JASPAR Predicted Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

Description target genes of transcription factors predicted using known transcription factor binding site motifs
Measurement association by computational motif search
Association target gene-transcription factor associations predicted using known transcription factor binding site motifs
Category genomics
Resource Jaspar PWMs
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  1. 21372 genes
  2. 111 transcription factors
  3. 148061 gene-transcription factor associations

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transcription factor Gene Sets

111 sets of target genes of transcription factors predicted using known transcription factor binding site motifs from the JASPAR Predicted Transcription Factor Targets dataset.

Gene Set Description
ARID3A AT rich interactive domain 3A (BRIGHT-like)|This gene encodes a member of the ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) family of DNA binding proteins. It was found by homology to the Drosophila dead ringer gene, which is important for normal embryogenesis. Other ARID family members have roles in embryonic patterning, cell lineage gene regulation, cell cycle control, transcriptional regulation, and possibly in chromatin structure modification. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ARNT aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator|This gene encodes a protein containing a basic helix-loop-helix domain and two characteristic PAS domains along with a PAC domain. The encoded protein binds to ligand-bound aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aids in the movement of this complex to the nucleus, where it promotes the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. This protein is also a co-factor for transcriptional regulation by hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Chromosomal translocation of this locus with the ETV6 (ets variant 6) gene on chromosome 12 have been described in leukemias. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]
BRCA1 breast cancer 1, early onset|This gene encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in maintaining genomic stability, and it also acts as a tumor suppressor. The encoded protein combines with other tumor suppressors, DNA damage sensors, and signal transducers to form a large multi-subunit protein complex known as the BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex (BASC). This gene product associates with RNA polymerase II, and through the C-terminal domain, also interacts with histone deacetylase complexes. This protein thus plays a role in transcription, DNA repair of double-stranded breaks, and recombination. Mutations in this gene are responsible for approximately 40% of inherited breast cancers and more than 80% of inherited breast and ovarian cancers. Alternative splicing plays a role in modulating the subcellular localization and physiological function of this gene. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants, some of which are disease-associated mutations, have been described for this gene, but the full-length natures of only some of these variants has been described. A related pseudogene, which is also located on chromosome 17, has been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
CEBPB CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta|This intronless gene encodes a transcription factor that contains a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain. The encoded protein functions as a homodimer but can also form heterodimers with CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins alpha, delta, and gamma. Activity of this protein is important in the regulation of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses, among other processes. The use of alternative in-frame AUG start codons results in multiple protein isoforms, each with distinct biological functions. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]
CREB1 cAMP responsive element binding protein 1|This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. This protein binds as a homodimer to the cAMP-responsive element, an octameric palindrome. The protein is phosphorylated by several protein kinases, and induces transcription of genes in response to hormonal stimulation of the cAMP pathway. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CTCF CCCTC-binding factor (zinc finger protein)|This gene is a member of the BORIS + CTCF gene family and encodes a transcriptional regulator protein with 11 highly conserved zinc finger (ZF) domains. This nuclear protein is able to use different combinations of the ZF domains to bind different DNA target sequences and proteins. Depending upon the context of the site, the protein can bind a histone acetyltransferase (HAT)-containing complex and function as a transcriptional activator or bind a histone deacetylase (HDAC)-containing complex and function as a transcriptional repressor. If the protein is bound to a transcriptional insulator element, it can block communication between enhancers and upstream promoters, thereby regulating imprinted expression. Mutations in this gene have been associated with invasive breast cancers, prostate cancers, and Wilms' tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
E2F1 E2F transcription factor 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein and another 2 members, E2F2 and E2F3, have an additional cyclin binding domain. This protein binds preferentially to retinoblastoma protein pRB in a cell-cycle dependent manner. It can mediate both cell proliferation and p53-dependent/independent apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
E2F4 E2F transcription factor 4, p107/p130-binding|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein binds to all three of the tumor suppressor proteins pRB, p107 and p130, but with higher affinity to the last two. It plays an important role in the suppression of proliferation-associated genes, and its gene mutation and increased expression may be associated with human cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
E2F6 E2F transcription factor 6|This gene encodes a member of a family of transcription factors that play a crucial role in the control of the cell cycle. The protein encoded by this gene lacks the transactivation and tumor suppressor protein association domains found in other family members, and contains a modular suppression domain that functions in the inhibition of transcription. It interacts in a complex with chromatin modifying factors. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 22 and X. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
EGR1 early growth response 1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the EGR family of C2H2-type zinc-finger proteins. It is a nuclear protein and functions as a transcriptional regulator. The products of target genes it activates are required for differentitation and mitogenesis. Studies suggest this is a cancer suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ELF5 E74-like factor 5 (ets domain transcription factor)|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of an epithelium-specific subclass of the Ets transcritpion factor family. In addition to its role in regulating the later stages of terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, it appears to regulate a number of epithelium-specific genes found in tissues containing glandular epithelium such as salivary gland and prostate. It has very low affinity to DNA due to its negative regulatory domain at the amino terminus. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
