and cell cycle progression. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
MAP4K4 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase has been shown to specifically activate MAPK8/JNK. The activation of MAPK8 by this kinase is found to be inhibited by the dominant-negative mutants of MAP3K7/TAK1, MAP2K4/MKK4, and MAP2K7/MKK7, which suggests that this kinase may function through the MAP3K7-MAP2K4-MAP2K7 kinase cascade, and mediate the TNF-alpha signaling pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAP6 microtubule-associated protein 6|This gene encodes a microtubule-associated protein. The encoded protein is a calmodulin-binding and calmodulin-regulated protein that is involved in microtubule stabilization. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAPK8IP3 mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 interacting protein 3|The protein encoded by this gene shares similarity with the product of Drosophila syd gene, required for the functional interaction of kinesin I with axonal cargo. Studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that this protein may interact with, and regulate the activity of numerous protein kinases of the JNK signaling pathway, and thus function as a scaffold protein in neuronal cells. The C. elegans counterpart of this gene is found to regulate synaptic vesicle transport possibly by integrating JNK signaling and kinesin-1 transport. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAPKAP1 mitogen-activated protein kinase associated protein 1|This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the yeast SIN1 protein, a stress-activated protein kinase. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. Alternate polyadenylation sites as well as alternate 3' UTRs have been identified for transcripts of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAPRE1 microtubule-associated protein, RP/EB family, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene was first identified by its binding to the APC protein which is often mutated in familial and sporadic forms of colorectal cancer. This protein localizes to microtubules, especially the growing ends, in interphase cells. During mitosis, the protein is associated with the centrosomes and spindle microtubules. The protein also associates with components of the dynactin complex and the intermediate chain of cytoplasmic dynein. Because of these associations, it is thought that this protein is involved in the regulation of microtubule structures and chromosome stability. This gene is a member of the RP/EB family. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAPRE3 microtubule-associated protein, RP/EB family, member 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RP/EB family of genes. The protein localizes to the cytoplasmic microtubule network and binds APCL, a homolog of the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MARS methionyl-tRNA synthetase|This gene encodes a member of the class I family of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. These enzymes play a critical role in protein biosynthesis by charging tRNAs with their cognate amino acids. The encoded protein is a component of the multi-tRNA synthetase complex and catalyzes the ligation of methionine to tRNA molecules. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
MBD2 methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2|DNA methylation is the major modification of eukaryotic genomes and plays an essential role in mammalian development. Human proteins MECP2, MBD1, MBD2, MBD3, and MBD4 comprise a family of nuclear proteins related by the presence in each of a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). Each of these proteins, with the exception of MBD3, is capable of binding specifically to methylated DNA. MECP2, MBD1 and MBD2 can also repress transcription from methylated gene promoters. The protein encoded by this gene may function as a mediator of the biological consequences of the methylation signal. It is also reported that the this protein functions as a demethylase to activate transcription, as DNA methylation causes gene silencing. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
MBD3 methyl-CpG binding domain protein 3|DNA methylation is the major modification of eukaryotic genomes and plays an essential role in mammalian development. This gene belongs to a family of nuclear proteins which are characterized by the presence of a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). The encoded protein is a subunit of the NuRD, a multisubunit complex containing nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. Unlike the other family members, the encoded protein is not capable of binding to methylated DNA. The protein mediates the association of metastasis-associated protein 2 with the core histone deacetylase complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
MCCC1 methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (alpha)|This gene encodes the large subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. This enzyme functions as a heterodimer and catalyzes the carboxylation of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA to form 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA. Mutations in this gene are associated with 3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria, an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MCCC2 methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (beta)|This gene encodes the small subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. This enzyme functions as a heterodimer and catalyzes the carboxylation of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA to form 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA. Mutations in this gene are associated with 3-Methylcrotonylglycinuria, an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MCM2 minichromosome maintenance complex component 2|The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. This protein forms a complex with MCM4, 6, and 7, and has been shown to regulate the helicase activity of the complex. This protein is phosphorylated, and thus regulated by, protein kinases CDC2 and CDC7. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been defined. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]
MCM3 minichromosome maintenance complex component 3|The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are involved in the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. This protein is a subunit of the protein complex that consists of MCM2-7. It has been shown to interact directly with MCM5/CDC46. This protein also interacts with and is acetylated by MCM3AP, a chromatin-associated acetyltransferase. The acetylation of this protein inhibits the initiation of DNA replication and cell cycle progression. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
MCM4 minichromosome maintenance complex component 4|The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. The MCM complex consisting of this protein and MCM2, 6 and 7 proteins possesses DNA helicase activity, and may act as a DNA unwinding enzyme. The phosphorylation of this protein by CDC2 kinase reduces the DNA helicase activity and chromatin binding of the MCM complex. This gene is mapped to a region on the chromosome 8 head-to-head next to the PRKDC/DNA-PK, a DNA-activated protein kinase involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MCM5 minichromosome maintenance complex component 5|The protein encoded by this gene is structurally very similar to the CDC46 protein from S. cerevisiae, a protein involved in the initiation of DNA replication. The encoded protein is a member of the MCM family of chromatin-binding proteins and can interact with at least two other members of this family. The encoded protein is upregulated in the transition from the G0 to G1/S phase of the cell cycle and may actively participate in cell cycle regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MCM6 minichromosome maintenance complex component 6|The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by the MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. The MCM complex consisting of this protein and MCM2, 4 and 7 proteins possesses DNA helicase activity, and may act as a DNA unwinding enzyme. The phosphorylation of the complex by CDC2 kinase reduces the helicase activity, suggesting a role in the regulation of DNA replication. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the intron regions of this gene are associated with differential transcriptional activation of the promoter of the neighboring lactase gene and, thereby, influence lactose intolerance in early adulthood. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
MCM7 minichromosome maintenance complex component 7|The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by the MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. The MCM complex consisting of this protein and MCM2, 4 and 6 proteins possesses DNA helicase activity, and may act as a DNA unwinding enzyme. Cyclin D1-dependent kinase, CDK4, is found to associate with this protein, and may regulate the binding of this protein with the tumorsuppressor protein RB1/RB. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MDH1B malate dehydrogenase 1B, NAD (soluble)|
MED1 mediator complex subunit 1|The activation of gene transcription is a multistep process that is triggered by factors that recognize transcriptional enhancer sites in DNA. These factors work with co-activators to direct transcriptional initiation by the RNA polymerase II apparatus. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the CRSP (cofactor required for SP1 activation) complex, which, along with TFIID, is required for efficient activation by SP1. This protein is also a component of other multisubunit complexes e.g. thyroid hormone receptor-(TR-) associated proteins which interact with TR and facilitate TR function on DNA templates in conjunction with initiation factors and cofactors. It also regulates p53-dependent apoptosis and it is essential for adipogenesis. This protein is known to have the ability to self-oligomerize. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MED12 mediator complex subunit 12|The initiation of transcription is controlled in part by a large protein assembly known as the preinitiation complex. A component of this preinitiation complex is a 1.2 MDa protein aggregate called Mediator. This Mediator component binds with a CDK8 subcomplex which contains the protein encoded by this gene, mediator complex subunit 12 (MED12), along with MED13, CDK8 kinase, and cyclin C. The CDK8 subcomplex modulates Mediator-polymerase II interactions and thereby regulates transcription initiation and reinitation rates. The MED12 protein is essential for activating CDK8 kinase. Defects in this gene cause X-linked Opitz-Kaveggia syndrome, also known as FG syndrome, and Lujan-Fryns syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]
MED13 mediator complex subunit 13|This gene encodes a component of the mediator complex (also known as TRAP, SMCC, DRIP, or ARC), a transcriptional coactivator complex thought to be required for the expression of almost all genes. The mediator complex is recruited by transcriptional activators or nuclear receptors to induce gene expression, possibly by interacting with RNA polymerase II and promoting the formation of a transcriptional pre-initiation complex. The product of this gene is proposed to form a sub-complex with MED12, cyclin C, and CDK8 that can negatively regulate transactivation by mediator. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MED14 mediator complex subunit 14|The activation of gene transcription is a multistep process that is triggered by factors that recognize transcriptional enhancer sites in DNA. These factors work with co-activators to direct transcriptional initiation by the RNA polymerase II apparatus. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the CRSP (cofactor required for SP1 activation) complex, which, along with TFIID, is required for efficient activation by SP1. This protein is also a component of other multisubunit complexes e.g. thyroid hormone receptor-(TR-) associated proteins which interact with TR and facilitate TR function on DNA templates in conjunction with initiation factors and cofactors. This protein contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal. This gene is known to escape chromosome X-inactivation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MED15 mediator complex subunit 15|The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the multiprotein complexes PC2 and ARC/DRIP and may function as a transcriptional coactivator in RNA polymerase II transcription. This gene contains stretches of trinucleotide repeats and is located in the chromosome 22 region which is deleted in DiGeorge syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
MED16 mediator complex subunit 16|
MED17 mediator complex subunit 17|The activation of gene transcription is a multistep process that is triggered by factors that recognize transcriptional enhancer sites in DNA. These factors work with co-activators to direct transcriptional initiation by the RNA polymerase II apparatus. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the CRSP (cofactor required for SP1 activation) complex, which, along with TFIID, is required for efficient activation by SP1. This protein is also a component of other multisubunit complexes e.g. thyroid hormone receptor-(TR-) associated proteins which interact with TR and facilitate TR function on DNA templates in conjunction with initiation factors and cofactors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MED20 mediator complex subunit 20|This gene encodes a component of the mediator complex (also known as TRAP, SMCC, DRIP, or ARC), a transcriptional coactivator complex thought to be required for the expression of almost all genes. The mediator complex is recruited by transcriptional activators or nuclear receptors to induce gene expression, by interacting with RNA polymerase II and promoting the formation of a transcriptional pre-initiation complex. A mutation in this gene has been associated with a novel infantile-onset neurodegenerative movement disorder. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2015]
MED23 mediator complex subunit 23|The activation of gene transcription is a multistep process that is triggered by factors that recognize transcriptional enhancer sites in DNA. These factors work with co-activators to direct transcriptional initiation by the RNA polymerase II apparatus. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the CRSP (cofactor required for SP1 activation) complex, which, along with TFIID, is required for efficient activation by SP1. This protein is also a component of other multisubunit complexes e.g. thyroid hormone receptor-(TR-) associated proteins which interact with TR and facilitate TR function on DNA templates in conjunction with initiation factors and cofactors. This protein also acts as a metastasis suppressor. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
MED24 mediator complex subunit 24|This gene encodes a component of the mediator complex (also known as TRAP, SMCC, DRIP, or ARC), a transcriptional coactivator complex thought to be required for the expression of almost all genes. The mediator complex is recruited by transcriptional activators or nuclear receptors to induce gene expression, possibly by interacting with RNA polymerase II and promoting the formation of a transcriptional pre-initiation complex. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MED27 mediator complex subunit 27|The activation of gene transcription is a multistep process that is triggered by factors that recognize transcriptional enhancer sites in DNA. These factors work with co-activators to direct transcriptional initiation by the RNA polymerase II apparatus. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the CRSP (cofactor required for SP1 activation) complex, which, along with TFIID, is required for efficient activation by SP1. This protein is also a component of other multisubunit complexes e.g. thyroid hormone receptor-(TR-) associated proteins which interact with TR and facilitate TR function on DNA templates in conjunction with initiation factors and cofactors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
MED30 mediator complex subunit 30|The multiprotein TRAP/Mediator complex facilitates gene expression through a wide variety of transcriptional activators. MED30 is a component of this complex that appears to be metazoan specific (Baek et al., 2002 [PubMed 11909976]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
MED4 mediator complex subunit 4|This gene encodes a component of the Mediator complex. The Mediator complex interacts with DNA-binding gene-specific transcription factors to modulate transcription by RNA polymerase II. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
MED8 mediator complex subunit 8|This gene encodes a protein component of the mediator complex, which aids in transcriptional activation through interaction with RNA polymerase II and gene-specific transcription factors. The encoded protein may also function in ubiquitin ligation and protein degradation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
MEF2A myocyte enhancer factor 2A|The protein encoded by this gene is a DNA-binding transcription factor that activates many muscle-specific, growth factor-induced, and stress-induced genes. The encoded protein can act as a homodimer or as a heterodimer and is involved in several cellular processes, including muscle development, neuronal differentiation, cell growth control, and apoptosis. Defects in this gene could be a cause of autosomal dominant coronary artery disease 1 with myocardial infarction (ADCAD1). Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
MEF2D myocyte enhancer factor 2D|This gene is a member of the myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) family of transcription factors. Members of this family are involved in control of muscle and neuronal cell differentiation and development, and are regulated by class II histone deacetylases. Fusions of the encoded protein with Deleted in Azoospermia-Associated Protein 1 (DAZAP1) due to a translocation have been found in an acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, suggesting a role in leukemogenesis. The encoded protein may also be involved in Parkinson disease and myotonic dystrophy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]
MEN1 multiple endocrine neoplasia I|This gene encodes menin, a putative tumor suppressor associated with a syndrome known as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. In vitro studies have shown menin is localized to the nucleus, possesses two functional nuclear localization signals, and inhibits transcriptional activation by JunD, however, the function of this protein is not known. Two messages have been detected on northern blots but the larger message has not been characterized. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
MEPCE methylphosphate capping enzyme|
MESDC1 mesoderm development candidate 1|
METTL3 methyltransferase like 3|This gene encodes the 70 kDa subunit of MT-A which is part of N6-adenosine-methyltransferase. This enzyme is involved in the posttranscriptional methylation of internal adenosine residues in eukaryotic mRNAs, forming N6-methyladenosine. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
METTL5 methyltransferase like 5|
MGA MGA, MAX dimerization protein|
MIF macrophage migration inhibitory factor (glycosylation-inhibiting factor)|This gene encodes a lymphokine involved in cell-mediated immunity, immunoregulation, and inflammation. It plays a role in the regulation of macrophage function in host defense through the suppression of anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. This lymphokine and the JAB1 protein form a complex in the cytosol near the peripheral plasma membrane, which may indicate an additional role in integrin signaling pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MINK1 misshapen-like kinase 1|This gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase belonging to the germinal center kinase (GCK) family. The protein is structurally similar to the kinases that are related to NIK and may belong to a distinct subfamily of NIK-related kinases within the GCK family. Studies of the mouse homolog indicate an up-regulation of expression in the course of postnatal mouse cerebral development and activation of the cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the p38 pathways. Alternative splicing occurs at this locus and four transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MIOS missing oocyte, meiosis regulator, homolog (Drosophila)|
MKL1 megakaryoblastic leukemia (translocation) 1|The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the transcription factor myocardin, a key regulator of smooth muscle cell differentiation. The encoded protein is predominantly nuclear and may help transduce signals from the cytoskeleton to the nucleus. This gene is involved in a specific translocation event that creates a fusion of this gene and the RNA-binding motif protein-15 gene. This translocation has been associated with acute megakaryocytic leukemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
MKL2 MKL/myocardin-like 2|
MLLT1 myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (trithorax homolog, Drosophila); translocated to, 1|
MLLT3 myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (trithorax homolog, Drosophila); translocated to, 3|
MLX MLX, MAX dimerization protein|The product of this gene belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors. These factors form heterodimers with Mad proteins and play a role in proliferation, determination and differentiation. This gene product may act to diversify Mad family function by its restricted association with a subset of the Mad family of transcriptional repressors, namely, Mad1 and Mad4. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MNX1 motor neuron and pancreas homeobox 1|This gene encodes a nuclear protein, which contains a homeobox domain and is a transcription factor. Mutations in this gene result in Currarino syndrome, an autosomic dominant congenital malformation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
MOB4 MOB family member 4, phocein|This gene was identified based on its similarity with the mouse counterpart. Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that the expression of this gene may be regulated during oocyte maturation and preimplantation following zygotic gene activation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. Naturally occurring read-through transcription occurs between this locus and the neighboring locus HSPE1.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
MOCOS molybdenum cofactor sulfurase|MOCOS sulfurates the molybdenum cofactor of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH; MIM 607633) and aldehyde oxidase (AOX1; MIM 602841), which is required for their enzymatic activities (Ichida et al., 2001 [PubMed 11302742]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]
MORF4L1 mortality factor 4 like 1|
MPO myeloperoxidase|Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme protein synthesized during myeloid differentiation that constitutes the major component of neutrophil azurophilic granules. Produced as a single chain precursor, myeloperoxidase is subsequently cleaved into a light and heavy chain. The mature myeloperoxidase is a tetramer composed of 2 light chains and 2 heavy chains. This enzyme produces hypohalous acids central to the microbicidal activity of neutrophils. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
MRE11A MRE11 meiotic recombination 11 homolog A (S. cerevisiae)|This gene encodes a nuclear protein involved in homologous recombination, telomere length maintenance, and DNA double-strand break repair. By itself, the protein has 3' to 5' exonuclease activity and endonuclease activity. The protein forms a complex with the RAD50 homolog; this complex is required for nonhomologous joining of DNA ends and possesses increased single-stranded DNA endonuclease and 3' to 5' exonuclease activities. In conjunction with a DNA ligase, this protein promotes the joining of noncomplementary ends in vitro using short homologies near the ends of the DNA fragments. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 3. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MRGBP MRG/MORF4L binding protein|
MRPS36 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S36|Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. The mitochondrial ribosome (mitoribosome) consists of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 3p, 4q, 8p, 11q, 12q, and 20p. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MTA1 metastasis associated 1|This gene encodes a protein that was identified in a screen for genes expressed in metastatic cells, specifically, mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines. Expression of this gene has been correlated with the metastatic potential of at least two types of carcinomas although it is also expressed in many normal tissues. The role it plays in metastasis is unclear. It was initially thought to be the 70kD component of a nucleosome remodeling deacetylase complex, NuRD, but it is more likely that this component is a different but very similar protein. These two proteins are so closely related, though, that they share the same types of domains. These domains include two DNA binding domains, a dimerization domain, and a domain commonly found in proteins that methylate DNA. The profile and activity of this gene product suggest that it is involved in regulating transcription and that this may be accomplished by chromatin remodeling. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
MTA2 metastasis associated 1 family, member 2|This gene encodes a protein that has been identified as a component of NuRD, a nucleosome remodeling deacetylase complex identified in the nucleus of human cells. It shows a very broad expression pattern and is strongly expressed in many tissues. It may represent one member of a small gene family that encode different but related proteins involved either directly or indirectly in transcriptional regulation. Their indirect effects on transcriptional regulation may include chromatin remodeling. It is closely related to another member of this family, a protein that has been correlated with the metastatic potential of certain carcinomas. These two proteins are so closely related that they share the same types of domains. These domains include two DNA binding domains, a dimerization domain, and a domain commonly found in proteins that methylate DNA. One of the proteins known to be a target protein for this gene product is p53. Deacetylation of p53 is correlated with a loss of growth inhibition in transformed cells supporting a connection between these gene family members and metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
MTA3 metastasis associated 1 family, member 3|
MTCL1 microtubule crosslinking factor 1|
MTHFS 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (5-formyltetrahydrofolate cyclo-ligase)|The protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate to 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate, a precursor of reduced folates involved in 1-carbon metabolism. An increased activity of the encoded protein can result in an increased folate turnover rate and folate depletion. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
MTMR2 myotubularin related protein 2|This gene is a member of the myotubularin family of phosphoinositide lipid phosphatases. The encoded protein possesses phosphatase activity towards phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphate. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B, an autosomal recessive demyelinating neuropathy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
MTUS1 microtubule associated tumor suppressor 1|This gene encodes a protein which contains a C-terminal domain able to interact with the angiotension II (AT2) receptor and a large coiled-coil region allowing dimerization. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. One of the transcript variants has been shown to encode a mitochondrial protein that acts as a tumor suppressor and partcipates in AT2 signaling pathways. Other variants may encode nuclear or transmembrane proteins but it has not been determined whether they also participate in AT2 signaling pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MVP major vault protein|This gene encodes the major component of the vault complex. Vaults are multi-subunit ribonucleoprotein structures that may be involved in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport. The encoded protein may play a role in multiple cellular processes by regulating the MAP kinase, JAK/STAT and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways. The encoded protein also plays a role in multidrug resistance, and expression of this gene may be a prognostic marker for several types of cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
MYCBP MYC binding protein|The protein encoded by this gene binds to the N-terminus of the oncogenic protein C-MYC, enhancing the ability of C-MYC to activate E box-dependent transcription. The encoded protein is normally found in the cytoplasm, but it translocates to the nucleus during S phase of the cell cycle and associates with C-MYC. This protein may be involved in spermatogenesis. This gene can be silenced by microRNA-22. Two transcript variants, one protein-coding and the other probably not protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
MYH14 myosin, heavy chain 14, non-muscle|This gene encodes a member of the myosin superfamily. The protein represents a conventional non-muscle myosin; it should not be confused with the unconventional myosin-14 (MYO14). Myosins are actin-dependent motor proteins with diverse functions including regulation of cytokinesis, cell motility, and cell polarity. Mutations in this gene result in one form of autosomal dominant hearing impairment. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
