MSigDB Cancer Gene Co-expression Modules Dataset

Description computational signatures of genes co-expressed with cancer related genes
Measurement gene expression by microarray or RNA-seq
Association gene-gene associations by co-expression of genes across collections of microarray samples
Category transcriptomics
Resource Molecular Signatures Database
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  1. 4869 genes
  2. 356 co-expressed genes
  3. 41327 gene-co-expressed gene associations

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co-expressed gene Gene Sets

356 sets of co-expressed genes from the MSigDB Cancer Gene Co-expression Modules dataset.

Gene Set Description
AATF apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor|The protein encoded by this gene was identified on the basis of its interaction with MAP3K12/DLK, a protein kinase known to be involved in the induction of cell apoptosis. This gene product contains a leucine zipper, which is a characteristic motif of transcription factors, and was shown to exhibit strong transactivation activity when fused to Gal4 DNA binding domain. Overexpression of this gene interfered with MAP3K12 induced apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ACP1 acid phosphatase 1, soluble|The product of this gene belongs to the phosphotyrosine protein phosphatase family of proteins. It functions as an acid phosphatase and a protein tyrosine phosphatase by hydrolyzing protein tyrosine phosphate to protein tyrosine and orthophosphate. This enzyme also hydrolyzes orthophosphoric monoesters to alcohol and orthophosphate. This gene is genetically polymorphic, and three common alleles segregating at the corresponding locus give rise to six phenotypes. Each allele appears to encode at least two electrophoretically different isozymes, Bf and Bs, which are produced in allele-specific ratios. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
ACTG1 actin gamma 1|Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility, and maintenance of the cytoskeleton. In vertebrates, three main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta and gamma have been identified. The alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins co-exist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton, and as mediators of internal cell motility. Actin, gamma 1, encoded by this gene, is a cytoplasmic actin found in non-muscle cells. Mutations in this gene are associated with DFNA20/26, a subtype of autosomal dominant non-syndromic sensorineural progressive hearing loss. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
AIP aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein|The protein encoded by this gene is a receptor for aryl hydrocarbons and a ligand-activated transcription factor. The encoded protein is found in the cytoplasm as part of a multiprotein complex, but upon binding of ligand is transported to the nucleus. This protein can regulate the expression of many xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Also, the encoded protein can bind specifically to and inhibit the activity of hepatitis B virus. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ANK1 ankyrin 1, erythrocytic|Ankyrins are a family of proteins that link the integral membrane proteins to the underlying spectrin-actin cytoskeleton and play key roles in activities such as cell motility, activation, proliferation, contact and the maintenance of specialized membrane domains. Multiple isoforms of ankyrin with different affinities for various target proteins are expressed in a tissue-specific, developmentally regulated manner. Most ankyrins are typically composed of three structural domains: an amino-terminal domain containing multiple ankyrin repeats; a central region with a highly conserved spectrin binding domain; and a carboxy-terminal regulatory domain which is the least conserved and subject to variation. Ankyrin 1, the prototype of this family, was first discovered in the erythrocytes, but since has also been found in brain and muscles. Mutations in erythrocytic ankyrin 1 have been associated in approximately half of all patients with hereditary spherocytosis. Complex patterns of alternative splicing in the regulatory domain, giving rise to different isoforms of ankyrin 1 have been described. Truncated muscle-specific isoforms of ankyrin 1 resulting from usage of an alternate promoter have also been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
ANP32B acidic (leucine-rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member B|
AP2M1 adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit|This gene encodes a subunit of the heterotetrameric coat assembly protein complex 2 (AP2), which belongs to the adaptor complexes medium subunits family. The encoded protein is required for the activity of a vacuolar ATPase, which is responsible for proton pumping occurring in the acidification of endosomes and lysosomes. The encoded protein may also play an important role in regulating the intracellular trafficking and function of CTLA-4 protein. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AP3D1 adaptor-related protein complex 3, delta 1 subunit|The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the AP3 adaptor-like complex, which is not clathrin-associated, but is associated with the golgi region, as well as more peripheral structures. The AP-3 complex facilitates the budding of vesicles from the golgi membrane, and may be directly involved in trafficking to lysosomes. This subunit is implicated in intracellular biogenesis and trafficking of pigment granules, and possibly platelet dense granules and neurotransmitter vesicles. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
APEX1 APEX nuclease (multifunctional DNA repair enzyme) 1|Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites occur frequently in DNA molecules by spontaneous hydrolysis, by DNA damaging agents or by DNA glycosylases that remove specific abnormal bases. AP sites are pre-mutagenic lesions that can prevent normal DNA replication so the cell contains systems to identify and repair such sites. Class II AP endonucleases cleave the phosphodiester backbone 5' to the AP site. This gene encodes the major AP endonuclease in human cells. Splice variants have been found for this gene; all encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
AQP4 aquaporin 4|This gene encodes a member of the aquaporin family of intrinsic membrane proteins that function as water-selective channels in the plasma membranes of many cells. The encoded protein is the predominant aquaporin found in brain. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARAF A-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase|This proto-oncogene belongs to the RAF subfamily of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and maybe involved in cell growth and development. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
ARL3 ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3|ADP-ribosylation factor-like 3 is a member of the ADP-ribosylation factor family of GTP-binding proteins. ARL3 binds guanine nucleotides but lacks ADP-ribosylation factor activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATF2 activating transcription factor 2|This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. The encoded protein may also be involved in cell's DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
ATM ATM serine/threonine kinase|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. This protein is an important cell cycle checkpoint kinase that phosphorylates; thus, it functions as a regulator of a wide variety of downstream proteins, including tumor suppressor proteins p53 and BRCA1, checkpoint kinase CHK2, checkpoint proteins RAD17 and RAD9, and DNA repair protein NBS1. This protein and the closely related kinase ATR are thought to be master controllers of cell cycle checkpoint signaling pathways that are required for cell response to DNA damage and for genome stability. Mutations in this gene are associated with ataxia telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
ATOX1 antioxidant 1 copper chaperone|This gene encodes a copper chaperone that plays a role in copper homeostasis by binding and transporting cytosolic copper to ATPase proteins in the trans-Golgi network for later incorporation to the ceruloplasmin. This protein also functions as an antioxidant against superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and therefore, may play a significant role in cancer carcinogenesis. Because of its cytogenetic location, this gene represents a candidate gene for 5q-syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATRX alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked|The protein encoded by this gene contains an ATPase/helicase domain, and thus it belongs to the SWI/SNF family of chromatin remodeling proteins. This protein is found to undergo cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation, which regulates its nuclear matrix and chromatin association, and suggests its involvement in the gene regulation at interphase and chromosomal segregation in mitosis. Mutations in this gene are associated with an X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) syndrome most often accompanied by alpha-thalassemia (ATRX) syndrome. These mutations have been shown to cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation, which may provide a link between chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, and gene expression in developmental processes. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
BAG5 BCL2-associated athanogene 5|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the BAG1-related protein family. BAG1 is an anti-apoptotic protein that functions through interactions with a variety of cell apoptosis and growth related proteins including BCL-2, Raf-protein kinase, steroid hormone receptors, growth factor receptors and members of the heat shock protein 70 kDa family. This protein contains a BAG domain near the C-terminus, which could bind and inhibit the chaperone activity of Hsc70/Hsp70. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BCL2 B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2|This gene encodes an integral outer mitochondrial membrane protein that blocks the apoptotic death of some cells such as lymphocytes. Constitutive expression of BCL2, such as in the case of translocation of BCL2 to Ig heavy chain locus, is thought to be the cause of follicular lymphoma. Two transcript variants, produced by alternate splicing, differ in their C-terminal ends. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BCL2L1 BCL2-like 1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL-2 protein family. BCL-2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities. The proteins encoded by this gene are located at the outer mitochondrial membrane, and have been shown to regulate outer mitochondrial membrane channel (VDAC) opening. VDAC regulates mitochondrial membrane potential, and thus controls the production of reactive oxygen species and release of cytochrome C by mitochondria, both of which are the potent inducers of cell apoptosis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants, which encode distinct isoforms, have been reported. The longer isoform acts as an apoptotic inhibitor and the shorter form acts as an apoptotic activator. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BCL2L11 BCL2-like 11 (apoptosis facilitator)|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the BCL-2 protein family. BCL-2 family members form hetero- or homodimers and act as anti- or pro-apoptotic regulators that are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities. The protein encoded by this gene contains a Bcl-2 homology domain 3 (BH3). It has been shown to interact with other members of the BCL-2 protein family and to act as an apoptotic activator. The expression of this gene can be induced by nerve growth factor (NGF), as well as by the forkhead transcription factor FKHR-L1, which suggests a role of this gene in neuronal and lymphocyte apoptosis. Transgenic studies of the mouse counterpart suggested that this gene functions as an essential initiator of apoptosis in thymocyte-negative selection. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
BECN1 beclin 1, autophagy related|Beclin-1 participates in the regulation of autophagy and has an important role in development, tumorigenesis, and neurodegeneration (Zhong et al., 2009 [PubMed 19270693]).[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]
BMI1 BMI1 proto-oncogene, polycomb ring finger|
BMPR2 bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase)|This gene encodes a member of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor family of transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. The ligands of this receptor are BMPs, which are members of the TGF-beta superfamily. BMPs are involved in endochondral bone formation and embryogenesis. These proteins transduce their signals through the formation of heteromeric complexes of two different types of serine (threonine) kinase receptors: type I receptors of about 50-55 kD and type II receptors of about 70-80 kD. Type II receptors bind ligands in the absence of type I receptors, but they require their respective type I receptors for signaling, whereas type I receptors require their respective type II receptors for ligand binding. Mutations in this gene have been associated with primary pulmonary hypertension, both familial and fenfluramine-associated, and with pulmonary venoocclusive disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BNIP1 BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 1|This gene is a member of the BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kd-interacting protein (BNIP) family. It interacts with the E1B 19 kDa protein, which protects cells from virally-induced cell death. The encoded protein also interacts with E1B 19 kDa-like sequences of BCL2, another apoptotic protector. In addition, this protein is involved in vesicle transport into the endoplasmic reticulum. Alternative splicing of this gene results in four protein products with identical N- and C-termini. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
BNIP2 BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 2|This gene is a member of the BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kd-interacting protein (BNIP) family. It interacts with the E1B 19 kDa protein, which protects cells from virally-induced cell death. The encoded protein also interacts with E1B 19 kDa-like sequences of BCL2, another apoptotic protector. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
BNIP3L BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 3-like|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the pro-apoptotic subfamily within the Bcl-2 family of proteins. The encoded protein binds to Bcl-2 and possesses the BH3 domain. The protein directly targets mitochondria and causes apoptotic changes, including loss of membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]
BRCA1 breast cancer 1, early onset|This gene encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in maintaining genomic stability, and it also acts as a tumor suppressor. The encoded protein combines with other tumor suppressors, DNA damage sensors, and signal transducers to form a large multi-subunit protein complex known as the BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex (BASC). This gene product associates with RNA polymerase II, and through the C-terminal domain, also interacts with histone deacetylase complexes. This protein thus plays a role in transcription, DNA repair of double-stranded breaks, and recombination. Mutations in this gene are responsible for approximately 40% of inherited breast cancers and more than 80% of inherited breast and ovarian cancers. Alternative splicing plays a role in modulating the subcellular localization and physiological function of this gene. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants, some of which are disease-associated mutations, have been described for this gene, but the full-length natures of only some of these variants has been described. A related pseudogene, which is also located on chromosome 17, has been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
BUB1 BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase|This gene encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase that play a central role in mitosis. The encoded protein functions in part by phosphorylating members of the mitotic checkpoint complex and activating the spindle checkpoint. This protein also plays a role in inhibiting the activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome. This protein may also function in the DNA damage response. Mutations in this gene have been associated with aneuploidy and several forms of cancer. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
BUB1B BUB1 mitotic checkpoint serine/threonine kinase B|This gene encodes a kinase involved in spindle checkpoint function. The protein has been localized to the kinetochore and plays a role in the inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), delaying the onset of anaphase and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. Impaired spindle checkpoint function has been found in many forms of cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BUB3 BUB3 mitotic checkpoint protein|This gene encodes a protein involved in spindle checkpoint function. The encoded protein contains four WD repeat domains and has sequence similarity with the yeast BUB3 protein. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CALM1 calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta)|This gene encodes a member of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein family. It is one of three genes which encode an identical calcium binding protein which is one of the four subunits of phosphorylase kinase. Two pseudogenes have been identified on chromosome 7 and X. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
CAMK4 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV|The product of this gene belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family, and to the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subfamily. This enzyme is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase with limited tissue distribution, that has been implicated in transcriptional regulation in lymphocytes, neurons and male germ cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CASP1 caspase 1, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase|This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce 2 subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This gene was identified by its ability to proteolytically cleave and activate the inactive precursor of interleukin-1, a cytokine involved in the processes such as inflammation, septic shock, and wound healing. This gene has been shown to induce cell apoptosis and may function in various developmental stages. Studies of a similar gene in mouse suggest a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
CASP10 caspase 10, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase|This gene encodes a protein which is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. This protein cleaves and activates caspases 3 and 7, and the protein itself is processed by caspase 8. Mutations in this gene are associated with type IIA autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and gastric cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
CASP2 caspase 2, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase|This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Caspases mediate cellular apoptosis through the proteolytic cleavage of specific protein substrates. The encoded protein may function in stress-induced cell death pathways, cell cycle maintenance, and the suppression of tumorigenesis. Increased expression of this gene may play a role in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and temporal lobe epilepsy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
CASP4 caspase 4, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase|This gene encodes a protein that is a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes composed of a prodomain and a large and small protease subunit. Activation of caspases requires proteolytic processing at conserved internal aspartic residues to generate a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of the large and small subunits. This caspase is able to cleave and activate its own precursor protein, as well as caspase 1 precursor. When overexpressed, this gene induces cell apoptosis. Alternative splicing results in transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CASP8 caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase|This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes composed of a prodomain, a large protease subunit, and a small protease subunit. Activation of caspases requires proteolytic processing at conserved internal aspartic residues to generate a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of the large and small subunits. This protein is involved in the programmed cell death induced by Fas and various apoptotic stimuli. The N-terminal FADD-like death effector domain of this protein suggests that it may interact with Fas-interacting protein FADD. This protein was detected in the insoluble fraction of the affected brain region from Huntington disease patients but not in those from normal controls, which implicated the role in neurodegenerative diseases. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described, although not all variants have had their full-length sequences determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CBFB core-binding factor, beta subunit|The protein encoded by this gene is the beta subunit of a heterodimeric core-binding transcription factor belonging to the PEBP2/CBF transcription factor family which master-regulates a host of genes specific to hematopoiesis (e.g., RUNX1) and osteogenesis (e.g., RUNX2). The beta subunit is a non-DNA binding regulatory subunit; it allosterically enhances DNA binding by alpha subunit as the complex binds to the core site of various enhancers and promoters, including murine leukemia virus, polyomavirus enhancer, T-cell receptor enhancers and GM-CSF promoters. Alternative splicing generates two mRNA variants, each encoding a distinct carboxyl terminus. In some cases, a pericentric inversion of chromosome 16 [inv(16)(p13q22)] produces a chimeric transcript consisting of the N terminus of core-binding factor beta in a fusion with the C-terminal portion of the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain 11. This chromosomal rearrangement is associated with acute myeloid leukemia of the M4Eo subtype. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CCNA1 cyclin A1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. The cyclin encoded by this gene was shown to be expressed in testis and brain, as well as in several leukemic cell lines, and is thought to primarily function in the control of the germline meiotic cell cycle. This cyclin binds both CDK2 and CDC2 kinases, which give two distinct kinase activities, one appearing in S phase, the other in G2, and thus regulate separate functions in cell cycle. This cyclin was found to bind to important cell cycle regulators, such as Rb family proteins, transcription factor E2F-1, and the p21 family proteins. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CCNA2 cyclin A2|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. In contrast to cyclin A1, which is present only in germ cells, this cyclin is expressed in all tissues tested. This cyclin binds and activates CDC2 or CDK2 kinases, and thus promotes both cell cycle G1/S and G2/M transitions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CCNB2 cyclin B2|Cyclin B2 is a member of the cyclin family, specifically the B-type cyclins. The B-type cyclins, B1 and B2, associate with p34cdc2 and are essential components of the cell cycle regulatory machinery. B1 and B2 differ in their subcellular localization. Cyclin B1 co-localizes with microtubules, whereas cyclin B2 is primarily associated with the Golgi region. Cyclin B2 also binds to transforming growth factor beta RII and thus cyclin B2/cdc2 may play a key role in transforming growth factor beta-mediated cell cycle control. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CCNF cyclin F|This gene encodes a member of the cyclin family. Cyclins are important regulators of cell cycle transitions through their ability to bind and activate cyclin-dependent protein kinases. This member also belongs to the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. The F-box proteins constitute one of the four subunits of the ubiquitin protein ligase complex called SCFs (SKP1-cullin-F-box), which function in phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. The F-box proteins are divided into 3 classes: Fbws containing WD-40 domains, Fbls containing leucine-rich repeats, and Fbxs containing either different protein-protein interaction modules or no recognizable motifs. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Fbxs class and it was one of the first proteins in which the F-box motif was identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CCNI cyclin I|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. This cyclin shows the highest similarity with cyclin G. The transcript of this gene was found to be expressed constantly during cell cycle progression. The function of this cyclin has not yet been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CD14 CD14 molecule|The protein encoded by this gene is a surface antigen that is preferentially expressed on monocytes/macrophages. It cooperates with other proteins to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