ELK1 ELK1, member of ETS oncogene family|This gene is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors and of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily. Proteins of the TCF subfamily form a ternary complex by binding to the the serum response factor and the serum response element in the promoter of the c-fos proto-oncogene. The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear target for the ras-raf-MAPK signaling cascade. This gene produces multiple isoforms by using alternative translational start codons and by alternative splicing. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 7 and 14. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
ELK4 ELK4, ETS-domain protein (SRF accessory protein 1)|This gene is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors and of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily. Proteins of the TCF subfamily form a ternary complex by binding to the the serum response factor and the serum reponse element in the promoter of the c-fos proto-oncogene. The protein encoded by this gene is phosphorylated by the kinases, MAPK1 and MAPK8. Several transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EN1 engrailed homeobox 1|Homeobox-containing genes are thought to have a role in controlling development. In Drosophila, the 'engrailed' (en) gene plays an important role during development in segmentation, where it is required for the formation of posterior compartments. Different mutations in the mouse homologs, En1 and En2, produced different developmental defects that frequently are lethal. The human engrailed homologs 1 and 2 encode homeodomain-containing proteins and have been implicated in the control of pattern formation during development of the central nervous system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ESR1 estrogen receptor 1|This gene encodes an estrogen receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor composed of several domains important for hormone binding, DNA binding, and activation of transcription. The protein localizes to the nucleus where it may form a homodimer or a heterodimer with estrogen receptor 2. Estrogen and its receptors are essential for sexual development and reproductive function, but also play a role in other tissues such as bone. Estrogen receptors are also involved in pathological processes including breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and osteoporosis. Alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing result in dozens of transcript variants, but the full-length nature of many of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
ESR2 estrogen receptor 2 (ER beta)|This gene encodes a member of the family of estrogen receptors and superfamily of nuclear receptor transcription factors. The gene product contains an N-terminal DNA binding domain and C-terminal ligand binding domain and is localized to the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Upon binding to 17beta-estradiol or related ligands, the encoded protein forms homo- or hetero-dimers that interact with specific DNA sequences to activate transcription. Some isoforms dominantly inhibit the activity of other estrogen receptor family members. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ESRRB estrogen-related receptor beta|This gene encodes a protein with similarity to the estrogen receptor. Its function is unknown; however, a similar protein in mouse plays an essential role in placental development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FEV FEV (ETS oncogene family)|This gene belongs to the ETS transcription factor family. ETS family members have a highly conserved 85-amino acid ETS domain that binds purine-rich DNA sequences. The alanine-rich C-terminus of this gene indicates that it may act as a transcription repressor. This gene is exclusively expressed in neurons of the central serotonin (5-HT) system, a system implicated in the pathogeny of such psychiatric diseases as depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. In some types of Ewing tumors, this gene is fused to the Ewing sarcoma (EWS) gene following chromosome translocations. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FOS FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog|The Fos gene family consists of 4 members: FOS, FOSB, FOSL1, and FOSL2. These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. As such, the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. In some cases, expression of the FOS gene has also been associated with apoptotic cell death. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FOXA1 forkhead box A1|This gene encodes a member of the forkhead class of DNA-binding proteins. These hepatocyte nuclear factors are transcriptional activators for liver-specific transcripts such as albumin and transthyretin, and they also interact with chromatin. Similar family members in mice have roles in the regulation of metabolism and in the differentiation of the pancreas and liver. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FOXA2 forkhead box A2|This gene encodes a member of the forkhead class of DNA-binding proteins. These hepatocyte nuclear factors are transcriptional activators for liver-specific genes such as albumin and transthyretin, and they also interact with chromatin. Similar family members in mice have roles in the regulation of metabolism and in the differentiation of the pancreas and liver. This gene has been linked to sporadic cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
FOXC1 forkhead box C1|This gene belongs to the forkhead family of transcription factors which is characterized by a distinct DNA-binding forkhead domain. The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, it has been shown to play a role in the regulation of embryonic and ocular development. Mutations in this gene cause various glaucoma phenotypes including primary congenital glaucoma, autosomal dominant iridogoniodysgenesis anomaly, and Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FOXD1 forkhead box D1|This gene belongs to the forkhead family of transcription factors which are characterized by a distinct forkhead domain. Studies of the orthologous mouse protein indicate that it functions in kidney development by promoting nephron progenitor differentiation, and it also functions in the development of the retina and optic chiasm. It may also regulate inflammatory reactions and prevent autoimmunity. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
FOXF2 forkhead box F2|FOXF2 encodes forkhead box F2, one of many human homologues of the Drosophila melanogaster transcription factor forkhead. FOXF2 is expressed in lung and placenta, and has been shown to transcriptionally activate several lung-specific genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FOXI1 forkhead box I1|This gene belongs to the forkhead family of transcription factors which is characterized by a distinct forkhead domain. The specific function of this gene has not yet been determined; however, it is possible that this gene plays an important role in the development of the cochlea and vestibulum, as well as embryogenesis. Mutations in this gene may be associated with the common cavity phenotype. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FOXL1 forkhead box L1|This gene encodes a member of the forkhead/winged helix-box (FOX) family of transcription factors. FOX transcription factors are characterized by a distinct DNA-binding forkhead domain and play critical roles in the regulation of multiple processes including metabolism, cell proliferation and gene expression during ontogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2012]
