KEGG Pathways Dataset

Description sets of proteins participating in pathways
Measurement association by literature curation
Association protein-pathway associations from curated pathways
Category structural or functional annotations
Resource Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
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  1. 3947 genes
  2. 200 pathways
  3. 9324 gene-pathway associations

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pathway Gene Sets

200 sets of proteins participating in pathways from the KEGG Pathways dataset.

Gene Set Description
1 and 2 methylnaphthalene degradation
1,4 dichlorobenzene degradation The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of 1,4-dichlorobenzene (p-dichlorobenzene or paramoth), a derivative of benzene with two chlorine atoms attached at opposite positions on the ring.
3 chloroacrylic acid degradation
abc transporters general
acute myeloid leukemia Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
adherens junction A cell junction at which anchoring proteins (cadherins or integrins) extend through the plasma membrane and are attached to actin filaments.
adipocytokine signaling pathway
alanine and aspartate metabolism
alkaloid biosynthesis i
alkaloid biosynthesis ii
alpha linolenic acid metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving alpha-linolenic acid, an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid that has the molecular formula C18H32O2.
alzheimers disease A dementia that results in progressive memory loss, impaired thinking, disorientation, and changes in personality and mood starting in late middle age and leads in advanced cases to a profound decline in cognitive and physical functioning and is marked histologically by the degeneration of brain neurons especially in the cerebral cortex and by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and plaques containing beta-amyloid. It is characterized by memory lapses, confusion, emotional instability and progressive loss of mental ability.|A progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of function and death of nerve cells in several areas of the brain leading to loss of cognitive function such as memory and language.|A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)|A dementia which is an incurable disease of unknown cause, starting in late middle age or in old age, that results in progressive memory loss, impaired thinking, disorientation, and changes in personality and mood, that leads in advanced cases to a profound decline in cognitive and physical functioning, and that is marked histologically by the degeneration of brain neurons especially in the cerebral cortex and by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and plaques containing beta-amyloid.
aminoacyl trna biosynthesis The chemical reactions and pathways by which the various amino acids become bonded to their corresponding tRNAs. The most common route for synthesis of aminoacyl tRNA is by the formation of an ester bond between the 3'-hydroxyl group of the most 3' adenosine of the tRNA, usually catalyzed by the cognate aminoacyl-tRNA ligase. A given aminoacyl-tRNA ligase aminoacylates all species of an isoaccepting group of tRNA molecules.
aminophosphonate metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving aminophosphonates, phosphonic acid derivatives that contain an amino group.
aminosugars metabolism
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts (MeSH).|An autosomal dominant inherited form of amyloidosis.|A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)
androgen and estrogen metabolism
antigen processing and presentation The process in which an antigen-presenting cell expresses antigen (peptide or lipid) on its cell surface in association with an MHC protein complex.
apoptosis
arachidonic acid metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving arachidonic acid, a straight chain fatty acid with 20 carbon atoms and four double bonds per molecule. Arachidonic acid is the all-Z-(5,8,11,14)-isomer.
arginine and proline metabolism
ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
atrazine degradation The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of atrazine, a triazine ring-containing herbicide.
axon guidance The chemotaxis process that directs the migration of an axon growth cone to a specific target site in response to a combination of attractive and repulsive cues.
b cell receptor signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the cross-linking of an antigen receptor on a B cell.
basal cell carcinoma A malignant skin neoplasm that seldom metastasizes but has potentialities for local invasion and destruction. Clinically it is divided into types: nodular, cicatricial, morphaic, and erythematoid (pagetoid). They develop on hair-bearing skin, most commonly on sun-exposed areas. Approximately 85% are found on the head and neck area and the remaining 15% on the trunk and limbs. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1471).
basal transcription factors
benzoate degradation via coa ligation
beta alanine metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving beta-alanine (3-aminopropanoic acid), an achiral amino acid and an isomer of alanine. It occurs free (e.g. in brain) and in combination (e.g. in pantothenate) but it is not a constituent of proteins.
bile acid biosynthesis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of bile acids, any of a group of steroid carboxylic acids occurring in bile.
biosynthesis of steroids
biotin metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving biotin, cis-tetrahydro-2-oxothieno(3,4-d)imidazoline-4-valeric acid; the (+) enantiomer is very widely distributed in cells and serves as a carrier in a number of enzymatic beta-carboxylation reactions.