CD1D CD1d molecule|This gene encodes a divergent member of the CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins, which are structurally related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins and form heterodimers with beta-2-microglobulin. The CD1 proteins mediate the presentation of primarily lipid and glycolipid antigens of self or microbial origin to T cells. The human genome contains five CD1 family genes organized in a cluster on chromosome 1. The CD1 family members are thought to differ in their cellular localization and specificity for particular lipid ligands. The protein encoded by this gene localizes to late endosomes and lysosomes via a tyrosine-based motif in the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CD33 CD33 molecule|
CD48 CD48 molecule|This gene encodes a member of the CD2 subfamily of immunoglobulin-like receptors which includes SLAM (signaling lymphocyte activation molecules) proteins. The encoded protein is found on the surface of lymphocytes and other immune cells, dendritic cells and endothelial cells, and participates in activation and differentiation pathways in these cells. The encoded protein does not have a transmembrane domain, however, but is held at the cell surface by a GPI anchor via a C-terminal domain which maybe cleaved to yield a soluble form of the receptor. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
CD53 CD53 molecule|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein that is known to complex with integrins. It contributes to the transduction of CD2-generated signals in T cells and natural killer cells and has been suggested to play a role in growth regulation. Familial deficiency of this gene has been linked to an immunodeficiency associated with recurrent infectious diseases caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CD7 CD7 molecule|This gene encodes a transmembrane protein which is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. This protein is found on thymocytes and mature T cells. It plays an essential role in T-cell interactions and also in T-cell/B-cell interaction during early lymphoid development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CD8A CD8a molecule|The CD8 antigen is a cell surface glycoprotein found on most cytotoxic T lymphocytes that mediates efficient cell-cell interactions within the immune system. The CD8 antigen acts as a coreceptor with the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte to recognize antigens displayed by an antigen presenting cell in the context of class I MHC molecules. The coreceptor functions as either a homodimer composed of two alpha chains or as a heterodimer composed of one alpha and one beta chain. Both alpha and beta chains share significant homology to immunoglobulin variable light chains. This gene encodes the CD8 alpha chain. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
CD97 adhesion G protein-coupled receptor E5|This gene encodes a member of the EGF-TM7 subfamily of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors, which mediate cell-cell interactions. These proteins are cleaved by self-catalytic proteolysis into a large extracellular subunit and seven-span transmembrane subunit, which associate at the cell surface as a receptor complex. The encoded protein may play a role in cell adhesion as well as leukocyte recruitment, activation and migration, and contains multiple extracellular EGF-like repeats which mediate binding to chondroitin sulfate and the cell surface complement regulatory protein CD55. Expression of this gene may play a role in the progression of several types of cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms with 3 to 5 EGF-like repeats have been observed for this gene. This gene is found in a cluster with other EGF-TM7 genes on the short arm of chromosome 19. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
CDC16 cell division cycle 16|This gene encodes a component protein of the APC complex, which is composed of eight proteins and functions as a protein ubiquitin ligase. The APC complex is a cyclin degradation system that governs exit from mitosis. Each component protein of the APC complex is highly conserved among eukaryotic organisms. This protein and two other APC complex proteins, CDC23 and CDC27, contain a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR), a protein domain that may be involved in protein-protein interaction. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CDC20 cell division cycle 20|CDC20 appears to act as a regulatory protein interacting with several other proteins at multiple points in the cell cycle. It is required for two microtubule-dependent processes, nuclear movement prior to anaphase and chromosome separation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CDC27 cell division cycle 27|The protein encoded by this gene shares strong similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Cdc27, and the gene product of Schizosaccharomyces pombe nuc 2. This protein is a component of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which is composed of eight protein subunits and is highly conserved in eukaryotic cells. This complex catalyzes the formation of cyclin B-ubiquitin conjugate, which is responsible for the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of B-type cyclins. The protein encoded by this gene and three other members of the APC complex contain tetratricopeptide (TPR) repeats, which are important for protein-protein interactions. This protein was shown to interact with mitotic checkpoint proteins including Mad2, p55CDC and BUBR1, and it may thus be involved in controlling the timing of mitosis. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 2, 22 and Y. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
CDH11 cadherin 11, type 2, OB-cadherin (osteoblast)|This gene encodes a type II classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily, integral membrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. Mature cadherin proteins are composed of a large N-terminal extracellular domain, a single membrane-spanning domain, and a small, highly conserved C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Type II (atypical) cadherins are defined based on their lack of a HAV cell adhesion recognition sequence specific to type I cadherins. Expression of this particular cadherin in osteoblastic cell lines, and its upregulation during differentiation, suggests a specific function in bone development and maintenance. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CDH3 cadherin 3, type 1, P-cadherin (placental)|This gene is a classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily. The encoded protein is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. This gene is located in a six-cadherin cluster in a region on the long arm of chromosome 16 that is involved in loss of heterozygosity events in breast and prostate cancer. In addition, aberrant expression of this protein is observed in cervical adenocarcinomas. Mutations in this gene have been associated with congential hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CDH4 cadherin 4, type 1, R-cadherin (retinal)|This gene is a classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily. The encoded protein is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. Based on studies in chicken and mouse, this cadherin is thought to play an important role during brain segmentation and neuronal outgrowth. In addition, a role in kidney and muscle development is indicated. Of particular interest are studies showing stable cis-heterodimers of cadherins 2 and 4 in cotransfected cell lines. Previously thought to interact in an exclusively homophilic manner, this is the first evidence of cadherin heterodimerization. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
CDH5 cadherin 5, type 2 (vascular endothelium)|This gene is a classical cadherin from the cadherin superfamily and is located in a six-cadherin cluster in a region on the long arm of chromosome 16 that is involved in loss of heterozygosity events in breast and prostate cancer. The encoded protein is a calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoprotein comprised of five extracellular cadherin repeats, a transmembrane region and a highly conserved cytoplasmic tail. Functioning as a classic cadherin by imparting to cells the ability to adhere in a homophilic manner, the protein may play an important role in endothelial cell biology through control of the cohesion and organization of the intercellular junctions. An alternative splice variant has been described but its full length sequence has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CDK13 cyclin-dependent kinase 13|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the cyclin-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase family. Members of this family are well known for their essential roles as master switches in cell cycle control. The exact function of this protein has not yet been determined, but it may play a role in mRNA processing and may be involved in regulation of hematopoiesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
CDK2 cyclin-dependent kinase 2|This gene encodes a member of a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that participate in cell cycle regulation. The encoded protein is the catalytic subunit of the cyclin-dependent protein kinase complex, which regulates progression through the cell cycle. Activity of this protein is especially critical during the G1 to S phase transition. This protein associates with and regulated by other subunits of the complex including cyclin A or E, CDK inhibitor p21Cip1 (CDKN1A), and p27Kip1 (CDKN1B). Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
CDKN1C cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (p57, Kip2)|This gene is imprinted, with preferential expression of the maternal allele. The encoded protein is a tight-binding, strong inhibitor of several G1 cyclin/Cdk complexes and a negative regulator of cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are implicated in sporadic cancers and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndorome, suggesting that this gene is a tumor suppressor candidate. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
CEBPA CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), alpha|This intronless gene encodes a transcription factor that contains a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain and recognizes the CCAAT motif in the promoters of target genes. The encoded protein functions in homodimers and also heterodimers with CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins beta and gamma. Activity of this protein can modulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation as well as in body weight homeostasis. Mutation of this gene is associated with acute myeloid leukemia. The use of alternative in-frame non-AUG (GUG) and AUG start codons results in protein isoforms with different lengths. Differential translation initiation is mediated by an out-of-frame, upstream open reading frame which is located between the GUG and the first AUG start codons. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
CENPE centromere protein E, 312kDa|Centrosome-associated protein E (CENPE) is a kinesin-like motor protein that accumulates in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Unlike other centrosome-associated proteins, it is not present during interphase and first appears at the centromere region of chromosomes during prometaphase. This protein is required for stable spindle microtubule capture at kinetochores which is a necessary step in chromosome alignment during prometaphase. This protein also couples chromosome position to microtubule depolymerizing activity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
CENPF centromere protein F, 350/400kDa|This gene encodes a protein that associates with the centromere-kinetochore complex. The protein is a component of the nuclear matrix during the G2 phase of interphase. In late G2 the protein associates with the kinetochore and maintains this association through early anaphase. It localizes to the spindle midzone and the intracellular bridge in late anaphase and telophase, respectively, and is thought to be subsequently degraded. The localization of this protein suggests that it may play a role in chromosome segregation during mitotis. It is thought to form either a homodimer or heterodimer. Autoantibodies against this protein have been found in patients with cancer or graft versus host disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CHUK conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase|This gene encodes a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. The encoded protein, a component of a cytokine-activated protein complex that is an inhibitor of the essential transcription factor NF-kappa-B complex, phosphorylates sites that trigger the degradation of the inhibitor via the ubiquination pathway, thereby activating the transcription factor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CKS1B CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 1B|CKS1B protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. The CKS1B mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects a specialized role for the encoded protein. At least two transcript variants have been identified for this gene, and it appears that only one of them encodes a protein. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
CKS2 CDC28 protein kinase regulatory subunit 2|CKS2 protein binds to the catalytic subunit of the cyclin dependent kinases and is essential for their biological function. The CKS2 mRNA is found to be expressed in different patterns through the cell cycle in HeLa cells, which reflects specialized role for the encoded protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CLP1 cleavage and polyadenylation factor I subunit 1|This gene encodes a member of the Clp1 family. The encoded protein is a multifunctional kinase which is a component of the tRNA splicing endonuclease complex and a component of the pre-mRNA cleavage complex II. This protein is implicated in tRNA, mRNA, and siRNA maturation. Mutations in this gene are associated with pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 10 (PCH10). Alternatively splice transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2014]
CNTN1 contactin 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. It is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored neuronal membrane protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It may play a role in the formation of axon connections in the developing nervous system. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011]
CRKL v-crk avian sarcoma virus CT10 oncogene homolog-like|This gene encodes a protein kinase containing SH2 and SH3 (src homology) domains which has been shown to activate the RAS and JUN kinase signaling pathways and transform fibroblasts in a RAS-dependent fashion. It is a substrate of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, plays a role in fibroblast transformation by BCR-ABL, and may be oncogenic.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
CSNK1A1 casein kinase 1, alpha 1|
CSNK1D casein kinase 1, delta|This gene is a member of the casein kinase I (CKI) gene family whose members have been implicated in the control of cytoplasmic and nuclear processes, including DNA replication and repair. The encoded protein may also be involved in the regulation of apoptosis, circadian rhythm, microtubule dynamics, chromosome segregation, and p53-mediated effects on growth. The encoded protein is highly similar to the mouse and rat CK1 delta homologs. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
CSNK2B casein kinase 2, beta polypeptide|This gene encodes the beta subunit of casein kinase II, a ubiquitous protein kinase which regulates metabolic pathways, signal transduction, transcription, translation, and replication. The enzyme is composed of three subunits, alpha, alpha prime and beta, which form a tetrameric holoenzyme. The alpha and alpha prime subunits are catalytic, while the beta subunit serves regulatory functions. The enzyme localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
CTBP1 C-terminal binding protein 1|This gene encodes a protein that binds to the C-terminus of adenovirus E1A proteins. This phosphoprotein is a transcriptional repressor and may play a role during cellular proliferation. This protein and the product of a second closely related gene, CTBP2, can dimerize. Both proteins can also interact with a polycomb group protein complex which participates in regulation of gene expression during development. Alternative splicing of transcripts from this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CTSB cathepsin B|The protein encoded by this gene is a lysosomal cysteine proteinase composed of a dimer of disulfide-linked heavy and light chains, both produced from a single protein precursor. It is also known as amyloid precursor protein secretase and is involved in the proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Incomplete proteolytic processing of APP has been suggested to be a causative factor in Alzheimer disease, the most common cause of dementia. Overexpression of the encoded protein, which is a member of the peptidase C1 family, has been associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma and other tumors. At least five transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CUL1 cullin 1|
CYP2B6 cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily B, polypeptide 6|This gene, CYP2B6, encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. The cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and its expression is induced by phenobarbital. The enzyme is known to metabolize some xenobiotics, such as the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Transcript variants for this gene have been described; however, it has not been resolved whether these transcripts are in fact produced by this gene or by a closely related pseudogene, CYP2B7. Both the gene and the pseudogene are located in the middle of a CYP2A pseudogene found in a large cluster of cytochrome P450 genes from the CYP2A, CYP2B and CYP2F subfamilies on chromosome 19q. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DAP death-associated protein|This gene encodes a basic, proline-rich, 15-kD protein. The protein acts as a positive mediator of programmed cell death that is induced by interferon-gamma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
DAP3 death associated protein 3|Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that also participates in apoptotic pathways which are initiated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Fas ligand, and gamma interferon. This protein potentially binds ATP/GTP and might be a functional partner of the mitoribosomal protein S27. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 1q and 2q. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
DCC DCC netrin 1 receptor|This gene encodes a netrin 1 receptor. The transmembrane protein is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules, and mediates axon guidance of neuronal growth cones towards sources of netrin 1 ligand. The cytoplasmic tail interacts with the tyrosine kinases Src and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, also known as PTK2) to mediate axon attraction. The protein partially localizes to lipid rafts, and induces apoptosis in the absence of ligand. The protein functions as a tumor suppressor, and is frequently mutated or downregulated in colorectal cancer and esophageal carcinoma. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
DDB1 damage-specific DNA binding protein 1, 127kDa|The protein encoded by this gene is the large subunit (p127) of the heterodimeric DNA damage-binding (DDB) complex while another protein (p48) forms the small subunit. This protein complex functions in nucleotide-excision repair and binds to DNA following UV damage. Defective activity of this complex causes the repair defect in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E (XPE) - an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by photosensitivity and early onset of carcinomas. However, it remains for mutation analysis to demonstrate whether the defect in XPE patients is in this gene or the gene encoding the small subunit. In addition, Best vitelliform mascular dystrophy is mapped to the same region as this gene on 11q, but no sequence alternations of this gene are demonstrated in Best disease patients. The protein encoded by this gene also functions as an adaptor molecule for the cullin 4 (CUL4) ubiquitin E3 ligase complex by facilitating the binding of substrates to this complex and the ubiquitination of proteins. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
DDX11 DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box helicase 11|DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, which is an enzyme that possesses both ATPase and DNA helicase activities. This gene is a homolog of the yeast CHL1 gene, and may function to maintain chromosome transmission fidelity and genome stability. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DDX5 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 5|DEAD box proteins, characterized by the conserved motif Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (DEAD), are putative RNA helicases. They are implicated in a number of cellular processes involving alteration of RNA secondary structure, such as translation initiation, nuclear and mitochondrial splicing, and ribosome and spliceosome assembly. Based on their distribution patterns, some members of this family are believed to be involved in embryogenesis, spermatogenesis, and cellular growth and division. This gene encodes a DEAD box protein, which is a RNA-dependent ATPase, and also a proliferation-associated nuclear antigen, specifically reacting with the simian virus 40 tumor antigen. This gene consists of 13 exons, and alternatively spliced transcripts containing several intron sequences have been detected, but no isoforms encoded by these transcripts have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DEAF1 DEAF1 transcription factor|This gene encodes a zinc finger domain-containing protein that functions as a regulator of transcription. The encoded proteins binds to its own promoter as well as to that of several target genes. Activity of this protein is important in the regulation of embryonic development. Mutations in this gene have been found in individuals with autosomal dominant mental retardation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
DEK DEK proto-oncogene|This gene encodes a protein with one SAP domain. This protein binds to cruciform and superhelical DNA and induces positive supercoils into closed circular DNA, and is also involved in splice site selection during mRNA processing. Chromosomal aberrations involving this region, increased expression of this gene, and the presence of antibodies against this protein are all associated with various diseases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
DENR density-regulated protein|This gene encodes a protein whose expression was found to increase in cultured cells at high density but not during growth arrest. This gene was also shown to have increased expression in cells overexpressing HER-2/neu proto-oncogene. The protein contains an SUI1 domain. In budding yeast, SUI1 is a translation initiation factor that along with eIF-2 and the initiator tRNA-Met, directs the ribosome to the proper translation start site. Proteins similar to SUI have been found in mammals, insects, and plants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DFFA DNA fragmentation factor, 45kDa, alpha polypeptide|Apoptosis is a cell death process that removes toxic and/or useless cells during mammalian development. The apoptotic process is accompanied by shrinkage and fragmentation of the cells and nuclei and degradation of the chromosomal DNA into nucleosomal units. DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) is a heterodimeric protein of 40-kD (DFFB) and 45-kD (DFFA) subunits. DFFA is the substrate for caspase-3 and triggers DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. DFF becomes activated when DFFA is cleaved by caspase-3. The cleaved fragments of DFFA dissociate from DFFB, the active component of DFF. DFFB has been found to trigger both DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation during apoptosis. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DLG1 discs, large homolog 1 (Drosophila)|This gene encodes a multi-domain scaffolding protein that is required for normal development. This protein may have a role in septate junction formation, signal transduction, cell proliferation, synaptogenesis and lymphocyte activation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene, but the full-length nature of some of the variants is not known. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