FOXO3 forkhead box O3|This gene belongs to the forkhead family of transcription factors which are characterized by a distinct forkhead domain. This gene likely functions as a trigger for apoptosis through expression of genes necessary for cell death. Translocation of this gene with the MLL gene is associated with secondary acute leukemia. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GABPA GA binding protein transcription factor, alpha subunit 60kDa|This gene encodes one of three GA-binding protein transcription factor subunits which functions as a DNA-binding subunit. Since this subunit shares identity with a subunit encoding the nuclear respiratory factor 2 gene, it is likely involved in activation of cytochrome oxidase expression and nuclear control of mitochondrial function. This subunit also shares identity with a subunit constituting the transcription factor E4TF1, responsible for expression of the adenovirus E4 gene. Because of its chromosomal localization and ability to form heterodimers with other polypeptides, this gene may play a role in the Down Syndrome phenotype. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
GATA1 GATA binding protein 1 (globin transcription factor 1)|This gene encodes a protein which belongs to the GATA family of transcription factors. The protein plays an important role in erythroid development by regulating the switch of fetal hemoglobin to adult hemoglobin. Mutations in this gene have been associated with X-linked dyserythropoietic anemia and thrombocytopenia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GATA2 GATA binding protein 2|This gene encodes a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger transcription factors that are named for the consensus nucleotide sequence they bind in the promoter regions of target genes. The encoded protein plays an essential role in regulating transcription of genes involved in the development and proliferation of hematopoietic and endocrine cell lineages. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
GATA3 GATA binding protein 3|This gene encodes a protein which belongs to the GATA family of transcription factors. The protein contains two GATA-type zinc fingers and is an important regulator of T-cell development and plays an important role in endothelial cell biology. Defects in this gene are the cause of hypoparathyroidism with sensorineural deafness and renal dysplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
HINFP histone H4 transcription factor|This gene encodes a transcription factor that interacts with methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MBD2), a component of the MeCP1 histone deacetylase (HDAC) complex, and plays a role in DNA methylation and transcription repression. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
HLF hepatic leukemia factor|This gene encodes a member of the proline and acidic-rich (PAR) protein family, a subset of the bZIP transcription factors. The encoded protein forms homodimers or heterodimers with other PAR family members and binds sequence-specific promoter elements to activate transcription. Chromosomal translocations fusing portions of this gene with the E2A gene cause a subset of childhood B-lineage acute lymphoid leukemias. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HNF1B HNF1 homeobox B|This gene encodes a member of the homeodomain-containing superfamily of transcription factors. The protein binds to DNA as either a homodimer, or a heterodimer with the related protein hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha. The gene has been shown to function in nephron development, and regulates development of the embryonic pancreas. Mutations in this gene result in renal cysts and diabetes syndrome and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and expression of this gene is altered in some types of cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
HNF4A hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha|The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear transcription factor which binds DNA as a homodimer. The encoded protein controls the expression of several genes, including hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha, a transcription factor which regulates the expression of several hepatic genes. This gene may play a role in development of the liver, kidney, and intestines. Mutations in this gene have been associated with monogenic autosomal dominant non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type I. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
HOXA5 homeobox A5|In vertebrates, the genes encoding the class of transcription factors called homeobox genes are found in clusters named A, B, C, and D on four separate chromosomes. Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A cluster on chromosome 7 and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor which may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation. Methylation of this gene may result in the loss of its expression and, since the encoded protein upregulates the tumor suppressor p53, this protein may play an important role in tumorigenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
INSM1 insulinoma-associated 1|Insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1) gene is intronless and encodes a protein containing both a zinc finger DNA-binding domain and a putative prohormone domain. This gene is a sensitive marker for neuroendocrine differentiation of human lung tumors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IRF1 interferon regulatory factor 1|IRF1 encodes interferon regulatory factor 1, a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. IRF1 serves as an activator of interferons alpha and beta transcription, and in mouse it has been shown to be required for double-stranded RNA induction of these genes. IRF1 also functions as a transcription activator of genes induced by interferons alpha, beta, and gamma. Further, IRF1 has been shown to play roles in regulating apoptosis and tumor-suppressoion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IRF2 interferon regulatory factor 2|IRF2 encodes interferon regulatory factor 2, a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. IRF2 competitively inhibits the IRF1-mediated transcriptional activation of interferons alpha and beta, and presumably other genes that employ IRF1 for transcription activation. However, IRF2 also functions as a transcriptional activator of histone H4. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
JUN jun proto-oncogene|This gene is the putative transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus 17. It encodes a protein which is highly similar to the viral protein, and which interacts directly with specific target DNA sequences to regulate gene expression. This gene is intronless and is mapped to 1p32-p31, a chromosomal region involved in both translocations and deletions in human malignancies. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