MYH8 myosin, heavy chain 8, skeletal muscle, perinatal|Myosins are actin-based motor proteins that function in the generation of mechanical force in eukaryotic cells. Muscle myosins are heterohexamers composed of 2 myosin heavy chains and 2 pairs of nonidentical myosin light chains. This gene encodes a member of the class II or conventional myosin heavy chains, and functions in skeletal muscle contraction. This gene is predominantly expressed in fetal skeletal muscle. This gene is found in a cluster of myosin heavy chain genes on chromosome 17. A mutation in this gene results in trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
MYL12A myosin, light chain 12A, regulatory, non-sarcomeric|This gene encodes a nonsarcomeric myosin regulatory light chain. This protein is activated by phosphorylation and regulates smooth muscle and non-muscle cell contraction. This protein may also be involved in DNA damage repair by sequestering the transcriptional regulator apoptosis-antagonizing transcription factor (AATF)/Che-1 which functions as a repressor of p53-driven apoptosis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 8.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
MYL12B myosin, light chain 12B, regulatory|The activity of nonmuscle myosin II (see MYH9; MIM 160775) is regulated by phosphorylation of a regulatory light chain, such as MRLC2. This phosphorylation results in higher MgATPase activity and the assembly of myosin II filaments (Iwasaki et al., 2001 [PubMed 11942626]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
MYO18B myosin XVIIIB|The protein encoded by this gene may regulate muscle-specific genes when in the nucleus and may influence intracellular trafficking when in the cytoplasm. The encoded protein functions as a homodimer and may interact with F actin. Mutations in this gene are associated with lung cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MYO1B myosin IB|
MZT2B mitotic spindle organizing protein 2B|
NAGK N-acetylglucosamine kinase|This gene encodes a member of the N-acetylhexosamine kinase family. The encoded protein catalyzes the conversion of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-phosphate, and is the major mammalian enzyme which recovers amino sugars. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
NAIF1 nuclear apoptosis inducing factor 1|
NAP1L1 nucleosome assembly protein 1-like 1|This gene encodes a member of the nucleosome assembly protein (NAP) family. This protein participates in DNA replication and may play a role in modulating chromatin formation and contribute to the regulation of cell proliferation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms; however, not all have been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]
NAP1L4 nucleosome assembly protein 1-like 4|This gene encodes a member of the nucleosome assembly protein (NAP) family which can interact with both core and linker histones. It can shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus, suggesting a role as a histone chaperone. This gene is one of several located near the imprinted gene domain of 11p15.5, an important tumor-suppressor gene region. Alterations in this region have been associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, and lung, ovarian, and breast cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NBN nibrin|Mutations in this gene are associated with Nijmegen breakage syndrome, an autosomal recessive chromosomal instability syndrome characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and cancer predisposition. The encoded protein is a member of the MRE11/RAD50 double-strand break repair complex which consists of 5 proteins. This gene product is thought to be involved in DNA double-strand break repair and DNA damage-induced checkpoint activation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NCAPD2 non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit D2|
NCAPG non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G|This gene encodes a subunit of the condensin complex, which is responsible for the condensation and stabilization of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. Phosphorylation of the encoded protein activates the condensin complex. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 8 and 15. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
NCBP1 nuclear cap binding protein subunit 1, 80kDa|The product of this gene is a component of the nuclear cap-binding protein complex (CBC), which binds to the monomethylated 5' cap of nascent pre-mRNA in the nucleoplasm. The encoded protein promotes high-affinity mRNA-cap binding and associates with the CTD of RNA polymerase II. The CBC promotes pre-mRNA splicing, 3'-end processing, RNA nuclear export, and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NCBP2 nuclear cap binding protein subunit 2, 20kDa|The product of this gene is a component of the nuclear cap-binding protein complex (CBC), which binds to the monomethylated 5' cap of nascent pre-mRNA in the nucleoplasm. The encoded protein has an RNP domain commonly found in RNA binding proteins, and contains the cap-binding activity. The CBC promotes pre-mRNA splicing, 3'-end processing, RNA nuclear export, and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NCOA6 nuclear receptor coactivator 6|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional coactivator that can interact with nuclear hormone receptors to enhance their transcriptional activator functions. This protein has been shown to be involved in the hormone-dependent coactivation of several receptors, including prostanoid, retinoid, vitamin D3, thyroid hormone, and steroid receptors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
NCOR1 nuclear receptor corepressor 1|This gene encodes a protein that mediates ligand-independent transcription repression of thyroid-hormone and retinoic-acid receptors by promoting chromatin condensation and preventing access of the transcription machinery. It is part of a complex which also includes histone deacetylases and transcriptional regulators similar to the yeast protein Sin3p. This gene is located between the Charcot-Marie-Tooth and Smith-Magenis syndrome critical regions on chromosome 17. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 17 and 20.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
NCOR2 nuclear receptor corepressor 2|This gene encodes a nuclear receptor co-repressor that mediates transcriptional silencing of certain target genes. The encoded protein is a member of a family of thyroid hormone- and retinoic acid receptor-associated co-repressors. This protein acts as part of a multisubunit complex which includes histone deacetylases to modify chromatin structure that prevents basal transcriptional activity of target genes. Aberrant expression of this gene is associated with certain cancers. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
NEB nebulin|This gene encodes nebulin, a giant protein component of the cytoskeletal matrix that coexists with the thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres of skeletal muscle. In most vertebrates, nebulin accounts for 3 to 4% of the total myofibrillar protein. The encoded protein contains approximately 30-amino acid long modules that can be classified into 7 types and other repeated modules. Protein isoform sizes vary from 600 to 800 kD due to alternative splicing that is tissue-, species-,and developmental stage-specific. Of the 183 exons in the nebulin gene, at least 43 are alternatively spliced, although exons 143 and 144 are not found in the same transcript. Of the several thousand transcript variants predicted for nebulin, the RefSeq Project has decided to create three representative RefSeq records. Mutations in this gene are associated with recessive nemaline myopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
NEDD1 neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 1|
NES nestin|This gene encodes a member of the intermediate filament protein family and is expressed primarily in nerve cells. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
NEXN nexilin (F actin binding protein)|This gene encodes a filamentous actin-binding protein that may function in cell adhesion and migration. Mutations in this gene have been associated with dilated cardiomyopathy, also known as CMD1CC. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
NF1 neurofibromin 1|This gene product appears to function as a negative regulator of the ras signal transduction pathway. Mutations in this gene have been linked to neurofibromatosis type 1, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Watson syndrome. The mRNA for this gene is subject to RNA editing (CGA>UGA->Arg1306Term) resulting in premature translation termination. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have also been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NFKB1 nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1|This gene encodes a 105 kD protein which can undergo cotranslational processing by the 26S proteasome to produce a 50 kD protein. The 105 kD protein is a Rel protein-specific transcription inhibitor and the 50 kD protein is a DNA binding subunit of the NF-kappa-B (NFKB) protein complex. NFKB is a transcription regulator that is activated by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral products. Activated NFKB translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the expression of genes involved in a wide variety of biological functions. Inappropriate activation of NFKB has been associated with a number of inflammatory diseases while persistent inhibition of NFKB leads to inappropriate immune cell development or delayed cell growth. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
NFKB2 nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 2 (p49/p100)|This gene encodes a subunit of the transcription factor complex nuclear factor-kappa-B (NFkB). The NFkB complex is expressed in numerous cell types and functions as a central activator of genes involved in inflammation and immune function. The protein encoded by this gene can function as both a transcriptional activator or repressor depending on its dimerization partner. The p100 full-length protein is co-translationally processed into a p52 active form. Chromosomal rearrangements and translocations of this locus have been observed in B cell lymphomas, some of which may result in the formation of fusion proteins. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 18. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
NFKBIB nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, beta|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the NF-kappa-B inhibitor family, which inhibit NF-kappa-B by complexing with, and trapping it in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of serine residues on these proteins by kinases marks them for destruction via the ubiquitination pathway, thereby allowing activation of the NF-kappa-B, which translocates to the nucleus to function as a transcription factor. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
NFKBIE nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, epsilon|The protein encoded by this gene binds to components of NF-kappa-B, trapping the complex in the cytoplasm and preventing it from activating genes in the nucleus. Phosphorylation of the encoded protein targets it for destruction by the ubiquitin pathway, which activates NF-kappa-B by making it available to translocate to the nucleus. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
NFRKB nuclear factor related to kappaB binding protein|
NFYA nuclear transcription factor Y, alpha|The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a trimeric complex, forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoter regions in a variety of genes. Subunit A associates with a tight dimer composed of the B and C subunits, resulting in a trimer that binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. The sequence specific interactions of the complex are made by the A subunit, suggesting a role as the regulatory subunit. In addition, there is evidence of post-transcriptional regulation in this gene product, either by protein degradation or control of translation. Further regulation is represented by alternative splicing in the glutamine-rich activation domain, with clear tissue-specific preferences for the two isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NHSL1 NHS-like 1|
NIPBL Nipped-B homolog (Drosophila)|This gene encodes the homolog of the Drosophila melanogaster Nipped-B gene product and fungal Scc2-type sister chromatid cohesion proteins. The Drosophila protein facilitates enhancer-promoter communication of remote enhancers and plays a role in developmental regulation. It is also homologous to a family of chromosomal adherins with broad roles in sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome condensation, and DNA repair. The human protein has a bipartite nuclear targeting sequence and a putative HEAT repeat. Condensins, cohesins and other complexes with chromosome-related functions also contain HEAT repeats. Mutations in this gene result in Cornelia de Lange syndrome, a disorder characterized by dysmorphic facial features, growth delay, limb reduction defects, and mental retardation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NKAIN3 Na+/K+ transporting ATPase interacting 3|NKAIN3 is a member of a family of mammalian proteins (see NKAIN1; MIM 612871) with similarity to Drosophila Nkain (Gorokhova et al., 2007 [PubMed 17606467]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]
NME7 NME/NM23 family member 7|
NOL11 nucleolar protein 11|
NOP10 NOP10 ribonucleoprotein|This gene is a member of the H/ACA snoRNPs (small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins) gene family. snoRNPs are involved in various aspects of rRNA processing and modification and have been classified into two families: C/D and H/ACA. The H/ACA snoRNPs also include the DKC1, NOLA1 and NOLA2 proteins. These four H/ACA snoRNP proteins localize to the dense fibrillar components of nucleoli and to coiled (Cajal) bodies in the nucleus. Both 18S rRNA production and rRNA pseudouridylation are impaired if any one of the four proteins is depleted. The four H/ACA snoRNP proteins are also components of the telomerase complex. This gene encodes a protein related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nop10p. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NOP9 NOP9 nucleolar protein|
NOS1AP nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal) adaptor protein|This gene encodes a cytosolic protein that binds to the signaling molecule, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). This protein has a C-terminal PDZ-binding domain that mediates interactions with nNOS and an N-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain that binds to the small monomeric G protein, Dexras1. Studies of the related mouse and rat proteins have shown that this protein functions as an adapter protein linking nNOS to specific targets, such as Dexras1 and the synapsins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
NPAT nuclear protein, ataxia-telangiectasia locus|
NR2C1 nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group C, member 1|This gene encodes a nuclear hormone receptor characterized by a highly conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), a variable hinge region, and a carboxy-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD) that is typical for all members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. This protein also belongs to a large family of ligand-inducible transcription factors that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences within promoters of target genes. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NR2C2 nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group C, member 2|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. Members of this family act as ligand-activated transcription factors and function in many biological processes such as development, cellular differentiation and homeostasis. The activated receptor/ligand complex is translocated to the nucleus where it binds to hormone response elements of target genes. The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in protecting cells from oxidative stress and damage induced by ionizing radiation. The lack of a similar gene in mouse results in growth retardation, severe spinal curvature, subfertility, premature aging, and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) development. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
NRBP1 nuclear receptor binding protein 1|
NSUN4 NOP2/Sun domain family, member 4|
NSUN5P1 NOP2/Sun domain family, member 5 pseudogene 1|This locus represents a transcribed pseudogene of a nearby locus on chromosome 7, which encodes a putative methyltransferase. There is also a third closely related pseudogene locus in this region. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
NUDCD3 NudC domain containing 3|The product of this gene functions to maintain the stability of dynein intermediate chain. Depletion of this gene product results in aggregation and degradation of dynein intermediate chain, mislocalization of the dynein complex from kinetochores, spindle microtubules, and spindle poles, and loss of gamma-tubulin from spindle poles. The protein localizes to the Golgi apparatus during interphase, and levels of the protein increase after the G1/S transition. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NUDT21 nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X)-type motif 21|The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a cleavage factor required for 3' RNA cleavage and polyadenylation processing. The interaction of the protein with the RNA is one of the earliest steps in the assembly of the 3' end processing complex and facilitates the recruitment of other processing factors. This gene encodes the 25kD subunit of the protein complex, which is composed of four polypeptides. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NUP153 nucleoporin 153kDa|Nuclear pore complexes regulate the transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm. They are composed of at least 100 different polypeptide subunits, many of which belong to the nucleoporin family. Nucleoporins are glycoproteins found in nuclear pores and contain characteristic pentapeptide XFXFG repeats as well as O-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues oriented towards the cytoplasm. The protein encoded by this gene has three distinct domains: a N-terminal region containing a pore targeting and an RNA-binding domain domain, a central region containing multiple zinc finger motifs, and a C-terminal region containing multiple XFXFG repeats. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
NUP214 nucleoporin 214kDa|The nuclear pore complex is a massive structure that extends across the nuclear envelope, forming a gateway that regulates the flow of macromolecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Nucleoporins are the main components of the nuclear pore complex in eukaryotic cells. This gene is a member of the FG-repeat-containing nucleoporins. The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex where it is required for proper cell cycle progression and nucleocytoplasmic transport. The 3' portion of this gene forms a fusion gene with the DEK gene on chromosome 6 in a t(6,9) translocation associated with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NUP50 nucleoporin 50kDa|The nuclear pore complex is a massive structure that extends across the nuclear envelope, forming a gateway that regulates the flow of macromolecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Nucleoporins are the main components of the nuclear pore complex in eukaryotic cells. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the FG-repeat containing nucleoporins that functions as a soluble cofactor in importin-alpha:beta-mediated nuclear protein import. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 5, 6, and 14. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NUP88 nucleoporin 88kDa|The nuclear pore complex is a massive structure that extends across the nuclear envelope, forming a gateway that regulates the flow of macromolecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Nucleoporins, a family of 50 to 100 proteins, are the main components of the nuclear pore complex in eukaryotic cells. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the nucleoporin family and is associated with the oncogenic nucleoporin CAN/Nup214 in a dynamic subcomplex. This protein is also overexpressed in a large number of malignant neoplasms and precancerous dysplasias. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
OAS2 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 2, 69/71kDa|This gene encodes a member of the 2-5A synthetase family, essential proteins involved in the innate immune response to viral infection. The encoded protein is induced by interferons and uses adenosine triphosphate in 2'-specific nucleotidyl transfer reactions to synthesize 2',5'-oligoadenylates (2-5As). These molecules activate latent RNase L, which results in viral RNA degradation and the inhibition of viral replication. The three known members of this gene family are located in a cluster on chromosome 12. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
OBSCN obscurin, cytoskeletal calmodulin and titin-interacting RhoGEF|The obscurin gene spans more than 150 kb, contains over 80 exons and encodes a protein of approximately 720 kDa. The encoded protein contains 68 Ig domains, 2 fibronectin domains, 1 calcium/calmodulin-binding domain, 1 RhoGEF domain with an associated PH domain, and 2 serine-threonine kinase domains. This protein belongs to the family of giant sacromeric signaling proteins that includes titin and nebulin, and may have a role in the organization of myofibrils during assembly and may mediate interactions between the sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrils. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
OCRL oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe|This gene encodes a phosphatase enzyme that is involved in actin polymerization and is found in the trans-Golgi network. Mutations in this gene cause oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe and also Dent disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
OGDH oxoglutarate (alpha-ketoglutarate) dehydrogenase (lipoamide)|This gene encodes one subunit of the 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. This complex catalyzes the overall conversion of 2-oxoglutarate (alpha-ketoglutarate) to succinyl-CoA and CO(2) during the Krebs cycle. The protein is located in the mitochondrial matrix and uses thiamine pyrophosphate as a cofactor. A congenital deficiency in 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activity is believed to lead to hypotonia, metabolic acidosis, and hyperlactatemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
OGDHL oxoglutarate dehydrogenase-like|
OR7D4 olfactory receptor, family 7, subfamily D, member 4|Olfactory receptors interact with odorant molecules in the nose, to initiate a neuronal response that triggers the perception of a smell. The olfactory receptor proteins are members of a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) arising from single coding-exon genes. Olfactory receptors share a 7-transmembrane domain structure with many neurotransmitter and hormone receptors and are responsible for the recognition and G protein-mediated transduction of odorant signals. The olfactory receptor gene family is the largest in the genome. The nomenclature assigned to the olfactory receptor genes and proteins for this organism is independent of other organisms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ORC6 origin recognition complex, subunit 6|The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a highly conserved six subunit protein complex essential for the initiation of the DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Studies in yeast demonstrated that ORC binds specifically to origins of replication and serves as a platform for the assembly of additional initiation factors such as Cdc6 and Mcm proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the ORC complex. Gene silencing studies with small interfering RNA demonstrated that this protein plays an essential role in coordinating chromosome replication and segregation with cytokinesis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
OSBPL10 oxysterol binding protein-like 10|This gene encodes a member of the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) family, a group of intracellular lipid receptors. Like most members, the encoded protein contains an N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain and a highly conserved C-terminal OSBP-like sterol-binding domain. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
OSBPL11 oxysterol binding protein-like 11|This gene encodes a member of the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) family, a group of intracellular lipid receptors. Like most members, the encoded protein contains an N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain and a highly conserved C-terminal OSBP-like sterol-binding domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
OSBPL9 oxysterol binding protein-like 9|This gene encodes a member of the oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP) family, a group of intracellular lipid receptors. Most members contain an N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain and a highly conserved C-terminal OSBP-like sterol-binding domain, although some members contain only the sterol-binding domain. This family member functions as a cholesterol transfer protein that regulates Golgi structure and function. Multiple transcript variants, most of which encode distinct isoforms, have been identified. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 3, 11 and 12. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
OTUD4 OTU deubiquitinase 4|Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. The smaller protein isoform encoded by the shorter transcript variant is found only in HIV-1 infected cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
P4HA1 prolyl 4-hydroxylase, alpha polypeptide I|This gene encodes a component of prolyl 4-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in collagen synthesis composed of two identical alpha subunits and two beta subunits. The encoded protein is one of several different types of alpha subunits and provides the major part of the catalytic site of the active enzyme. In collagen and related proteins, prolyl 4-hydroxylase catalyzes the formation of 4-hydroxyproline that is essential to the proper three-dimensional folding of newly synthesized procollagen chains. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
P4HB prolyl 4-hydroxylase, beta polypeptide|This gene encodes the beta subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase, a highly abundant multifunctional enzyme that belongs to the protein disulfide isomerase family. When present as a tetramer consisting of two alpha and two beta subunits, this enzyme is involved in hydroxylation of prolyl residues in preprocollagen. This enzyme is also a disulfide isomerase containing two thioredoxin domains that catalyze the formation, breakage and rearrangement of disulfide bonds. Other known functions include its ability to act as a chaperone that inhibits aggregation of misfolded proteins in a concentration-dependent manner, its ability to bind thyroid hormone, its role in both the influx and efflux of S-nitrosothiol-bound nitric oxide, and its function as a subunit of the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PABPC1 poly(A) binding protein, cytoplasmic 1|This gene encodes a poly(A) binding protein. The protein shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm and binds to the 3' poly(A) tail of eukaryotic messenger RNAs via RNA-recognition motifs. The binding of this protein to poly(A) promotes ribosome recruitment and translation initiation; it is also required for poly(A) shortening which is the first step in mRNA decay. The gene is part of a small gene family including three protein-coding genes and several pseudogenes.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
PACS1 phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 1|This gene encodes a protein with a putative role in the localization of trans-Golgi network (TGN) membrane proteins. Mouse and rat homologs have been identified and studies of the homologous rat protein indicate a role in directing TGN localization of furin by binding to the protease's phosphorylated cytosolic domain. In addition, the human protein plays a role in HIV-1 Nef-mediated downregulation of cell surface MHC-I molecules to the TGN, thereby enabling HIV-1 to escape immune surveillance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PAF1 Paf1, RNA polymerase II associated factor, homolog (S. cerevisiae)|This gene encodes a subunit of the polymerase associated factor (PAF1) complex. The PAF1 complex interacts with RNA polymerase II and plays a role in transcription elongation as well as histone modifications including ubiquitylation and methylation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
PAK1 p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1|This gene encodes a family member of serine/threonine p21-activating kinases, known as PAK proteins. These proteins are critical effectors that link RhoGTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling, and they serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac. This specific family member regulates cell motility and morphology. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