bisphenol a degradation
bladder cancer A carcinoma that forms in tissues of the bladder.|Bladder carcinoma is a carcinoma arising from the bladder epithelium. Approximately 90% of the bladder carcinomas are transitional cell carcinomas. The remainder are squamous cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas and small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.|A carcinoma that arises_from tissues of the bladder.|A carcinoma arising from the bladder epithelium. Approximately 90% of the bladder carcinomas are transitional cell carcinomas. The remainder are squamous cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas and small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas.
butanoate metabolism
c21 steroid hormone metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving C21-steroid hormones, steroid compounds containing 21 carbons which function as hormones.
c5 branched dibasic acid metabolism
caffeine metabolism
calcium signaling pathway
caprolactam degradation The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of caprolactam, hexahydro-2h-azepin-2-one, a cyclic amide of caproic acid.
carbon fixation A metabolic process in which carbon (usually derived from carbon dioxide) is incorporated into organic compounds (usually carbohydrates).
cell adhesion molecules
cell communication Any process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.
cell cycle The progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events. Canonically, the cell cycle comprises the replication and segregation of genetic material followed by the division of the cell, but in endocycles or syncytial cells nuclear replication or nuclear division may not be followed by cell division.
cholera infection
chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of chondroitin sulfate, any member of a group of 10-60 kDa glycosaminoglycans, widely distributed in cartilage and other mammalian connective tissues, the repeat units of which consist of beta-(1,4)-linked D-glucuronyl beta-(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine sulfate.
chronic myeloid leukemia Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.
circadian rhythm Any biological process in an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
citrate cycle
colorectal cancer A large intestine cancer that is located in the colon and/or located in the rectum.
complement and coagulation cascades
cyanoamino acid metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving cyanoamino acids, amino acid derivatives that contain a cyanide group.
cysteine metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving cysteine, 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid.
cytokine cytokine receptor interaction
d arginine and d ornithine metabolism
d glutamine and d glutamate metabolism
dentatorubropallidoluysian atrophy
dna polymerase
dorso ventral axis formation
ecm receptor interaction
endometrial cancer Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
epithelial cell signaling in helicobacter pylori infection
erbb signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a ligand to a member of the ERBB family of receptor tyrosine kinases on the surface of a cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
ether lipid metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving ether lipids, lipids that contain (normally) one lipid alcohol in ether linkage to one of the carbon atoms (normally C-1) of glycerol.
ethylbenzene degradation
fatty acid biosynthesis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a fatty acid, any of the aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that can be liberated by hydrolysis from naturally occurring fats and oils. Fatty acids are predominantly straight-chain acids of 4 to 24 carbon atoms, which may be saturated or unsaturated; branched fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids also occur, and very long chain acids of over 30 carbons are found in waxes.
fatty acid elongation in mitochondria
fatty acid metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving fatty acids, aliphatic monocarboxylic acids liberated from naturally occurring fats and oils by hydrolysis.
fc epsilon ri signaling pathway
focal adhesion Small region on the surface of a cell that anchors the cell to the extracellular matrix and that forms a point of termination of actin filaments.
folate biosynthesis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of folic acid, pteroylglutamic acid.
fructose and mannose metabolism
galactose metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving galactose, the aldohexose galacto-hexose. D-galactose is widely distributed in combined form in plants, animals and microorganisms as a constituent of oligo- and polysaccharides; it also occurs in galactolipids and as its glucoside in lactose and melibiose.
gamma hexachlorocyclohexane degradation
gap junction A cell-cell junction that is composed of an array of small channels that permit small molecules to pass from one cell to another. At gap junctions, the membranes of two adjacent cells are separated by a uniform narrow gap of about 2-4 nm that is spanned by channel-forming proteins called connexins, which form hexagonal tubes called connexons.
glioma A primary or metastatic malignant neoplasm involving the brain or spinal cord. Representative examples include anaplastic astrocytoma, glioblastoma, anaplastic (malignant) meningioma, lymphoma, and metastatic carcinoma from another anatomic site.|Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas ( ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas ( OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle (MeSH).
glutamate metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving glutamate, the anion of 2-aminopentanedioic acid.
glutathione metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving glutathione, the tripeptide glutamylcysteinylglycine, which acts as a coenzyme for some enzymes and as an antioxidant in the protection of sulfhydryl groups in enzymes and other proteins; it has a specific role in the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxidized ascorbate, and it participates in the gamma-glutamyl cycle.