JUND jun D proto-oncogene|The protein encoded by this intronless gene is a member of the JUN family, and a functional component of the AP1 transcription factor complex. This protein has been proposed to protect cells from p53-dependent senescence and apoptosis. Alternative translation initiation site usage results in the production of different isoforms (PMID:12105216). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
KLF4 Kruppel-like factor 4 (gut)|
KLF5 Kruppel-like factor 5 (intestinal)|This gene encodes a member of the Kruppel-like factor subfamily of zinc finger proteins. The encoded protein is a transcriptional activator that binds directly to a specific recognition motif in the promoters of target genes. This protein acts downstream of multiple different signaling pathways and is regulated by post-translational modification. It may participate in both promoting and suppressing cell proliferation. Expression of this gene may be changed in a variety of different cancers and in cardiovascular disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
LHX3 LIM homeobox 3|This gene encodes a member a large protein family which carry the LIM domain, a unique cysteine-rich zinc-binding domain. The encoded protein is a transcription factor that is required for pituitary development and motor neuron specification. Mutations in this gene cause combined pituitary hormone deficiency 3. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
MAX MYC associated factor X|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLHZ) family of transcription factors. It is able to form homodimers and heterodimers with other family members, which include Mad, Mxi1 and Myc. Myc is an oncoprotein implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The homodimers and heterodimers compete for a common DNA target site (the E box) and rearrangement among these dimer forms provides a complex system of transcriptional regulation. Mutations of this gene have been reported to be associated with hereditary pheochromocytoma. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
MECOM MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional regulator and oncoprotein that may be involved in hematopoiesis, apoptosis, development, and cell differentiation and proliferation. The encoded protein can interact with CTBP1, SMAD3, CREBBP, KAT2B, MAPK8, and MAPK9. This gene can undergo translocation with the AML1 gene, resulting in overexpression of this gene and the onset of leukemia. Several transcript variants encoding a few different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
MEF2A myocyte enhancer factor 2A|The protein encoded by this gene is a DNA-binding transcription factor that activates many muscle-specific, growth factor-induced, and stress-induced genes. The encoded protein can act as a homodimer or as a heterodimer and is involved in several cellular processes, including muscle development, neuronal differentiation, cell growth control, and apoptosis. Defects in this gene could be a cause of autosomal dominant coronary artery disease 1 with myocardial infarction (ADCAD1). Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
MYB v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog|This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the MYB family of transcription factor genes. The protein contains three domains, an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, a central transcriptional activation domain and a C-terminal domain involved in transcriptional repression. This protein plays an essential role in the regulation of hematopoiesis and may play a role in tumorigenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]
MYC v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog|The protein encoded by this gene is a multifunctional, nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. It functions as a transcription factor that regulates transcription of specific target genes. Mutations, overexpression, rearrangement and translocation of this gene have been associated with a variety of hematopoietic tumors, leukemias and lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma. There is evidence to show that alternative translation initiations from an upstream, in-frame non-AUG (CUG) and a downstream AUG start site result in the production of two isoforms with distinct N-termini. The synthesis of non-AUG initiated protein is suppressed in Burkitt's lymphomas, suggesting its importance in the normal function of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MYCN v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene neuroblastoma derived homolog|This gene is a member of the MYC family and encodes a protein with a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain. This protein is located in the nucleus and must dimerize with another bHLH protein in order to bind DNA. Amplification of this gene is associated with a variety of tumors, most notably neuroblastomas. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2014]
NFATC2 nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2|This gene is a member of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family. The product of this gene is a DNA-binding protein with a REL-homology region (RHR) and an NFAT-homology region (NHR). This protein is present in the cytosol and only translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, where it becomes a member of the nuclear factors of activated T cells transcription complex. This complex plays a central role in inducing gene transcription during the immune response. Alternate transcriptional splice variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
NFIC nuclear factor I/C (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CTF/NF-I family. These are dimeric DNA-binding proteins, and function as cellular transcription factors and as replication factors for adenovirus DNA replication. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
NFIL3 nuclear factor, interleukin 3 regulated|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional regulator that binds as a homodimer to activating transcription factor (ATF) sites in many cellular and viral promoters. The encoded protein represses PER1 and PER2 expression and therefore plays a role in the regulation of circadian rhythm. Three transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
NFKB1 nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1|This gene encodes a 105 kD protein which can undergo cotranslational processing by the 26S proteasome to produce a 50 kD protein. The 105 kD protein is a Rel protein-specific transcription inhibitor and the 50 kD protein is a DNA binding subunit of the NF-kappa-B (NFKB) protein complex. NFKB is a transcription regulator that is activated by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral products. Activated NFKB translocates into the nucleus and stimulates the expression of genes involved in a wide variety of biological functions. Inappropriate activation of NFKB has been associated with a number of inflammatory diseases while persistent inhibition of NFKB leads to inappropriate immune cell development or delayed cell growth. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]