PAK2 p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 2|The p21 activated kinases (PAK) are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. The PAK proteins are a family of serine/threonine kinases that serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins, CDC42 and RAC1, and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. The protein encoded by this gene is activated by proteolytic cleavage during caspase-mediated apoptosis, and may play a role in regulating the apoptotic events in the dying cell. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PAPD4 PAP associated domain containing 4|
PAPOLA poly(A) polymerase alpha|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the poly(A) polymerase family. It is required for the addition of adenosine residues for the creation of the 3'-poly(A) tail of mRNAs. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
PARP4 poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 4|This gene encodes poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferase-like 1 protein, which is capable of catalyzing a poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation reaction. This protein has a catalytic domain which is homologous to that of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase, but lacks an N-terminal DNA binding domain which activates the C-terminal catalytic domain of poly (ADP-ribosyl) transferase. Since this protein is not capable of binding DNA directly, its transferase activity may be activated by other factors such as protein-protein interaction mediated by the extensive carboxyl terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PAXBP1 PAX3 and PAX7 binding protein 1|This gene encodes a protein that may bind to GC-rich DNA sequences, which suggests its involvement in the regulation of transcription. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]
PAXIP1 PAX interacting (with transcription-activation domain) protein 1|This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) gene family and encodes a nuclear protein with six BRCT (breast cancer carboxy-terminal) domains. This protein plays a critical role in maintaining genome stability, condensation of chromatin and progression through mitosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PCBP3 poly(rC) binding protein 3|This gene encodes a member of the KH-domain protein subfamily. Proteins of this subfamily, also referred to as alpha-CPs, bind to RNA with a specificity for C-rich pyrimidine regions. Alpha-CPs play important roles in post-transcriptional activities and have different cellular distributions. This gene's protein is found in the cytoplasm, yet it lacks the nuclear localization signals found in other subfamily members. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PCCA propionyl CoA carboxylase, alpha polypeptide|The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha subunit of the heterodimeric mitochondrial enzyme Propionyl-CoA carboxylase. PCCA encodes the biotin-binding region of this enzyme. Mutations in either PCCA or PCCB (encoding the beta subunit) lead to an enzyme deficiency resulting in propionic acidemia. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
PCMT1 protein-L-isoaspartate (D-aspartate) O-methyltransferase|This gene encodes a member of the type II class of protein carboxyl methyltransferase enzymes. The encoded enzyme plays a role in protein repair by recognizing and converting D-aspartyl and L-isoaspartyl residues resulting from spontaneous deamidation back to the normal L-aspartyl form. The encoded protein may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with spina bifida and premature ovarian failure. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
PCNA proliferating cell nuclear antigen|The protein encoded by this gene is found in the nucleus and is a cofactor of DNA polymerase delta. The encoded protein acts as a homotrimer and helps increase the processivity of leading strand synthesis during DNA replication. In response to DNA damage, this protein is ubiquitinated and is involved in the RAD6-dependent DNA repair pathway. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. Pseudogenes of this gene have been described on chromosome 4 and on the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PCYT1A phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, alpha|
PCYT1B phosphate cytidylyltransferase 1, choline, beta|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the cytidylyltransferase family. It is involved in the regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
PDHA1 pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 1|The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and provides the primary link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The PDH complex is composed of multiple copies of three enzymatic components: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). The E1 enzyme is a heterotetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. This gene encodes the E1 alpha 1 subunit containing the E1 active site, and plays a key role in the function of the PDH complex. Mutations in this gene are associated with pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-alpha deficiency and X-linked Leigh syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
PDHB pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) beta|The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and carbon dioxide, and provides the primary link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The PDH complex is composed of multiple copies of three enzymatic components: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) and lipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). The E1 enzyme is a heterotetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits. This gene encodes the E1 beta subunit. Mutations in this gene are associated with pyruvate dehydrogenase E1-beta deficiency. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
PDIA4 protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 4|
PDK3 pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 3|The pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial multienzyme complex that catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2). It provides the primary link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and thus is one of the major enzymes responsible for the regulation of glucose metabolism. The enzymatic activity of PDH is regulated by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycle, and phosphorylation results in inactivation of PDH. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the three pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases that inhibits the PDH complex by phosphorylation of the E1 alpha subunit. This gene is predominantly expressed in the heart and skeletal muscles. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
PDPK1 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1|
PDZD2 PDZ domain containing 2|Proteins containing PDZ domains have been shown frequently to bind the C-termini of transmembrane receptors or ion channels. They have also been shown to bind to other PDZ domain proteins and could possibly be involved in intracellular signalling. The protein encoded by this gene contains six PDZ domains and shares sequence similarity with pro-interleukin-16 (pro-IL-16). Like pro-IL-16, the encoded protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and is thought to be cleaved by a caspase to produce a secreted peptide containing two PDZ domains. In addition, this gene is upregulated in primary prostate tumors and may be involved in the early stages of prostate tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PEBP1 phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 1|
PELP1 proline, glutamate and leucine rich protein 1|This gene encodes a transcription factor which coactivates transcription of estrogen receptor responsive genes and corepresses genes activated by other hormone receptors or sequence-specific transcription factors. Expression of this gene is regulated by both members of the estrogen receptor family. This gene may be involved in the progression of several types of cancer. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
PER1 period circadian clock 1|This gene is a member of the Period family of genes and is expressed in a circadian pattern in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the primary circadian pacemaker in the mammalian brain. Genes in this family encode components of the circadian rhythms of locomotor activity, metabolism, and behavior. This gene is upregulated by CLOCK/ARNTL heterodimers but then represses this upregulation in a feedback loop using PER/CRY heterodimers to interact with CLOCK/ARNTL. Polymorphisms in this gene may increase the risk of getting certain cancers. Alternative splicing has been observed in this gene; however, these variants have not been fully described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
PFAS phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase|Purines are necessary for many cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, and energy metabolism. Ten enzymatic steps are required to synthesize inosine monophosphate (IMP) in the de novo pathway of purine biosynthesis. The enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes the fourth step of IMP biosynthesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PFKFB1 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 1|This gene encodes a member of the family of bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase:fructose-2,6-biphosphatase enzymes. The enzyme forms a homodimer that catalyzes both the synthesis and degradation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate using independent catalytic domains. Fructose-2,6-biphosphate is an activator of the glycolysis pathway and an inhibitor of the gluconeogenesis pathway. Consequently, regulating fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels through the activity of this enzyme is thought to regulate glucose homeostasis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
PFKL phosphofructokinase, liver|This gene encodes the liver (L) subunit of an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-fructose 6-phosphate to D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, which is a key step in glucose metabolism (glycolysis). This enzyme is a tetramer that may be composed of different subunits encoded by distinct genes in different tissues. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
PFKM phosphofructokinase, muscle|Three phosphofructokinase isozymes exist in humans: muscle, liver and platelet. These isozymes function as subunits of the mammalian tetramer phosphofructokinase, which catalyzes the phosphorylation of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Tetramer composition varies depending on tissue type. This gene encodes the muscle-type isozyme. Mutations in this gene have been associated with glycogen storage disease type VII, also known as Tarui disease. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
PGAM1 phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (brain)|Phosphoglyceric acid mutase (EC 2.7.5.3) is widely distributed in mammalian tissues where it catalyzes the reversible reaction of 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) to 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA) in the glycolytic pathway (summary by Chen et al., 1974 [PubMed 4811757]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
PGAM5 phosphoglycerate mutase family member 5|
PGAP1 post-GPI attachment to proteins 1|PGAP1 catalyzes the inositol deacylation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) at an early step in GPI biosynthesis. Inositol deacylation is essential for the generation of mature GPI capable of attachment to proteins (Tanaka et al., 2004 [PubMed 14734546]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
PHB prohibitin|This gene is evolutionarily conserved, and its product is proposed to play a role in human cellular senescence and tumor suppression. Antiproliferative activity is reported to be localized to the 3' UTR, which is proposed to function as a trans-acting regulatory RNA. Several pseudogenes of this gene have been identified. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
PHB2 prohibitin 2|
PHF10 PHD finger protein 10|This gene contains a predicted ORF that encodes a protein with two zinc finger domains. The function of the encoded protein is not known. Sequence analysis suggests that multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants are derived from this gene but the full-length nature of only two of them is known. These two splice variants encode different isoforms. A pseudogene for this gene is located on Xq28. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PHF12 PHD finger protein 12|
PHF21A PHD finger protein 21A|The PHF21A gene encodes BHC80, a component of a BRAF35 (MIM 605535)/histone deacetylase (HDAC; see MIM 601241) complex (BHC) that mediates repression of neuron-specific genes through the cis-regulatory element known as repressor element-1 (RE1) or neural restrictive silencer (NRS) (Hakimi et al., 2002 [PubMed 12032298]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
PHF3 PHD finger protein 3|This gene encodes a member of a PHD finger-containing gene family. This gene may function as a transcription factor and may be involved in glioblastomas development. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
PHKA2 phosphorylase kinase, alpha 2 (liver)|Phosphorylase kinase is a polymer of 16 subunits, four each of alpha, beta, gamma and delta. The alpha subunit includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, and the hepatic isoform is encoded by this gene. The beta subunit is the same in both the muscle and hepatic isoforms, and encoded by one gene. The gamma subunit also includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, which are encoded by two different genes. The delta subunit is a calmodulin and can be encoded by three different genes. The gamma subunits contain the active site of the enzyme, whereas the alpha and beta subunits have regulatory functions controlled by phosphorylation. The delta subunit mediates the dependence of the enzyme on calcium concentration. Mutations in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type 9A, also known as X-linked liver glycogenosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported, but the full-length nature of these variants has not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
PHKB phosphorylase kinase, beta|Phosphorylase kinase is a polymer of 16 subunits, four each of alpha, beta, gamma and delta. The alpha subunit includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, encoded by two different genes. The beta subunit is the same in both the muscle and hepatic isoforms, encoded by this gene, which is a member of the phosphorylase b kinase regulatory subunit family. The gamma subunit also includes the skeletal muscle and hepatic isoforms, encoded by two different genes. The delta subunit is a calmodulin and can be encoded by three different genes. The gamma subunits contain the active site of the enzyme, whereas the alpha and beta subunits have regulatory functions controlled by phosphorylation. The delta subunit mediates the dependence of the enzyme on calcium concentration. Mutations in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type 9B, also known as phosphorylase kinase deficiency of liver and muscle. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified in this gene. Two pseudogenes have been found on chromosomes 14 and 20, respectively.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
PHLDB1 pleckstrin homology-like domain, family B, member 1|
PIAS2 protein inhibitor of activated STAT, 2|This gene encodes a member of the protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIAS) family. PIAS proteins function as SUMO E3 ligases and play important roles in many cellular processes by mediating the sumoylation of target proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. Isoforms of the encoded protein enhance the sumoylation of specific target proteins including the p53 tumor suppressor protein, c-Jun, and the androgen receptor. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 4. The symbol MIZ1 has also been associated with ZBTB17 which is a different gene located on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
PICK1 protein interacting with PRKCA 1|The protein encoded by this gene contains a PDZ domain, through which it interacts with protein kinase C, alpha (PRKCA). This protein may function as an adaptor that binds to and organizes the subcellular localization of a variety of membrane proteins. It has been shown to interact with multiple glutamate receptor subtypes, monoamine plasma membrane transporters, as well as non-voltage gated sodium channels, and may target PRKCA to these membrane proteins and thus regulate their distribution and function. This protein has also been found to act as an anchoring protein that specifically targets PRKCA to mitochondria in a ligand-specific manner. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PIGA phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class A|This gene encodes a protein required for synthesis of N-acetylglucosaminyl phosphatidylinositol (GlcNAc-PI), the first intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of GPI anchor. The GPI anchor is a glycolipid found on many blood cells and which serves to anchor proteins to the cell surface. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, an acquired hematologic disorder, has been shown to result from mutations in this gene. Alternate splice variants have been characterized. A related pseudogene is located on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
PIH1D1 PIH1 domain containing 1|
PIH1D2 PIH1 domain containing 2|
PIK3C3 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 3|
PIK3CA phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha|Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is composed of an 85 kDa regulatory subunit and a 110 kDa catalytic subunit. The protein encoded by this gene represents the catalytic subunit, which uses ATP to phosphorylate PtdIns, PtdIns4P and PtdIns(4,5)P2. This gene has been found to be oncogenic and has been implicated in cervical cancers. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PIK3R4 phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 4|
PIKFYVE phosphoinositide kinase, FYVE finger containing|Phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) regulate cytoskeletal functions, membrane trafficking, and receptor signaling by recruiting protein complexes to cell- and endosomal-membranes. Humans have multiple PtdIns proteins that differ by the degree and position of phosphorylation of the inositol ring. This gene encodes an enzyme (PIKfyve; also known as phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate 5-kinase type III or PIPKIII) that phosphorylates the D-5 position in PtdIns and phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) to make PtdIns5P and PtdIns(3,5)biphosphate. The D-5 position also can be phosphorylated by type I PtdIns4P-5-kinases (PIP5Ks) that are encoded by distinct genes and preferentially phosphorylate D-4 phosphorylated PtdIns. In contrast, PIKfyve preferentially phosphorylates D-3 phosphorylated PtdIns. In addition to being a lipid kinase, PIKfyve also has protein kinase activity. PIKfyve regulates endomembrane homeostasis and plays a role in the biogenesis of endosome carrier vesicles from early endosomes. Mutations in this gene cause corneal fleck dystrophy (CFD); an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by numerous small white flecks present in all layers of the corneal stroma. Histologically, these flecks appear to be keratocytes distended with lipid and mucopolysaccharide filled intracytoplasmic vacuoles. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
PKP1 plakophilin 1|This gene encodes a member of the arm-repeat (armadillo) and plakophilin gene families. Plakophilin proteins contain numerous armadillo repeats, localize to cell desmosomes and nuclei, and participate in linking cadherins to intermediate filaments in the cytoskeleton. This protein may be involved in molecular recruitment and stabilization during desmosome formation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility syndrome. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
PLEC plectin|Plectin is a prominent member of an important family of structurally and in part functionally related proteins, termed plakins or cytolinkers, that are capable of interlinking different elements of the cytoskeleton. Plakins, with their multi-domain structure and enormous size, not only play crucial roles in maintaining cell and tissue integrity and orchestrating dynamic changes in cytoarchitecture and cell shape, but also serve as scaffolding platforms for the assembly, positioning, and regulation of signaling complexes (reviewed in PMID: 9701547, 11854008, and 17499243). Plectin is expressed as several protein isoforms in a wide range of cell types and tissues from a single gene located on chromosome 8 in humans (PMID: 8633055, 8698233). Until 2010, this locus was named plectin 1 (symbol PLEC1 in human; Plec1 in mouse and rat) and the gene product had been referred to as "hemidesmosomal protein 1" or "plectin 1, intermediate filament binding 500kDa". These names were superseded by plectin. The plectin gene locus in mouse on chromosome 15 has been analyzed in detail (PMID: 10556294, 14559777), revealing a genomic exon-intron organization with well over 40 exons spanning over 62 kb and an unusual 5' transcript complexity of plectin isoforms. Eleven exons (1-1j) have been identified that alternatively splice directly into a common exon 2 which is the first exon to encode plectin's highly conserved actin binding domain (ABD). Three additional exons (-1, 0a, and 0) splice into an alternative first coding exon (1c), and two additional exons (2alpha and 3alpha) are optionally spliced within the exons encoding the acting binding domain (exons 2-8). Analysis of the human locus has identified eight of the eleven alternative 5' exons found in mouse and rat (PMID: 14672974); exons 1i, 1j and 1h have not been confirmed in human. Furthermore, isoforms lacking the central rod domain encoded by exon 31 have been detected in mouse (PMID:10556294), rat (PMID: 9177781), and human (PMID: 11441066, 10780662, 20052759). The short alternative amino-terminal sequences encoded by the different first exons direct the targeting of the various isoforms to distinct subcellular locations (PMID: 14559777). As the expression of specific plectin isoforms was found to be dependent on cell type (tissue) and stage of development (PMID: 10556294, 12542521, 17389230) it appears that each cell type (tissue) contains a unique set (proportion and composition) of plectin isoforms, as if custom-made for specific requirements of the particular cells. Concordantly, individual isoforms were found to carry out distinct and specific functions (PMID: 14559777, 12542521, 18541706). In 1996, a number of groups reported that patients suffering from epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD) lacked plectin expression in skin and muscle tissues due to defects in the plectin gene (PMID: 8698233, 8941634, 8636409, 8894687, 8696340). Two other subtypes of plectin-related EBS have been described: EBS-pyloric atresia (PA) and EBS-Ogna. For reviews of plectin-related diseases see PMID: 15810881, 19945614. Mutations in the plectin gene related to human diseases should be named based on the position in NM_000445 (variant 1, isoform 1c), unless the mutation is located within one of the other alternative first exons, in which case the position in the respective Reference Sequence should be used. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
PLEKHG3 pleckstrin homology domain containing, family G (with RhoGef domain) member 3|
PLEKHG4B pleckstrin homology domain containing, family G (with RhoGef domain) member 4B|
PLEKHM1 pleckstrin homology domain containing, family M (with RUN domain) member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is essential for bone resorption, and may play a critical role in vesicular transport in the osteoclast. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal recessive osteopetrosis type 6 (OPTB6). Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
PLOD1 procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 1|Lysyl hydroxylase is a membrane-bound homodimeric protein localized to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. The enzyme (cofactors iron and ascorbate) catalyzes the hydroxylation of lysyl residues in collagen-like peptides. The resultant hydroxylysyl groups are attachment sites for carbohydrates in collagen and thus are critical for the stability of intermolecular crosslinks. Some patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VI have deficiencies in lysyl hydroxylase activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PLOD2 procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane-bound homodimeric enzyme that is localized to the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The enzyme (cofactors iron and ascorbate) catalyzes the hydroxylation of lysyl residues in collagen-like peptides. The resultant hydroxylysyl groups are attachment sites for carbohydrates in collagen and thus are critical for the stability of intermolecular crosslinks. Some patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIB have deficiencies in lysyl hydroxylase activity. Mutations in the coding region of this gene are associated with Bruck syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PLOD3 procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a membrane-bound homodimeric enzyme that is localized to the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. The enzyme (cofactors iron and ascorbate) catalyzes the hydroxylation of lysyl residues in collagen-like peptides. The resultant hydroxylysyl groups are attachment sites for carbohydrates in collagen and thus are critical for the stability of intermolecular crosslinks. Some patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIB have deficiencies in lysyl hydroxylase activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PLS1 plastin 1|Plastins are a family of actin-binding proteins that are conserved throughout eukaryote evolution and expressed in most tissues of higher eukaryotes. In humans, two ubiquitous plastin isoforms (L and T) have been identified. The protein encoded by this gene is a third distinct plastin isoform, which is specifically expressed at high levels in the small intestine. Alternatively spliced transcript variants varying in the 5' UTR, but encoding the same protein, have been found for this gene. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 11.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
POLL polymerase (DNA directed), lambda|This gene encodes a DNA polymerase. DNA polymerases catalyze DNA-template-directed extension of the 3'-end of a DNA strand. This particular polymerase, which is a member of the X family of DNA polymerases, likely plays a role in non-homologous end joining and other DNA repair processes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
POLR1B polymerase (RNA) I polypeptide B, 128kDa|Eukaryotic RNA polymerase I (pol I) is responsible for the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and production of rRNA, the primary component of ribosomes. Pol I is a multisubunit enzyme composed of 6 to 14 polypeptides, depending on the species. Most of the mass of the pol I complex derives from the 2 largest subunits, Rpa1 and Rpa2 in yeast. POLR1B is homologous to Rpa2 (Seither and Grummt, 1996 [PubMed 8921381]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
POLR2A polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A, 220kDa|This gene encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The product of this gene contains a carboxy terminal domain composed of heptapeptide repeats that are essential for polymerase activity. These repeats contain serine and threonine residues that are phosphorylated in actively transcribing RNA polymerase. In addition, this subunit, in combination with several other polymerase subunits, forms the DNA binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
POLR2B polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide B, 140kDa|This gene encodes the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that catalyzes the transcription of DNA into precursors of mRNA, snRNA and microRNA. This subunit and the largest subunit form opposite sides of the center cleft of Pol II. Deletion of the flap loop region of this subunit results in a decrease in the rate of transcriptional elongation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
POT1 protection of telomeres 1|This gene is a member of the telombin family and encodes a nuclear protein involved in telomere maintenance. Specifically, this protein functions as a member of a multi-protein complex that binds to the TTAGGG repeats of telomeres, regulating telomere length and protecting chromosome ends from illegitimate recombination, catastrophic chromosome instability, and abnormal chromosome segregation. Increased transcriptional expression of this gene is associated with stomach carcinogenesis and its progression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPFIA1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. This protein binds to the intracellular membrane-distal phosphatase domain of tyrosine phosphatase LAR, and appears to localize LAR to cell focal adhesions. This interaction may regulate the disassembly of focal adhesion and thus help orchestrate cell-matrix interactions. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPFIA2 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. It has been proposed that liprins are multivalent proteins that form complex structures and act as scaffolds for the recruitment and anchoring of LAR family of tyrosine phosphatases. This protein has been shown to bind the calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (MAGUK family) protein (also known as CASK) and proposed to regulate higher-order brain functions in mammals. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