DMPK dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase|The protein encoded by this gene is a serine-threonine kinase that is closely related to other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. Substrates for this enzyme include myogenin, the beta-subunit of the L-type calcium channels, and phospholemman. The 3' untranslated region of this gene contains 5-37 copies of a CTG trinucleotide repeat. Expansion of this unstable motif to 50-5,000 copies causes myotonic dystrophy type I, which increases in severity with increasing repeat element copy number. Repeat expansion is associated with condensation of local chromatin structure that disrupts the expression of genes in this region. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DNM1 dynamin 1|This gene encodes a member of the dynamin subfamily of GTP-binding proteins. The encoded protein possesses unique mechanochemical properties used to tubulate and sever membranes, and is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and other vesicular trafficking processes. Actin and other cytoskeletal proteins act as binding partners for the encoded protein, which can also self-assemble leading to stimulation of GTPase activity. More than sixty highly conserved copies of the 3' region of this gene are found elsewhere in the genome, particularly on chromosomes Y and 15. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
DNMT1 DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1|DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1 has a role in the establishment and regulation of tissue-specific patterns of methylated cytosine residues. Aberrant methylation patterns are associated with certain human tumors and developmental abnormalities. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
DPF2 D4, zinc and double PHD fingers family 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the d4 domain family, characterized by a zinc finger-like structural motif. This protein functions as a transcription factor which is necessary for the apoptotic response following deprivation of survival factors. It likely serves a regulatory role in rapid hematopoietic cell growth and turnover. This gene is considered a candidate gene for multiple endocrine neoplasia type I, an inherited cancer syndrome involving multiple parathyroid, enteropancreatic, and pituitary tumors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor|The protein encoded by this gene is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is a member of the protein kinase superfamily. This protein is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family. EGFR is a cell surface protein that binds to epidermal growth factor. Binding of the protein to a ligand induces receptor dimerization and tyrosine autophosphorylation and leads to cell proliferation. Mutations in this gene are associated with lung cancer. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
EI24 etoposide induced 2.4|This gene encodes a putative tumor suppressor and has higher expression in p53-expressing cells than in control cells and is an immediate-early induction target of p53-mediated apoptosis. The encoded protein may suppress cell growth by inducing apoptotic cell death through the caspase 9 and mitochondrial pathways. This gene is located on human chromosome 11q24, a region frequently altered in cancers. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene have been defined on chromosomes 1, 3, 7, and 8. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
EIF3E eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit E|
EIF3I eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, subunit I|
EIF4A2 eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A2|
EIF4E eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E|The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F complex, which recognizes the 7-methylguanosine cap structure at the 5' end of cellular mRNAs. The encoded protein aids in translation initiation by recruiting ribosomes to the mRNA. Association of this protein with the 4F complex is the rate-limiting step in translation initiation. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
ELAC2 elaC ribonuclease Z 2|The protein encoded by this gene has a C-terminal domain with tRNA 3′ processing endoribonuclease activity, which catalyzes the removal of the 3' trailer from precursor tRNAs. The protein also interacts with activated Smad family member 2 (Smad2) and its nuclear partner forkhead box H1 (also known as FAST-1), and reduced expression can suppress transforming growth factor-beta induced growth arrest. Mutations in this gene result in an increased risk of prostate cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
EPHA7 EPH receptor A7|This gene belongs to the ephrin receptor subfamily of the protein-tyrosine kinase family. EPH and EPH-related receptors have been implicated in mediating developmental events, particularly in the nervous system. Receptors in the EPH subfamily typically have a single kinase domain and an extracellular region containing a Cys-rich domain and 2 fibronectin type III repeats. The ephrin receptors are divided into 2 groups based on the similarity of their extracellular domain sequences and their affinities for binding ephrin-A and ephrin-B ligands. Increased expression of this gene is associated with multiple forms of carcinoma. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
ERBB2IP erbb2 interacting protein|This gene is a member of the leucine-rich repeat and PDZ domain (LAP) family. The encoded protein contains 17 leucine-rich repeats and one PDZ domain. It binds to the unphosphorylated form of the ERBB2 protein and regulates ERBB2 function and localization. It has also been shown to affect the Ras signaling pathway by disrupting Ras-Raf interaction. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
ERCC2 excision repair cross-complementation group 2|The nucleotide excision repair pathway is a mechanism to repair damage to DNA. The protein encoded by this gene is involved in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair and is an integral member of the basal transcription factor BTF2/TFIIH complex. The gene product has ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity and belongs to the RAD3/XPD subfamily of helicases. Defects in this gene can result in three different disorders, the cancer-prone syndrome xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D, trichothiodystrophy, and Cockayne syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
ERCC4 excision repair cross-complementation group 4|The protein encoded by this gene forms a complex with ERCC1 and is involved in the 5' incision made during nucleotide excision repair. This complex is a structure specific DNA repair endonuclease that interacts with EME1. Defects in this gene are a cause of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XP-F), or xeroderma pigmentosum VI (XP6).[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
ERH enhancer of rudimentary homolog (Drosophila)|
ESPL1 extra spindle pole bodies homolog 1 (S. cerevisiae)|Stable cohesion between sister chromatids before anaphase and their timely separation during anaphase are critical for chromosome inheritance. In vertebrates, sister chromatid cohesion is released in 2 steps via distinct mechanisms. The first step involves phosphorylation of STAG1 (MIM 604358) or STAG2 (MIM 300826) in the cohesin complex. The second step involves cleavage of the cohesin subunit SCC1 (RAD21; MIM 606462) by ESPL1, or separase, which initiates the final separation of sister chromatids (Sun et al., 2009 [PubMed 19345191]).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
ESR1 estrogen receptor 1|This gene encodes an estrogen receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor composed of several domains important for hormone binding, DNA binding, and activation of transcription. The protein localizes to the nucleus where it may form a homodimer or a heterodimer with estrogen receptor 2. Estrogen and its receptors are essential for sexual development and reproductive function, but also play a role in other tissues such as bone. Estrogen receptors are also involved in pathological processes including breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and osteoporosis. Alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing result in dozens of transcript variants, but the full-length nature of many of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
ETV3 ets variant 3|
FANCC Fanconi anemia, complementation group C|The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group C. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FANCG Fanconi anemia, complementation group G|The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group G. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FANCL Fanconi anemia, complementation group L|The Fanconi anemia complementation group (FANC) currently includes FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD1 (also called BRCA2), FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCJ (also called BRIP1), FANCL, FANCM and FANCN (also called PALB2). The previously defined group FANCH is the same as FANCA. Fanconi anemia is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by cytogenetic instability, hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, increased chromosomal breakage, and defective DNA repair. The members of the Fanconi anemia complementation group do not share sequence similarity; they are related by their assembly into a common nuclear protein complex. This gene encodes the protein for complementation group L. Alternative splicing results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FAS Fas cell surface death receptor|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor contains a death domain. It has been shown to play a central role in the physiological regulation of programmed cell death, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various malignancies and diseases of the immune system. The interaction of this receptor with its ligand allows the formation of a death-inducing signaling complex that includes Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), caspase 8, and caspase 10. The autoproteolytic processing of the caspases in the complex triggers a downstream caspase cascade, and leads to apoptosis. This receptor has been also shown to activate NF-kappaB, MAPK3/ERK1, and MAPK8/JNK, and is found to be involved in transducing the proliferating signals in normal diploid fibroblast and T cells. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, some of which are candidates for nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). The isoforms lacking the transmembrane domain may negatively regulate the apoptosis mediated by the full length isoform. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
FBL fibrillarin|This gene product is a component of a nucleolar small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) particle thought to participate in the first step in processing preribosomal RNA. It is associated with the U3, U8, and U13 small nuclear RNAs and is located in the dense fibrillar component (DFC) of the nucleolus. The encoded protein contains an N-terminal repetitive domain that is rich in glycine and arginine residues, like fibrillarins in other species. Its central region resembles an RNA-binding domain and contains an RNP consensus sequence. Antisera from approximately 8% of humans with the autoimmune disease scleroderma recognize fibrillarin. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FCGR2B Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIb, receptor (CD32)|The protein encoded by this gene is a low affinity receptor for the Fc region of immunoglobulin gamma complexes. The encoded protein is involved in the phagocytosis of immune complexes and in the regulation of antibody production by B-cells. Variations in this gene may increase susceptibilty to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
FDXR ferredoxin reductase|This gene encodes a mitochondrial flavoprotein that initiates electron transport for cytochromes P450 receiving electrons from NADPH. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
FEN1 flap structure-specific endonuclease 1|The protein encoded by this gene removes 5' overhanging flaps in DNA repair and processes the 5' ends of Okazaki fragments in lagging strand DNA synthesis. Direct physical interaction between this protein and AP endonuclease 1 during long-patch base excision repair provides coordinated loading of the proteins onto the substrate, thus passing the substrate from one enzyme to another. The protein is a member of the XPG/RAD2 endonuclease family and is one of ten proteins essential for cell-free DNA replication. DNA secondary structure can inhibit flap processing at certain trinucleotide repeats in a length-dependent manner by concealing the 5' end of the flap that is necessary for both binding and cleavage by the protein encoded by this gene. Therefore, secondary structure can deter the protective function of this protein, leading to site-specific trinucleotide expansions. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FGR FGR proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase|This gene is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). The encoded protein contains N-terminal sites for myristylation and palmitylation, a PTK domain, and SH2 and SH3 domains which are involved in mediating protein-protein interactions with phosphotyrosine-containing and proline-rich motifs, respectively. The protein localizes to plasma membrane ruffles, and functions as a negative regulator of cell migration and adhesion triggered by the beta-2 integrin signal transduction pathway. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus results in the overexpression of this gene. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FLT1 fms-related tyrosine kinase 1|This gene encodes a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) family. VEGFR family members are receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) which contain an extracellular ligand-binding region with seven immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and a tyrosine kinase (TK) domain within the cytoplasmic domain. This protein binds to VEGFR-A, VEGFR-B and placental growth factor and plays an important role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Expression of this receptor is found in vascular endothelial cells, placental trophoblast cells and peripheral blood monocytes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Isoforms include a full-length transmembrane receptor isoform and shortened, soluble isoforms. The soluble isoforms are associated with the onset of pre-eclampsia.[provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
FOS FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog|The Fos gene family consists of 4 members: FOS, FOSB, FOSL1, and FOSL2. These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. As such, the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. In some cases, expression of the FOS gene has also been associated with apoptotic cell death. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FOSL1 FOS-like antigen 1|The Fos gene family consists of 4 members: FOS, FOSB, FOSL1, and FOSL2. These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. As such, the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
FRK fyn-related Src family tyrosine kinase|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the TYR family of protein kinases. This tyrosine kinase is a nuclear protein and may function during G1 and S phase of the cell cycle and suppress growth. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FSHR follicle stimulating hormone receptor|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to family 1 of G-protein coupled receptors. It is the receptor for follicle stimulating hormone and functions in gonad development. Mutations in this gene cause ovarian dysgenesis type 1, and also ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
GLTSCR2 glioma tumor suppressor candidate region gene 2|
GMPS guanine monphosphate synthase|In the de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides, IMP is the branch point metabolite at which point the pathway diverges to the synthesis of either guanine or adenine nucleotides. In the guanine nucleotide pathway, there are 2 enzymes involved in converting IMP to GMP, namely IMP dehydrogenase (IMPD1), which catalyzes the oxidation of IMP to XMP, and GMP synthetase, which catalyzes the amination of XMP to GMP. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GNB1 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1|Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
GPX4 glutathione peroxidase 4|This gene encodes a member of the glutathione peroxidase protein family. Glutathione peroxidase catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen peroxide, organic hydroperoxide, and lipid peroxides by reduced glutathione and functions in the protection of cells against oxidative damage. Human plasma glutathione peroxidase has been shown to be a selenium-containing enzyme and the UGA codon is translated into a selenocysteine. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to serve dual functions as a peroxidase as well as a structural protein in mature spermatozoa. Through alternative splicing and transcription initiation, rat produces proteins that localize to the nucleus, mitochondrion, and cytoplasm. In humans, alternative transcription initiation and the cleavage sites of the mitochondrial and nuclear transit peptides need to be experimentally verified. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
GSPT1 G1 to S phase transition 1|
GSTA4 glutathione S-transferase alpha 4|Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. These enzymes are involved in cellular defense against toxic, carcinogenic, and pharmacologically active electrophilic compounds. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-tranferase belonging to the alpha class. The alpha class genes, which are located in a cluster on chromosome 6, are highly related and encode enzymes with glutathione peroxidase activity that function in the detoxification of lipid peroxidation products. Reactive electrophiles produced by oxidative metabolism have been linked to a number of degenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, cataract formation, and atherosclerosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GSTM1 glutathione S-transferase mu 1|Cytosolic and membrane-bound forms of glutathione S-transferase are encoded by two distinct supergene families. At present, eight distinct classes of the soluble cytoplasmic mammalian glutathione S-transferases have been identified: alpha, kappa, mu, omega, pi, sigma, theta and zeta. This gene encodes a glutathione S-transferase that belongs to the mu class. The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of enzymes are organized in a gene cluster on chromosome 1p13.3 and are known to be highly polymorphic. These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and efficacy of certain drugs. Null mutations of this class mu gene have been linked with an increase in a number of cancers, likely due to an increased susceptibility to environmental toxins and carcinogens. Multiple protein isoforms are encoded by transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
H2AFX H2A histone family, member X|Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Two molecules of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) form an octamer, around which approximately 146 bp of DNA is wrapped in repeating units, called nucleosomes. The linker histone, H1, interacts with linker DNA between nucleosomes and functions in the compaction of chromatin into higher order structures. This gene encodes a member of the histone H2A family, and generates two transcripts through the use of the conserved stem-loop termination motif, and the polyA addition motif. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HAT1 histone acetyltransferase 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a type B histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that is involved in the rapid acetylation of newly synthesized cytoplasmic histones, which are in turn imported into the nucleus for de novo deposition onto nascent DNA chains. Histone acetylation, particularly of histone H4, plays an important role in replication-dependent chromatin assembly. Specifically, this HAT can acetylate soluble but not nucleosomal histone H4 at lysines 5 and 12, and to a lesser degree, histone H2A at lysine 5. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]
HBP1 HMG-box transcription factor 1|
HCK HCK proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Src family of tyrosine kinases. This protein is primarily hemopoietic, particularly in cells of the myeloid and B-lymphoid lineages. It may help couple the Fc receptor to the activation of the respiratory burst. In addition, it may play a role in neutrophil migration and in the degranulation of neutrophils. Multiple isoforms with different subcellular distributions are produced due to both alternative splicing and the use of alternative translation initiation codons, including a non-AUG (CUG) codon. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
HDAC1 histone deacetylase 1|Histone acetylation and deacetylation, catalyzed by multisubunit complexes, play a key role in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family and is a component of the histone deacetylase complex. It also interacts with retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor protein and this complex is a key element in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Together with metastasis-associated protein-2, it deacetylates p53 and modulates its effect on cell growth and apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HDAC2 histone deacetylase 2|This gene product belongs to the histone deacetylase family. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes, and are responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues at the N-terminal regions of core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). This protein forms transcriptional repressor complexes by associating with many different proteins, including YY1, a mammalian zinc-finger transcription factor. Thus, it plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
HLA-C major histocompatibility complex, class I, C|HLA-C belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. Class I molecules play a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from endoplasmic reticulum lumen. They are expressed in nearly all cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domain, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region, and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. Polymorphisms within exon 2 and exon 3 are responsible for the peptide binding specificity of each class one molecule. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. Over one hundred HLA-C alleles have been described [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HMGA2 high mobility group AT-hook 2|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the non-histone chromosomal high mobility group (HMG) protein family. HMG proteins function as architectural factors and are essential components of the enhancesome. This protein contains structural DNA-binding domains and may act as a transcriptional regulating factor. Identification of the deletion, amplification, and rearrangement of this gene that are associated with myxoid liposarcoma suggests a role in adipogenesis and mesenchymal differentiation. A gene knock out study of the mouse counterpart demonstrated that this gene is involved in diet-induced obesity. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HMMR hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM)|The protein encoded by this gene is involved in cell motility. It is expressed in breast tissue and together with other proteins, it forms a complex with BRCA1 and BRCA2, thus is potentially associated with higher risk of breast cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