NFYA nuclear transcription factor Y, alpha|The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a trimeric complex, forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoter regions in a variety of genes. Subunit A associates with a tight dimer composed of the B and C subunits, resulting in a trimer that binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. The sequence specific interactions of the complex are made by the A subunit, suggesting a role as the regulatory subunit. In addition, there is evidence of post-transcriptional regulation in this gene product, either by protein degradation or control of translation. Further regulation is represented by alternative splicing in the glutamine-rich activation domain, with clear tissue-specific preferences for the two isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NFYB nuclear transcription factor Y, beta|The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a trimeric complex, forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds with high specificity to CCAAT motifs in the promoter regions in a variety of genes. This gene product, subunit B, forms a tight dimer with the C subunit, a prerequisite for subunit A association. The resulting trimer binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. Subunits B and C each contain a histone-like motif. Observation of the histone nature of these subunits is supported by two types of evidence; protein sequence alignments and experiments with mutants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NHLH1 nescient helix loop helix 1|The helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins are a family of putative transcription factors, some of which have been shown to play an important role in growth and development of a wide variety of tissues and species. Four members of this family have been clearly implicated in tumorigenesis via their involvement in chromosomal translocations in lymphoid tumors: MYC (MIM 190080), LYL1 (MIM 151440), E2A (MIM 147141), and SCL (MIM 187040).[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2002]
NKX2-5 NK2 homeobox 5|This gene encodes a homeobox-containing transcription factor. This transcription factor functions in heart formation and development. Mutations in this gene cause atrial septal defect with atrioventricular conduction defect, and also tetralogy of Fallot, which are both heart malformation diseases. Mutations in this gene can also cause congenital hypothyroidism non-goitrous type 5, a non-autoimmune condition. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2009]
NKX3-1 NK3 homeobox 1|This gene encodes a homeobox-containing transcription factor. This transcription factor functions as a negative regulator of epithelial cell growth in prostate tissue. Aberrant expression of this gene is associated with prostate tumor progression. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2012]
NKX3-2 NK3 homeobox 2|This gene encodes a member of the NK family of homeobox-containing proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in skeletal development. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NOBOX NOBOX oogenesis homeobox|This homeobox gene encodes a transcription factor that is thought to play a role in oogenesis. In mice, it is essential for folliculogenesis and regulation of oocyte-specific genes. Defects in this gene result in premature ovarian failure type 5.[provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
NR2C2 nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group C, member 2|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. Members of this family act as ligand-activated transcription factors and function in many biological processes such as development, cellular differentiation and homeostasis. The activated receptor/ligand complex is translocated to the nucleus where it binds to hormone response elements of target genes. The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in protecting cells from oxidative stress and damage induced by ionizing radiation. The lack of a similar gene in mouse results in growth retardation, severe spinal curvature, subfertility, premature aging, and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) development. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
NR2E3 nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group E, member 3|This protein is part of a large family of nuclear receptor transcription factors involved in signaling pathways. Nuclear receptors have been shown to regulate pathways involved in embryonic development, as well as in maintenance of proper cell function in adults. Members of this family are characterized by discrete domains that function in DNA and ligand binding. This gene encodes a retinal nuclear receptor that is a ligand-dependent transcription factor. Defects in this gene are a cause of enhanced S cone syndrome. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NR2F1 nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear hormone receptor and transcriptional regulator. The encoded protein acts as a homodimer and binds to 5'-AGGTCA-3' repeats. Defects in this gene are a cause of Bosch-Boonstra optic atrophy syndrome (BBOAS). [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
NR3C1 nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor)|This gene encodes glucocorticoid receptor, which can function both as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements in the promoters of glucocorticoid responsive genes to activate their transcription, and as a regulator of other transcription factors. This receptor is typically found in the cytoplasm, but upon ligand binding, is transported into the nucleus. It is involved in inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation, and differentiation in target tissues. Mutations in this gene are associated with generalized glucocorticoid resistance. Alternative splicing of this gene results in transcript variants encoding either the same or different isoforms. Additional isoforms resulting from the use of alternate in-frame translation initiation sites have also been described, and shown to be functional, displaying diverse cytoplasm-to-nucleus trafficking patterns and distinct transcriptional activities (PMID:15866175). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
NR4A2 nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2|This gene encodes a member of the steroid-thyroid hormone-retinoid receptor superfamily. The encoded protein may act as a transcription factor. Mutations in this gene have been associated with disorders related to dopaminergic dysfunction, including Parkinson disease, schizophernia, and manic depression. Misregulation of this gene may be associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described, but their biological validity has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NRF1 nuclear respiratory factor 1|This gene encodes a protein that homodimerizes and functions as a transcription factor which activates the expression of some key metabolic genes regulating cellular growth and nuclear genes required for respiration, heme biosynthesis, and mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication. The protein has also been associated with the regulation of neurite outgrowth. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Confusion has occurred in bibliographic databases due to the shared symbol of NRF1 for this gene and for "nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 1" which has an official symbol of NFE2L1. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