PPFIA3 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. Liprin family protein has been shown to localize phosphatase LAR to cell focal adhesions and may be involved in the molecular organization of presynaptic active zones. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPFIBP1 PTPRF interacting protein, binding protein 1 (liprin beta 1)|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the LAR protein-tyrosine phosphatase-interacting protein (liprin) family. Liprins interact with members of LAR family of transmembrane protein tyrosine phosphatases, which are known to be important for axon guidance and mammary gland development. It has been proposed that liprins are multivalent proteins that form complex structures and act as scaffolds for the recruitment and anchoring of LAR family of tyrosine phosphatases. This protein was found to interact with S100A4, a calcium-binding protein related to tumor invasiveness and metastasis. In vitro experiment demonstrated that the interaction inhibited the phosphorylation of this protein by protein kinase C and protein kinase CK2. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPIL3 peptidylprolyl isomerase (cyclophilin)-like 3|This gene encodes a member of the cyclophilin family. Cyclophilins catalyze the cis-trans isomerization of peptidylprolyl imide bonds in oligopeptides. They have been proposed to act either as catalysts or as molecular chaperones in protein-folding events. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
PPL periplakin|The protein encoded by this gene is a component of desmosomes and of the epidermal cornified envelope in keratinocytes. The N-terminal domain of this protein interacts with the plasma membrane and its C-terminus interacts with intermediate filaments. Through its rod domain, this protein forms complexes with envoplakin. This protein may serve as a link between the cornified envelope and desmosomes as well as intermediate filaments. AKT1/PKB, a protein kinase mediating a variety of cell growth and survival signaling processes, is reported to interact with this protein, suggesting a possible role for this protein as a localization signal in AKT1-mediated signaling. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPP1CB protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme|The protein encoded by this gene is one of the three catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). PP1 is a serine/threonine specific protein phosphatase known to be involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes, such as cell division, glycogen metabolism, muscle contractility, protein synthesis, and HIV-1 viral transcription. Mouse studies suggest that PP1 functions as a suppressor of learning and memory. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPP1R10 protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 10|This gene encodes a protein phosphatase 1 binding protein. The encoded protein plays a role in many cellular processes including cell cycle progression, DNA repair and apoptosis by regulating the activity of protein phosphatase 1. This gene lies within the major histocompatibility complex class I region on chromosome 6, and alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
PPP1R12A protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 12A|Myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, which is also called the myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase, is one of the subunits of myosin phosphatase. Myosin phosphatase regulates the interaction of actin and myosin downstream of the guanosine triphosphatase Rho. The small guanosine triphosphatase Rho is implicated in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, which results in contraction of smooth muscle and interaction of actin and myosin in nonmuscle cells. The guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound, active form of RhoA (GTP.RhoA) specifically interacted with the myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase, which regulates the extent of phosphorylation of MLC. Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), which is activated by GTP. RhoA, phosphorylated MBS and consequently inactivated myosin phosphatase. Overexpression of RhoA or activated RhoA in NIH 3T3 cells increased phosphorylation of MBS and MLC. Thus, Rho appears to inhibit myosin phosphatase through the action of Rho-kinase. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
PPP1R12C protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 12C|The gene encodes a subunit of myosin phosphatase. The encoded protein regulates the catalytic activity of protein phosphatase 1 delta and assembly of the actin cytoskeleton. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]
PPP2CA protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme|This gene encodes the phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. This gene encodes an alpha isoform of the catalytic subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPP2CB protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme|This gene encodes the phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. This gene encodes a beta isoform of the catalytic subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
PPP2R1A protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, alpha|This gene encodes a constant regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2. Protein phosphatase 2 is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The constant regulatory subunit A serves as a scaffolding molecule to coordinate the assembly of the catalytic subunit and a variable regulatory B subunit. This gene encodes an alpha isoform of the constant regulatory subunit A. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
PPP2R1B protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, beta|This gene encodes a constant regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2. Protein phosphatase 2 is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The constant regulatory subunit A serves as a scaffolding molecule to coordinate the assembly of the catalytic subunit and a variable regulatory B subunit. This gene encodes a beta isoform of the constant regulatory subunit A. Mutations in this gene have been associated with some lung and colon cancers. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
PPP2R2A protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, alpha|The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2 regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2 is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes an alpha isoform of the regulatory subunit B55 subfamily. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
PPP2R3B protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', beta|Protein phosphatase 2 (formerly named type 2A) is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. Protein phosphatase 2 holoenzymes are heterotrimeric proteins composed of a structural subunit A, a catalytic subunit C, and a regulatory subunit B. The regulatory subunit is encoded by a diverse set of genes that have been grouped into the B/PR55, B'/PR61, and B''/PR72 families. These different regulatory subunits confer distinct enzymatic specificities and intracellular localizations to the holozenzyme. The product of this gene belongs to the B'' family. The B'' family has been further divided into subfamilies. The product of this gene belongs to the beta subfamily of regulatory subunit B''. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
PPP3CA protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme|
PPP3R1 protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, alpha|
PPP6C protein phosphatase 6, catalytic subunit|This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase, a component of a signaling pathway regulating cell cycle progression. Splice variants encoding different protein isoforms exist. The pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPP6R1 protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 1|Protein phosphatase regulatory subunits, such as SAPS1, modulate the activity of protein phosphatase catalytic subunits by restricting substrate specificity, recruiting substrates, and determining the intracellular localization of the holoenzyme. SAPS1 is a regulatory subunit for the protein phosphatase-6 catalytic subunit (PPP6C; MIM 612725) (Stefansson and Brautigan, 2006 [PubMed 16769727]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
PPP6R2 protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 2|Protein phosphatase regulatory subunits, such as SAPS2, modulate the activity of protein phosphatase catalytic subunits by restricting substrate specificity, recruiting substrates, and determining the intracellular localization of the holoenzyme. SAPS2 is a regulatory subunit for the protein phosphatase-6 catalytic subunit (PPP6C; MIM 612725) (Stefansson and Brautigan, 2006 [PubMed 16769727]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
PPP6R3 protein phosphatase 6, regulatory subunit 3|Protein phosphatase regulatory subunits, such as SAPS3, modulate the activity of protein phosphatase catalytic subunits by restricting substrate specificity, recruiting substrates, and determining the intracellular localization of the holoenzyme. SAPS3 is a regulatory subunit for the protein phosphatase-6 catalytic subunit (PPP6C; MIM 612725) (Stefansson and Brautigan, 2006 [PubMed 16769727]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
PRB3 proline-rich protein BstNI subfamily 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a proline-rich salivary protein. It is a major constituent of parotid saliva. This protein is proposed to act as a bacterial receptor. This gene and five other genes that also encode salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs), as well as a gene encoding a lacrimal gland PRP, form a PRP gene cluster in the chromosomal 12p13 region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PRC1 protein regulator of cytokinesis 1|This gene encodes a protein that is involved in cytokinesis. The protein is present at high levels during the S and G2/M phases of mitosis but its levels drop dramatically when the cell exits mitosis and enters the G1 phase. It is located in the nucleus during interphase, becomes associated with mitotic spindles in a highly dynamic manner during mitosis, and localizes to the cell mid-body during cytokinesis. This protein has been shown to be a substrate of several cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). It is necessary for polarizing parallel microtubules and concentrating the factors responsible for contractile ring assembly. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
PRG4 proteoglycan 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a large proteoglycan that is synthesized by chondrocytes located at the surface of articular cartilage and by some synovial lining cells. This protein contains both chondroitin sulfate and keratan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. It functions as a boundary lubricant at the cartilage surface and contributes to the elastic absorption and energy dissipation of synovial fluid. Mutations in this gene result in camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
PRICKLE4 prickle homolog 4 (Drosophila)|C6ORF49 is a member of the LIM domain protein family (Teufel et al., 2005 [PubMed 15702247]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
PRKAR2A protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, alpha|cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. It may interact with various A-kinase anchoring proteins and determine the subcellular localization of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. This subunit has been shown to regulate protein transport from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus and further to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PRKAR2B protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type II, beta|cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the regulatory subunits. This subunit can be phosphorylated by the activated catalytic subunit. This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) in activated T cells. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this subunit may play an important role in regulating energy balance and adiposity. The studies also suggest that this subunit may mediate the gene induction and cataleptic behavior induced by haloperidol. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PRKRIR protein-kinase, interferon-inducible double stranded RNA dependent inhibitor, repressor of (P58 repressor)|
PRMT1 protein arginine methyltransferase 1|This gene encodes a member of the protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) family. Post-translational modification of target proteins by PRMTs plays an important regulatory role in many biological processes, whereby PRMTs methylate arginine residues by transferring methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to terminal guanidino nitrogen atoms. The encoded protein is a type I PRMT and is responsible for the majority of cellular arginine methylation activity. Increased expression of this gene may play a role in many types of cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
PRMT5 protein arginine methyltransferase 5|
PRMT8 protein arginine methyltransferase 8|Arginine methylation is a widespread posttranslational modification mediated by arginine methyltransferases, such as PRMT8. Arginine methylation is involved in a number of cellular processes, including DNA repair, RNA transcription, signal transduction, protein compartmentalization, and possibly protein translation (Lee et al., 2005 [PubMed 16051612]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
PROL1 proline rich, lacrimal 1|This gene encodes a member of the proline-rich protein family. The encoded protein has multiple proposed functions, including roles in pain suppression, penile erection, and protection of the eye surface. The QRFSR pentapeptide, known as opiorphin, is derived from the N-terminal of this protein. Opiorphin inhibits the enkephalin-inactivating peptidases neprilysin and aminopeptidase N, and this activity is thought to reduce sensitivity to painful stimuli by effecting enkephalin-related activation of opioid-dependent pathways. Opiorphin may also act as an anti-depressant. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
PRPF19 pre-mRNA processing factor 19|PSO4 is the human homolog of yeast Pso4, a gene essential for cell survival and DNA repair (Beck et al., 2008 [PubMed 18263876]).[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2008]
PRPF40A PRP40 pre-mRNA processing factor 40 homolog A (S. cerevisiae)|
PRPH peripherin|This gene encodes a cytoskeletal protein found in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. The encoded protein is a type III intermediate filament protein with homology to other cytoskeletal proteins such as desmin, and is a different protein that the peripherin found in photoreceptors. Mutations in this gene have been associated with susceptibility to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PRSS55 protease, serine, 55|This gene encodes a member of a group of membrane-anchored chymotrypsin (S1)-like serine proteases. The enocoded protein is primarily expressed in the Leydig and Sertoli cells of the testis and may be involved in male fertility. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
PRUNE2 prune homolog 2 (Drosophila)|
PSMB1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 1|The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is tightly linked to the TBP (TATA-binding protein) gene in human and in mouse, and is transcribed in the opposite orientation in both species. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PSMB5 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 5|The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit in the proteasome. This catalytic subunit is not present in the immunoproteasome and is replaced by catalytic subunit 3i (proteasome beta 8 subunit). Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
PSMB8 proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 8|The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered ring-shaped 20S core structure. The core structure is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome B-type family, also known as the T1B family, that is a 20S core beta subunit. This gene is located in the class II region of the MHC (major histocompatibility complex). Expression of this gene is induced by gamma interferon and this gene product replaces catalytic subunit 3 (proteasome beta 5 subunit) in the immunoproteasome. Proteolytic processing is required to generate a mature subunit. Two alternative transcripts encoding two isoforms have been identified; both isoforms are processed to yield the same mature subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PSMC1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase, 1|The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases which have a chaperone-like activity. This subunit and a 20S core alpha subunit interact specifically with the hepatitis B virus X protein, a protein critical to viral replication. This subunit also interacts with the adenovirus E1A protein and this interaction alters the activity of the proteasome. Finally, this subunit interacts with ataxin-7, suggesting a role for the proteasome in the development of spinocerebellar ataxia type 7, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PSMC2 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase, 2|The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases which have a chaperone-like activity. This subunit has been shown to interact with several of the basal transcription factors so, in addition to participation in proteasome functions, this subunit may participate in the regulation of transcription. This subunit may also compete with PSMC3 for binding to the HIV tat protein to regulate the interaction between the viral protein and the transcription complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
PSMC5 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase, 5|The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases which have a chaperone-like activity. In addition to participation in proteasome functions, this subunit may participate in transcriptional regulation since it has been shown to interact with the thyroid hormone receptor and retinoid X receptor-alpha. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
PSMD1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 1|The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes the largest non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator lid, which is responsible for substrate recognition and binding. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
PSMD11 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 11|The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome subunit S9 family that functions as a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator and is phosphorylated by AMP-activated protein kinase. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
PSMD14 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 14|This gene encodes a component of the 26S proteasome. The 26S proteasome is a large multiprotein complex that catalyzes the degradation of ubiquitinated intracellular proteins. The encoded protein is a component of the 19S regulatory cap complex of the 26S proteasome and mediates substrate deubiquitination. A pseudogene of this gene is also located on the long arm of chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
PSMD2 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 2|The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes one of the non-ATPase subunits of the 19S regulator lid. In addition to participation in proteasome function, this subunit may also participate in the TNF signalling pathway since it interacts with the tumor necrosis factor type 1 receptor. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
PSMD3 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 3|The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. This gene encodes a member of the proteasome subunit S3 family that functions as one of the non-ATPase subunits of the 19S regulator lid. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are associated with neutrophil count. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
PSMD6 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 6|This gene encodes a member of the protease subunit S10 family. The encoded protein is a subunit of the 26S proteasome which colocalizes with DNA damage foci and is involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquinated proteins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
PSMD7 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 7|The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a non-ATPase subunit of the 19S regulator. A pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PSMF1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) inhibitor subunit 1 (PI31)|The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a protein that inhibits the activation of the proteasome by the 11S and 19S regulators. Alternative transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PSPC1 paraspeckle component 1|This gene encodes a nucleolar protein that localizes to punctate subnuclear structures that occur close to splicing speckles, known as paraspeckles. These paraspeckles are composed of RNA-protein structures that include a non-coding RNA, NEAT1/Men epsilon/beta, and the Drosophila Behavior Human Splicing family of proteins, which include the product of this gene and the P54NRB/NONO and PSF/SFPQ proteins. Paraspeckles may function in the control of gene expression via an RNA nuclear retention mechanism. The protein encoded by this gene is found in paraspeckles in transcriptionally active cells, but it localizes to unique cap structures at the nucleolar periphery when RNA polymerase II transcription is inhibited, or during telophase. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene, which is also located on chromosome 13, has been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
PTBP2 polypyrimidine tract binding protein 2|The protein encoded by this gene binds to intronic polypyrimidine clusters in pre-mRNA molecules and is implicated in controlling the assembly of other splicing-regulatory proteins. This protein is very similar to the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) but most of its isoforms are expressed primarily in the brain. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
PTBP3 polypyrimidine tract binding protein 3|The protein encoded by this gene binds RNA and is a regulator of cell differentiation. The encoded protein preferentially binds to poly(G) and poly(U) sequences in vitro. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
PTEN phosphatase and tensin homolog|This gene was identified as a tumor suppressor that is mutated in a large number of cancers at high frequency. The protein encoded by this gene is a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase. It contains a tensin like domain as well as a catalytic domain similar to that of the dual specificity protein tyrosine phosphatases. Unlike most of the protein tyrosine phosphatases, this protein preferentially dephosphorylates phosphoinositide substrates. It negatively regulates intracellular levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate in cells and functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating AKT/PKB signaling pathway. The use of a non-canonical (CUG) upstream initiation site produces a longer isoform that initiates translation with a leucine, and is thought to be preferentially associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane. This longer isoform may help regulate energy metabolism in the mitochondria. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 9. Alternative splicing and the use of multiple translation start codons results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]
PTPN1 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 1|The protein encoded by this gene is the founding member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family, which was isolated and identified based on its enzymatic activity and amino acid sequence. PTPs catalyze the hydrolysis of the phosphate monoesters specifically on tyrosine residues. Members of the PTP family share a highly conserved catalytic motif, which is essential for the catalytic activity. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP has been shown to act as a negative regulator of insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the phosphotryosine residues of insulin receptor kinase. This PTP was also reported to dephosphorylate epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, as well as JAK2 and TYK2 kinases, which implicated the role of this PTP in cell growth control, and cell response to interferon stimulation. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
PTRF polymerase I and transcript release factor|This gene encodes a protein that enables the dissociation of paused ternary polymerase I transcription complexes from the 3' end of pre-rRNA transcripts. This protein regulates rRNA transcription by promoting the dissociation of transcription complexes and the reinitiation of polymerase I on nascent rRNA transcripts. This protein also localizes to caveolae at the plasma membrane and is thought to play a critical role in the formation of caveolae and the stabilization of caveolins. This protein translocates from caveolae to the cytoplasm after insulin stimulation. Caveolae contain truncated forms of this protein and may be the site of phosphorylation-dependent proteolysis. This protein is also thought to modify lipid metabolism and insulin-regulated gene expression. Mutations in this gene result in a disorder characterized by generalized lipodystrophy and muscular dystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
PUM1 pumilio RNA-binding family member 1|This gene encodes a member of the PUF family, evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding proteins related to the Pumilio proteins of Drosophila and the fem-3 mRNA binding factor proteins of C. elegans. The encoded protein contains a sequence-specific RNA binding domain comprised of eight repeats and N- and C-terminal flanking regions, and serves as a translational regulator of specific mRNAs by binding to their 3' untranslated regions. The evolutionarily conserved function of the encoded protein in invertebrates and lower vertebrates suggests that the human protein may be involved in translational regulation of embryogenesis, and cell development and differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PUM2 pumilio RNA-binding family member 2|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to a family of RNA-binding proteins. The encoded protein functions as a translational repressor during embryonic development and cell differentiation. This protein is also thought to be a positive regulator of cell proliferation in adipose-derived stem cells. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
PWP2 PWP2 periodic tryptophan protein homolog (yeast)|
PYCR1 pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase 1|This gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the NAD(P)H-dependent conversion of pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline. This enzyme may also play a physiologic role in the generation of NADP(+) in some cell types. The protein forms a homopolymer and localizes to the mitochondrion. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
PYCR2 pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase family, member 2|This gene belongs to the pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase family. The encoded mitochondrial protein catalyzes the conversion of pyrroline-5-carboxylate to proline, which is the last step in proline biosynthesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
PYCRL pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase-like|
PYGL phosphorylase, glycogen, liver|This gene encodes a homodimeric protein that catalyses the cleavage of alpha-1,4-glucosidic bonds to release glucose-1-phosphate from liver glycogen stores. This protein switches from inactive phosphorylase B to active phosphorylase A by phosphorylation of serine residue 15. Activity of this enzyme is further regulated by multiple allosteric effectors and hormonal controls. Humans have three glycogen phosphorylase genes that encode distinct isozymes that are primarily expressed in liver, brain and muscle, respectively. The liver isozyme serves the glycemic demands of the body in general while the brain and muscle isozymes supply just those tissues. In glycogen storage disease type VI, also known as Hers disease, mutations in liver glycogen phosphorylase inhibit the conversion of glycogen to glucose and results in moderate hypoglycemia, mild ketosis, growth retardation and hepatomegaly. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
QARS glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase|Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases catalyze the aminoacylation of tRNA by their cognate amino acid. Because of their central role in linking amino acids with nucleotide triplets contained in tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are thought to be among the first proteins that appeared in evolution. In metazoans, 9 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases specific for glutamine (gln), glutamic acid (glu), and 7 other amino acids are associated within a multienzyme complex. Although present in eukaryotes, glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (QARS) is absent from many prokaryotes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts, in which Gln-tRNA(Gln) is formed by transamidation of the misacylated Glu-tRNA(Gln). Glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase belongs to the class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