HPN hepsin|This gene encodes a type II transmembrane serine protease that may be involved in diverse cellular functions, including blood coagulation and the maintenance of cell morphology. Expression of the encoded protein is associated with the growth and progression of cancers, particularly prostate cancer. The protein is cleaved into a catalytic serine protease chain and a non-catalytic scavenger receptor cysteine-rich chain, which associate via a single disulfide bond. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
HPX hemopexin|This gene encodes a plasma glycoprotein that binds heme with high affinity. The encoded protein is an acute phase protein that transports heme from the plasma to the liver and may be involved in protecting cells from oxidative stress. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
ICAM3 intercellular adhesion molecule 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) family. All ICAM proteins are type I transmembrane glycoproteins, contain 2-9 immunoglobulin-like C2-type domains, and bind to the leukocyte adhesion LFA-1 protein. This protein is constitutively and abundantly expressed by all leucocytes and may be the most important ligand for LFA-1 in the initiation of the immune response. It functions not only as an adhesion molecule, but also as a potent signalling molecule. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IFNA1 interferon, alpha 1|The protein encoded by this gene is produced by macrophages and has antiviral activity. This gene is intronless and the encoded protein is secreted. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
IGF1 insulin-like growth factor 1 (somatomedin C)|The protein encoded by this gene is similar to insulin in function and structure and is a member of a family of proteins involved in mediating growth and development. The encoded protein is processed from a precursor, bound by a specific receptor, and secreted. Defects in this gene are a cause of insulin-like growth factor I deficiency. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
IGFBP1 insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1|This gene is a member of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) family and encodes a protein with an IGFBP domain and a thyroglobulin type-I domain. The protein binds both insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) I and II and circulates in the plasma. Binding of this protein prolongs the half-life of the IGFs and alters their interaction with cell surface receptors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IKBKG inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma|This gene encodes the regulatory subunit of the inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex, which activates NF-kappaB resulting in activation of genes involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and other pathways. Mutations in this gene result in incontinentia pigmenti, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and several other types of immunodeficiencies. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. A pseudogene highly similar to this locus is located in an adjacent region of the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
IL13 interleukin 13|This gene encodes an immunoregulatory cytokine produced primarily by activated Th2 cells. This cytokine is involved in several stages of B-cell maturation and differentiation. It up-regulates CD23 and MHC class II expression, and promotes IgE isotype switching of B cells. This cytokine down-regulates macrophage activity, thereby inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This cytokine is found to be critical to the pathogenesis of allergen-induced asthma but operates through mechanisms independent of IgE and eosinophils. This gene, IL3, IL5, IL4, and CSF2 form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 5q, with this gene particularly close to IL4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IL16 interleukin 16|The protein encoded by this gene is a pleiotropic cytokine that functions as a chemoattractant, a modulator of T cell activation, and an inhibitor of HIV replication. The signaling process of this cytokine is mediated by CD4. The product of this gene undergoes proteolytic processing, which is found to yield two functional proteins. The cytokine function is exclusively attributed to the secreted C-terminal peptide, while the N-terminal product may play a role in cell cycle control. Caspase 3 is reported to be involved in the proteolytic processing of this protein. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
IL2RB interleukin 2 receptor, beta|The interleukin 2 receptor, which is involved in T cell-mediated immune responses, is present in 3 forms with respect to ability to bind interleukin 2. The low affinity form is a monomer of the alpha subunit and is not involved in signal transduction. The intermediate affinity form consists of an alpha/beta subunit heterodimer, while the high affinity form consists of an alpha/beta/gamma subunit heterotrimer. Both the intermediate and high affinity forms of the receptor are involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis and transduction of mitogenic signals from interleukin 2. The protein encoded by this gene represents the beta subunit and is a type I membrane protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IL4 interleukin 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by activated T cells. This cytokine is a ligand for interleukin 4 receptor. The interleukin 4 receptor also binds to IL13, which may contribute to many overlapping functions of this cytokine and IL13. STAT6, a signal transducer and activator of transcription, has been shown to play a central role in mediating the immune regulatory signal of this cytokine. This gene, IL3, IL5, IL13, and CSF2 form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 5q, with this gene particularly close to IL13. This gene, IL13 and IL5 are found to be regulated coordinately by several long-range regulatory elements in an over 120 kilobase range on the chromosome. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IL6ST interleukin 6 signal transducer|The protein encoded by this gene is a signal transducer shared by many cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL6), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and oncostatin M (OSM). This protein functions as a part of the cytokine receptor complex. The activation of this protein is dependent upon the binding of cytokines to their receptors. vIL6, a protein related to IL6 and encoded by the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, can bypass the interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) and directly activate this protein. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this gene plays a critical role in regulating myocyte apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
IL9 interleukin 9|The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that acts as a regulator of a variety of hematopoietic cells. This cytokine stimulates cell proliferation and prevents apoptosis. It functions through the interleukin 9 receptor (IL9R), which activates different signal transducer and activator (STAT) proteins and thus connects this cytokine to various biological processes. The gene encoding this cytokine has been identified as a candidate gene for asthma. Genetic studies on a mouse model of asthma demonstrated that this cytokine is a determining factor in the pathogenesis of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ING1 inhibitor of growth family, member 1|This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein that can induce cell growth arrest and apoptosis. The encoded protein is a nuclear protein that physically interacts with the tumor suppressor protein TP53 and is a component of the p53 signaling pathway. Reduced expression and rearrangement of this gene have been detected in various cancers. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
INPP5D inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase, 145kDa|This gene is a member of the inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (INPP5) family and encodes a protein with an N-terminal SH2 domain, an inositol phosphatase domain, and two C-terminal protein interaction domains. Expression of this protein is restricted to hematopoietic cells where its movement from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation. At the plasma membrane, the protein hydrolyzes the 5' phosphate from phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate and inositol-1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, thereby affecting multiple signaling pathways. The protein is also partly localized to the nucleus, where it may be involved in nuclear inositol phosphate signaling processes. Overall, the protein functions as a negative regulator of myeloid cell proliferation and survival. Mutations in this gene are associated with defects and cancers of the immune system. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
ITGA2 integrin, alpha 2 (CD49B, alpha 2 subunit of VLA-2 receptor)|This gene encodes the alpha subunit of a transmembrane receptor for collagens and related proteins. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a beta subunit and mediates the adhesion of platelets and other cell types to the extracellular matrix. Loss of the encoded protein is associated with bleeding disorder platelet-type 9. Antibodies against this protein are found in several immune disorders, including neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia. This gene is located adjacent to a related alpha subunit gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
ITGAL integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1; alpha polypeptide)|ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), which is expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3 (intercellular adhesion molecules 1 through 3), and also functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ITGB2 integrin, beta 2 (complement component 3 receptor 3 and 4 subunit)|This gene encodes an integrin beta chain, which combines with multiple different alpha chains to form different integrin heterodimers. Integrins are integral cell-surface proteins that participate in cell adhesion as well as cell-surface mediated signalling. The encoded protein plays an important role in immune response and defects in this gene cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
JAG1 jagged 1|The jagged 1 protein encoded by JAG1 is the human homolog of the Drosophilia jagged protein. Human jagged 1 is the ligand for the receptor notch 1, the latter a human homolog of the Drosophilia jagged receptor notch. Mutations that alter the jagged 1 protein cause Alagille syndrome. Jagged 1 signalling through notch 1 has also been shown to play a role in hematopoiesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
JAK1 Janus kinase 1|Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), is a member of a new class of protein-tyrosine kinases (PTK) characterized by the presence of a second phosphotransferase-related domain immediately N-terminal to the PTK domain. The second phosphotransferase domain bears all the hallmarks of a protein kinase, although its structure differs significantly from that of the PTK and threonine/serine kinase family members. JAK1 is a large, widely expressed membrane-associated phosphoprotein. JAK1 is involved in the interferon-alpha/beta and -gamma signal transduction pathways. The reciprocal interdependence between JAK1 and TYK2 activities in the interferon-alpha pathway, and between JAK1 and JAK2 in the interferon-gamma pathway, may reflect a requirement for these kinases in the correct assembly of interferon receptor complexes. These kinases couple cytokine ligand binding to tyrosine phosphorylation of various known signaling proteins and of a unique family of transcription factors termed the signal transducers and activators of transcription, or STATs. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
JAK3 Janus kinase 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Janus kinase (JAK) family of tyrosine kinases involved in cytokine receptor-mediated intracellular signal transduction. It is predominantly expressed in immune cells and transduces a signal in response to its activation via tyrosine phosphorylation by interleukin receptors. Mutations in this gene are associated with autosomal SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency disease). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
JUND jun D proto-oncogene|The protein encoded by this intronless gene is a member of the JUN family, and a functional component of the AP1 transcription factor complex. This protein has been proposed to protect cells from p53-dependent senescence and apoptosis. Alternative translation initiation site usage results in the production of different isoforms (PMID:12105216). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
KAT2B K(lysine) acetyltransferase 2B|CBP and p300 are large nuclear proteins that bind to many sequence-specific factors involved in cell growth and/or differentiation, including c-jun and the adenoviral oncoprotein E1A. The protein encoded by this gene associates with p300/CBP. It has in vitro and in vivo binding activity with CBP and p300, and competes with E1A for binding sites in p300/CBP. It has histone acetyl transferase activity with core histones and nucleosome core particles, indicating that this protein plays a direct role in transcriptional regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
KAT7 K(lysine) acetyltransferase 7|
KDR kinase insert domain receptor|Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major growth factor for endothelial cells. This gene encodes one of the two receptors of the VEGF. This receptor, known as kinase insert domain receptor, is a type III receptor tyrosine kinase. It functions as the main mediator of VEGF-induced endothelial proliferation, survival, migration, tubular morphogenesis and sprouting. The signalling and trafficking of this receptor are regulated by multiple factors, including Rab GTPase, P2Y purine nucleotide receptor, integrin alphaVbeta3, T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase, etc.. Mutations of this gene are implicated in infantile capillary hemangiomas. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
KISS1 KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor|This gene is a metastasis suppressor gene that suppresses metastases of melanomas and breast carcinomas without affecting tumorigenicity. The encoded protein may inhibit chemotaxis and invasion and thereby attenuate metastasis in malignant melanomas. Studies suggest a putative role in the regulation of events downstream of cell-matrix adhesion, perhaps involving cytoskeletal reorganization. A protein product of this gene, kisspeptin, stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced gonadotropin secretion and regulates the pubertal activation of GnRH nuerons. A polymorphism in the terminal exon of this mRNA results in two protein isoforms. An adenosine present at the polymorphic site represents the third position in a stop codon. When the adenosine is absent, a downstream stop codon is utilized and the encoded protein extends for an additional seven amino acid residues. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
KMT2A lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2A|This gene encodes a transcriptional coactivator that plays an essential role in regulating gene expression during early development and hematopoiesis. The encoded protein contains multiple conserved functional domains. One of these domains, the SET domain, is responsible for its histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase activity which mediates chromatin modifications associated with epigenetic transcriptional activation. This protein is processed by the enzyme Taspase 1 into two fragments, MLL-C and MLL-N. These fragments reassociate and further assemble into different multiprotein complexes that regulate the transcription of specific target genes, including many of the HOX genes. Multiple chromosomal translocations involving this gene are the cause of certain acute lymphoid leukemias and acute myeloid leukemias. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
KPNB1 karyopherin (importin) beta 1|Nucleocytoplasmic transport, a signal- and energy-dependent process, takes place through nuclear pore complexes embedded in the nuclear envelope. The import of proteins containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) requires the NLS import receptor, a heterodimer of importin alpha and beta subunits also known as karyopherins. Importin alpha binds the NLS-containing cargo in the cytoplasm and importin beta docks the complex at the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex. In the presence of nucleoside triphosphates and the small GTP binding protein Ran, the complex moves into the nuclear pore complex and the importin subunits dissociate. Importin alpha enters the nucleoplasm with its passenger protein and importin beta remains at the pore. Interactions between importin beta and the FG repeats of nucleoporins are essential in translocation through the pore complex. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the importin beta family. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]
LCAT lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase|This gene encodes the extracellular cholesterol esterifying enzyme, lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase. The esterification of cholesterol is required for cholesterol transport. Mutations in this gene have been found to cause fish-eye disease as well as LCAT deficiency. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
LMO1 LIM domain only 1 (rhombotin 1)|This locus encodes a transcriptional regulator that contains two cysteine-rich LIM domains but lacks a DNA-binding domain. LIM domains may play a role in protein interactions; thus the encoded protein may regulate transcription by competitively binding to specific DNA-binding transcription factors. Alterations at this locus have been associated with acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia. Chromosomal rearrangements have been observed between this locus and at least two loci, the delta subunit of the T-cell antigen receptor gene and the LIM domain binding 1 gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
LTK leukocyte receptor tyrosine kinase|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ros/insulin receptor family of tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine-specific phosphorylation of proteins is a key to the control of diverse pathways leading to cell growth and differentiation. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
LYN LYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase|This gene encodes a tyrosine protein kinase, which maybe involved in the regulation of mast cell degranulation, and erythroid differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
MAGEA8 melanoma antigen family A8|This gene is a member of the MAGEA gene family. The members of this family encode proteins with 50 to 80% sequence identity to each other. The promoters and first exons of the MAGEA genes show considerable variability, suggesting that the existence of this gene family enables the same function to be expressed under different transcriptional controls. The MAGEA genes are clustered at chromosomal location Xq28. They have been implicated in some hereditary disorders, such as dyskeratosis congenita. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
MAGEA9 melanoma antigen family A9|This gene is a member of the MAGEA gene family. The members of this family encode proteins with 50 to 80% sequence identity to each other. The promoters and first exons of the MAGEA genes show considerable variability, suggesting that the existence of this gene family enables the same function to be expressed under different transcriptional controls. The MAGEA genes are clustered at chromosomal location Xq28. They have been implicated in some hereditary disorders, such as dyskeratosis congenita. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAP1B microtubule-associated protein 1B|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the microtubule-associated protein family. The proteins of this family are thought to be involved in microtubule assembly, which is an essential step in neurogenesis. The product of this gene is a precursor polypeptide that presumably undergoes proteolytic processing to generate the final MAP1B heavy chain and LC1 light chain. Gene knockout studies of the mouse microtubule-associated protein 1B gene suggested an important role in development and function of the nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAP2K2 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is known to play a critical role in mitogen growth factor signal transduction. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK2/ERK3. The activation of this kinase itself is dependent on the Ser/Thr phosphorylation by MAP kinase kinase kinases. Mutations in this gene cause cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC syndrome), a disease characterized by heart defects, mental retardation, and distinctive facial features similar to those found in Noonan syndrome. The inhibition or degradation of this kinase is also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of Yersinia and anthrax. A pseudogene, which is located on chromosome 7, has been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAP2K3 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3|The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase is activated by mitogenic and environmental stress, and participates in the MAP kinase-mediated signaling cascade. It phosphorylates and thus activates MAPK14/p38-MAPK. This kinase can be activated by insulin, and is necessary for the expression of glucose transporter. Expression of RAS oncogene is found to result in the accumulation of the active form of this kinase, which thus leads to the constitutive activation of MAPK14, and confers oncogenic transformation of primary cells. The inhibition of this kinase is involved in the pathogenesis of Yersina pseudotuberculosis. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode distinct isoforms have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAP2K7 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7|The protein encoded by this gene is a dual specificity protein kinase that belongs to the MAP kinase kinase family. This kinase specifically activates MAPK8/JNK1 and MAPK9/JNK2, and this kinase itself is phosphorylated and activated by MAP kinase kinase kinases including MAP3K1/MEKK1, MAP3K2/MEKK2,MAP3K3/MEKK5, and MAP4K2/GCK. This kinase is involved in the signal transduction mediating the cell responses to proinflammatory cytokines, and environmental stresses. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
MAP3K14 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14|This gene encodes mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14, which is a serine/threonine protein-kinase. This kinase binds to TRAF2 and stimulates NF-kappaB activity. It shares sequence similarity with several other MAPKK kinases. It participates in an NF-kappaB-inducing signalling cascade common to receptors of the tumour-necrosis/nerve-growth factor (TNF/NGF) family and to the interleukin-1 type-I receptor. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAP4K4 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This kinase has been shown to specifically activate MAPK8/JNK. The activation of MAPK8 by this kinase is found to be inhibited by the dominant-negative mutants of MAP3K7/TAK1, MAP2K4/MKK4, and MAP2K7/MKK7, which suggests that this kinase may function through the MAP3K7-MAP2K4-MAP2K7 kinase cascade, and mediate the TNF-alpha signaling pathway. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAPK10 mitogen-activated protein kinase 10|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This protein is a neuronal-specific form of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs). Through its phosphorylation and nuclear localization, this kinase plays regulatory roles in the signaling pathways during neuronal apoptosis. Beta-arrestin 2, a receptor-regulated MAP kinase scaffold protein, is found to interact with, and stimulate the phosphorylation of this kinase by MAP kinase kinase 4 (MKK4). Cyclin-dependent kianse 5 can phosphorylate, and inhibit the activity of this kinase, which may be important in preventing neuronal apoptosis. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAPT microtubule-associated protein tau|This gene encodes the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) whose transcript undergoes complex, regulated alternative splicing, giving rise to several mRNA species. MAPT transcripts are differentially expressed in the nervous system, depending on stage of neuronal maturation and neuron type. MAPT gene mutations have been associated with several neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Pick's disease, frontotemporal dementia, cortico-basal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MATK megakaryocyte-associated tyrosine kinase|The protein encoded by this gene has amino acid sequence similarity to Csk tyrosine kinase and has the structural features of the CSK subfamily: SRC homology SH2 and SH3 domains, a catalytic domain, a unique N terminus, lack of myristylation signals, lack of a negative regulatory phosphorylation site, and lack of an autophosphorylation site. This protein is thought to play a significant role in the signal transduction of hematopoietic cells. It is able to phosphorylate and inactivate Src family kinases, and may play an inhibitory role in the control of T-cell proliferation. This protein might be involved in signaling in some cases of breast cancer. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MAX MYC associated factor X|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLHZ) family of transcription factors. It is able to form homodimers and heterodimers with other family members, which include Mad, Mxi1 and Myc. Myc is an oncoprotein implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The homodimers and heterodimers compete for a common DNA target site (the E box) and rearrangement among these dimer forms provides a complex system of transcriptional regulation. Mutations of this gene have been reported to be associated with hereditary pheochromocytoma. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