PAX2 paired box 2|PAX2 encodes paired box gene 2, one of many human homologues of the Drosophila melanogaster gene prd. The central feature of this transcription factor gene family is the conserved DNA-binding paired box domain. PAX2 is believed to be a target of transcriptional supression by the tumor suppressor gene WT1. Mutations within PAX2 have been shown to result in optic nerve colobomas and renal hypoplasia. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
PAX4 paired box 4|This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. Members of this gene family typically contain a paired box domain, an octapeptide, and a paired-type homeodomain. These genes play critical roles during fetal development and cancer growth. The paired box 4 gene is involved in pancreatic islet development and mouse studies have demonstrated a role for this gene in differentiation of insulin-producing beta cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PAX5 paired box 5|This gene encodes a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. The central feature of this gene family is a novel, highly conserved DNA-binding motif, known as the paired box. Paired box transcription factors are important regulators in early development, and alterations in the expression of their genes are thought to contribute to neoplastic transformation. This gene encodes the B-cell lineage specific activator protein that is expressed at early, but not late stages of B-cell differentiation. Its expression has also been detected in developing CNS and testis and so the encoded protein may also play a role in neural development and spermatogenesis. This gene is located at 9p13, which is involved in t(9;14)(p13;q32) translocations recurring in small lymphocytic lymphomas of the plasmacytoid subtype, and in derived large-cell lymphomas. This translocation brings the potent E-mu enhancer of the IgH gene into close proximity of the PAX5 promoter, suggesting that the deregulation of transcription of this gene contributes to the pathogenesis of these lymphomas. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
PAX6 paired box 6|This gene encodes paired box gene 6, one of many human homologs of the Drosophila melanogaster gene prd. In addition to the hallmark feature of this gene family, a conserved paired box domain, the encoded protein also contains a homeo box domain. Both domains are known to bind DNA and function as regulators of gene transcription. This gene is expressed in the developing nervous system, and in developing eyes. Mutations in this gene are known to cause ocular disorders such as aniridia and Peter's anomaly. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
PBX1 pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 1|This gene encodes a nuclear protein that belongs to the PBX homeobox family of transcriptional factors. Studies in mice suggest that this gene may be involved in the regulation of osteogenesis, and required for skeletal patterning and programming. A chromosomal translocation, t(1;19) involving this gene and TCF3/E2A gene, is associated with pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The resulting fusion protein, in which the DNA binding domain of E2A is replaced by the DNA binding domain of this protein, transforms cells by constitutively activating transcription of genes regulated by the PBX protein family. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
PDX1 pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator of several genes, including insulin, somatostatin, glucokinase, islet amyloid polypeptide, and glucose transporter type 2. The encoded nuclear protein is involved in the early development of the pancreas and plays a major role in glucose-dependent regulation of insulin gene expression. Defects in this gene are a cause of pancreatic agenesis, which can lead to early-onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), as well as maturity onset diabetes of the young type 4 (MODY4). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PLAG1 pleiomorphic adenoma gene 1|Pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 encodes a zinc finger protein with 2 putative nuclear localization signals. PLAG1, which is developmentally regulated, has been shown to be consistently rearranged in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands. PLAG1 is activated by the reciprocal chromosomal translocations involving 8q12 in a subset of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas. Three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
POU2F2 POU class 2 homeobox 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a homeobox-containing transcription factor of the POU domain family. The encoded protein binds the octamer sequence 5'-ATTTGCAT-3', a common transcription factor binding site in immunoglobulin gene promoters. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
POU5F1 POU class 5 homeobox 1|This gene encodes a transcription factor containing a POU homeodomain that plays a key role in embryonic development and stem cell pluripotency. Aberrant expression of this gene in adult tissues is associated with tumorigenesis. This gene can participate in a translocation with the Ewing's sarcoma gene on chromosome 21, which also leads to tumor formation. Alternative splicing, as well as usage of alternative AUG and non-AUG translation initiation codons, results in multiple isoforms. One of the AUG start codons is polymorphic in human populations. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1, 3, 8, 10, and 12. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]
PPARG peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma|This gene encodes a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subfamily of nuclear receptors. PPARs form heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and these heterodimers regulate transcription of various genes. Three subtypes of PPARs are known: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-delta, and PPAR-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene is PPAR-gamma and is a regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Additionally, PPAR-gamma has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases including obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PRDM1 PR domain containing 1, with ZNF domain|This gene encodes a protein that acts as a repressor of beta-interferon gene expression. The protein binds specifically to the PRDI (positive regulatory domain I element) of the beta-IFN gene promoter. Transcription of this gene increases upon virus induction. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PRRX2 paired related homeobox 2|The DNA-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the paired family of homeobox proteins. Expression is localized to proliferating fetal fibroblasts and the developing dermal layer, with downregulated expression in adult skin. Increases in expression of this gene during fetal but not adult wound healing suggest a possible role in mechanisms that control mammalian dermal regeneration and prevent formation of scar response to wounding. The expression patterns provide evidence consistent with a role in fetal skin development and a possible role in cellular proliferation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