RAB10 RAB10, member RAS oncogene family|RAB10 belongs to the RAS (see HRAS; MIM 190020) superfamily of small GTPases. RAB proteins localize to exocytic and endocytic compartments and regulate intracellular vesicle trafficking (Bao et al., 1998 [PubMed 9918381]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2009]
RAB11A RAB11A, member RAS oncogene family|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Rab family of the small GTPase superfamily. It is associated with both constitutive and regulated secretory pathways, and may be involved in protein transport. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
RAB37 RAB37, member RAS oncogene family|Rab proteins are low molecular mass GTPases that are critical regulators of vesicle trafficking. For additional background information on Rab proteins, see MIM 179508.[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2006]
RAB38 RAB38, member RAS oncogene family|
RAB3GAP1 RAB3 GTPase activating protein subunit 1 (catalytic)|This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of a Rab GTPase activating protein. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a non-catalytic subunit to specifically regulate the activity of members of the Rab3 subfamily of small G proteins. This protein mediates the hydrolysis of GTP bound Rab3 to the GDP bound form. Mutations in this gene are associated with Warburg micro syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
RAB5A RAB5A, member RAS oncogene family|
RAB5B RAB5B, member RAS oncogene family|
RAB5C RAB5C, member RAS oncogene family|Members of the Rab protein family are small GTPases of the Ras superfamily that are thought to ensure fidelity in the process of docking and/or fusion of vesicles with their correct acceptor compartment (Han et al., 1996 [PubMed 8646882]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
RAB7A RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family|RAB family members are small, RAS-related GTP-binding proteins that are important regulators of vesicular transport. Each RAB protein targets multiple proteins that act in exocytic / endocytic pathways. This gene encodes a RAB family member that regulates vesicle traffic in the late endosomes and also from late endosomes to lysosomes. This encoded protein is also involved in the cellular vacuolation of the VacA cytotoxin of Helicobacter pylori. Mutations at highly conserved amino acid residues in this gene have caused some forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 2 neuropathies. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RABEP2 rabaptin, RAB GTPase binding effector protein 2|
RAD1 RAD1 checkpoint DNA exonuclease|This gene encodes a component of a heterotrimeric cell cycle checkpoint complex, known as the 9-1-1 complex, that is activated to stop cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage or incomplete DNA replication. The 9-1-1 complex is recruited by RAD17 to affected sites where it may attract specialized DNA polymerases and other DNA repair effectors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
RAD21 RAD21 homolog (S. pombe)|The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to the gene product of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad21, a gene involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, as well as in chromatid cohesion during mitosis. This protein is a nuclear phospho-protein, which becomes hyperphosphorylated in cell cycle M phase. The highly regulated association of this protein with mitotic chromatin specifically at the centromere region suggests its role in sister chromatid cohesion in mitotic cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RAD50 RAD50 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad50, a protein involved in DNA double-strand break repair. This protein forms a complex with MRE11 and NBS1. The protein complex binds to DNA and displays numerous enzymatic activities that are required for nonhomologous joining of DNA ends. This protein, cooperating with its partners, is important for DNA double-strand break repair, cell cycle checkpoint activation, telomere maintenance, and meiotic recombination. Knockout studies of the mouse homolog suggest this gene is essential for cell growth and viability. Mutations in this gene are the cause of Nijmegen breakage syndrome-like disorder.[provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
RAD51 RAD51 recombinase|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein family. RAD51 family members are highly similar to bacterial RecA and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad51, and are known to be involved in the homologous recombination and repair of DNA. This protein can interact with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA and RAD52, and it is thought to play roles in homologous pairing and strand transfer of DNA. This protein is also found to interact with BRCA1 and BRCA2, which may be important for the cellular response to DNA damage. BRCA2 is shown to regulate both the intracellular localization and DNA-binding ability of this protein. Loss of these controls following BRCA2 inactivation may be a key event leading to genomic instability and tumorigenesis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]
RALBP1 ralA binding protein 1|RALBP1 plays a role in receptor-mediated endocytosis and is a downstream effector of the small GTP-binding protein RAL (see RALA; MIM 179550). Small G proteins, such as RAL, have GDP-bound inactive and GTP-bound active forms, which shift from the inactive to the active state through the action of RALGDS (MIM 601619), which in turn is activated by RAS (see HRAS; MIM 190020) (summary by Feig, 2003 [PubMed 12888294]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
RANBP10 RAN binding protein 10|
RANBP2 RAN binding protein 2|RAN is a small GTP-binding protein of the RAS superfamily that is associated with the nuclear membrane and is thought to control a variety of cellular functions through its interactions with other proteins. This gene encodes a very large RAN-binding protein that immunolocalizes to the nuclear pore complex. The protein is a giant scaffold and mosaic cyclophilin-related nucleoporin implicated in the Ran-GTPase cycle. The encoded protein directly interacts with the E2 enzyme UBC9 and strongly enhances SUMO1 transfer from UBC9 to the SUMO1 target SP100. These findings place sumoylation at the cytoplasmic filaments of the nuclear pore complex and suggest that, for some substrates, modification and nuclear import are linked events. This gene is partially duplicated in a gene cluster that lies in a hot spot for recombination on chromosome 2q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RANBP9 RAN binding protein 9|This gene encodes a protein that binds RAN, a small GTP binding protein belonging to the RAS superfamily that is essential for the translocation of RNA and proteins through the nuclear pore complex. The protein encoded by this gene has also been shown to interact with several other proteins, including met proto-oncogene, homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2, androgen receptor, and cyclin-dependent kinase 11. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RAPGEF6 Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 6|
RB1 retinoblastoma 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a negative regulator of the cell cycle and was the first tumor suppressor gene found. The encoded protein also stabilizes constitutive heterochromatin to maintain the overall chromatin structure. The active, hypophosphorylated form of the protein binds transcription factor E2F1. Defects in this gene are a cause of childhood cancer retinoblastoma (RB), bladder cancer, and osteogenic sarcoma. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RBBP5 retinoblastoma binding protein 5|This gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein which belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of WD-repeat proteins. The encoded protein binds directly to retinoblastoma protein, which regulates cell proliferation. It interacts preferentially with the underphosphorylated retinoblastoma protein via the E1A-binding pocket B. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
RBL2 retinoblastoma-like 2|
RBM12 RNA binding motif protein 12|This gene encodes a protein that contains several RNA-binding motifs, potential transmembrane domains, and proline-rich regions. This gene and the gene for copine I overlap at map location 20q11.21. Alternative splicing in the 5' UTR results in four transcript variants. All variants encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
RBM26 RNA binding motif protein 26|
RBM27 RNA binding motif protein 27|
RBM7 RNA binding motif protein 7|
RBP7 retinol binding protein 7, cellular|Due to its chemical instability and low solubility in aqueous solution, vitamin A requires cellular retinol-binding proteins (CRBPs), such as RBP7, for stability, internalization, intercellular transfer, homeostasis, and metabolism.[supplied by OMIM, May 2004]
RBPMS RNA binding protein with multiple splicing|This gene encodes a member of the RNA recognition motif family of RNA-binding proteins. The RNA recognition motif is between 80-100 amino acids in length and family members contain one to four copies of the motif. The RNA recognition motif consists of two short stretches of conserved sequence, as well as a few highly conserved hydrophobic residues. The encoded protein has a single, putative RNA recognition motif in its N-terminus. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
RCAN1 regulator of calcineurin 1|The protein encoded by this gene interacts with calcineurin A and inhibits calcineurin-dependent signaling pathways, possibly affecting central nervous system development. This gene is located in the minimal candidate region for the Down syndrome phenotype, and is overexpressed in the brain of Down syndrome fetuses. Chronic overexpression of this gene may lead to neurofibrillary tangles such as those associated with Alzheimer disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
RCOR1 REST corepressor 1|This gene encodes a protein that is well-conserved, downregulated at birth, and with a specific role in determining neural cell differentiation. The encoded protein binds to the C-terminal domain of REST (repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor). [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
RCOR3 REST corepressor 3|
RECQL5 RecQ protein-like 5|The protein encoded by this gene is a helicase that is important for genome stability. The encoded protein also prevents aberrant homologous recombination by displacing RAD51 from ssDNA. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
REL v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the Rel homology domain/immunoglobulin-like fold, plexin, transcription factor (RHD/IPT) family. Members of this family regulate genes involved in apoptosis, inflammation, the immune response, and oncogenic processes. This proto-oncogene plays a role in the survival and proliferation of B lymphocytes. Mutation or amplification of this gene is associated with B-cell lymphomas, including Hodgkin's lymphoma. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are associated with susceptibility to ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
RELA v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A|NF-kappa-B is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in several biological processes. It is held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state by specific inhibitors. Upon degradation of the inhibitor, NF-kappa-B moves to the nucleus and activates transcription of specific genes. NF-kappa-B is composed of NFKB1 or NFKB2 bound to either REL, RELA, or RELB. The most abundant form of NF-kappa-B is NFKB1 complexed with the product of this gene, RELA. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
REPS1 RALBP1 associated Eps domain containing 1|This gene encodes a signaling adaptor protein with two EH domains that interacts with proteins that participate in signaling, endocytosis and cytoskeletal changes. The encoded protein has been found in association with intersectin 1 and Src homology 3-domain growth factor receptor-bound 2-like (endophilin) interacting protein 1 when intersectin 1 was isolated from clathrin-coated pits. The encoded protein has also been shown to interact with amphiphysin, a cytoplasmic protein at the surface of synaptic vesicles. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
RERGL RERG/RAS-like|
RFC1 replication factor C (activator 1) 1, 145kDa|This gene encodes the large subunit of replication factor C, a five subunit DNA polymerase accessory protein, which is a DNA-dependent ATPase required for eukaryotic DNA replication and repair. The large subunit acts as an activator of DNA polymerases, binds to the 3' end of primers, and promotes coordinated synthesis of both strands. It may also have a role in telomere stability. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
RFX5 regulatory factor X, 5 (influences HLA class II expression)|A lack of MHC-II expression results in a severe immunodeficiency syndrome called MHC-II deficiency, or the bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS; MIM 209920). At least 4 complementation groups have been identified in B-cell lines established from patients with BLS. The molecular defects in complementation groups B, C, and D all lead to a deficiency in RFX, a nuclear protein complex that binds to the X box of MHC-II promoters. The lack of RFX binding activity in complementation group C results from mutations in the RFX5 gene encoding the 75-kD subunit of RFX (Steimle et al., 1995). RFX5 is the fifth member of the growing family of DNA-binding proteins sharing a novel and highly characteristic DNA-binding domain called the RFX motif. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found but the full-length natures of only two have been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RFX7 regulatory factor X, 7|RFX7 is a member of the regulatory factor X (RFX) family of transcription factors (see RFX1, MIM 600006) (Aftab et al., 2008 [PubMed 18673564]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2009]
RFXANK regulatory factor X-associated ankyrin-containing protein|Major histocompatibility (MHC) class II molecules are transmembrane proteins that have a central role in development and control of the immune system. The protein encoded by this gene, along with regulatory factor X-associated protein and regulatory factor-5, forms a complex that binds to the X box motif of certain MHC class II gene promoters and activates their transcription. Once bound to the promoter, this complex associates with the non-DNA-binding factor MHC class II transactivator, which controls the cell type specificity and inducibility of MHC class II gene expression. This protein contains ankyrin repeats involved in protein-protein interactions. Mutations in this gene have been linked to bare lymphocyte syndrome type II, complementation group B. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
RFXAP regulatory factor X-associated protein|Major histocompatibility (MHC) class II molecules are transmembrane proteins that have a central role in development and control of the immune system. The protein encoded by this gene, along with regulatory factor X-associated ankyrin-containing protein and regulatory factor-5, forms a complex that binds to the X box motif of certain MHC class II gene promoters and activates their transcription. Once bound to the promoter, this complex associates with the non-DNA-binding factor MHC class II transactivator, which controls the cell type specificity and inducibility of MHC class II gene expression. Mutations in this gene have been linked to bare lymphocyte syndrome type II, complementation group D. Transcript variants utilizing different polyA signals have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RGPD3 RANBP2-like and GRIP domain containing 3|This gene is located in a cluster of Ran-binding protein related genes on chromosome 2 which arose through duplication in primates. The encoded protein contains an N-terminal TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) domain, two Ran-binding domains, and a C-terminal GRIP domain (golgin-97, RanBP2alpha, Imh1p and p230/golgin-245) domain. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
RGPD4 RANBP2-like and GRIP domain containing 4|
RICTOR RPTOR independent companion of MTOR, complex 2|RICTOR and MTOR (FRAP1; MIM 601231) are components of a protein complex that integrates nutrient- and growth factor-derived signals to regulate cell growth (Sarbassov et al., 2004 [PubMed 15268862]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
RILPL1 Rab interacting lysosomal protein-like 1|
RLF rearranged L-myc fusion|
RMI1 RecQ mediated genome instability 1|RMI1 is a component of protein complexes that limit DNA crossover formation via the dissolution of double Holliday junctions (Raynard et al., 2006 [PubMed 16595695]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
RNF123 ring finger protein 123|The protein encoded by this gene contains a C-terminal RING finger domain, a motif present in a variety of functionally distinct proteins and known to be involved in protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, and an N-terminal SPRY domain. This protein displays E3 ubiquitin ligase activity toward the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B which is also known as p27 or KIP1. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
RNH1 ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor 1|Placental ribonuclease inhibitor (PRI) is a member of a family of proteinaceous cytoplasmic RNase inhibitors that occur in many tissues and bind to both intracellular and extracellular RNases (summarized by Lee et al., 1988 [PubMed 3219362]). In addition to control of intracellular RNases, the inhibitor may have a role in the regulation of angiogenin (MIM 105850). Ribonuclease inhibitor, of 50,000 Da, binds to ribonucleases and holds them in a latent form. Since neutral and alkaline ribonucleases probably play a critical role in the turnover of RNA in eukaryotic cells, RNH may be essential for control of mRNA turnover; the interaction of eukaryotic cells with ribonuclease may be reversible in vivo.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]
ROCK1 Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1|This gene encodes a protein serine/threonine kinase that is activated when bound to the GTP-bound form of Rho. The small GTPase Rho regulates formation of focal adhesions and stress fibers of fibroblasts, as well as adhesion and aggregation of platelets and lymphocytes by shuttling between the inactive GDP-bound form and the active GTP-bound form. Rho is also essential in cytokinesis and plays a role in transcriptional activation by serum response factor. This protein, a downstream effector of Rho, phosphorylates and activates LIM kinase, which in turn, phosphorylates cofilin, inhibiting its actin-depolymerizing activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ROCK2 Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates cytokinesis, smooth muscle contraction, the formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions, and the activation of the c-fos serum response element. This protein, which is an isozyme of ROCK1 is a target for the small GTPase Rho. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RPA1 replication protein A1, 70kDa|
RPA2 replication protein A2, 32kDa|
RPA3 replication protein A3, 14kDa|
RPAP3 RNA polymerase II associated protein 3|This gene encodes an RNA polymerase II-associated protein. The encoded protein may function in transcriptional regulation and may also regulate apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
RPL23 ribosomal protein L23|Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein belongs to the L14P family of ribosomal proteins. It is located in the cytoplasm. This gene has been referred to as rpL17 because the encoded protein shares amino acid identity with ribosomal protein L17 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, its official symbol is RPL23. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RPL23AP5 ribosomal protein L23a pseudogene 5|
RPL26L1 ribosomal protein L26-like 1|This gene encodes a protein that shares high sequence similarity with ribosomal protein L26. It is not currently known whether the encoded protein is a functional ribosomal protein or whether it has evolved a function that is independent of the ribosome. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA signals exist. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RPL27A ribosomal protein L27a|Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein belongs to the L15P family of ribosomal proteins. It is located in the cytoplasm. Variable expression of this gene in colorectal cancers compared to adjacent normal tissues has been observed, although no correlation between the level of expression and the severity of the disease has been found. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, multiple processed pseudogenes derived from this gene are dispersed through the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RPL30 ribosomal protein L30|Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein belongs to the L30E family of ribosomal proteins. It is located in the cytoplasm. This gene is co-transcribed with the U72 small nucleolar RNA gene, which is located in its fourth intron. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RPL35 ribosomal protein L35|Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 60S subunit. The protein belongs to the L29P family of ribosomal proteins. It is located in the cytoplasm. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RPRD1A regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain containing 1A|This gene encodes a cell-cycle and transcription regulatory protein. The encoded protein interacts with the cell cycle inhibitor cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B and may function as a negative regulator of G(1)/S phase progression. This protein also forms homo- and hetrodimers with the protein, regulation of nuclear pre-mRNA domain-containing protein 1B, to form a scaffold that interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II subunit B1 and regulates several aspects of transcription. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 16. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
RPS24 ribosomal protein S24|Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 40S subunit. The protein belongs to the S24E family of ribosomal proteins. It is located in the cytoplasm. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. Mutations in this gene result in Diamond-Blackfan anemia. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
RPS28 ribosomal protein S28|Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. This gene encodes a ribosomal protein that is a component of the 40S subunit. The protein belongs to the S28E family of ribosomal proteins. It is located in the cytoplasm. As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RQCD1 RCD1 required for cell differentiation1 homolog (S. pombe)|This gene encodes a member of the highly conserved RCD1 protein family. The encoded protein is a transcriptional cofactor and a core protein of the CCR4-NOT complex. It may be involved in signal transduction as well as retinoic acid-regulated cell differentiation and development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2012]
RRP12 ribosomal RNA processing 12 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
RTFDC1 replication termination factor 2 domain containing 1|
RUVBL2 RuvB-like AAA ATPase 2|This gene encodes the second human homologue of the bacterial RuvB gene. Bacterial RuvB protein is a DNA helicase essential for homologous recombination and DNA double-strand break repair. Functional analysis showed that this gene product has both ATPase and DNA helicase activities. This gene is physically linked to the CGB/LHB gene cluster on chromosome 19q13.3, and is very close (55 nt) to the LHB gene, in the opposite orientation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RYR2 ryanodine receptor 2 (cardiac)|This gene encodes a ryanodine receptor found in cardiac muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. The encoded protein is one of the components of a calcium channel, composed of a tetramer of the ryanodine receptor proteins and a tetramer of FK506 binding protein 1B proteins, that supplies calcium to cardiac muscle. Mutations in this gene are associated with stress-induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
S100A8 S100 calcium binding protein A8|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in the inhibition of casein kinase and as a cytokine. Altered expression of this protein is associated with the disease cystic fibrosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
S100A9 S100 calcium binding protein A9|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in the inhibition of casein kinase and altered expression of this protein is associated with the disease cystic fibrosis. This antimicrobial protein exhibits antifungal and antibacterial activity. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
SAAL1 serum amyloid A-like 1|
SAFB scaffold attachment factor B|This gene encodes a DNA-binding protein which has high specificity for scaffold or matrix attachment region DNA elements (S/MAR DNA). This protein is thought to be involved in attaching the base of chromatin loops to the nuclear matrix but there is conflicting evidence as to whether this protein is a component of chromatin or a nuclear matrix protein. Scaffold attachment factors are a specific subset of nuclear matrix proteins (NMP) that specifically bind to S/MAR. The encoded protein is thought to serve as a molecular base to assemble a 'transcriptosome complex' in the vicinity of actively transcribed genes. It is involved in the regulation of heat shock protein 27 transcription, can act as an estrogen receptor co-repressor and is a candidate for breast tumorigenesis. This gene is arranged head-to-head with a similar gene whose product has the same functions. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
SAFB2 scaffold attachment factor B2|
SAMD1 sterile alpha motif domain containing 1|
SAMD9 sterile alpha motif domain containing 9|This gene encodes a sterile alpha motif domain-containing protein. The encoded protein localizes to the cytoplasm and may play a role in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Mutations in this gene are the cause of normophosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same protein.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
SAP130 Sin3A-associated protein, 130kDa|SAP130 is a subunit of the histone deacetylase (see HDAC1; MIM 601241)-dependent SIN3A (MIM 607776) corepressor complex (Fleischer et al., 2003 [PubMed 12724404]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
SAP30BP SAP30 binding protein|
SAR1B secretion associated, Ras related GTPase 1B|The protein encoded by this gene is a small GTPase that acts as a homodimer. The encoded protein is activated by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor PREB and is involved in protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. This protein is part of the COPII coat complex. Defects in this gene are a cause of chylomicron retention disease (CMRD), also known as Anderson disease (ANDD). Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
SARS seryl-tRNA synthetase|This gene belongs to the class II amino-acyl tRNA family. The encoded enzyme catalyzes the transfer of L-serine to tRNA (Ser) and is related to bacterial and yeast counterparts. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described but the biological validity of all variants is unknown. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
SART1 squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T cells|This gene encodes two proteins, the SART1(800) protein expressed in the nucleus of the majority of proliferating cells, and the SART1(259) protein expressed in the cytosol of epithelial cancers. The SART1(259) protein is translated by the mechanism of -1 frameshifting during posttranscriptional regulation; its full-length sequence is not published yet. The two encoded proteins are thought to be involved in the regulation of proliferation. Both proteins have tumor-rejection antigens. The SART1(259) protein possesses tumor epitopes capable of inducing HLA-A2402-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes in cancer patients. This SART1(259) antigen may be useful in specific immunotherapy for cancer patients and may serve as a paradigmatic tool for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with atopy. The SART1(259) protein is found to be essential for the recruitment of the tri-snRNP to the pre-spliceosome in the spliceosome assembly pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SCGB1D1 secretoglobin, family 1D, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the lipophilin subfamily, part of the uteroglobin superfamily, and is an ortholog of prostatein, the major secretory glycoprotein of the rat ventral prostate gland. This gene product represents one component of a heterodimeric molecule present in human tears whose elution profile is consistent with prostatein, a tetrameric molecule composed of three peptide components in heterodimers. Assuming that human lipophilins are the functional counterparts of prostatein, they may be transcriptionally regulated by steroid hormones, with the ability to bind androgens, other steroids and possibly bind and concentrate estramustine, a chemotherapeutic agent widely used for prostate cancer. Although the gene has been reported to be on chromosome 15, this sequence appears to be from a cluster of genes on chromosome 11 that includes mammaglobin 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SCN2A sodium channel, voltage gated, type II alpha subunit|Voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane glycoprotein complexes composed of a large alpha subunit with 24 transmembrane domains and one or more regulatory beta subunits. They are responsible for the generation and propagation of action potentials in neurons and muscle. This gene encodes one member of the sodium channel alpha subunit gene family. It is heterogeneously expressed in the brain, and mutations in this gene have been linked to several seizure disorders. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SEC13 SEC13 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the SEC13 family of WD-repeat proteins. It is a constituent of the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear pore complex. It has similarity to the yeast SEC13 protein, which is required for vesicle biogenesis from endoplasmic reticulum during the transport of proteins. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