MBD4 methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of nuclear proteins related by the presence of a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). These proteins are capable of binding specifically to methylated DNA, and some members can also repress transcription from methylated gene promoters. This protein contains an MBD domain at the N-terminus that functions both in binding to methylated DNA and in protein interactions and a C-terminal mismatch-specific glycosylase domain that is involved in DNA repair. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
MCL1 myeloid cell leukemia 1|This gene encodes an anti-apoptotic protein, which is a member of the Bcl-2 family. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. The longest gene product (isoform 1) enhances cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis while the alternatively spliced shorter gene products (isoform 2 and isoform 3) promote apoptosis and are death-inducing. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
MCM4 minichromosome maintenance complex component 4|The protein encoded by this gene is one of the highly conserved mini-chromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) that are essential for the initiation of eukaryotic genome replication. The hexameric protein complex formed by MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre_RC) and may be involved in the formation of replication forks and in the recruitment of other DNA replication related proteins. The MCM complex consisting of this protein and MCM2, 6 and 7 proteins possesses DNA helicase activity, and may act as a DNA unwinding enzyme. The phosphorylation of this protein by CDC2 kinase reduces the DNA helicase activity and chromatin binding of the MCM complex. This gene is mapped to a region on the chromosome 8 head-to-head next to the PRKDC/DNA-PK, a DNA-activated protein kinase involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MCM5 minichromosome maintenance complex component 5|The protein encoded by this gene is structurally very similar to the CDC46 protein from S. cerevisiae, a protein involved in the initiation of DNA replication. The encoded protein is a member of the MCM family of chromatin-binding proteins and can interact with at least two other members of this family. The encoded protein is upregulated in the transition from the G0 to G1/S phase of the cell cycle and may actively participate in cell cycle regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MDM2 MDM2 proto-oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase|This gene encodes a nuclear-localized E3 ubiquitin ligase. The encoded protein can promote tumor formation by targeting tumor suppressor proteins, such as p53, for proteasomal degradation. This gene is itself transcriptionally-regulated by p53. Overexpression or amplification of this locus is detected in a variety of different cancers. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 2. Alternative splicing results in a multitude of transcript variants, many of which may be expressed only in tumor cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
MKI67 marker of proliferation Ki-67|This gene encodes a nuclear protein that is associated with and may be necessary for cellular proliferation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. A related pseudogene exists on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
MLANA melan-A|
MLF1 myeloid leukemia factor 1|This gene encodes an oncoprotein which is thought to play a role in the phenotypic determination of hemopoetic cells. Translocations between this gene and nucleophosmin have been associated with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
MLH1 mutL homolog 1|This gene was identified as a locus frequently mutated in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). It is a human homolog of the E. coli DNA mismatch repair gene mutL, consistent with the characteristic alterations in microsatellite sequences (RER+phenotype) found in HNPCC. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. Additional transcript variants have been described, but their full-length natures have not been determined.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
MLLT10 myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (trithorax homolog, Drosophila); translocated to, 10|This gene encodes a transcription factor and has been identified as a partner gene involved in several chromosomal rearrangements resulting in various leukemias. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
MLLT11 myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (trithorax homolog, Drosophila); translocated to, 11|The gene variously symbolized ALL1, HRX, or MLL located on 11q23 has been demonstrated to be fused with a number of translocation partners in cases of leukemia. t(1;11)(q21;q23) translocations that fused the MLL gene to a gene on chromosomal band 1q21 in 2 infants with acute myelomonocytic leukemia have been demonstrated. The N-terminal portion of the MLL gene is critical for leukemogenesis in translocations involving band 11q23. This gene encodes 90 amino acids. It was found to be highly expressed in the thymus but not in peripheral lymphoid tissues. In contrast to its restricted distribution in normal hematopoietic tissue, this gene was expressed in all leukemic cell lines tested. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MMP1 matrix metallopeptidase 1|Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. This gene encodes a secreted enzyme which breaks down the interstitial collagens, types I, II, and III. The gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes which localize to chromosome 11q22.3. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
MMP11 matrix metallopeptidase 11|Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. However, the enzyme encoded by this gene is activated intracellularly by furin within the constitutive secretory pathway. Also in contrast to other MMP's, this enzyme cleaves alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor but weakly degrades structural proteins of the extracellular matrix. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MSH2 mutS homolog 2|This locus is frequently mutated in hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). When cloned, it was discovered to be a human homolog of the E. coli mismatch repair gene mutS, consistent with the characteristic alterations in microsatellite sequences (RER+ phenotype) found in HNPCC. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
MSH3 mutS homolog 3|The protein encoded by this gene forms a heterodimer with MSH2 to form MutS beta, part of the post-replicative DNA mismatch repair system. MutS beta initiates mismatch repair by binding to a mismatch and then forming a complex with MutL alpha heterodimer. This gene contains a polymorphic 9 bp tandem repeat sequence in the first exon. The repeat is present 6 times in the reference genome sequence and 3-7 repeats have been reported. Defects in this gene are a cause of susceptibility to endometrial cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
MSH6 mutS homolog 6|This gene encodes a member of the DNA mismatch repair MutS family. In E. coli, the MutS protein helps in the recognition of mismatched nucleotides prior to their repair. A highly conserved region of approximately 150 aa, called the Walker-A adenine nucleotide binding motif, exists in MutS homologs. The encoded protein heterodimerizes with MSH2 to form a mismatch recognition complex that functions as a bidirectional molecular switch that exchanges ADP and ATP as DNA mismatches are bound and dissociated. Mutations in this gene may be associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer, colorectal cancer, and endometrial cancer. Transcripts variants encoding different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
MSN moesin|Moesin (for membrane-organizing extension spike protein) is a member of the ERM family which includes ezrin and radixin. ERM proteins appear to function as cross-linkers between plasma membranes and actin-based cytoskeletons. Moesin is localized to filopodia and other membranous protrusions that are important for cell-cell recognition and signaling and for cell movement. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MT4 metallothionein 4|
MTA1 metastasis associated 1|This gene encodes a protein that was identified in a screen for genes expressed in metastatic cells, specifically, mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines. Expression of this gene has been correlated with the metastatic potential of at least two types of carcinomas although it is also expressed in many normal tissues. The role it plays in metastasis is unclear. It was initially thought to be the 70kD component of a nucleosome remodeling deacetylase complex, NuRD, but it is more likely that this component is a different but very similar protein. These two proteins are so closely related, though, that they share the same types of domains. These domains include two DNA binding domains, a dimerization domain, and a domain commonly found in proteins that methylate DNA. The profile and activity of this gene product suggest that it is involved in regulating transcription and that this may be accomplished by chromatin remodeling. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
MYC v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog|The protein encoded by this gene is a multifunctional, nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. It functions as a transcription factor that regulates transcription of specific target genes. Mutations, overexpression, rearrangement and translocation of this gene have been associated with a variety of hematopoietic tumors, leukemias and lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma. There is evidence to show that alternative translation initiations from an upstream, in-frame non-AUG (CUG) and a downstream AUG start site result in the production of two isoforms with distinct N-termini. The synthesis of non-AUG initiated protein is suppressed in Burkitt's lymphomas, suggesting its importance in the normal function of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MYCL v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene lung carcinoma derived homolog|
MYD88 myeloid differentiation primary response 88|This gene encodes a cytosolic adapter protein that plays a central role in the innate and adaptive immune response. This protein functions as an essential signal transducer in the interleukin-1 and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. These pathways regulate that activation of numerous proinflammatory genes. The encoded protein consists of an N-terminal death domain and a C-terminal Toll-interleukin1 receptor domain. Patients with defects in this gene have an increased susceptibility to pyogenic bacterial infections. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
MYL2 myosin, light chain 2, regulatory, cardiac, slow|Thus gene encodes the regulatory light chain associated with cardiac myosin beta (or slow) heavy chain. Ca+ triggers the phosphorylation of regulatory light chain that in turn triggers contraction. Mutations in this gene are associated with mid-left ventricular chamber type hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MYL3 myosin, light chain 3, alkali; ventricular, skeletal, slow|MYL3 encodes myosin light chain 3, an alkali light chain also referred to in the literature as both the ventricular isoform and the slow skeletal muscle isoform. Mutations in MYL3 have been identified as a cause of mid-left ventricular chamber type hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NCAM1 neural cell adhesion molecule 1|This gene encodes a cell adhesion protein which is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. The encoded protein is involved in cell-to-cell interactions as well as cell-matrix interactions during development and differentiation. The encoded protein has been shown to be involved in development of the nervous system, and for cells involved in the expansion of T cells and dendritic cells which play an important role in immune surveillance. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
NF1 neurofibromin 1|This gene product appears to function as a negative regulator of the ras signal transduction pathway. Mutations in this gene have been linked to neurofibromatosis type 1, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Watson syndrome. The mRNA for this gene is subject to RNA editing (CGA>UGA->Arg1306Term) resulting in premature translation termination. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have also been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NF2 neurofibromin 2 (merlin)|This gene encodes a protein that is similar to some members of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) family of proteins that are thought to link cytoskeletal components with proteins in the cell membrane. This gene product has been shown to interact with cell-surface proteins, proteins involved in cytoskeletal dynamics and proteins involved in regulating ion transport. This gene is expressed at high levels during embryonic development; in adults, significant expression is found in Schwann cells, meningeal cells, lens and nerve. Mutations in this gene are associated with neurofibromatosis type II which is characterized by nervous system and skin tumors and ocular abnormalities. Two predominant isoforms and a number of minor isoforms are produced by alternatively spliced transcripts. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NME2 NME/NM23 nucleoside diphosphate kinase 2|Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK) exists as a hexamer composed of 'A' (encoded by NME1) and 'B' (encoded by this gene) isoforms. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. Read-through transcription from the neighboring upstream gene (NME1) generates naturally-occurring transcripts (NME1-NME2) that encode a fusion protein comprised of sequence sharing identity with each individual gene product. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
NOD2 nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2|This gene is a member of the Nod1/Apaf-1 family and encodes a protein with two caspase recruitment (CARD) domains and six leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). The protein is primarily expressed in the peripheral blood leukocytes. It plays a role in the immune response to intracellular bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) by recognizing the muramyl dipeptide (MDP) derived from them and activating the NFKB protein. Mutations in this gene have been associated with Crohn disease and Blau syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
NOS2 nitric oxide synthase 2, inducible|Nitric oxide is a reactive free radical which acts as a biologic mediator in several processes, including neurotransmission and antimicrobial and antitumoral activities. This gene encodes a nitric oxide synthase which is expressed in liver and is inducible by a combination of lipopolysaccharide and certain cytokines. Three related pseudogenes are located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NPM1 nucleophosmin (nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, numatrin)|This gene encodes a phosphoprotein which moves between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The gene product is thought to be involved in several processes including regulation of the ARF/p53 pathway. A number of genes are fusion partners have been characterized, in particular the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene on chromosome 2. Mutations in this gene are associated with acute myeloid leukemia. More than a dozen pseudogenes of this gene have been identified. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
NUMA1 nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1|This gene encodes a large protein that forms a structural component of the nuclear matrix. The encoded protein interacts with microtubules and plays a role in the formation and organization of the mitotic spindle during cell division. Chromosomal translocation of this gene with the RARA (retinoic acid receptor, alpha) gene on chromosome 17 have been detected in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
ORC1 origin recognition complex, subunit 1|The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a highly conserved six subunits protein complex essential for the initiation of the DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Studies in yeast demonstrated that ORC binds specifically to origins of replication and serves as a platform for the assembly of additional initiation factors such as Cdc6 and Mcm proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is the largest subunit of the ORC complex. While other ORC subunits are stable throughout the cell cycle, the levels of this protein vary during the cell cycle, which has been shown to be controlled by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis after initiation of DNA replication. This protein is found to be selectively phosphorylated during mitosis. It is also reported to interact with MYST histone acetyltransferase 2 (MyST2/HBO1), a protein involved in control of transcription silencing. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
PA2G4 proliferation-associated 2G4, 38kDa|This gene encodes an RNA-binding protein that is involved in growth regulation. This protein is present in pre-ribosomal ribonucleoprotein complexes and may be involved in ribosome assembly and the regulation of intermediate and late steps of rRNA processing. This protein can interact with the cytoplasmic domain of the ErbB3 receptor and may contribute to transducing growth regulatory signals. This protein is also a transcriptional co-repressor of androgen receptor-regulated genes and other cell cycle regulatory genes through its interactions with histone deacetylases. This protein has been implicated in growth inhibition and the induction of differentiation of human cancer cells. Six pseudogenes, located on chromosomes 3, 6, 9, 18, 20 and X, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PAK2 p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 2|The p21 activated kinases (PAK) are critical effectors that link Rho GTPases to cytoskeleton reorganization and nuclear signaling. The PAK proteins are a family of serine/threonine kinases that serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins, CDC42 and RAC1, and have been implicated in a wide range of biological activities. The protein encoded by this gene is activated by proteolytic cleavage during caspase-mediated apoptosis, and may play a role in regulating the apoptotic events in the dying cell. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PAPSS1 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase 1|Three-prime-phosphoadenosine 5-prime-phosphosulfate (PAPS) is the sulfate donor cosubstrate for all sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes (Xu et al., 2000 [PubMed 10679223]). SULTs catalyze the sulfate conjugation of many endogenous and exogenous compounds, including drugs and other xenobiotics. In humans, PAPS is synthesized from adenosine 5-prime triphosphate (ATP) and inorganic sulfate by 2 isoforms, PAPSS1 and PAPSS2 (MIM 603005).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008]
PAX7 paired box 7|This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. Members of this gene family typically contain a paired box domain, an octapeptide, and a paired-type homeodomain. These genes play critical roles during fetal development and cancer growth. The specific function of the paired box 7 gene is unknown but speculated to involve tumor suppression since fusion of this gene with a forkhead domain family member has been associated with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
PCNA proliferating cell nuclear antigen|The protein encoded by this gene is found in the nucleus and is a cofactor of DNA polymerase delta. The encoded protein acts as a homotrimer and helps increase the processivity of leading strand synthesis during DNA replication. In response to DNA damage, this protein is ubiquitinated and is involved in the RAD6-dependent DNA repair pathway. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. Pseudogenes of this gene have been described on chromosome 4 and on the X chromosome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PDCD1 programmed cell death 1|This gene encodes a cell surface membrane protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily. This protein is expressed in pro-B-cells and is thought to play a role in their differentiation. In mice, expression of this gene is induced in the thymus when anti-CD3 antibodies are injected and large numbers of thymocytes undergo apoptosis. Mice deficient for this gene bred on a BALB/c background developed dilated cardiomyopathy and died from congestive heart failure. These studies suggest that this gene product may also be important in T cell function and contribute to the prevention of autoimmune diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PDPK1 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1|
PECAM1 platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1|The protein encoded by this gene is found on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and some types of T-cells, and makes up a large portion of endothelial cell intercellular junctions. The encoded protein is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is likely involved in leukocyte migration, angiogenesis, and integrin activation. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
PFN1 profilin 1|This gene encodes a member of the profilin family of small actin-binding proteins. The encoded protein plays an important role in actin dynamics by regulating actin polymerization in response to extracellular signals. Deletion of this gene is associated with Miller-Dieker syndrome, and the encoded protein may also play a role in Huntington disease. Multiple pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosome 1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
PHB prohibitin|This gene is evolutionarily conserved, and its product is proposed to play a role in human cellular senescence and tumor suppression. Antiproliferative activity is reported to be localized to the 3' UTR, which is proposed to function as a trans-acting regulatory RNA. Several pseudogenes of this gene have been identified. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