REL v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the Rel homology domain/immunoglobulin-like fold, plexin, transcription factor (RHD/IPT) family. Members of this family regulate genes involved in apoptosis, inflammation, the immune response, and oncogenic processes. This proto-oncogene plays a role in the survival and proliferation of B lymphocytes. Mutation or amplification of this gene is associated with B-cell lymphomas, including Hodgkin's lymphoma. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in this gene are associated with susceptibility to ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
RELA v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A|NF-kappa-B is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in several biological processes. It is held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state by specific inhibitors. Upon degradation of the inhibitor, NF-kappa-B moves to the nucleus and activates transcription of specific genes. NF-kappa-B is composed of NFKB1 or NFKB2 bound to either REL, RELA, or RELB. The most abundant form of NF-kappa-B is NFKB1 complexed with the product of this gene, RELA. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
REST RE1-silencing transcription factor|This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that represses neuronal genes in non-neuronal tissues. It is a member of the Kruppel-type zinc finger transcription factor family. It represses transcription by binding a DNA sequence element called the neuron-restrictive silencer element. The protein is also found in undifferentiated neuronal progenitor cells and it is thought that this repressor may act as a master negative regular of neurogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
RREB1 ras responsive element binding protein 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger transcription factor that binds to RAS-responsive elements (RREs) of gene promoters. It has been shown that the calcitonin gene promoter contains an RRE and that the encoded protein binds there and increases expression of calcitonin, which may be involved in Ras/Raf-mediated cell differentiation. Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
RUNX1 runt-related transcription factor 1|Core binding factor (CBF) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that binds to the core element of many enhancers and promoters. The protein encoded by this gene represents the alpha subunit of CBF and is thought to be involved in the development of normal hematopoiesis. Chromosomal translocations involving this gene are well-documented and have been associated with several types of leukemia. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RUNX2 runt-related transcription factor 2|This gene is a member of the RUNX family of transcription factors and encodes a nuclear protein with an Runt DNA-binding domain. This protein is essential for osteoblastic differentiation and skeletal morphogenesis and acts as a scaffold for nucleic acids and regulatory factors involved in skeletal gene expression. The protein can bind DNA both as a monomer or, with more affinity, as a subunit of a heterodimeric complex. Mutations in this gene have been associated with the bone development disorder cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD). Transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms result from the use of alternate promoters as well as alternate splicing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SOX10 SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 10|This gene encodes a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of the cell fate. The encoded protein may act as a transcriptional activator after forming a protein complex with other proteins. This protein acts as a nucleocytoplasmic shuttle protein and is important for neural crest and peripheral nervous system development. Mutations in this gene are associated with Waardenburg-Shah and Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SOX17 SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 17|This gene encodes a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of the cell fate. The encoded protein may act as a transcriptional regulator after forming a protein complex with other proteins. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SOX2 SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2|This intronless gene encodes a member of the SRY-related HMG-box (SOX) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of cell fate. The product of this gene is required for stem-cell maintenance in the central nervous system, and also regulates gene expression in the stomach. Mutations in this gene have been associated with optic nerve hypoplasia and with syndromic microphthalmia, a severe form of structural eye malformation. This gene lies within an intron of another gene called SOX2 overlapping transcript (SOX2OT). [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SOX5 SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 5|This gene encodes a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of the cell fate. The encoded protein may act as a transcriptional regulator after forming a protein complex with other proteins. The encoded protein may play a role in chondrogenesis. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 8. Multiple transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SOX9 SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9|The protein encoded by this gene recognizes the sequence CCTTGAG along with other members of the HMG-box class DNA-binding proteins. It acts during chondrocyte differentiation and, with steroidogenic factor 1, regulates transcription of the anti-Muellerian hormone (AMH) gene. Deficiencies lead to the skeletal malformation syndrome campomelic dysplasia, frequently with sex reversal. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SP1 Sp1 transcription factor|The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger transcription factor that binds to GC-rich motifs of many promoters. The encoded protein is involved in many cellular processes, including cell differentiation, cell growth, apoptosis, immune responses, response to DNA damage, and chromatin remodeling. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, and proteolytic processing significantly affect the activity of this protein, which can be an activator or a repressor. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
SPIB Spi-B transcription factor (Spi-1/PU.1 related)|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator that binds to the PU-box (5'-GAGGAA-3') and acts as a lymphoid-specific enhancer. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
SPZ1 spermatogenic leucine zipper 1|This gene encodes a bHLH-zip transcription factor which functions in the mitogen-activate protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Because of its role in the upregulation of cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, this gene may serve as a target for Ras-induced tumor treatments. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