SEC23IP SEC23 interacting protein|This gene encodes a member of the phosphatidic acid preferring-phospholipase A1 family. The encoded protein is localized to endoplasmic reticulum exit sites and plays a critical role in ER-Golgi transport as part of the multimeric coat protein II complex. An orthologous gene in frogs is required for normal neural crest cell development, suggesting that this gene may play a role in Waardenburg syndrome neural crest defects. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
SEC31A SEC31 homolog A (S. cerevisiae)|The protein encoded by this gene is similar to yeast Sec31 protein. Yeast Sec31 protein is known to be a component of the COPII protein complex which is responsible for vesicle budding from endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This protein was found to colocalize with SEC13, one of the other components of COPII , in the subcellular structures corresponding to the vesicle transport function. An immunodepletion experiment confirmed that this protein is required for ER-Golgi transport. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SENP3 SUMO1/sentrin/SMT3 specific peptidase 3|The reversible posttranslational modification of proteins by the addition of small ubiquitin-like SUMO proteins (see SUMO1; MIM 601912) is required for numerous biologic processes. SUMO-specific proteases, such as SENP3, are responsible for the initial processing of SUMO precursors to generate a C-terminal diglycine motif required for the conjugation reaction. They also have isopeptidase activity for the removal of SUMO from high molecular mass SUMO conjugates (Di Bacco et al., 2006 [PubMed 16738315]).[supplied by OMIM, Jun 2009]
SEPT10 septin 10|This gene encodes a member of the septin family of cytoskeletal proteins with GTPase activity. This protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus and displays GTP-binding and GTPase activity. A pseudogene for this gene is located on chromosome 8. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
SEPT6 septin 6|This gene is a member of the septin family of GTPases. Members of this family are required for cytokinesis. One version of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia is the result of a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 11 and X, with the breakpoint associated with the genes encoding the mixed-lineage leukemia and septin 2 proteins. This gene encodes four transcript variants encoding three distinct isoforms. An additional transcript variant has been identified, but its biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SEPT7 septin 7|This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the CDC10 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein also shares similarity with Diff 6 of Drosophila and with H5 of mouse. Each of these similar proteins, including the yeast CDC10, contains a GTP-binding motif. The yeast CDC10 protein is a structural component of the 10 nm filament which lies inside the cytoplasmic membrane and is essential for cytokinesis. This human protein functions in gliomagenesis and in the suppression of glioma cell growth, and it is required for the association of centromere-associated protein E with the kinetochore. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Several related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14, 17 and 19. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
SEPT8 septin 8|This gene is a member of the septin family of nucleotide binding proteins, originally described in yeast as cell division cycle regulatory proteins. Septins are highly conserved in yeast, Drosophila, and mouse, and appear to regulate cytoskeletal organization. Disruption of septin function disturbs cytokinesis and results in large multinucleate or polyploid cells. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
SERPINA10 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 10|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the serpin family. It is predominantly expressed in the liver and secreted in plasma. It inhibits the activity of coagulation factors Xa and XIa in the presence of protein Z, calcium and phospholipid. Mutations in this gene are associated with venous thrombosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
SERPINA12 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (alpha-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 12|
SERPINB13 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 13|
SERPINB3 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 3|
SERPINB4 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 4|
SERPINC1 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade C (antithrombin), member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma protease inhibitor and a member of the serpin superfamily. This protein inhibits thrombin as well as other activated serine proteases of the coagulation system, and it regulates the blood coagulation cascade. The protein includes two functional domains: the heparin binding-domain at the N-terminus of the mature protein, and the reactive site domain at the C-terminus. The inhibitory activity is enhanced by the presence of heparin. More than 120 mutations have been identified for this gene, many of which are known to cause antithrombin-III deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
SETD1A SET domain containing 1A|The protein encoded by this gene is a component of a histone methyltransferase (HMT) complex that produces mono-, di-, and trimethylated histone H3 at Lys4. The protein contains SET domains, a RNA recognition motif domain and is a member of the class V-like SAM-binding methyltransferase superfamily. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
SETDB1 SET domain, bifurcated 1|This gene encodes a histone methyltransferase which regulates histone methylation, gene silencing, and transcriptional repression. This gene has been identified as a target for treatment in Huntington Disease, given that gene silencing and transcription dysfunction likely play a role in the disease pathogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
SF3A1 splicing factor 3a, subunit 1, 120kDa|This gene encodes a subunit of the splicing factor 3a protein complex. The splicing factor 3a heterotrimer is a component of the mature U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP). U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins play a critical role in spliceosome assembly and pre-mRNA splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2014]
SF3A2 splicing factor 3a, subunit 2, 66kDa|This gene encodes subunit 2 of the splicing factor 3a protein complex. The splicing factor 3a heterotrimer includes subunits 1, 2 and 3 and is necessary for the in vitro conversion of 15S U2 snRNP into an active 17S particle that performs pre-mRNA splicing. Subunit 2 interacts with subunit 1 through its amino-terminus while the single zinc finger domain of subunit 2 plays a role in its binding to the 15S U2 snRNP. Subunit 2 may also function independently of its RNA splicing function as a microtubule-binding protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SF3A3 splicing factor 3a, subunit 3, 60kDa|This gene encodes subunit 3 of the splicing factor 3a protein complex. The splicing factor 3a heterotrimer includes subunits 1, 2 and 3 and is necessary for the in vitro conversion of 15S U2 snRNP into an active 17S particle that performs pre-mRNA splicing. Subunit 3 interacts with subunit 1 through its amino-terminus while the zinc finger domain of subunit 3 plays a role in its binding to the 15S U2 snRNP. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 20. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SF3B1 splicing factor 3b, subunit 1, 155kDa|This gene encodes subunit 1 of the splicing factor 3b protein complex. Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and a 12S RNA unit, forms the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins complex (U2 snRNP). The splicing factor 3b/3a complex binds pre-mRNA upstream of the intron's branch site in a sequence independent manner and may anchor the U2 snRNP to the pre-mRNA. Splicing factor 3b is also a component of the minor U12-type spliceosome. The carboxy-terminal two-thirds of subunit 1 have 22 non-identical, tandem HEAT repeats that form rod-like, helical structures. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SF3B2 splicing factor 3b, subunit 2, 145kDa|This gene encodes subunit 2 of the splicing factor 3b protein complex. Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and a 12S RNA unit, forms the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins complex (U2 snRNP). The splicing factor 3b/3a complex binds pre-mRNA upstream of the intron's branch site in a sequence-independent manner and may anchor the U2 snRNP to the pre-mRNA. Splicing factor 3b is also a component of the minor U12-type spliceosome. Subunit 2 associates with pre-mRNA upstream of the branch site at the anchoring site. Subunit 2 also interacts directly with subunit 4 of the splicing factor 3b complex. Subunit 2 is a highly hydrophilic protein with a proline-rich N-terminus and a glutamate-rich stretch in the C-terminus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SF3B3 splicing factor 3b, subunit 3, 130kDa|This gene encodes subunit 3 of the splicing factor 3b protein complex. Splicing factor 3b, together with splicing factor 3a and a 12S RNA unit, forms the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoproteins complex (U2 snRNP). The splicing factor 3b/3a complex binds pre-mRNA upstream of the intron's branch site in a sequence independent manner and may anchor the U2 snRNP to the pre-mRNA. Splicing factor 3b is also a component of the minor U12-type spliceosome. Subunit 3 has also been identified as a component of the STAGA (SPT3-TAF(II)31-GCN5L acetylase) transcription coactivator-HAT (histone acetyltransferase) complex, and the TFTC (TATA-binding-protein-free TAF(II)-containing complex). These complexes may function in chromatin modification, transcription, splicing, and DNA repair. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SF3B4 splicing factor 3b, subunit 4, 49kDa|This gene encodes one of four subunits of the splicing factor 3B. The protein encoded by this gene cross-links to a region in the pre-mRNA immediately upstream of the branchpoint sequence in pre-mRNA in the prespliceosomal complex A. It also may be involved in the assembly of the B, C and E spliceosomal complexes. In addition to RNA-binding activity, this protein interacts directly and highly specifically with subunit 2 of the splicing factor 3B. This protein contains two N-terminal RNA-recognition motifs (RRMs), consistent with the observation that it binds directly to pre-mRNA. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SF3B6 splicing factor 3b, subunit 6, 14kDa|This gene encodes a 14 kDa protein subunit of the splicing factor 3b complex. Splicing factor 3b associates with both the U2 and U11/U12 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes (U2 snRNP) of spliceosomes. This 14 kDa protein interacts directly with subunit 1 of the splicing factor 3b complex. This 14 kDa protein also interacts directly with the adenosine that carries out the first transesterification step of splicing at the pre-mRNA branch site. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SFN stratifin|
SGCZ sarcoglycan, zeta|The zeta-sarcoglycan gene measures over 465 kb and localizes to 8p22. This protein is part of the sarcoglycan complex, a group of 6 proteins. The sarcoglycans are all N-glycosylated transmembrane proteins with a short intra-cellular domain, a single transmembrane region and a large extra-cellular domain containing a carboxyl-terminal cluster with several conserved cysteine residues. The sarcoglycan complex is part of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DGC), which bridges the inner cytoskeleton and the extra-cellular matrix. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SH3GLB2 SH3-domain GRB2-like endophilin B2|
SH3KBP1 SH3-domain kinase binding protein 1|This gene encodes an adapter protein that contains three N-terminal Src homology domains, a proline rich region and a C-terminal coiled-coil domain. The encoded protein facilitates protein-protein interactions and has been implicated in numerous cellular processes including apoptosis, cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell adhesion and in the regulation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
SHANK1 SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 1|
SHC1 SHC (Src homology 2 domain containing) transforming protein 1|This gene encodes three main isoforms that differ in activities and subcellular location. While all three are adapter proteins in signal transduction pathways, the longest (p66Shc) may be involved in regulating life span and the effects of reactive oxygen species. The other two isoforms, p52Shc and p46Shc, link activated receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras pathway by recruitment of the GRB2/SOS complex. p66Shc is not involved in Ras activation. Unlike the other two isoforms, p46Shc is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
SHCBP1 SHC SH2-domain binding protein 1|
SHKBP1 SH3KBP1 binding protein 1|
SHMT1 serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (soluble)|This gene encodes the cytosolic form of serine hydroxymethyltransferase, a pyridoxal phosphate-containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of serine and tetrahydrofolate to glycine and 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate. This reaction provides one-carbon units for synthesis of methionine, thymidylate, and purines in the cytoplasm. This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 1. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
SHMT2 serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (mitochondrial)|This gene encodes the mitochondrial form of a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction of serine and tetrahydrofolate to glycine and 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate. The encoded product is primarily responsible for glycine synthesis. The activity of the encoded protein has been suggested to be the primary source of intracellular glycine. The gene which encodes the cytosolic form of this enzyme is located on chromosome 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
SIAH1 siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1|This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the seven in absentia homolog (SIAH) family. The protein is an E3 ligase and is involved in ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of specific proteins. The activity of this ubiquitin ligase has been implicated in the development of certain forms of Parkinson's disease, the regulation of the cellular response to hypoxia and induction of apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in several additional transcript variants, some encoding different isoforms and others that have not been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SIN3A SIN3 transcription regulator family member A|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional regulatory protein. It contains paired amphipathic helix (PAH) domains, which are important for protein-protein interactions and may mediate repression by the Mad-Max complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SIN3B SIN3 transcription regulator family member B|
SKIV2L2 superkiller viralicidic activity 2-like 2 (S. cerevisiae)|
SKP1 S-phase kinase-associated protein 1|This gene encodes a component of SCF complexes, which are composed of this protein, cullin 1, a ring-box protein, and one member of the F-box family of proteins. This protein binds directly to the F-box motif found in F-box proteins. SCF complexes are involved in the regulated ubiquitination of specific protein substrates, which targets them for degradation by the proteosome. Specific F-box proteins recognize different target protein(s), and many specific SCF substrates have been identified including regulators of cell cycle progression and development. Studies have also characterized the protein as an RNA polymerase II elongation factor. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SKP2 S-phase kinase-associated protein 2, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbls class; in addition to an F-box, this protein contains 10 tandem leucine-rich repeats. This protein is an essential element of the cyclin A-CDK2 S-phase kinase. It specifically recognizes phosphorylated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B, also referred to as p27 or KIP1) predominantly in S phase and interacts with S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1 or p19). In addition, this gene is established as a protooncogene causally involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. Alternative splicing of this gene generates three transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
SLC25A3 solute carrier family 25 (mitochondrial carrier; phosphate carrier), member 3|The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the transport of phosphate into the mitochondrial matrix, either by proton cotransport or in exchange for hydroxyl ions. The protein contains three related segments arranged in tandem which are related to those found in other characterized members of the mitochondrial carrier family. Both the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of this protein protrude toward the cytosol. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been isolated. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SLC2A4RG SLC2A4 regulator|The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear transcription factor involved in the activation of the solute carrier family 2 member 4 gene. The encoded protein interacts with another transcription factor, myocyte enhancer factor 2, to activate transcription of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SLC46A3 solute carrier family 46, member 3|
SLX4 SLX4 structure-specific endonuclease subunit|This gene encodes a structure-specific endonuclease subunit. The encoded protein contains a central BTB domain and it forms a multiprotein complex with the ERCC4(XPF)-ERCC1, MUS81-EME1, and SLX1 endonucleases, and also associates with MSH2/MSH3 mismatch repair complex, telomere binding complex TERF2(TRF2)-TERF2IP(RAP1), the protein kinase PLK1 and the uncharacterized protein C20orf94. The multiprotein complex is required for repair of specific types of DNA lesions and is critical for cellular responses to replication fork failure. The encoded protein acts as a docking platform for the assembly of multiple structure-specific endonucleases.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
SMARCA2 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is highly similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, which contains a trinucleotide repeat (CAG) length polymorphism. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
SMARCA4 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. In addition, this protein can bind BRCA1, as well as regulate the expression of the tumorigenic protein CD44. Mutations in this gene cause rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
SMARCAD1 SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, containing DEAD/H box 1|This gene encodes a member of the SNF subfamily of helicase proteins. The encoded protein plays a critical role in the restoration of heterochromatin organization and propagation of epigenetic patterns following DNA replication by mediating histone H3/H4 deacetylation. Mutations in this gene are associated with adermatoglyphia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
SMARCB1 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily b, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex that relieves repressive chromatin structures, allowing the transcriptional machinery to access its targets more effectively. The encoded nuclear protein may also bind to and enhance the DNA joining activity of HIV-1 integrase. This gene has been found to be a tumor suppressor, and mutations in it have been associated with malignant rhabdoid tumors. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMARCC1 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and contains a predicted leucine zipper motif typical of many transcription factors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMARCC2 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and contains a predicted leucine zipper motif typical of many transcription factors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMARCD1 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMARCD2 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMARCD3 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMARCE1 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily e, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. The encoded protein, either alone or when in the SWI/SNF complex, can bind to 4-way junction DNA, which is thought to mimic the topology of DNA as it enters or exits the nucleosome. The protein contains a DNA-binding HMG domain, but disruption of this domain does not abolish the DNA-binding or nucleosome-displacement activities of the SWI/SNF complex. Unlike most of the SWI/SNF complex proteins, this protein has no yeast counterpart. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMC1A structural maintenance of chromosomes 1A|Proper cohesion of sister chromatids is a prerequisite for the correct segregation of chromosomes during cell division. The cohesin multiprotein complex is required for sister chromatid cohesion. This complex is composed partly of two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins, SMC3 and either SMC1B or the protein encoded by this gene. Most of the cohesin complexes dissociate from the chromosomes before mitosis, although those complexes at the kinetochore remain. Therefore, the encoded protein is thought to be an important part of functional kinetochores. In addition, this protein interacts with BRCA1 and is phosphorylated by ATM, indicating a potential role for this protein in DNA repair. This gene, which belongs to the SMC gene family, is located in an area of the X-chromosome that escapes X inactivation. Mutations in this gene result in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
SMC2 structural maintenance of chromosomes 2|Members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes, or SMC, family (e.g., SMC1A; MIM 300040) are critical for mitotic chromosome condensation in frogs and for DNA repair in mammals.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
SMC4 structural maintenance of chromosomes 4|Members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes, or SMC, family (e.g., SMC1A; MIM 300040) are critical for mitotic chromosome condensation in frogs and for DNA repair in mammals.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
SMG6 SMG6 nonsense mediated mRNA decay factor|This gene encodes a component of the telomerase ribonucleoprotein complex responsible for the replication and maintenance of chromosome ends. The encoded protein also plays a role in the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway, providing the endonuclease activity near the premature translation termination codon that is needed to initiate NMD. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
SMN1 survival of motor neuron 1, telomeric|This gene is part of a 500 kb inverted duplication on chromosome 5q13. This duplicated region contains at least four genes and repetitive elements which make it prone to rearrangements and deletions. The repetitiveness and complexity of the sequence have also caused difficulty in determining the organization of this genomic region. The telomeric and centromeric copies of this gene are nearly identical and encode the same protein. However, mutations in this gene, the telomeric copy, are associated with spinal muscular atrophy; mutations in the centromeric copy do not lead to disease. The centromeric copy may be a modifier of disease caused by mutation in the telomeric copy. The critical sequence difference between the two genes is a single nucleotide in exon 7, which is thought to be an exon splice enhancer. Note that the nine exons of both the telomeric and centromeric copies are designated historically as exon 1, 2a, 2b, and 3-8. It is thought that gene conversion events may involve the two genes, leading to varying copy numbers of each gene. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Within the nucleus, the protein localizes to subnuclear bodies called gems which are found near coiled bodies containing high concentrations of small ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). This protein forms heteromeric complexes with proteins such as SIP1 and GEMIN4, and also interacts with several proteins known to be involved in the biogenesis of snRNPs, such as hnRNP U protein and the small nucleolar RNA binding protein. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
SNRPA1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide A'|
SNRPB small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptides B and B1|The protein encoded by this gene is one of several nuclear proteins that are found in common among U1, U2, U4/U6, and U5 small ribonucleoprotein particles (snRNPs). These snRNPs are involved in pre-mRNA splicing, and the encoded protein may also play a role in pre-mRNA splicing or snRNP structure. Autoantibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus frequently recognize epitopes on the encoded protein. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms (B and B') have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SNRPF small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide F|
SNW1 SNW domain containing 1|This gene, a member of the SNW gene family, encodes a coactivator that enhances transcription from some Pol II promoters. This coactivator can bind to the ligand-binding domain of the vitamin D receptor and to retinoid receptors to enhance vitamin D-, retinoic acid-, estrogen-, and glucocorticoid-mediated gene expression. It can also function as a splicing factor by interacting with poly(A)-binding protein 2 to directly control the expression of muscle-specific genes at the transcriptional level. Finally, the protein may be involved in oncogenesis since it interacts with a region of SKI oncoproteins that is required for transforming activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SNX25 sorting nexin 25|
SOD1 superoxide dismutase 1, soluble|The protein encoded by this gene binds copper and zinc ions and is one of two isozymes responsible for destroying free superoxide radicals in the body. The encoded isozyme is a soluble cytoplasmic protein, acting as a homodimer to convert naturally-occuring but harmful superoxide radicals to molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The other isozyme is a mitochondrial protein. Mutations in this gene have been implicated as causes of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Rare transcript variants have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SOGA1 suppressor of glucose, autophagy associated 1|
SPACA7 sperm acrosome associated 7|
SPAG5 sperm associated antigen 5|This gene encodes a protein associated with the mitotic spindle apparatus. The encoded protein may be involved in the functional and dynamic regulation of mitotic spindles. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SPAG9 sperm associated antigen 9|This gene encodes a member of the cancer testis antigen gene family. The encoded protein functions as a scaffold protein that structurally organizes mitogen-activated protein kinases and mediates c-Jun-terminal kinase signaling. This protein also binds to kinesin-1 and may be involved in microtubule-based membrane transport. This protein may play a role in tumor growth and development. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
SPATA5 spermatogenesis associated 5|
SPATA5L1 spermatogenesis associated 5-like 1|
SPATS2 spermatogenesis associated, serine-rich 2|
SPTY2D1 SPT2, Suppressor of Ty, domain containing 1 (S. cerevisiae)|
SRA1 steroid receptor RNA activator 1|Both long non-coding and protein-coding RNAs are transcribed from this gene, and they represent alternatively spliced transcript variants. This gene was initially defined as a non-coding RNA, which is a coactivator for several nuclear receptors (NRs) and is associated with breast cancer. It has now been found that this gene is involved in the regulation of many NR and non-NR activities, including metabolism, adipogenesis and chromatin organization. The long non-coding RNA transcripts interact with a variety of proteins, including the protein encoded by this gene. The encoded protein acts as a transcriptional repressor by binding to the non-coding RNA. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