PML promyelocytic leukemia|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2, and a coiled-coil region. This phosphoprotein localizes to nuclear bodies where it functions as a transcription factor and tumor suppressor. Its expression is cell-cycle related and it regulates the p53 response to oncogenic signals. The gene is often involved in the translocation with the retinoic acid receptor alpha gene associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Extensive alternative splicing of this gene results in several variations of the protein's central and C-terminal regions; all variants encode the same N-terminus. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPM1D protein phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent, 1D|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases. PP2C family members are known to be negative regulators of cell stress response pathways. The expression of this gene is induced in a p53-dependent manner in response to various environmental stresses. While being induced by tumor suppressor protein TP53/p53, this phosphatase negatively regulates the activity of p38 MAP kinase, MAPK/p38, through which it reduces the phosphorylation of p53, and in turn suppresses p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis. This phosphatase thus mediates a feedback regulation of p38-p53 signaling that contributes to growth inhibition and the suppression of stress induced apoptosis. This gene is located in a chromosomal region known to be amplified in breast cancer. The amplification of this gene has been detected in both breast cancer cell line and primary breast tumors, which suggests a role of this gene in cancer development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPP1CA protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme|The protein encoded by this gene is one of the three catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). PP1 is a serine/threonine specific protein phosphatase known to be involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes, such as cell division, glycogen metabolism, muscle contractility, protein synthesis, and HIV-1 viral transcription. Increased PP1 activity has been observed in the end stage of heart failure. Studies in both human and mice suggest that PP1 is an important regulator of cardiac function. Mouse studies also suggest that PP1 functions as a suppressor of learning and memory. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPP1CC protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the protein phosphatase family, PP1 subfamily. PP1 is an ubiquitous serine/threonine phosphatase that regulates many cellular processes, including cell division. It is expressed in mammalian cells as three closely related isoforms, alpha, beta/delta and gamma, which have distinct localization patterns. This gene encodes the gamma isozyme. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
PPP2CA protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme|This gene encodes the phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. This gene encodes an alpha isoform of the catalytic subunit. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPP2R4 protein phosphatase 2A activator, regulatory subunit 4|Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases and is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. Protein phosphatase 2A holoenzymes are heterotrimeric proteins composed of a structural subunit A, a catalytic subunit C, and a regulatory subunit B. The regulatory subunit is encoded by a diverse set of genes that have been grouped into the B/PR55, B'/PR61, and B''/PR72 families. These different regulatory subunits confer distinct enzymatic specificities and intracellular localizations to the holozenzyme. The product of this gene belongs to the B' family. This gene encodes a specific phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activator of the dimeric form of protein phosphatase 2A. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPP2R5B protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', beta|The product of this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes a beta isoform of the regulatory subunit B56 subfamily. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PPP2R5E protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', epsilon isoform|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit B family. Protein phosphatase 2A is one of the four major Ser/Thr phosphatases, and it is implicated in the negative control of cell growth and division. It consists of a common heteromeric core enzyme, which is composed of a catalytic subunit and a constant regulatory subunit, that associates with a variety of regulatory subunits. The B regulatory subunit might modulate substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. This gene encodes an epsilon isoform of the regulatory subunit B56 subfamily. Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
PPP5C protein phosphatase 5, catalytic subunit|This gene encodes a serine/threonine phosphatase which is a member of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit family. Proteins in this family participate in pathways regulated by reversible phosphorylation at serine and threonine residues; many of these pathways are involved in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation. The product of this gene has been shown to participate in signaling pathways in response to hormones or cellular stress, and elevated levels of this protein may be associated with breast cancer development. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
PPP6C protein phosphatase 6, catalytic subunit|This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase, a component of a signaling pathway regulating cell cycle progression. Splice variants encoding different protein isoforms exist. The pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome X. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PRDX2 peroxiredoxin 2|This gene encodes a member of the peroxiredoxin family of antioxidant enzymes, which reduce hydrogen peroxide and alkyl hydroperoxides. The encoded protein plays an antioxidant protective role in cells, and it may contribute to the antiviral activity of CD8(+) T-cells. The crystal structure of this protein has been resolved to 2.7 angstroms. This protein prevents hemolytic anemia from oxidative stress by stabilizing hemoglobin, thus making this gene a therapeutic target for patients with hemolytic anemia. This protein may have a proliferative effect and play a role in cancer development or progression. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 5, 6, 10 and 13. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2013]
PRDX3 peroxiredoxin 3|This gene encodes a mitochondrial protein with antioxidant function. The protein is similar to the C22 subunit of Salmonella typhimurium alkylhydroperoxide reductase, and it can rescue bacterial resistance to alkylhydroperoxide in E. coli that lack the C22 subunit. The human and mouse genes are highly conserved, and they map to the regions syntenic between mouse and human chromosomes. Sequence comparisons with recently cloned mammalian homologs suggest that these genes consist of a family that is responsible for the regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and antioxidant functions. This family member can protect cells from oxidative stress, and it can promote cell survival in prostate cancer. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1, 3, 13 and 22. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2014]
PRKACA protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha|This gene encodes one of the catalytic subunits of protein kinase A, which exists as a tetrameric holoenzyme with two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits, in its inactive form. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins by protein kinase A is important to many cellular processes, including differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Constitutive activation of this gene caused either by somatic mutations, or genomic duplications of regions that include this gene, have been associated with hyperplasias and adenomas of the adrenal cortex and are linked to corticotropin-independent Cushing's syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Tissue-specific isoforms that differ at the N-terminus have been described, and these isoforms may differ in the post-translational modifications that occur at the N-terminus of some isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
PRKAG1 protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 1 non-catalytic subunit|The protein encoded by this gene is a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of an alpha catalytic subunit, and non-catalytic beta and gamma subunits. AMPK is an important energy-sensing enzyme that monitors cellular energy status. In response to cellular metabolic stresses, AMPK is activated, and thus phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and beta-hydroxy beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), key enzymes involved in regulating de novo biosynthesis of fatty acid and cholesterol. This subunit is one of the gamma regulatory subunits of AMPK. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PRKAR1A protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, regulatory, type I, alpha|cAMP is a signaling molecule important for a variety of cellular functions. cAMP exerts its effects by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which transduces the signal through phosphorylation of different target proteins. The inactive kinase holoenzyme is a tetramer composed of two regulatory and two catalytic subunits. cAMP causes the dissociation of the inactive holoenzyme into a dimer of regulatory subunits bound to four cAMP and two free monomeric catalytic subunits. Four different regulatory subunits and three catalytic subunits have been identified in humans. This gene encodes one of the regulatory subunits. This protein was found to be a tissue-specific extinguisher that down-regulates the expression of seven liver genes in hepatoma x fibroblast hybrids. Mutations in this gene cause Carney complex (CNC). This gene can fuse to the RET protooncogene by gene rearrangement and form the thyroid tumor-specific chimeric oncogene known as PTC2. A nonconventional nuclear localization sequence (NLS) has been found for this protein which suggests a role in DNA replication via the protein serving as a nuclear transport protein for the second subunit of the Replication Factor C (RFC40). Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
PRKCA protein kinase C, alpha|Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and the second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC family members also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play a distinct role in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This kinase has been reported to play roles in many different cellular processes, such as cell adhesion, cell transformation, cell cycle checkpoint, and cell volume control. Knockout studies in mice suggest that this kinase may be a fundamental regulator of cardiac contractility and Ca(2+) handling in myocytes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PRKCG protein kinase C, gamma|Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine- and threonine-specific protein kinases that can be activated by calcium and second messenger diacylglycerol. PKC family members phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are known to be involved in diverse cellular signaling pathways. PKC also serve as major receptors for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters. Each member of the PKC family has a specific expression profile and is believed to play distinct roles in cells. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PKC family members. This protein kinase is expressed solely in the brain and spinal cord and its localization is restricted to neurons. It has been demonstrated that several neuronal functions, including long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD), specifically require this kinase. Knockout studies in mice also suggest that this kinase may be involved in neuropathic pain development. Defects in this protein have been associated with neurodegenerative disorder spinocerebellar ataxia-14 (SCA14). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PRKDC protein kinase, DNA-activated, catalytic polypeptide|This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). It functions with the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer protein in DNA double strand break repair and recombination. The protein encoded is a member of the PI3/PI4-kinase family.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
PSMC1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase, 1|The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases which have a chaperone-like activity. This subunit and a 20S core alpha subunit interact specifically with the hepatitis B virus X protein, a protein critical to viral replication. This subunit also interacts with the adenovirus E1A protein and this interaction alters the activity of the proteasome. Finally, this subunit interacts with ataxin-7, suggesting a role for the proteasome in the development of spinocerebellar ataxia type 7, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PSMC2 proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, ATPase, 2|The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes one of the ATPase subunits, a member of the triple-A family of ATPases which have a chaperone-like activity. This subunit has been shown to interact with several of the basal transcription factors so, in addition to participation in proteasome functions, this subunit may participate in the regulation of transcription. This subunit may also compete with PSMC3 for binding to the HIV tat protein to regulate the interaction between the viral protein and the transcription complex. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
PSME1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 1 (PA28 alpha)|The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. The immunoproteasome contains an alternate regulator, referred to as the 11S regulator or PA28, that replaces the 19S regulator. Three subunits (alpha, beta and gamma) of the 11S regulator have been identified. This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the 11S regulator, one of the two 11S subunits that is induced by gamma-interferon. Three alpha and three beta subunits combine to form a heterohexameric ring. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
PSMF1 proteasome (prosome, macropain) inhibitor subunit 1 (PI31)|The 26S proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex with a highly ordered structure composed of 2 complexes, a 20S core and a 19S regulator. The 20S core is composed of 4 rings of 28 non-identical subunits; 2 rings are composed of 7 alpha subunits and 2 rings are composed of 7 beta subunits. The 19S regulator is composed of a base, which contains 6 ATPase subunits and 2 non-ATPase subunits, and a lid, which contains up to 10 non-ATPase subunits. Proteasomes are distributed throughout eukaryotic cells at a high concentration and cleave peptides in an ATP/ubiquitin-dependent process in a non-lysosomal pathway. An essential function of a modified proteasome, the immunoproteasome, is the processing of class I MHC peptides. This gene encodes a protein that inhibits the activation of the proteasome by the 11S and 19S regulators. Alternative transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PTEN phosphatase and tensin homolog|This gene was identified as a tumor suppressor that is mutated in a large number of cancers at high frequency. The protein encoded by this gene is a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase. It contains a tensin like domain as well as a catalytic domain similar to that of the dual specificity protein tyrosine phosphatases. Unlike most of the protein tyrosine phosphatases, this protein preferentially dephosphorylates phosphoinositide substrates. It negatively regulates intracellular levels of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate in cells and functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating AKT/PKB signaling pathway. The use of a non-canonical (CUG) upstream initiation site produces a longer isoform that initiates translation with a leucine, and is thought to be preferentially associated with the mitochondrial inner membrane. This longer isoform may help regulate energy metabolism in the mitochondria. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 9. Alternative splicing and the use of multiple translation start codons results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2015]
PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2|This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase which is found concentrated in the focal adhesions that form between cells growing in the presence of extracellular matrix constituents. The encoded protein is a member of the FAK subfamily of protein tyrosine kinases but lacks significant sequence similarity to kinases from other subfamilies. Activation of this gene may be an important early step in cell growth and intracellular signal transduction pathways triggered in response to certain neural peptides or to cell interactions with the extracellular matrix. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, but the full-length natures of only three of them have been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
PTPN11 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains two tandem Src homology-2 domains, which function as phospho-tyrosine binding domains and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. This PTP is widely expressed in most tissues and plays a regulatory role in various cell signaling events that are important for a diversity of cell functions, such as mitogenic activation, metabolic control, transcription regulation, and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are a cause of Noonan syndrome as well as acute myeloid leukemia. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
PTPN4 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 4 (megakaryocyte)|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This protein contains a C-terminal PTP domain and an N-terminal domain homologous to the band 4.1 superfamily of cytoskeletal-associated proteins. This PTP has been shown to interact with glutamate receptor delta 2 and epsilon subunits, and is thought to play a role in signalling downstream of the glutamate receptors through tyrosine dephosphorylation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PTPN6 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 6|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. N-terminal part of this PTP contains two tandem Src homolog (SH2) domains, which act as protein phospho-tyrosine binding domains, and mediate the interaction of this PTP with its substrates. This PTP is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells, and functions as an important regulator of multiple signaling pathways in hematopoietic cells. This PTP has been shown to interact with, and dephosphorylate a wide spectrum of phospho-proteins involved in hematopoietic cell signaling. Multiple alternatively spliced variants of this gene, which encode distinct isoforms, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PTPN9 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 9|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an N-terminal domain that shares a significant similarity with yeast SEC14, which is a protein that has phosphatidylinositol transfer activity and is required for protein secretion through the Golgi complex in yeast. This PTP was found to be activated by polyphosphoinositide, and is thought to be involved in signaling events regulating phagocytosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PTPRB protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, B|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment and one intracytoplasmic catalytic domain, thus belongs to receptor type PTP. The extracellular region of this PTP is composed of multiple fibronectin type_III repeats, which was shown to interact with neuronal receptor and cell adhesion molecules, such as contactin and tenascin C. This protein was also found to interact with sodium channels, and thus may regulate sodium channels by altering tyrosine phosphorylation status. The functions of the interaction partners of this protein implicate the roles of this PTP in cell adhesion, neurite growth, and neuronal differentiation. Alternate transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
PTPRC protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitosis, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular domain, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus is classified as a receptor type PTP. This PTP has been shown to be an essential regulator of T- and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. It functions through either direct interaction with components of the antigen receptor complexes, or by activating various Src family kinases required for the antigen receptor signaling. This PTP also suppresses JAK kinases, and thus functions as a regulator of cytokine receptor signaling. Alternatively spliced transcripts variants of this gene, which encode distinct isoforms, have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
PTPRD protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, D|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP contains an extracellular region, a single transmembrane segment and two tandem intracytoplasmic catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region of this protein is composed of three Ig-like and eight fibronectin type III-like domains. Studies of the similar genes in chicken and fly suggest the role of this PTP is in promoting neurite growth, and regulating neurons axon guidance. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been reported. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 5. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
PTPRR protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, R|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and a single intracellular catalytic domain, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. Silencing of this gene has been associated with colorectal cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. This gene shares a symbol (PTPRQ) with another gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, Q (GeneID 374462), which is also located on chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
PTPRU protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, U|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family. PTPs are known to be signaling molecules that regulate a variety of cellular processes including cell growth, differentiation, mitotic cycle, and oncogenic transformation. This PTP possesses an extracellular region, a single transmembrane region, and two tandem intracellular catalytic domains, and thus represents a receptor-type PTP. The extracellular region contains a meprin-A5 antigen-PTP (MAM) domain, Ig-like and fibronectin type III-like repeats. This PTP was thought to play roles in cell-cell recognition and adhesion. Studies of the similar gene in mice suggested the role of this PTP in early neural development. The expression of this gene was reported to be regulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or calcium ionophore in Jurkat T lymphoma cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
PTX3 pentraxin 3, long|
RAB10 RAB10, member RAS oncogene family|RAB10 belongs to the RAS (see HRAS; MIM 190020) superfamily of small GTPases. RAB proteins localize to exocytic and endocytic compartments and regulate intracellular vesicle trafficking (Bao et al., 1998 [PubMed 9918381]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2009]
RAB11A RAB11A, member RAS oncogene family|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Rab family of the small GTPase superfamily. It is associated with both constitutive and regulated secretory pathways, and may be involved in protein transport. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
RAB1A RAB1A, member RAS oncogene family|This gene encodes a member of the Ras superfamily of GTPases. Members of the gene family cycle between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound forms. This small GTPase controls vesicle traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene which encode different protein isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
RAB29 RAB29, member RAS oncogene family|
RAB3A RAB3A, member RAS oncogene family|
RAB5A RAB5A, member RAS oncogene family|
RAB6A RAB6A, member RAS oncogene family|This gene encodes a member of the RAB family, which belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. GTPases of the RAB family bind to various effectors to regulate the targeting and fusion of transport carriers to acceptor compartments. This protein is located at the Golgi apparatus, which regulates trafficking in both a retrograde (from early endosomes and Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum) and an anterograde (from the Golgi to the plasma membrane) directions. Myosin II is an effector of this protein in these processes. This protein is also involved in assembly of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) by interacting with the cellular protein Bicaudal D1, which interacts with the HCMV virion tegument protein, pp150. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
RAC1 ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1)|The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase which belongs to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