glycan structures biosynthesis 1
glycan structures biosynthesis 2
glycan structures degradation
glycerolipid metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving glycerolipids, any lipid with a glycerol backbone. Diacylglycerol and phosphatidate are key lipid intermediates of glycerolipid biosynthesis.
glycerophospholipid metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving glycerophospholipids, any derivative of glycerophosphate that contains at least one O-acyl, O-alkyl, or O-alkenyl group attached to the glycerol residue.
glycine serine and threonine metabolism
glycolysis and gluconeogenesis
glycosaminoglycan degradation The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of glycosaminoglycans, any one of a group of polysaccharides that contain amino sugars.
glycosphingolipid biosynthesis ganglioseries
glycosphingolipid biosynthesis globoseries
glycosphingolipid biosynthesis lactoseries
glycosphingolipid biosynthesis neo lactoseries
glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis
glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
gnrh signaling pathway Gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway induces the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones from the pituitary.
hedgehog signaling pathway A series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of activation of the transmembrane protein Smoothened.
hematopoietic cell lineage
heparan sulfate biosynthesis
histidine metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving histidine, 2-amino-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid.
huntingtons disease
inositol metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-cyclohexanehexol, a growth factor for animals and microorganisms.
inositol phosphate metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving inositol phosphate, 1,2,3,4,5,6-cyclohexanehexol, with one or more phosphate groups attached.
insulin signaling pathway Insulin, the peptide hormone, secreted by the pancreatic beta cells, plays essential roles in glucose and energy homeostasis. Insulin signaling activates two main intracellular pathways to regulate carbohydrate and fat metabolism and to prompt glucose absorption in insulin sensitive tissues such as skeletal muscle and adipocytes. Deregulation of the pathway has been associated with a number of conditions, primarily diabetes.
jak stat signaling pathway The Jak-Stat pathway is a main intracellular cascade initiated primarily in response to cytokine and also other ligand signaling. Four Janus kinases (Jak) and seven signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) families of proteins mediate the action of almost 40 cytokine receptors, including the receptor for leptin. Combinations between four Jak(s) and seven Stat(s) shape the outcome of ligand triggered signaling through the various receptors.
keratan sulfate biosynthesis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of keratan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan with repeat units consisting of beta-1,4-linked D-galactopyranosyl-beta-(1,4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine 6-sulfate and with variable amounts of fucose, sialic acid and mannose units; keratan sulfate chains are covalently linked by a glycosidic attachment through the trisaccharide galactosyl-galactosyl-xylose to peptidyl-threonine or serine residues.
leukocyte transendothelial migration
limonene and pinene degradation
linoleic acid metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving linoleic acid, an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid that has the molecular formula C18H32O2.
lipoic acid metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving lipoate, 1,2-dithiolane-3-pentanoate, the anion derived from lipoic acid.
long term depression A process that modulates synaptic plasticity such that synapses are changed resulting in the decrease in the rate, or frequency of synaptic transmission at the synapse.
long term potentiation A process that modulates synaptic plasticity such that synapses are changed resulting in the increase in the rate, or frequency of synaptic transmission at the synapse.
lysine biosynthesis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lysine, 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
lysine degradation The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of lysine, 2,6-diaminohexanoic acid.
mapk signaling pathway The mitogen -activated protein kinase pathway groups several serine/threonine protein kinases mediated cascades in response to a number of extracellular stimuli. A characteristic feature of these cascades is the presence of at least three kinases in series leading to the activation of a multifunctional MAP kinase.
maturity onset diabetes of the young
melanogenesis
melanoma A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)|A malignant, usually aggressive tumor composed of atypical, neoplastic melanocytes. Most often, melanomas arise in the skin (cutaneous melanomas) and include the following histologic subtypes: superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma, and lentigo maligna melanoma. Cutaneous melanomas may arise from acquired or congenital melanocytic or dysplastic nevi. Melanomas may also arise in other anatomic sites including the gastrointestinal system, eye, urinary tract, and reproductive system. Melanomas frequently metastasize to lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain.
metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome p450
methane metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving methane, a colorless, odorless, flammable gas with the formula CH4. It is the simplest of the alkanes.
methionine metabolism
monoterpenoid biosynthesis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of monoterpenoid compounds, terpenoids having a C10 skeleton.
mtor signaling pathway mTOR signaling pathway regulates cellular processes such as translation, ribosome biogenesis, cell growth and autophagy and is regulated or responds to growth factors, energy metabolites and/or levels of nutrients.