SRP68 signal recognition particle 68kDa|This gene encodes a subunit of the signal recognition particle (SRP). The SRP is a ribonucleoprotein complex that transports secreted and membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum for processing. The complex includes a 7S RNA and six protein subunits. The encoded protein is the 68kDa component of the SRP, and forms a heterodimer with the 72kDa subunit that is required for SRP function. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and three pseudogenes of this gene are located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
SRP9 signal recognition particle 9kDa|
SRPK1 SRSF protein kinase 1|This gene encodes a serine/arginine protein kinase specific for the SR (serine/arginine-rich domain) family of splicing factors. The protein localizes to the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It is thought to play a role in regulation of both constitutive and alternative splicing by regulating intracellular localization of splicing factors. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. Additional alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described for this gene, but their full length nature have not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
SSBP3 single stranded DNA binding protein 3|
SSBP4 single stranded DNA binding protein 4|
ST13 suppression of tumorigenicity 13 (colon carcinoma) (Hsp70 interacting protein)|The protein encoded by this gene is an adaptor protein that mediates the association of the heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90. This protein has been shown to be involved in the assembly process of glucocorticoid receptor, which requires the assistance of multiple molecular chaperones. The expression of this gene is reported to be downregulated in colorectal carcinoma tissue suggesting that it is a candidate tumor suppressor gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
STAG2 stromal antigen 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the cohesin complex, which regulates the separation of sister chromatids during cell division. Targeted inactivation of this gene results in chromatid cohesion defects and aneuploidy, suggesting that genetic disruption of cohesin is a cause of aneuploidy in human cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
STAP2 signal transducing adaptor family member 2|This gene encodes the substrate of breast tumor kinase, an Src-type non-receptor tyrosine kinase. The encoded protein possesses domains and several tyrosine phosphorylation sites characteristic of adaptor proteins that mediate the interactions linking proteins involved in signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
STK17A serine/threonine kinase 17a|This gene is a member of the DAP kinase-related apoptosis-inducing protein kinase family and encodes an autophosphorylated nuclear protein with a protein kinase domain. The protein has apoptosis-inducing activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
STK3 serine/threonine kinase 3|This gene encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase activated by proapoptotic molecules indicating the encoded protein functions as a growth suppressor. Cleavage of the protein product by caspase removes the inhibitory C-terminal portion. The N-terminal portion is transported to the nucleus where it homodimerizes to form the active kinase which promotes the condensation of chromatin during apoptosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
STK4 serine/threonine kinase 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a cytoplasmic kinase that is structurally similar to the yeast Ste20p kinase, which acts upstream of the stress-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. The encoded protein can phosphorylate myelin basic protein and undergoes autophosphorylation. A caspase-cleaved fragment of the encoded protein has been shown to be capable of phosphorylating histone H2B. The particular phosphorylation catalyzed by this protein has been correlated with apoptosis, and it's possible that this protein induces the chromatin condensation observed in this process. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
STRIP1 striatin interacting protein 1|This gene encodes a member of the striatin-interacting phosphatase and kinase complex, which is involved in localization of the Golgi body. The encoded protein participates in cytosketelal organization. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
STRN striatin, calmodulin binding protein|
STRN3 striatin, calmodulin binding protein 3|
STRN4 striatin, calmodulin binding protein 4|
SUB1 SUB1 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
SUDS3 suppressor of defective silencing 3 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|SDS3 is a subunit of the histone deacetylase (see HDAC1; MIM 601241)-dependent SIN3A (MIM 607776) corepressor complex (Fleischer et al., 2003 [PubMed 12724404]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
SYCP2L synaptonemal complex protein 2-like|
SYNE1 spectrin repeat containing, nuclear envelope 1|This gene encodes a spectrin repeat containing protein expressed in skeletal and smooth muscle, and peripheral blood lymphocytes, that localizes to the nuclear membrane. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 8, also referred to as autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1 or recessive ataxia of Beauce. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SYNE2 spectrin repeat containing, nuclear envelope 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear outer membrane protein that binds cytoplasmic F-actin. This binding tethers the nucleus to the cytoskeleton and aids in the maintenance of the structural integrity of the nucleus. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
SYNE3 spectrin repeat containing, nuclear envelope family member 3|
TAB1 TGF-beta activated kinase 1/MAP3K7 binding protein 1|The protein encoded by this gene was identified as a regulator of the MAP kinase kinase kinase MAP3K7/TAK1, which is known to mediate various intracellular signaling pathways, such as those induced by TGF beta, interleukin 1, and WNT-1. This protein interacts and thus activates TAK1 kinase. It has been shown that the C-terminal portion of this protein is sufficient for binding and activation of TAK1, while a portion of the N-terminus acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of TGF beta, suggesting that this protein may function as a mediator between TGF beta receptors and TAK1. This protein can also interact with and activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 (MAPK14/p38alpha), and thus represents an alternative activation pathway, in addition to the MAPKK pathways, which contributes to the biological responses of MAPK14 to various stimuli. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TADA3 transcriptional adaptor 3|DNA-binding transcriptional activator proteins increase the rate of transcription by interacting with the transcriptional machinery bound to the basal promoter in conjunction with adaptor proteins, possibly by acetylation and destabilization of nucleosomes. The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator adaptor and a component of the histone acetyl transferase (HAT) coactivator complex which plays a crucial role in chromatin modulation and cell cycle progression. Along with the other components of the complex, this protein links transcriptional activators bound to specific promoters, to histone acetylation and the transcriptional machinery. The protein is also involved in the stabilization and activation of the p53 tumor suppressor protein that plays a role in the cellular response to DNA damage. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
TAF4 TAF4 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 135kDa|Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes one of the larger subunits of TFIID that has been shown to potentiate transcriptional activation by retinoic acid, thyroid hormone and vitamin D3 receptors. In addition, this subunit interacts with the transcription factor CREB, which has a glutamine-rich activation domain, and binds to other proteins containing glutamine-rich regions. Aberrant binding to this subunit by proteins with expanded polyglutamine regions has been suggested as one of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying a group of neurodegenerative disorders referred to as polyglutamine diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TAF5 TAF5 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 100kDa|Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes an integral subunit of TFIID associated with all transcriptionally competent forms of that complex. This subunit interacts strongly with two TFIID subunits that show similarity to histones H3 and H4, and it may participate in forming a nucleosome-like core in the TFIID complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TAF6 TAF6 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 80kDa|Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes one of the smaller subunits of TFIID that binds weakly to TBP but strongly to TAF1, the largest subunit of TFIID. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
TAF8 TAF8 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 43kDa|This gene encodes one of several TATA-binding protein (TBP)-associated factors (TAFs), which are integral subunits of the general transcription factor complex TFIID. TFIID recognizes the core promoter of many genes and nucleates the assembly of a transcription preinitiation complex containing RNA polymerase II and other initiation factors. The protein encoded by this gene contains an H4-like histone fold domain, and interacts with several subunits of TFIID including TBP and the histone-fold protein TAF10. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TAGLN3 transgelin 3|
TANC2 tetratricopeptide repeat, ankyrin repeat and coiled-coil containing 2|
TANK TRAF family member-associated NFKB activator|The TRAF (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor) family of proteins associate with and transduce signals from members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The protein encoded by this gene is found in the cytoplasm and can bind to TRAF1, TRAF2, or TRAF3, thereby inhibiting TRAF function by sequestering the TRAFs in a latent state in the cytoplasm. For example, the protein encoded by this gene can block TRAF2 binding to LMP1, the Epstein-Barr virus transforming protein, and inhibit LMP1-mediated NF-kappa-B activation. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
TAOK1 TAO kinase 1|
TARBP1 TAR (HIV-1) RNA binding protein 1|HIV-1, the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), contains an RNA genome that produces a chromosomally integrated DNA during the replicative cycle. Activation of HIV-1 gene expression by the transactivator Tat is dependent on an RNA regulatory element (TAR) located downstream of the transcription initiation site. This element forms a stable stem-loop structure and can be bound by either the protein encoded by this gene or by RNA polymerase II. This protein may act to disengage RNA polymerase II from TAR during transcriptional elongation. Alternatively spliced transcripts of this gene may exist, but their full-length natures have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TBC1D15 TBC1 domain family, member 15|This gene encodes a member of the Ras-like proteins in brain-GTPase activating protein superfamily that share a conserved Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16 domain. The encoded protein interacts with Ras-like protein in brain 5A and may function as a regulator of intracellular trafficking. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
TBC1D4 TBC1 domain family, member 4|
TBC1D7 TBC1 domain family, member 7|This gene encodes a member of the TBC-domain containing protein family. The encoded protein functions as a subunit of the tuberous sclerosis TSC1-TSC2 complex which plays a role in the regulation of cellular growth and differentiation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal recessive megalencephaly. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
TBK1 TANK-binding kinase 1|The NF-kappa-B (NFKB) complex of proteins is inhibited by I-kappa-B (IKB) proteins, which inactivate NFKB by trapping it in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of serine residues on the IKB proteins by IKB kinases marks them for destruction via the ubiquitination pathway, thereby allowing activation and nuclear translocation of the NFKB complex. The protein encoded by this gene is similar to IKB kinases and can mediate NFKB activation in response to certain growth factors. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
TBL1XR1 transducin (beta)-like 1 X-linked receptor 1|The protein encoded by this gene has sequence similarity with members of the WD40 repeat-containing protein family. The WD40 group is a large family of proteins, which appear to have a regulatory function. It is believed that the WD40 repeats mediate protein-protein interactions and members of the family are involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, gene regulation, vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal assembly and may play a role in the control of cytotypic differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TBL1Y transducin (beta)-like 1, Y-linked|The protein encoded by this gene has sequence similarity with members of the WD40 repeat-containing protein family. The WD40 group is a large family of proteins, which appear to have a regulatory function. It is believed that the WD40 repeats mediate protein-protein interactions and members of the family are involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, gene regulation, vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal assembly and may play a role in the control of cytotypic differentiation. This gene is highly similar to TBL1X gene in nucleotide sequence and protein sequence, but the TBL1X gene is located on chromosome X and this gene is on chromosome Y. This gene has three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TCEA1 transcription elongation factor A (SII), 1|
TDRD12 tudor domain containing 12|
TERF2 telomeric repeat binding factor 2|This gene encodes a telomere specific protein, TERF2, which is a component of the telomere nucleoprotein complex. This protein is present at telomeres in metaphase of the cell cycle, is a second negative regulator of telomere length and plays a key role in the protective activity of telomeres. While having similar telomere binding activity and domain organization, TERF2 differs from TERF1 in that its N terminus is basic rather than acidic. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TERF2IP telomeric repeat binding factor 2, interacting protein|The gene encodes a protein that is part of a complex involved in telomere length regulation. Pseudogenes are present on chromosomes 5 and 22. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
TFDP1 transcription factor Dp-1|This gene encodes a member of a family of transcription factors that heterodimerize with E2F proteins to enhance their DNA-binding activity and promote transcription from E2F target genes. The encoded protein functions as part of this complex to control the transcriptional activity of numerous genes involved in cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1, 15, and X.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
TFG TRK-fused gene|There are several documented fusion oncoproteins encoded partially by this gene. This gene also participates in several oncogenic rearrangements resulting in anaplastic lymphoma and mixoid chondrosarcoma, and may play a role in the NF-kappaB pathway. Multiple transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
TFIP11 tuftelin interacting protein 11|TFIP11 is a nuclear speckle-localized protein that may play a role in spliceosome disassembly in Cajal bodies (Stanek et al., 2008 [PubMed 18367544]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2009]
TGM3 transglutaminase 3|Transglutaminases are enzymes that catalyze the crosslinking of proteins by epsilon-gamma glutamyl lysine isopeptide bonds. While the primary structure of transglutaminases is not conserved, they all have the same amino acid sequence at their active sites and their activity is calcium-dependent. The protein encoded by this gene consists of two polypeptide chains activated from a single precursor protein by proteolysis. The encoded protein is involved the later stages of cell envelope formation in the epidermis and hair follicle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
THEMIS thymocyte selection associated|This gene encodes a protein that plays a regulatory role in both positive and negative T-cell selection during late thymocyte development. The protein functions through T-cell antigen receptor signaling, and is necessary for proper lineage commitment and maturation of T-cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
THOC1 THO complex 1|HPR1 is part of the TREX (transcription/export) complex, which includes TEX1 (MIM 606929), THO2 (MIM 300395), ALY (MIM 604171), and UAP56 (MIM 142560).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
THOC3 THO complex 3|This gene encodes a component of the nuclear THO transcription elongation complex, which is part of the larger transcription export (TREX) complex that couples messenger RNA processing and export. In humans, the transcription export complex is recruited to the 5'-end of messenger RNAs in a splicing- and cap-dependent manner. Studies of a related complex in mouse suggest that the metazoan transcription export complex is involved in cell differentiation and development. A pseudogene of this gene has been defined on chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
THOC6 THO complex 6|
THSD1 thrombospondin, type I, domain containing 1|The protein encoded by this gene contains a type 1 thrombospondin domain, which is found in a number of proteins involved in the complement pathway, as well as in extracellular matrix proteins. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
TIGD4 tigger transposable element derived 4|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the tigger subfamily of the pogo superfamily of DNA-mediated transposons in humans. These proteins are related to DNA transposons found in fungi and nematodes, and more distantly to the Tc1 and mariner transposases. They are also very similar to the major mammalian centromere protein B. The exact function of this gene is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TINF2 TERF1 (TRF1)-interacting nuclear factor 2|This gene encodes one of the proteins of the shelterin, or telosome, complex which protects telomeres by allowing the cell to distinguish between telomeres and regions of DNA damage. The protein encoded by this gene is a critical part of shelterin; it interacts with the three DNA-binding proteins of the shelterin complex, and it is important for assembly of the complex. Mutations in this gene cause dyskeratosis congenita (DKC), an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
TJP1 tight junction protein 1|This gene encodes a protein located on a cytoplasmic membrane surface of intercellular tight junctions. The encoded protein may be involved in signal transduction at cell-cell junctions. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
TJP2 tight junction protein 2|This gene encodes a zonula occluden that is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase homolog family. The encoded protein functions as a component of the tight junction barrier in epithelial and endothelial cells and is necessary for proper assembly of tight junctions. Mutations in this gene have been identified in patients with hypercholanemia, and genomic duplication of a 270 kb region including this gene causes autosomal dominant deafness-51. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
TMEM109 transmembrane protein 109|
TMEM200A transmembrane protein 200A|
TNPO1 transportin 1|This gene encodes the beta subunit of the karyopherin receptor complex which interacts with nuclear localization signals to target nuclear proteins to the nucleus. The karyopherin receptor complex is a heterodimer of an alpha subunit which recognizes the nuclear localization signal and a beta subunit which docks the complex at nucleoporins. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TOP3A topoisomerase (DNA) III alpha|This gene encodes a DNA topoisomerase, an enzyme that controls and alters the topologic states of DNA during transcription. This enzyme catalyzes the transient breaking and rejoining of a single strand of DNA which allows the strands to pass through one another, thus reducing the number of supercoils and altering the topology of DNA. This enzyme forms a complex with BLM which functions in the regulation of recombination in somatic cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TOX4 TOX high mobility group box family member 4|
TP53BP1 tumor protein p53 binding protein 1|
TPD52L2 tumor protein D52-like 2|This gene encodes a member of the tumor protein D52-like family. These proteins are characterized by an N-terminal coiled-coil motif that is used to form homo- and heteromeric complexes with other tumor protein D52-like proteins. Expression of this gene may be a marker for breast cancer and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
TPM2 tropomyosin 2 (beta)|This gene encodes beta-tropomyosin, a member of the actin filament binding protein family, and mainly expressed in slow, type 1 muscle fibers. Mutations in this gene can alter the expression of other sarcomeric tropomyosin proteins, and cause cap disease, nemaline myopathy and distal arthrogryposis syndromes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
TPM3 tropomyosin 3|This gene encodes a member of the tropomyosin family of actin-binding proteins. Tropomyosins are dimers of coiled-coil proteins that provide stability to actin filaments and regulate access of other actin-binding proteins. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant nemaline myopathy and other muscle disorders. This locus is involved in translocations with other loci, including anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (NTRK1), which result in the formation of fusion proteins that act as oncogenes. There are numerous pseudogenes for this gene on different chromosomes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
TPM4 tropomyosin 4|This gene encodes a member of the tropomyosin family of actin-binding proteins involved in the contractile system of striated and smooth muscles and the cytoskeleton of non-muscle cells. Tropomyosins are dimers of coiled-coil proteins that polymerize end-to-end along the major groove in most actin filaments. They provide stability to the filaments and regulate access of other actin-binding proteins. In muscle cells, they regulate muscle contraction by controlling the binding of myosin heads to the actin filament. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
TPR translocated promoter region, nuclear basket protein|This gene encodes a large coiled-coil protein that forms intranuclear filaments attached to the inner surface of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The protein directly interacts with several components of the NPC. It is required for the nuclear export of mRNAs and some proteins. Oncogenic fusions of the 5' end of this gene with several different kinase genes occur in some neoplasias. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TRA2A transformer 2 alpha homolog (Drosophila)|This gene is a member of the transformer 2 homolog family and encodes a protein with several RRM (RNA recognition motif) domains. This phosphorylated nuclear protein binds to specific RNA sequences and plays a role in the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
TRAFD1 TRAF-type zinc finger domain containing 1|The innate immune system confers host defense against viral and microbial infection, and TRAFD1 is a negative feedback regulator that controls excessive immune responses (Sanada et al., 2008 [PubMed 18849341]).[supplied by OMIM, Dec 2009]
TRIM25 tripartite motif containing 25|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2, and a coiled-coil region. The protein localizes to the cytoplasm. The presence of potential DNA-binding and dimerization-transactivation domains suggests that this protein may act as a transcription factor, similar to several other members of the TRIM family. Expression of the gene is upregulated in response to estrogen, and it is thought to mediate estrogen actions in breast cancer as a primary response gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TRIM39 tripartite motif containing 39|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2, and a coiled-coil region. The function of this protein has not been identified. This gene lies within the major histocompatibility complex class I region on chromosome 6. Alternate splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TRIOBP TRIO and F-actin binding protein|This gene encodes a protein with an N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain and a C-terminal coiled-coil region. The protein interacts with trio, which is involved with neural tissue development and controlling actin cytoskeleton organization, cell motility and cell growth. The protein also associates with F-actin and stabilizes F-actin structures. Mutations in this gene have been associated with a form of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that would encode different isoforms have been found for this gene, however some transcripts may be subject to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2008]
TRIP11 thyroid hormone receptor interactor 11|This gene was identified based on the interaction of its protein product with thyroid hormone receptor beta. This protein is associated with the Golgi apparatus. The N-terminal region of the protein binds Golgi membranes and the C-terminal region binds the minus ends of microtubules; thus, the protein is thought to play a role in assembly and maintenance of the Golgi ribbon structure around the centrosome. Mutations in this gene cause achondrogenesis type IA.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
TRMT1 tRNA methyltransferase 1 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
TRMT112 tRNA methyltransferase 11-2 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
TRMU tRNA 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase|This nuclear gene encodes a mitochondrial tRNA-modifying enzyme. The encoded protein catalyzes the 2-thiolation of uridine on the wobble positions of tRNA(Lys), tRNA(Glu), and tRNA(Gln), resulting in the formation of 5-taurinomethyl-2-thiouridine moieties. Mutations in this gene may cause transient infantile liver failure. Polymorphisms in this gene may also influence the severity of deafness caused by mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA mutations. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
TRRAP transformation/transcription domain-associated protein|This gene encodes a large multidomain protein of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKK) family. The encoded protein is a common component of many histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes and plays a role in transcription and DNA repair by recruiting HAT complexes to chromatin. Deregulation of this gene may play a role in several types of cancer including glioblastoma multiforme. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
TSC1 tuberous sclerosis 1|This gene encodes a growth inhibitory protein thought to play a role in the stabilization of tuberin. Mutations in this gene have been associated with tuberous sclerosis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]
TSC2 tuberous sclerosis 2|Mutations in this gene lead to tuberous sclerosis complex. Its gene product is believed to be a tumor suppressor and is able to stimulate specific GTPases. The protein associates with hamartin in a cytosolic complex, possibly acting as a chaperone for hamartin. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TSC22D4 TSC22 domain family, member 4|TSC22D4 is a member of the TSC22 domain family of leucine zipper transcriptional regulators (see TSC22D3; MIM 300506) (Kester et al., 1999 [PubMed 10488076]; Fiorenza et al., 2001 [PubMed 11707329]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
TSPYL2 TSPY-like 2|This gene encodes a member of the testis-specific protein Y-encoded, TSPY-like/SET/nucleosome assembly protein-1 superfamily. The encoded protein is localized to the nucleolus where it functions in chromatin remodeling and as an inhibitor of cell-cycle progression. This protein may play a role in the suppression of tumor growth. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
TTC7A tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7A|This gene encodes a protein containing tetratricopeptide repeats. Mutations in this gene disrupt intestinal development and can cause early onset inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal atresia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
TUBA1A tubulin, alpha 1a|Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulins. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents belong to the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes, which are highly conserved among species. This gene encodes alpha tubulin and is highly similar to the mouse and rat Tuba1 genes. Northern blotting studies have shown that the gene expression is predominantly found in morphologically differentiated neurologic cells. This gene is one of three alpha-tubulin genes in a cluster on chromosome 12q. Mutations in this gene cause lissencephaly type 3 (LIS3) - a neurological condition characterized by microcephaly, mental retardation, and early-onset epilepsy and caused by defective neuronal migration. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