RAD21 RAD21 homolog (S. pombe)|The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to the gene product of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad21, a gene involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, as well as in chromatid cohesion during mitosis. This protein is a nuclear phospho-protein, which becomes hyperphosphorylated in cell cycle M phase. The highly regulated association of this protein with mitotic chromatin specifically at the centromere region suggests its role in sister chromatid cohesion in mitotic cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RAD23A RAD23 homolog A (S. cerevisiae)|The protein encoded by this gene is one of two human homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad23, a protein involved in nucleotide excision repair. Proteins in this family have a modular domain structure consisting of an ubiquitin-like domain (UbL), ubiquitin-associated domain 1 (UbA1), XPC-binding domain and UbA2. The protein encoded by this gene plays an important role in nucleotide excision repair and also in delivery of polyubiquitinated proteins to the proteasome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
RAD23B RAD23 homolog B (S. cerevisiae)|The protein encoded by this gene is one of two human homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad23, a protein involved in the nucleotide excision repair (NER). This protein was found to be a component of the protein complex that specifically complements the NER defect of xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XP-c) cell extracts in vitro. This protein was also shown to interact with, and elevate the nucleotide excision activity of 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosylase (MPG), which suggested a role in DNA damage recognition in base excision repair. This protein contains an N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain, which was reported to interact with 26S proteasome, and thus this protein may be involved in the ubiquitin mediated proteolytic pathway in cells. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
RAD51D RAD51 paralog D|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein family. RAD51 family members are highly similar to bacterial RecA and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad51, which are known to be involved in the homologous recombination and repair of DNA. This protein forms a complex with several other members of the RAD51 family, including RAD51L1, RAD51L2, and XRCC2. The protein complex formed with this protein has been shown to catalyze homologous pairing between single- and double-stranded DNA, and is thought to play a role in the early stage of recombinational repair of DNA. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the downstream ring finger and FYVE-like domain containing 1 (RFFL) gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
RAD54L RAD54-like (S. cerevisiae)|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the DEAD-like helicase superfamily, and shares similarity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad54, a protein known to be involved in the homologous recombination and repair of DNA. This protein has been shown to play a role in homologous recombination related repair of DNA double-strand breaks. The binding of this protein to double-strand DNA induces a DNA topological change, which is thought to facilitate homologous DNA paring, and stimulate DNA recombination. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding the same protein.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2008]
RAF1 Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase|This gene is the cellular homolog of viral raf gene (v-raf). The encoded protein is a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), which functions downstream of the Ras family of membrane associated GTPases to which it binds directly. Once activated, the cellular RAF1 protein can phosphorylate to activate the dual specificity protein kinases MEK1 and MEK2, which in turn phosphorylate to activate the serine/threonine specific protein kinases, ERK1 and ERK2. Activated ERKs are pleiotropic effectors of cell physiology and play an important role in the control of gene expression involved in the cell division cycle, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cell migration. Mutations in this gene are associated with Noonan syndrome 5 and LEOPARD syndrome 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RAN RAN, member RAS oncogene family|RAN (ras-related nuclear protein) is a small GTP binding protein belonging to the RAS superfamily that is essential for the translocation of RNA and proteins through the nuclear pore complex. The RAN protein is also involved in control of DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. Nuclear localization of RAN requires the presence of regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1). Mutations in RAN disrupt DNA synthesis. Because of its many functions, it is likely that RAN interacts with several other proteins. RAN regulates formation and organization of the microtubule network independently of its role in the nucleus-cytosol exchange of macromolecules. RAN could be a key signaling molecule regulating microtubule polymerization during mitosis. RCC1 generates a high local concentration of RAN-GTP around chromatin which, in turn, induces the local nucleation of microtubules. RAN is an androgen receptor (AR) coactivator that binds differentially with different lengths of polyglutamine within the androgen receptor. Polyglutamine repeat expansion in the AR is linked to Kennedy's disease (X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy). RAN coactivation of the AR diminishes with polyglutamine expansion within the AR, and this weak coactivation may lead to partial androgen insensitivity during the development of Kennedy's disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RAP1A RAP1A, member of RAS oncogene family|This gene encodes a member of the Ras family of small GTPases. The encoded protein undergoes a change in conformational state and activity, depending on whether it is bound to GTP or GDP. This protein is activated by several types of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), and inactivated by two groups of GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). The activation status of the encoded protein is therefore affected by the balance of intracellular levels of GEFs and GAPs. The encoded protein regulates signaling pathways that affect cell proliferation and adhesion, and may play a role in tumor malignancy. Pseudogenes of this gene have been defined on chromosomes 14 and 17. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
RAP1B RAP1B, member of RAS oncogene family|This gene encodes a member of the RAS-like small GTP-binding protein superfamily. Members of this family regulate multiple cellular processes including cell adhesion and growth and differentiation. This protein localizes to cellular membranes and has been shown to regulate integrin-mediated cell signaling. This protein also plays a role in regulating outside-in signaling in platelets. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 3, 5, 6 and 9. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
RAP2A RAP2A, member of RAS oncogene family|
RBBP6 retinoblastoma binding protein 6|The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (pRB) protein binds with many other proteins. In various human cancers, pRB suppresses cellular proliferation and is inactivated. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation regulates the activity of pRB. This gene encodes a protein which binds to underphosphorylated but not phosphorylated pRB. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RBBP8 retinoblastoma binding protein 8|The protein encoded by this gene is a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein. It is found among several proteins that bind directly to retinoblastoma protein, which regulates cell proliferation. This protein complexes with transcriptional co-repressor CTBP. It is also associated with BRCA1 and is thought to modulate the functions of BRCA1 in transcriptional regulation, DNA repair, and/or cell cycle checkpoint control. It is suggested that this gene may itself be a tumor suppressor acting in the same pathway as BRCA1. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. More transcript variants exist, but their full-length natures have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RBM8A RNA binding motif protein 8A|This gene encodes a protein with a conserved RNA-binding motif. The protein is found predominantly in the nucleus, although it is also present in the cytoplasm. It is preferentially associated with mRNAs produced by splicing, including both nuclear mRNAs and newly exported cytoplasmic mRNAs. It is thought that the protein remains associated with spliced mRNAs as a tag to indicate where introns had been present, thus coupling pre- and post-mRNA splicing events. Previously, it was thought that two genes encode this protein, RBM8A and RBM8B; it is now thought that the RBM8B locus is a pseudogene. There are two alternate translation start codons with this gene, which result in two forms of the protein. An allele mutation and a low-frequency noncoding single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in this gene cause thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
REV3L REV3-like, polymerase (DNA directed), zeta, catalytic subunit|
RFC1 replication factor C (activator 1) 1, 145kDa|This gene encodes the large subunit of replication factor C, a five subunit DNA polymerase accessory protein, which is a DNA-dependent ATPase required for eukaryotic DNA replication and repair. The large subunit acts as an activator of DNA polymerases, binds to the 3' end of primers, and promotes coordinated synthesis of both strands. It may also have a role in telomere stability. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
RFC3 replication factor C (activator 1) 3, 38kDa|The elongation of primed DNA templates by DNA polymerase delta and DNA polymerase epsilon requires the accessory proteins proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and replication factor C (RFC). RFC, also named activator 1, is a protein complex consisting of five distinct subunits of 140, 40, 38, 37, and 36 kDa. This gene encodes the 38 kDa subunit. This subunit is essential for the interaction between the 140 kDa subunit and the core complex that consists of the 36, 37, and 40 kDa subunits. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RFC4 replication factor C (activator 1) 4, 37kDa|The elongation of primed DNA templates by DNA polymerase delta and DNA polymerase epsilon requires the accessory proteins proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and replication factor C (RFC). RFC, also named activator 1, is a protein complex consisting of five distinct subunits of 140, 40, 38, 37, and 36 kD. This gene encodes the 37 kD subunit. This subunit forms a core complex with the 36 and 40 kDa subunits. The core complex possesses DNA-dependent ATPase activity, which was found to be stimulated by PCNA in an in vitro system. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RFC5 replication factor C (activator 1) 5, 36.5kDa|The elongation of primed DNA templates by DNA polymerase delta and DNA polymerase epsilon requires the accessory proteins proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and replication factor C (RFC). RFC, also named activator 1, is a protein complex consisting of five distinct subunits of 140, 40, 38, 37, and 36 kD. This gene encodes the 36 kD subunit. This subunit can interact with the C-terminal region of PCNA. It forms a core complex with the 38 and 40 kDa subunits. The core complex possesses DNA-dependent ATPase activity, which was found to be stimulated by PCNA in an in vitro system. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
RING1 ring finger protein 1|This gene belongs to the RING finger family, members of which encode proteins characterized by a RING domain, a zinc-binding motif related to the zinc finger domain. The gene product can bind DNA and can act as a transcriptional repressor. It is associated with the multimeric polycomb group protein complex. The gene product interacts with the polycomb group proteins BMI1, EDR1, and CBX4, and colocalizes with these proteins in large nuclear domains. It interacts with the CBX4 protein via its glycine-rich C-terminal domain. The gene maps to the HLA class II region, where it is contiguous with the RING finger genes FABGL and HKE4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RPA1 replication protein A1, 70kDa|
RPA2 replication protein A2, 32kDa|
RRM1 ribonucleotide reductase M1|This gene encodes one of two non-identical subunits that constitute ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase, an enzyme essential for the production of deoxyribonucleotides prior to DNA synthesis in S phase of dividing cells. It is one of several genes located in the imprinted gene domain of 11p15.5, an important tumor-suppressor gene region. Alterations in this region have been associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Wilms tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, adrenocrotical carcinoma, and lung, ovarian, and breast cancer. This gene may play a role in malignancies and disease that involve this region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RRM2 ribonucleotide reductase M2|This gene encodes one of two non-identical subunits for ribonucleotide reductase. This reductase catalyzes the formation of deoxyribonucleotides from ribonucleotides. Synthesis of the encoded protein (M2) is regulated in a cell-cycle dependent fashion. Transcription from this gene can initiate from alternative promoters, which results in two isoforms that differ in the lengths of their N-termini. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1 and X. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
RTN1 reticulon 1|This gene belongs to the family of reticulon encoding genes. Reticulons are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, and are involved in neuroendocrine secretion or in membrane trafficking in neuroendocrine cells. This gene is considered to be a specific marker for neurological diseases and cancer, and is a potential molecular target for therapy. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
RUNX1 runt-related transcription factor 1|Core binding factor (CBF) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that binds to the core element of many enhancers and promoters. The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit of CBF and is thought to be involved in the development of normal hematopoiesis. Chromosomal translocations involving this gene are well-documented and have been associated with several types of leukemia. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
S100A4 S100 calcium binding protein A4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the S100 family of proteins containing 2 EF-hand calcium-binding motifs. S100 proteins are localized in the cytoplasm and/or nucleus of a wide range of cells, and involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes such as cell cycle progression and differentiation. S100 genes include at least 13 members which are located as a cluster on chromosome 1q21. This protein may function in motility, invasion, and tubulin polymerization. Chromosomal rearrangements and altered expression of this gene have been implicated in tumor metastasis. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SART1 squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T cells|This gene encodes two proteins, the SART1(800) protein expressed in the nucleus of the majority of proliferating cells, and the SART1(259) protein expressed in the cytosol of epithelial cancers. The SART1(259) protein is translated by the mechanism of -1 frameshifting during posttranscriptional regulation; its full-length sequence is not published yet. The two encoded proteins are thought to be involved in the regulation of proliferation. Both proteins have tumor-rejection antigens. The SART1(259) protein possesses tumor epitopes capable of inducing HLA-A2402-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes in cancer patients. This SART1(259) antigen may be useful in specific immunotherapy for cancer patients and may serve as a paradigmatic tool for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with atopy. The SART1(259) protein is found to be essential for the recruitment of the tri-snRNP to the pre-spliceosome in the spliceosome assembly pathway. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SELL selectin L|This gene encodes a cell surface adhesion molecule that belongs to a family of adhesion/homing receptors. The encoded protein contains a C-type lectin-like domain, a calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like domain, and two short complement-like repeats. The gene product is required for binding and subsequent rolling of leucocytes on endothelial cells, facilitating their migration into secondary lymphoid organs and inflammation sites. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene have been associated with various diseases including immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
SEPT7 septin 7|This gene encodes a protein that is highly similar to the CDC10 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protein also shares similarity with Diff 6 of Drosophila and with H5 of mouse. Each of these similar proteins, including the yeast CDC10, contains a GTP-binding motif. The yeast CDC10 protein is a structural component of the 10 nm filament which lies inside the cytoplasmic membrane and is essential for cytokinesis. This human protein functions in gliomagenesis and in the suppression of glioma cell growth, and it is required for the association of centromere-associated protein E with the kinetochore. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Several related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 14, 17 and 19. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
SERPINB5 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 5|
SERPINI2 serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade I (pancpin), member 2|The gene encodes a member of a family of proteins that acts as inhibitors of serine proteases. These proteins function in the regulation of a variety of physiological processes, including coagulation, fibrinolysis, development, malignancy, and inflammation. Expression of the encoded protein may be downregulated during pancreatic carcinogenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
SIRT2 sirtuin 2|This gene encodes a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, homologs to the yeast Sir2 protein. Members of the sirtuin family are characterized by a sirtuin core domain and grouped into four classes. The functions of human sirtuins have not yet been determined; however, yeast sirtuin proteins are known to regulate epigenetic gene silencing and suppress recombination of rDNA. Studies suggest that the human sirtuins may function as intracellular regulatory proteins with mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The protein encoded by this gene is included in class I of the sirtuin family. Several transcript variants are resulted from alternative splicing of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
SKP1 S-phase kinase-associated protein 1|This gene encodes a component of SCF complexes, which are composed of this protein, cullin 1, a ring-box protein, and one member of the F-box family of proteins. This protein binds directly to the F-box motif found in F-box proteins. SCF complexes are involved in the regulated ubiquitination of specific protein substrates, which targets them for degradation by the proteosome. Specific F-box proteins recognize different target protein(s), and many specific SCF substrates have been identified including regulators of cell cycle progression and development. Studies have also characterized the protein as an RNA polymerase II elongation factor. Alternative splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMARCC1 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and contains a predicted leucine zipper motif typical of many transcription factors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMARCD1 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily d, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and has sequence similarity to the yeast Swp73 protein. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMC1A structural maintenance of chromosomes 1A|Proper cohesion of sister chromatids is a prerequisite for the correct segregation of chromosomes during cell division. The cohesin multiprotein complex is required for sister chromatid cohesion. This complex is composed partly of two structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) proteins, SMC3 and either SMC1B or the protein encoded by this gene. Most of the cohesin complexes dissociate from the chromosomes before mitosis, although those complexes at the kinetochore remain. Therefore, the encoded protein is thought to be an important part of functional kinetochores. In addition, this protein interacts with BRCA1 and is phosphorylated by ATM, indicating a potential role for this protein in DNA repair. This gene, which belongs to the SMC gene family, is located in an area of the X-chromosome that escapes X inactivation. Mutations in this gene result in Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
SMC2 structural maintenance of chromosomes 2|Members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes, or SMC, family (e.g., SMC1A; MIM 300040) are critical for mitotic chromosome condensation in frogs and for DNA repair in mammals.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
SMC4 structural maintenance of chromosomes 4|Members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes, or SMC, family (e.g., SMC1A; MIM 300040) are critical for mitotic chromosome condensation in frogs and for DNA repair in mammals.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2010]
SMO smoothened, frizzled class receptor|The protein encoded by this gene is a G protein-coupled receptor that interacts with the patched protein, a receptor for hedgehog proteins. The encoded protein tranduces signals to other proteins after activation by a hedgehog protein/patched protein complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
SNRK SNF related kinase|SNRK is a member of the sucrose nonfermenting (SNF)-related kinase family of serine/threonine kinases (Kertesz et al., 2002 [PubMed 12234663]).[supplied by OMIM, Apr 2009]
SNRNP70 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 70kDa (U1)|
SOD1 superoxide dismutase 1, soluble|The protein encoded by this gene binds copper and zinc ions and is one of two isozymes responsible for destroying free superoxide radicals in the body. The encoded isozyme is a soluble cytoplasmic protein, acting as a homodimer to convert naturally-occuring but harmful superoxide radicals to molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The other isozyme is a mitochondrial protein. Mutations in this gene have been implicated as causes of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Rare transcript variants have been reported for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SP3 Sp3 transcription factor|This gene belongs to a family of Sp1 related genes that encode transcription factors that regulate transcription by binding to consensus GC- and GT-box regulatory elements in target genes. This protein contains a zinc finger DNA-binding domain and several transactivation domains, and has been reported to function as a bifunctional transcription factor that either stimulates or represses the transcription of numerous genes. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene, and one has been reported to initiate translation from a non-AUG (AUA) start codon. Additional isoforms, resulting from the use of alternate downstream translation initiation sites, have also been noted. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 13. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
SPI1 Spi-1 proto-oncogene|This gene encodes an ETS-domain transcription factor that activates gene expression during myeloid and B-lymphoid cell development. The nuclear protein binds to a purine-rich sequence known as the PU-box found near the promoters of target genes, and regulates their expression in coordination with other transcription factors and cofactors. The protein can also regulate alternative splicing of target genes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SPINK1 serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a trypsin inhibitor, which is secreted from pancreatic acinar cells into pancreatic juice. It is thought to function in the prevention of trypsin-catalyzed premature activation of zymogens within the pancreas and the pancreatic duct. Mutations in this gene are associated with hereditary pancreatitis and tropical calcific pancreatitis. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