n glycan biosynthesis
n glycan degradation
naphthalene and anthracene degradation
natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity The directed killing of a target cell by a natural killer cell through the release of granules containing cytotoxic mediators or through the engagement of death receptors.
neuroactive ligand receptor interaction
neurodegenerative diseases
nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
nitrogen metabolism
non small cell lung cancer A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
notch signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of an extracellular ligand to the receptor Notch on the surface of a target cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
novobiocin biosynthesis
nucleotide sugars metabolism
o glycan biosynthesis
olfactory transduction
one carbon pool by folate
oxidative phosphorylation The phosphorylation of ADP to ATP that accompanies the oxidation of a metabolite through the operation of the respiratory chain. Oxidation of compounds establishes a proton gradient across the membrane, providing the energy for ATP synthesis.
p53 signaling pathway p53 transcription factor is a tumor suppressor frequently mutated in cancer. p53 is at the hub of many signaling and regulatory pathways. In response to various stresses, it promotes apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and other defense pathways via transcription dependent as well as independent routes. A key regulator of p53 is Mdm2. Mdm2 is a transcriptional target of p53 thus providing a negative feedback loop.
pancreatic cancer A carcinoma that is manifested in cells found in the tissues of the pancreas.|Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).|A carcinoma that is located_in cells found in the tissues of the pancreas.
pantothenate and coa biosynthesis
parkinsons disease A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)|A neurodegenerative disease that results_from degeneration of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer's motor skills, speech, and other functions.
pathogenic escherichia coli infection ehec
pathogenic escherichia coli infection epec
pentose and glucuronate interconversions
pentose phosphate pathway The process in which glucose is oxidized, coupled to NADPH synthesis. Glucose 6-P is oxidized with the formation of carbon dioxide (CO2), ribulose 5-phosphate and reduced NADP; ribulose 5-P then enters a series of reactions interconverting sugar phosphates. The pentose phosphate pathway is a major source of reducing equivalents for biosynthesis reactions and is also important for the conversion of hexoses to pentoses.
peptidoglycan biosynthesis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of peptidoglycans, any of a class of glycoconjugates found in bacterial cell walls.
phenylalanine metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving L-phenylalanine, the L-enantiomer of 2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid, i.e. (2S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid.
phenylalanine tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis
phenylpropanoid biosynthesis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of aromatic derivatives of trans-cinnamic acid.
phosphatidylinositol signaling system
polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis
porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
ppar signaling pathway The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a ligand to any of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (alpha, beta or gamma) in the nuclear membrane, and ending with the initiation or termination of the transcription of target genes.
prion disease A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)
propanoate metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving propionate, the anion derived from propionic (propanoic) acid, a carboxylic acid important in the energy metabolism of ruminants.
prostate cancer
proteasome A large multisubunit complex which catalyzes protein degradation, found in eukaryotes, archaea and some bacteria. In eukaryotes, this complex consists of the barrel shaped proteasome core complex and one or two associated proteins or complexes that act in regulating entry into or exit from the core.
protein export
purine metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving one of a family of organic molecules consisting of a purine base covalently bonded to a sugar ribose (a ribonucleoside) or deoxyribose (a deoxyribonucleoside).
pyrimidine metabolism
pyruvate metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving pyruvate, 2-oxopropanoate.
reductive carboxylate cycle A pathway leading to the fixation of two molecules of CO2 and the production of one molecule of acetyl-CoA; essentially the oxidative TCA cycle running in reverse. Acetyl-CoA is reductively carboxylated to pyruvate, from which all other central metabolites can be formed. Most of the enzymes of reductive and oxidative TCA cycle are shared, with the exception of three key enzymes that allow the cycle to run in reverse: ATP citrate lyase, 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and fumarate reductase. 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase catalyzes the carboxylation of succinyl-CoA to 2-oxoglutarate, ATP citrate lyase the ATP-dependent cleavage of citrate to acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate, and fumarate reductase the reduction of fumarate forming succinate.
regulation of actin cytoskeleton
regulation of autophagy Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of autophagy. Autophagy is the process in which cells digest parts of their own cytoplasm.