TUBA3C tubulin, alpha 3c|Microtubules of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton perform essential and diverse functions and are composed of a heterodimer of alpha and beta tubulin. The genes encoding these microtubule constituents are part of the tubulin superfamily, which is composed of six distinct families. Genes from the alpha, beta and gamma tubulin families are found in all eukaryotes. The alpha and beta tubulins represent the major components of microtubules, while gamma tubulin plays a critical role in the nucleation of microtubule assembly. There are multiple alpha and beta tubulin genes and they are highly conserved among and between species. This gene is an alpha tubulin gene that encodes a protein 99% identical to the mouse testis-specific Tuba3 and Tuba7 gene products. This gene is located in the 13q11 region, which is associated with the genetic diseases Clouston hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and Kabuki syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TUBA8 tubulin, alpha 8|This gene encodes a member of the alpha tubulin protein family. Alpha tubulins are one of two core protein families (alpha and beta tubulins) that heterodimerize and assemble to form microtubules. Mutations in this gene are associated with polymicrogyria and optic nerve hypoplasia. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
TUBB2B tubulin, beta 2B class IIb|The protein encoded by this gene is a beta isoform of tubulin, which binds GTP and is a major component of microtubules. This gene is highly similar to TUBB2A and TUBB2C. Defects in this gene are a cause of asymmetric polymicrogyria. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
TUBG1 tubulin, gamma 1|This gene encodes a member of the tubulin superfamily. The encoded protein localizes to the centrosome where it binds to microtubules as part of a complex referred to as the gamma-tubulin ring complex. The protein mediates microtubule nucleation and is required for microtubule formation and progression of the cell cycle. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
TUBG2 tubulin, gamma 2|
TUBGCP2 tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 2|
TUBGCP3 tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 3|
TUBGCP4 tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 4|This gene encodes a component of the gamma-tubulin ring complex, which is required for microtubule nucleation. In mammalian cells, the protein localizes to centrosomes in association with gamma-tubulin. Crystal structure analysis revealed a structure composed of five helical bundles arranged around conserved hydrophobic cores. An exposed surface area located in the C-terminal domain is essential and sufficient for direct binding to gamma-tubulin. Mutations in this gene that alter microtubule organization are associated with microcephaly and chorioretinopathy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2015]
TUBGCP5 tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 5|
TUBGCP6 tubulin, gamma complex associated protein 6|The protein encoded by this gene is part of a large multisubunit complex required for microtubule nucleation at the centrosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TYK2 tyrosine kinase 2|This gene encodes a member of the tyrosine kinase and, more specifically, the Janus kinases (JAKs) protein families. This protein associates with the cytoplasmic domain of type I and type II cytokine receptors and promulgate cytokine signals by phosphorylating receptor subunits. It is also component of both the type I and type III interferon signaling pathways. As such, it may play a role in anti-viral immunity. A mutation in this gene has been associated with hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) - a primary immunodeficiency characterized by elevated serum immunoglobulin E. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TYW3 tRNA-yW synthesizing protein 3 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|Wybutosine (yW) is a hypermodified guanosine at the 3-prime position adjacent to the anticodon of phenylalanine tRNA that stabilizes codon-anticodon interactions during decoding on the ribosome. TYW3 is the human homolog of a yeast gene essential for yW synthesis (Noma and Suzuki, 2006).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
UACA uveal autoantigen with coiled-coil domains and ankyrin repeats|
UBA5 ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme 5|This gene encodes a member of the E1-like ubiquitin-activating enzyme family. This protein activates ubiquitin-fold modifier 1, a ubiquitin-like post-translational modifier protein, via the formation of a high-energy thioester bond. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. A pseudogene located on chromosome 1 has also been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
UBAP2L ubiquitin associated protein 2-like|
UBC ubiquitin C|This gene represents a ubiquitin gene, ubiquitin C. The encoded protein is a polyubiquitin precursor. Conjugation of ubiquitin monomers or polymers can lead to various effects within a cell, depending on the residues to which ubiquitin is conjugated. Ubiquitination has been associated with protein degradation, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, kinase modification, endocytosis, and regulation of other cell signaling pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
UBL4A ubiquitin-like 4A|
UBN1 ubinuclein 1|
UBN2 ubinuclein 2|
UBQLN1 ubiquilin 1|This gene encodes an ubiquitin-like protein (ubiquilin) that shares a high degree of similarity with related products in yeast, rat and frog. Ubiquilins contain an N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain and a C-terminal ubiquitin-associated domain. They physically associate with both proteasomes and ubiquitin ligases, and thus are thought to functionally link the ubiquitination machinery to the proteasome to affect in vivo protein degradation. This ubiquilin has also been shown to modulate accumulation of presenilin proteins, and it is found in lesions associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
UBQLN4 ubiquilin 4|
UCHL5 ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L5|
UIMC1 ubiquitin interaction motif containing 1|
URI1 URI1, prefoldin-like chaperone|This gene encodes member of the prefoldin family of molecular chaperones. The encoded protein functions as a scaffolding protein and plays roles in ubiquitination and transcription, in part though interactions with the RNA polymerase II subunit RPB5. This gene may play a role in multiple malignancies including ovarian cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 22. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
USH2A Usher syndrome 2A (autosomal recessive, mild)|This gene encodes a protein that contains laminin EGF motifs, a pentaxin domain, and many fibronectin type III motifs. The protein is found in the basement membrane, and may be important in development and homeostasis of the inner ear and retina. Mutations within this gene have been associated with Usher syndrome type IIa and retinitis pigmentosa. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
USP10 ubiquitin specific peptidase 10|Ubiquitin is a highly conserved protein that is covalently linked to other proteins to regulate their function and degradation. This gene encodes a member of the ubiquitin-specific protease family of cysteine proteases. The enzyme specifically cleaves ubiquitin from ubiquitin-conjugated protein substrates. The protein is found in the nucleus and cytoplasm. It functions as a co-factor of the DNA-bound androgen receptor complex, and is inhibited by a protein in the Ras-GTPase pathway. The human genome contains several pseudogenes similar to this gene. Several transcript variants, some protein-coding and others not protein-coding, have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
USP28 ubiquitin specific peptidase 28|The ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation pathway is essential for proteolysis of intracellular proteins and peptides. Enzymes that remove ubiquitin from ubiquitin-conjugated peptides, like USP28, affect the fate and degradation of intracellular proteins and are essential for maintenance of cell-free ubiquitin pools (Valero et al., 2001).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
USP34 ubiquitin specific peptidase 34|
UTP15 UTP15, U3 small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein, homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
UTP18 UTP18 small subunit (SSU) processome component homolog (yeast)|
UVRAG UV radiation resistance associated|This gene complements the ultraviolet sensitivity of xeroderma pigmentosum group C cells and encodes a protein with a C2 domain. The protein activates the Beclin1-PI(3)KC3 complex, promoting autophagy and suppressing the proliferation and tumorigenicity of human colon cancer cells. Chromosomal aberrations involving this gene are associated with left-right axis malformation and mutations in this gene have been associated with colon cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
VAC14 Vac14 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|The content of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(3,5)P2) in endosomal membranes changes dynamically with fission and fusion events that generate or absorb intracellular transport vesicles. VAC14 is a component of a trimolecular complex that tightly regulates the level of PtdIns(3,5)P2. Other components of this complex are the PtdIns(3,5)P2-synthesizing enzyme PIKFYVE (MIM 609414) and the PtdIns(3,5)P2 phosphatase FIG4 (MIM 609390). VAC14 functions as an activator of PIKFYVE (Sbrissa et al., 2007 [PubMed 17556371]).[supplied by OMIM, Feb 2010]
VASP vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein|Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) is a member of the Ena-VASP protein family. Ena-VASP family members contain an EHV1 N-terminal domain that binds proteins containing E/DFPPPPXD/E motifs and targets Ena-VASP proteins to focal adhesions. In the mid-region of the protein, family members have a proline-rich domain that binds SH3 and WW domain-containing proteins. Their C-terminal EVH2 domain mediates tetramerization and binds both G and F actin. VASP is associated with filamentous actin formation and likely plays a widespread role in cell adhesion and motility. VASP may also be involved in the intracellular signaling pathways that regulate integrin-extracellular matrix interactions. VASP is regulated by the cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases PKA and PKG. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
VCAN versican|This gene is a member of the aggrecan/versican proteoglycan family. The protein encoded is a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and is a major component of the extracellular matrix. This protein is involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, proliferation, migration and angiogenesis and plays a central role in tissue morphogenesis and maintenance. Mutations in this gene are the cause of Wagner syndrome type 1. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2009]
VCP valosin containing protein|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family that includes putative ATP-binding proteins involved in vesicle transport and fusion, 26S proteasome function, and assembly of peroxisomes. This protein, as a structural protein, is associated with clathrin, and heat-shock protein Hsc70, to form a complex. It has been implicated in a number of cellular events that are regulated during mitosis, including homotypic membrane fusion, spindle pole body function, and ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
VCPIP1 valosin containing protein (p97)/p47 complex interacting protein 1|
VDAC1 voltage-dependent anion channel 1|This gene encodes a voltage-dependent anion channel protein that is a major component of the outer mitochondrial membrane. The encoded protein facilitates the exchange of metabolites and ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane and may regulate mitochondrial functions. This protein also forms channels in the plasma membrane and may be involved in transmembrane electron transport. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Multiple pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 1, 2 3, 6, 9, 12, X and Y.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
VPS13B vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog B (yeast)|This gene encodes a potential transmembrane protein that may function in vesicle-mediated transport and sorting of proteins within the cell. This protein may play a role in the development and the function of the eye, hematological system, and central nervous system. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Cohen syndrome. Multiple splice variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
VPS52 vacuolar protein sorting 52 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|This gene encodes a protein that is similar to the yeast suppressor of actin mutations 2 gene. The yeast protein forms a subunit of the tetrameric Golgi-associated retrograde protein complex that is involved in vesicle trafficking from from both early and late endosomes, back to the trans-Golgi network. This gene is located on chromosome 6 in a head-to-head orientation with the gene encoding ribosomal protein S18. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
VPS72 vacuolar protein sorting 72 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|The protein encoded by this gene is a shared subunit of two multi-component complexes, the histone acetyltransferase complex TRRAP/TIP60 as well as the chromatin remodeling SRCAP-containing complex. The TRRAP/TIP60 complex acetylates nucleosomal histones important for transcriptional regulation, double strand DNA break repair and apoptosis. The SRCAP-containing complex catalyzes the exchange of histone H2A with the histone variant Htz1 (H2AFZ) into nucleosomes. This protein may be responsible for binding H2AFZ, which has a role in chromosome segregation. This protein may also have a role in regulating long-term hematopoietic stem cell activity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
VWA8 von Willebrand factor A domain containing 8|
WDHD1 WD repeat and HMG-box DNA binding protein 1|The protein encoded by this gene contains multiple N-terminal WD40 domains and a C-terminal high mobility group (HMG) box. WD40 domains are found in a variety of eukaryotic proteins and may function as adaptor/regulatory modules in signal transduction, pre-mRNA processing and cytoskeleton assembly. HMG boxes are found in many eukaryotic proteins involved in chromatin assembly, transcription and replication. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
WDR19 WD repeat domain 19|This gene encodes a member of the WD repeat protein family. WD repeats are minimally conserved regions of approximately 40 amino acids typically bracketed by gly-his and trp-asp (GH-WD), which may facilitate formation of heterotrimeric or multiprotein complexes. Members of this family are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, apoptosis, and gene regulation. This protein contains six WD repeats, a clathrin heavy-chain repeat, and three transmembrane domains. This gene is conserved from C. elegans to human. It may participate in androgen-regulated signaling mechanisms or in the vesicular trafficking of androgen-regulated secretory processes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported but the full-length nature of one of these variants has not been defined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
WDR26 WD repeat domain 26|This gene encodes a member of the WD repeat protein family. WD repeats are minimally conserved regions of approximately 40 amino acids typically bracketed by gly-his and trp-asp (GH-WD), which may facilitate formation of heterotrimeric or multiprotein complexes. Members of this family are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, apoptosis, and gene regulation. Two transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
WDR3 WD repeat domain 3|This gene encodes a nuclear protein containing 10 WD repeats. WD repeats are approximately 30- to 40-amino acid domains containing several conserved residues, which usually include a trp-asp at the C-terminal end. Proteins belonging to the WD repeat family are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, apoptosis, and gene regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
WDR33 WD repeat domain 33|This gene encodes a member of the WD repeat protein family. WD repeats are minimally conserved regions of approximately 40 amino acids typically bracketed by gly-his and trp-asp (GH-WD), which may facilitate formation of heterotrimeric or multiprotein complexes. Members of this family are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, apoptosis, and gene regulation. This gene is highly expressed in testis and the protein is localized to the nucleus. This gene may play important roles in the mechanisms of cytodifferentiation and/or DNA recombination. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
WDR36 WD repeat domain 36|This gene encodes a member of the WD repeat protein family. WD repeats are minimally conserved regions of approximately 40 amino acids typically bracketed by gly-his and trp-asp (GH-WD), which may facilitate formation of heterotrimeric or multiprotein complexes. Members of this family are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, apoptosis, and gene regulation. Mutations in this gene have been associated with adult-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
WDR37 WD repeat domain 37|This gene encodes a member of the WD repeat protein family. WD repeats are minimally conserved regions of approximately 40 amino acids typically bracketed by gly-his and trp-asp (GH-WD), which may facilitate formation of heterotrimeric or multiprotein complexes. Members of this family are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, apoptosis, and gene regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
WDR43 WD repeat domain 43|
WDR44 WD repeat domain 44|This gene encodes a protein that interacts with the small GTPase rab11. A similar protein in rat binds the GTP-containing active form of rab11. This protein may play a role in endosome recycling. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
WDR61 WD repeat domain 61|WDR61 is a subunit of the human PAF and SKI complexes, which function in transcriptional regulation and are involved in events downstream of RNA synthesis, such as RNA surveillance (Zhu et al., 2005 [PubMed 16024656]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
WDR62 WD repeat domain 62|This gene is proposed to play a role in cerebral cortical development. Mutations in this gene have been associated with microencephaly, cortical malformations, and mental retardation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
WDR77 WD repeat domain 77|WDR77 is a component of the 20S PRMT5 (MIM 604045)-containing methyltransferase complex, which modifies specific arginines to dimethylarginines in several spliceosomal Sm proteins (see MIM 601061). This modification targets Sm proteins to the survival of motor neurons (SMN) complex (see MIM 600354) for assembly into small nuclear ribonucleoprotein core particles (Friesen et al., 2002 [PubMed 11756452]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
WDR91 WD repeat domain 91|
WIZ widely interspaced zinc finger motifs|
WNK1 WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1|This gene encodes a member of the WNK subfamily of serine/threonine protein kinases. The encoded protein may be a key regulator of blood pressure by controlling the transport of sodium and chloride ions. Mutations in this gene have been associated with pseudohypoaldosteronism type II and hereditary sensory neuropathy type II. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described but the full-length nature of all of them has yet to be determined.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
WNK4 WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 4|This gene encodes a member of the WNK family of serine-threonine protein kinases. The kinase is part of the tight junction complex in kidney cells, and regulates the balance between NaCl reabsorption and K(+) secretion. The kinase regulates the activities of several types of ion channels, cotransporters, and exchangers involved in electrolyte flux in epithelial cells. Mutations in this gene result in pseudohypoaldosteronism type IIB.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
WTAP Wilms tumor 1 associated protein|The Wilms tumor suppressor gene WT1 appears to play a role in both transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of certain cellular genes. This gene encodes a WT1-associating protein, which is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein. Like WT1 protein, this protein is localized throughout the nucleoplasm as well as in speckles and partially colocalizes with splicing factors. Alternative splicing of this gene results in several transcript variants encoding three different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
XPO1 exportin 1|This cell-cycle-regulated gene encodes a protein that mediates leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent protein transport. The protein specifically inhibits the nuclear export of Rev and U snRNAs. It is involved in the control of several cellular processes by controlling the localization of cyclin B, MPAK, and MAPKAP kinase 2. This protein also regulates NFAT and AP-1. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
XPO4 exportin 4|XPO4 belongs to a large family of karyopherins (see MIM 602738) that mediate the transport of proteins and other cargo between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments (Lipowsky et al., 2000 [PubMed 10944119]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2009]
XRCC1 X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 1|The protein encoded by this gene is involved in the efficient repair of DNA single-strand breaks formed by exposure to ionizing radiation and alkylating agents. This protein interacts with DNA ligase III, polymerase beta and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase to participate in the base excision repair pathway. It may play a role in DNA processing during meiogenesis and recombination in germ cells. A rare microsatellite polymorphism in this gene is associated with cancer in patients of varying radiosensitivity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
XRCC5 X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 5 (double-strand-break rejoining)|The protein encoded by this gene is the 80-kilodalton subunit of the Ku heterodimer protein which is also known as ATP-dependant DNA helicase II or DNA repair protein XRCC5. Ku is the DNA-binding component of the DNA-dependent protein kinase, and it functions together with the DNA ligase IV-XRCC4 complex in the repair of DNA double-strand break by non-homologous end joining and the completion of V(D)J recombination events. This gene functionally complements Chinese hamster xrs-6, a mutant defective in DNA double-strand break repair and in ability to undergo V(D)J recombination. A rare microsatellite polymorphism in this gene is associated with cancer in patients of varying radiosensitivity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
XRCC6 X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6|The p70/p80 autoantigen is a nuclear complex consisting of two subunits with molecular masses of approximately 70 and 80 kDa. The complex functions as a single-stranded DNA-dependent ATP-dependent helicase. The complex may be involved in the repair of nonhomologous DNA ends such as that required for double-strand break repair, transposition, and V(D)J recombination. High levels of autoantibodies to p70 and p80 have been found in some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
XXYLT1 xyloside xylosyltransferase 1|
YEATS2 YEATS domain containing 2|YEATS2 is a scaffolding subunit of the ADA2A (TADA2A; MIM 602276)-containing (ATAC) histone acetyltransferase complex (Wang et al., 2008 [PubMed 18838386]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2010]
YEATS4 YEATS domain containing 4|The protein encoded by this gene is found in the nucleoli. It has high sequence homology to human MLLT1, and yeast and human MLLT3 proteins. Both MLLT1 and MLLT3 proteins belong to a class of transcription factors, indicating that the encoded protein might also represent a transcription factor. This protein is thought to be required for RNA transcription. This gene has been shown to be amplified in tumors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
YPEL5 yippee-like 5 (Drosophila)|
ZBTB11 zinc finger and BTB domain containing 11|
ZBTB2 zinc finger and BTB domain containing 2|
ZBTB21 zinc finger and BTB domain containing 21|
ZBTB33 zinc finger and BTB domain containing 33|This gene encodes a transcriptional regulator with bimodal DNA-binding specificity, which binds to methylated CGCG and also to the non-methylated consensus KAISO-binding site TCCTGCNA. The protein contains an N-terminal POZ/BTB domain and 3 C-terminal zinc finger motifs. It recruits the N-CoR repressor complex to promote histone deacetylation and the formation of repressive chromatin structures in target gene promoters. It may contribute to the repression of target genes of the Wnt signaling pathway, and may also activate transcription of a subset of target genes by the recruitment of catenin delta-2 (CTNND2). Its interaction with catenin delta-1 (CTNND1) inhibits binding to both methylated and non-methylated DNA. It also interacts directly with the nuclear import receptor Importin-α2 (also known as karyopherin alpha2 or RAG cohort 1), which may mediate nuclear import of this protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
ZC3H11A zinc finger CCCH-type containing 11A|
ZC3H13 zinc finger CCCH-type containing 13|
ZCCHC8 zinc finger, CCHC domain containing 8|
ZEB1 zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1|This gene encodes a zinc finger transcription factor. The encoded protein likely plays a role in transcriptional repression of interleukin 2. Mutations in this gene have been associated with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy-3 and late-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
ZFC3H1 zinc finger, C3H1-type containing|
ZFP91 ZFP91 zinc finger protein|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the zinc finger family of proteins. The gene product contains C2H2-type domains, which are the classical zinc finger domains found in numerous nucleic acid-binding proteins. This protein functions as a regulator of the non-canonical NF-kappaB pathway in lymphotoxin-beta receptor signaling. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A read-through transcript variant composed of ZFP91 and the downstream CNTF gene sequence has been identified, but it is thought to be non-coding. Read-through transcription of ZFP91 and CNTF has also been observed in mouse. A ZFP91-related pseudogene has also been identified on chromosome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
ZFR zinc finger RNA binding protein|
ZFYVE19 zinc finger, FYVE domain containing 19|
ZMYM2 zinc finger, MYM-type 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger protein that may act as a transcription factor. The encoded protein may be part of a BHC histone deacetylase complex. Translocation of this gene with the fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 gene (FGFR1) results in a fusion gene, which may be a cause of stem cell leukemia lymphoma syndrome (SCLL). Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
ZMYND8 zinc finger, MYND-type containing 8|The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for activated C-kinase (RACK) protein. The encoded protein has been shown to bind in vitro to activated protein kinase C beta I. In addition, this protein is a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma-associated antigen. Finally, the protein contains a bromodomain and two zinc fingers, and is thought to be a transcriptional regulator. Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZNF292 zinc finger protein 292|
ZNF318 zinc finger protein 318|
ZNF524 zinc finger protein 524|
ZNF574 zinc finger protein 574|
ZNF592 zinc finger protein 592|This gene is thought to play a role in a complex developmental pathway and the regulation of genes involved in cerebellar development. Mutations in this gene have been associated with autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
ZNF609 zinc finger protein 609|
ZNF639 zinc finger protein 639|This gene encodes a member of the Kruppel-like zinc finger family of proteins. Amplification and overexpression of this gene have been observed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The encoded protein has been shown to bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner and may regulate HIV-1 gene expression. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ZNF687 zinc finger protein 687|
ZNF728 zinc finger protein 728|
ZSWIM8 zinc finger, SWIM-type containing 8|
ZYX zyxin|Focal adhesions are actin-rich structures that enable cells to adhere to the extracellular matrix and at which protein complexes involved in signal transduction assemble. Zyxin is a zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half. The proline-rich domain may interact with SH3 domains of proteins involved in signal transduction pathways while the LIM domains are likely involved in protein-protein binding. Zyxin may function as a messenger in the signal transduction pathway that mediates adhesion-stimulated changes in gene expression and may modulate the cytoskeletal organization of actin bundles. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants that encode the same isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZZZ3 zinc finger, ZZ-type containing 3|