SPRR1B small proline-rich protein 1B|
SPTA1 spectrin, alpha, erythrocytic 1|Spectrin is an actin crosslinking and molecular scaffold protein that links the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton, and functions in the determination of cell shape, arrangement of transmembrane proteins, and organization of organelles. It is a tetramer made up of alpha-beta dimers linked in a head-to-head arrangement. This gene is one member of a family of alpha-spectrin genes. The encoded protein is primarily composed of 22 spectrin repeats which are involved in dimer formation. It forms weaker tetramer interactions than non-erythrocytic alpha spectrin, which may increase the plasma membrane elasticity and deformability of red blood cells. Mutations in this gene result in a variety of hereditary red blood cell disorders, including elliptocytosis type 2, pyropoikilocytosis, and spherocytic hemolytic anemia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SPTB spectrin, beta, erythrocytic|This locus encodes a member of the spectrin gene family. Spectrin proteins, along with ankyrin, play a role in cell membrane organization and stability. The protein encoded by this locus functions in stability of erythrocyte membranes, and mutations in this gene have been associated with spherocytosis type 2, hereditary elliptocytosis, and neonatal hemolytic anemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
SS18 synovial sarcoma translocation, chromosome 18|
ST13 suppression of tumorigenicity 13 (colon carcinoma) (Hsp70 interacting protein)|The protein encoded by this gene is an adaptor protein that mediates the association of the heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90. This protein has been shown to be involved in the assembly process of glucocorticoid receptor, which requires the assistance of multiple molecular chaperones. The expression of this gene is reported to be downregulated in colorectal carcinoma tissue suggesting that it is a candidate tumor suppressor gene. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2013]
STAT6 signal transducer and activator of transcription 6, interleukin-4 induced|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT family of transcription factors. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. This protein plays a central role in exerting IL4 mediated biological responses. It is found to induce the expression of BCL2L1/BCL-X(L), which is responsible for the anti-apoptotic activity of IL4. Knockout studies in mice suggested the roles of this gene in differentiation of T helper 2 (Th2) cells, expression of cell surface markers, and class switch of immunoglobulins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
STK17A serine/threonine kinase 17a|This gene is a member of the DAP kinase-related apoptosis-inducing protein kinase family and encodes an autophosphorylated nuclear protein with a protein kinase domain. The protein has apoptosis-inducing activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SUFU suppressor of fused homolog (Drosophila)|The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays an important role in early human development. The pathway is a signaling cascade that plays a role in pattern formation and cellular proliferation during development. This gene encodes a negative regulator of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Defects in this gene are a cause of medulloblastoma. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
SUPT3H suppressor of Ty 3 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
SUPT4H1 suppressor of Ty 4 homolog 1 (S. cerevisiae)|This gene encodes the small subunit of DRB (5,6-dichloro-1-beta-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole) sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) complex, which regulates mRNA processing and transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II. The encoded protein is localized to the nucleus and interacts with the large subunit (SUPT5H) to form the DSIF complex. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 2 and 12. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
TAL1 T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia 1|
TDG thymine-DNA glycosylase|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the TDG/mug DNA glycosylase family. Thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) removes thymine moieties from G/T mismatches by hydrolyzing the carbon-nitrogen bond between the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA and the mispaired thymine. With lower activity, this enzyme also removes thymine from C/T and T/T mispairings. TDG can also remove uracil and 5-bromouracil from mispairings with guanine. This enzyme plays a central role in cellular defense against genetic mutation caused by the spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine. This gene may have a pseudogene in the p arm of chromosome 12. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TEC tec protein tyrosine kinase|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Tec family of non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases containing a pleckstrin homology domain. Tec family kinases are involved in the intracellular signaling mechanisms of cytokine receptors, lymphocyte surface antigens, heterotrimeric G-protein coupled receptors, and integrin molecules. They are also key players in the regulation of the immune functions. Tec kinase is an integral component of T cell signaling and has a distinct role in T cell activation. This gene may be associated with myelodysplastic syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TERF1 telomeric repeat binding factor (NIMA-interacting) 1|This gene encodes a telomere specific protein which is a component of the telomere nucleoprotein complex. This protein is present at telomeres throughout the cell cycle and functions as an inhibitor of telomerase, acting in cis to limit the elongation of individual chromosome ends. The protein structure contains a C-terminal Myb motif, a dimerization domain near its N-terminus and an acidic N-terminus. Two transcripts of this gene are alternatively spliced products. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TERF2IP telomeric repeat binding factor 2, interacting protein|The gene encodes a protein that is part of a complex involved in telomere length regulation. Pseudogenes are present on chromosomes 5 and 22. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
TFDP2 transcription factor Dp-2 (E2F dimerization partner 2)|The gene is a member of the transcription factor DP family. The encoded protein forms heterodimers with the E2F transcription factors resulting in transcriptional activation of cell cycle regulated genes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
THPO thrombopoietin|Megakaryocytopoiesis is the cellular development process that leads to platelet production. The main functional protein encoded by this gene is a humoral growth factor that is necessary for megakaryocyte proliferation and maturation, as well as for thrombopoiesis. This protein is the ligand for MLP/C_MPL, the product of myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene. Mutations in this gene are the cause of thrombocythemia 1. Alternative promoter usage and differential splicing result in multiple transcript variants differing in the 5' UTR and/or coding region. Multiple AUG codons upstream of the main open reading frame (ORF) have been identified, and these upstream AUGs inhibit translation of the main ORF at different extent. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
THRA thyroid hormone receptor, alpha|The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear hormone receptor for triiodothyronine. It is one of the several receptors for thyroid hormone, and has been shown to mediate the biological activities of thyroid hormone. Knockout studies in mice suggest that the different receptors, while having certain extent of redundancy, may mediate different functions of thyroid hormone. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TIMP2 TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 2|This gene is a member of the TIMP gene family. The proteins encoded by this gene family are natural inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases, a group of peptidases involved in degradation of the extracellular matrix. In addition to an inhibitory role against metalloproteinases, the encoded protein has a unique role among TIMP family members in its ability to directly suppress the proliferation of endothelial cells. As a result, the encoded protein may be critical to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis by suppressing the proliferation of quiescent tissues in response to angiogenic factors, and by inhibiting protease activity in tissues undergoing remodelling of the extracellular matrix. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TINF2 TERF1 (TRF1)-interacting nuclear factor 2|This gene encodes one of the proteins of the shelterin, or telosome, complex which protects telomeres by allowing the cell to distinguish between telomeres and regions of DNA damage. The protein encoded by this gene is a critical part of shelterin; it interacts with the three DNA-binding proteins of the shelterin complex, and it is important for assembly of the complex. Mutations in this gene cause dyskeratosis congenita (DKC), an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
TNFRSF1B tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1B|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This protein and TNF-receptor 1 form a heterocomplex that mediates the recruitment of two anti-apoptotic proteins, c-IAP1 and c-IAP2, which possess E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The function of IAPs in TNF-receptor signalling is unknown, however, c-IAP1 is thought to potentiate TNF-induced apoptosis by the ubiquitination and degradation of TNF-receptor-associated factor 2, which mediates anti-apoptotic signals. Knockout studies in mice also suggest a role of this protein in protecting neurons from apoptosis by stimulating antioxidative pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TNFRSF25 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 25|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor is expressed preferentially in the tissues enriched in lymphocytes, and it may play a role in regulating lymphocyte homeostasis. This receptor has been shown to stimulate NF-kappa B activity and regulate cell apoptosis. The signal transduction of this receptor is mediated by various death domain containing adaptor proteins. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of this gene in the removal of self-reactive T cells in the thymus. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene encoding distinct isoforms have been reported, most of which are potentially secreted molecules. The alternative splicing of this gene in B and T cells encounters a programmed change upon T-cell activation, which predominantly produces full-length, membrane bound isoforms, and is thought to be involved in controlling lymphocyte proliferation induced by T-cell activation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TNFSF10 tumor necrosis factor (ligand) superfamily, member 10|The protein encoded by this gene is a cytokine that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand family. This protein preferentially induces apoptosis in transformed and tumor cells, but does not appear to kill normal cells although it is expressed at a significant level in most normal tissues. This protein binds to several members of TNF receptor superfamily including TNFRSF10A/TRAILR1, TNFRSF10B/TRAILR2, TNFRSF10C/TRAILR3, TNFRSF10D/TRAILR4, and possibly also to TNFRSF11B/OPG. The activity of this protein may be modulated by binding to the decoy receptors TNFRSF10C/TRAILR3, TNFRSF10D/TRAILR4, and TNFRSF11B/OPG that cannot induce apoptosis. The binding of this protein to its receptors has been shown to trigger the activation of MAPK8/JNK, caspase 8, and caspase 3. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
TPR translocated promoter region, nuclear basket protein|This gene encodes a large coiled-coil protein that forms intranuclear filaments attached to the inner surface of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The protein directly interacts with several components of the NPC. It is required for the nuclear export of mRNAs and some proteins. Oncogenic fusions of the 5' end of this gene with several different kinase genes occur in some neoplasias. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TPT1 tumor protein, translationally-controlled 1|
TSPAN7 tetraspanin 7|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, also known as the tetraspanin family. Most of these members are cell-surface proteins that are characterized by the presence of four hydrophobic domains. The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and motility. This encoded protein is a cell surface glycoprotein and may have a role in the control of neurite outgrowth. It is known to complex with integrins. This gene is associated with X-linked mental retardation and neuropsychiatric diseases such as Huntington's chorea, fragile X syndrome and myotonic dystrophy. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TST thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (rhodanese)|This is one of two neighboring genes encoding similar proteins that each contain two rhodanese domains. The encoded protein is localized to the mitochondria and catalyzes the conversion of thiosulfate and cyanide to thiocyanate and sulfite. In addition, the protein interacts with 5S ribosomal RNA and facilitates its import into the mitochondria. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
TTK TTK protein kinase|This gene encodes a dual specificity protein kinase with the ability to phosphorylate tyrosine, serine and threonine. Associated with cell proliferation, this protein is essential for chromosome alignment at the centromere during mitosis and is required for centrosome duplication. It has been found to be a critical mitotic checkpoint protein for accurate segregation of chromosomes during mitosis. Tumorigenesis may occur when this protein fails to degrade and produces excess centrosomes resulting in aberrant mitotic spindles. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
TTN titin|This gene encodes a large abundant protein of striated muscle. The product of this gene is divided into two regions, a N-terminal I-band and a C-terminal A-band. The I-band, which is the elastic part of the molecule, contains two regions of tandem immunoglobulin domains on either side of a PEVK region that is rich in proline, glutamate, valine and lysine. The A-band, which is thought to act as a protein-ruler, contains a mixture of immunoglobulin and fibronectin repeats, and possesses kinase activity. An N-terminal Z-disc region and a C-terminal M-line region bind to the Z-line and M-line of the sarcomere, respectively, so that a single titin molecule spans half the length of a sarcomere. Titin also contains binding sites for muscle associated proteins so it serves as an adhesion template for the assembly of contractile machinery in muscle cells. It has also been identified as a structural protein for chromosomes. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. Considerable variability exists in the I-band, the M-line and the Z-disc regions of titin. Variability in the I-band region contributes to the differences in elasticity of different titin isoforms and, therefore, to the differences in elasticity of different muscle types. Mutations in this gene are associated with familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 9, and autoantibodies to titin are produced in patients with the autoimmune disease scleroderma. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2012]
TYK2 tyrosine kinase 2|This gene encodes a member of the tyrosine kinase and, more specifically, the Janus kinases (JAKs) protein families. This protein associates with the cytoplasmic domain of type I and type II cytokine receptors and promulgate cytokine signals by phosphorylating receptor subunits. It is also component of both the type I and type III interferon signaling pathways. As such, it may play a role in anti-viral immunity. A mutation in this gene has been associated with hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES) - a primary immunodeficiency characterized by elevated serum immunoglobulin E. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
UBE2A ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2A|The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and ubiquitin-protein ligases. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. This enzyme is required for post-replicative DNA damage repair, and may play a role in transcriptional regulation. Mutations in this gene are associated with mental retardation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
UBE2I ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2I|The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. Four alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
UBE2N ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2N|The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, or E1s, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, or E2s, and ubiquitin-protein ligases, or E3s. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. Studies in mouse suggest that this protein plays a role in DNA postreplication repair. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
UNG uracil-DNA glycosylase|This gene encodes one of several uracil-DNA glycosylases. One important function of uracil-DNA glycosylases is to prevent mutagenesis by eliminating uracil from DNA molecules by cleaving the N-glycosylic bond and initiating the base-excision repair (BER) pathway. Uracil bases occur from cytosine deamination or misincorporation of dUMP residues. Alternative promoter usage and splicing of this gene leads to two different isoforms: the mitochondrial UNG1 and the nuclear UNG2. The UNG2 term was used as a previous symbol for the CCNO gene (GeneID 10309), which has been confused with this gene, in the literature and some databases. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2010]
USP5 ubiquitin specific peptidase 5 (isopeptidase T)|Ubiquitin (see MIM 191339)-dependent proteolysis is a complex pathway of protein metabolism implicated in such diverse cellular functions as maintenance of chromatin structure, receptor function, and degradation of abnormal proteins. A late step of the process involves disassembly of the polyubiquitin chains on degraded proteins into ubiquitin monomers. USP5 disassembles branched polyubiquitin chains by a sequential exo mechanism, starting at the proximal end of the chain (Wilkinson et al., 1995 [PubMed 7578059]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2010]
USP6 ubiquitin specific peptidase 6|
VAV1 vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor|This gene is a member of the VAV gene family. The VAV proteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho family GTPases that activate pathways leading to actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and transcriptional alterations. The encoded protein is important in hematopoiesis, playing a role in T-cell and B-cell development and activation. The encoded protein has been identified as the specific binding partner of Nef proteins from HIV-1. Coexpression and binding of these partners initiates profound morphological changes, cytoskeletal rearrangements and the JNK/SAPK signaling cascade, leading to increased levels of viral transcription and replication. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
WBSCR22 Williams Beuren syndrome chromosome region 22|This gene encodes a protein containing a nuclear localization signal and an S-adenosyl-L-methionine binding motif typical of methyltransferases, suggesting that the encoded protein may act on DNA methylation. This gene is deleted in Williams syndrome, a multisystem developmental disorder caused by the deletion of contiguous genes at 7q11.23. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
WNT1 wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 1|The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes which encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been implicated in oncogenesis and in several developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. This gene is a member of the WNT gene family. It is very conserved in evolution, and the protein encoded by this gene is known to be 98% identical to the mouse Wnt1 protein at the amino acid level. The studies in mouse indicate that the Wnt1 protein functions in the induction of the mesencephalon and cerebellum. This gene was originally considered as a candidate gene for Joubert syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder with cerebellar hypoplasia as a leading feature. However, further studies suggested that the gene mutations might not have a significant role in Joubert syndrome. This gene is clustered with another family member, WNT10B, in the chromosome 12q13 region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
XPC xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group C|This gene encodes a component of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. There are multiple components involved in the NER pathway, including Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) A-G and V, Cockayne syndrome (CS) A and B, and trichothiodystrophy (TTD) group A, etc. This component, XPC, plays an important role in the early steps of global genome NER, especially in damage recognition, open complex formation, and repair protein complex formation. Mutations in this gene or some other NER components result in Xeroderma pigmentosum, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased sensitivity to sunlight with the development of carcinomas at an early age. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
XRCC5 X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 5 (double-strand-break rejoining)|The protein encoded by this gene is the 80-kilodalton subunit of the Ku heterodimer protein which is also known as ATP-dependant DNA helicase II or DNA repair protein XRCC5. Ku is the DNA-binding component of the DNA-dependent protein kinase, and it functions together with the DNA ligase IV-XRCC4 complex in the repair of DNA double-strand break by non-homologous end joining and the completion of V(D)J recombination events. This gene functionally complements Chinese hamster xrs-6, a mutant defective in DNA double-strand break repair and in ability to undergo V(D)J recombination. A rare microsatellite polymorphism in this gene is associated with cancer in patients of varying radiosensitivity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
XRCC6 X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 6|The p70/p80 autoantigen is a nuclear complex consisting of two subunits with molecular masses of approximately 70 and 80 kDa. The complex functions as a single-stranded DNA-dependent ATP-dependent helicase. The complex may be involved in the repair of nonhomologous DNA ends such as that required for double-strand break repair, transposition, and V(D)J recombination. High levels of autoantibodies to p70 and p80 have been found in some patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZAP70 zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa|This gene encodes an enzyme belonging to the protein tyrosine kinase family, and it plays a role in T-cell development and lymphocyte activation. This enzyme, which is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) stimulation, functions in the initial step of TCR-mediated signal transduction in combination with the Src family kinases, Lck and Fyn. This enzyme is also essential for thymocyte development. Mutations in this gene cause selective T-cell defect, a severe combined immunodeficiency disease characterized by a selective absence of CD8-positive T-cells. Two transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZMYM2 zinc finger, MYM-type 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger protein that may act as a transcription factor. The encoded protein may be part of a BHC histone deacetylase complex. Translocation of this gene with the fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 gene (FGFR1) results in a fusion gene, which may be a cause of stem cell leukemia lymphoma syndrome (SCLL). Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
ZNF10 zinc finger protein 10|The protein encoded by this gene contains a C2H2 zinc finger, and has been shown to function as a transcriptional repressor. The Kruppel-associated box (KRAB) domain of this protein is found to be responsible for its transcriptional repression activity. RING finger containing protein TIF1 was reported to interact with the KRAB domain, and may serve as a mediator for the repression activity of this protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]