renal cell carcinoma A carcinoma arising from the renal parenchyma. The incidence of renal cell carcinoma has increased by 35% from 1973 to 1991. There is a strong correlation between cigarette smoking and the development of renal cell carcinoma. The clinical presentation includes : hematuria, flank pain and a palpable lumbar mass. A high percentage of renal cell carcinomas are diagnosed when an ultrasound is performed for other purposes. Diagnostic procedures include: ultra sound, intravenous pyelography and computed tomography (CT). Radical nephrectomy is the standard intervention procedure. Renal cell carcinoma is generally considered to be resistant to radiation treatment and chemotherapy.|A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
renin angiotensin system
retinol metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving retinol, one of the three compounds that makes up vitamin A.
riboflavin metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving riboflavin (vitamin B2), the precursor for the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).
ribosome An intracellular organelle, about 200 A in diameter, consisting of RNA and protein. It is the site of protein biosynthesis resulting from translation of messenger RNA (mRNA). It consists of two subunits, one large and one small, each containing only protein and RNA. Both the ribosome and its subunits are characterized by their sedimentation coefficients, expressed in Svedberg units (symbol: S). Hence, the prokaryotic ribosome (70S) comprises a large (50S) subunit and a small (30S) subunit, while the eukaryotic ribosome (80S) comprises a large (60S) subunit and a small (40S) subunit. Two sites on the ribosomal large subunit are involved in translation, namely the aminoacyl site (A site) and peptidyl site (P site). Ribosomes from prokaryotes, eukaryotes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts have characteristically distinct ribosomal proteins.
rna polymerase
selenoamino acid metabolism
small cell lung cancer An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)|A highly aggressive subtype of lung carcinoma characterized by the presence of malignant small cells and necrosis. Metastatic disease is usually present at the time of diagnosis.|A highly aggressive subtype of lung carcinoma characterized by the presence of malignant small cells and necrosis. Metastatic disease is usually present at the time of diagnosis. (NCI05)
snare interactions in vesicular transport
sphingolipid metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving sphingolipids, any of a class of lipids containing the long-chain amine diol sphingosine or a closely related base (a sphingoid).
starch and sucrose metabolism
streptomycin biosynthesis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of streptomycin, a commonly used antibiotic in cell culture media; it acts only on prokaryotes and blocks transition from initiation complex to chain elongating ribosome.
styrene degradation The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of styrene, an aromatic hydrocarbon liquid used in the manufacture of polystyrene.
sulfur metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving the nonmetallic element sulfur or compounds that contain sulfur, such as the amino acids methionine and cysteine or the tripeptide glutathione.
synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies
t cell receptor signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the cross-linking of an antigen receptor on a T cell.
taste transduction
taurine and hypotaurine metabolism
terpenoid biosynthesis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of terpenoids, any member of a class of compounds characterized by an isoprenoid chemical structure.
tetrachloroethene degradation
tgf beta signaling pathway
thiamine metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving thiamine (vitamin B1), a water soluble vitamin present in fresh vegetables and meats, especially liver.
thyroid cancer
tight junction An occluding cell-cell junction that is composed of a branching network of sealing strands that completely encircles the apical end of each cell in an epithelial sheet; the outer leaflets of the two interacting plasma membranes are seen to be tightly apposed where sealing strands are present. Each sealing strand is composed of a long row of transmembrane adhesion proteins embedded in each of the two interacting plasma membranes.
toll like receptor signaling pathway Any series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of binding to a toll-like receptor. Toll-like receptors directly bind pattern motifs from a variety of microbial sources to initiate innate immune response.
tryptophan metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving tryptophan, the chiral amino acid 2-amino-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)propanoic acid.
type i diabetes mellitus A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.|Diabetes mellitus characterized by insulin deficiency, sudden onset, severe hyperglycemia, rapid progression to ketoacidosis, and death unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.|An autoimmune disease of endocrine system and is_a diabetes mellitus that results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.
type ii diabetes mellitus A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.|A type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by insulin resistance or desensitization and increased blood glucose levels. This is a chronic disease that can develop gradually over the life of a patient and can be linked to both environmental factors and heredity.
tyrosine metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving tyrosine, an aromatic amino acid, 2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid.
ubiquinone biosynthesis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of ubiquinone, a lipid-soluble electron-transporting coenzyme.
ubiquitin mediated proteolysis
urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups
valine leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
valine leucine and isoleucine degradation
vegf signaling pathway
vitamin b6 metabolism The chemical reactions and pathways involving any of the vitamin B6 compounds: pyridoxal, pyridoxamine and pyridoxine and the active form, pyridoxal phosphate.
wnt signaling pathway The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell and ending with a change in cell state.