SREBF1 sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1|This gene encodes a transcription factor that binds to the sterol regulatory element-1 (SRE1), which is a decamer flanking the low density lipoprotein receptor gene and some genes involved in sterol biosynthesis. The protein is synthesized as a precursor that is attached to the nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. Following cleavage, the mature protein translocates to the nucleus and activates transcription by binding to the SRE1. Sterols inhibit the cleavage of the precursor, and the mature nuclear form is rapidly catabolized, thereby reducing transcription. The protein is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factor family. This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SREBF2 sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2|This gene encodes a member of the a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that controls cholesterol homeostasis by regulating transcription of sterol-regulated genes. The encoded protein contains a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) domain and binds the sterol regulatory element 1 motif. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
SRF serum response factor (c-fos serum response element-binding transcription factor)|This gene encodes a ubiquitous nuclear protein that stimulates both cell proliferation and differentiation. It is a member of the MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and SRF) box superfamily of transcription factors. This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the activity of many immediate-early genes, for example c-fos, and thereby participates in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell growth, and cell differentiation. This gene is the downstream target of many pathways; for example, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) that acts through the ternary complex factors (TCFs). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
SRY sex determining region Y|This intronless gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the high mobility group (HMG)-box family of DNA-binding proteins. This protein is the testis-determining factor (TDF), which initiates male sex determination. Mutations in this gene give rise to XY females with gonadal dysgenesis (Swyer syndrome); translocation of part of the Y chromosome containing this gene to the X chromosome causes XX male syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
STAT1 signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, 91kDa|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. This protein can be activated by various ligands including interferon-alpha, interferon-gamma, EGF, PDGF and IL6. This protein mediates the expression of a variety of genes, which is thought to be important for cell viability in response to different cell stimuli and pathogens. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
STAT3 signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor)|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. This protein is activated through phosphorylation in response to various cytokines and growth factors including IFNs, EGF, IL5, IL6, HGF, LIF and BMP2. This protein mediates the expression of a variety of genes in response to cell stimuli, and thus plays a key role in many cellular processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. The small GTPase Rac1 has been shown to bind and regulate the activity of this protein. PIAS3 protein is a specific inhibitor of this protein. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
T T, brachyury homolog (mouse)|The protein encoded by this gene is an embryonic nuclear transcription factor that binds to a specific DNA element, the palindromic T-site. It binds through a region in its N-terminus, called the T-box, and effects transcription of genes required for mesoderm formation and differentiation. The protein is localized to notochord-derived cells. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
TEAD1 TEA domain family member 1 (SV40 transcriptional enhancer factor)|This gene encodes a ubiquitous transcriptional enhancer factor that is a member of the TEA/ATTS domain family. This protein directs the transactivation of a wide variety of genes and, in placental cells, also acts as a transcriptional repressor. Mutations in this gene cause Sveinsson's chorioretinal atrophy. Additional transcript variants have been described but their full-length natures have not been experimentally verified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
TFAP2A transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha)|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that binds the consensus sequence 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3'. The encoded protein functions as either a homodimer or as a heterodimer with similar family members. This protein activates the transcription of some genes while inhibiting the transcription of others. Defects in this gene are a cause of branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS). Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
TFAP2C transcription factor AP-2 gamma (activating enhancer binding protein 2 gamma)|The protein encoded by this gene is a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor involved in the activation of several developmental genes. The encoded protein can act as either a homodimer or heterodimer with other family members and is induced during retinoic acid-mediated differentiation. It plays a role in the development of the eyes, face, body wall, limbs, and neural tube. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TFCP2L1 transcription factor CP2-like 1|
TP53 tumor protein p53|This gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein containing transcriptional activation, DNA binding, and oligomerization domains. The encoded protein responds to diverse cellular stresses to regulate expression of target genes, thereby inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, senescence, DNA repair, or changes in metabolism. Mutations in this gene are associated with a variety of human cancers, including hereditary cancers such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Alternative splicing of this gene and the use of alternate promoters result in multiple transcript variants and isoforms. Additional isoforms have also been shown to result from the use of alternate translation initiation codons (PMIDs: 12032546, 20937277). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]
TP63 tumor protein p63|This gene encodes a member of the p53 family of transcription factors. An animal model, p63 -/- mice, has been useful in defining the role this protein plays in the development and maintenance of stratified epithelial tissues. p63 -/- mice have several developmental defects which include the lack of limbs and other tissues, such as teeth and mammary glands, which develop as a result of interactions between mesenchyme and epithelium. Mutations in this gene are associated with ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3); split-hand/foot malformation 4 (SHFM4); ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate; ADULT syndrome (acro-dermato-ungual-lacrimal-tooth); limb-mammary syndrome; Rap-Hodgkin syndrome (RHS); and orofacial cleft 8. Both alternative splicing and the use of alternative promoters results in multiple transcript variants encoding different proteins. Many transcripts encoding different proteins have been reported but the biological validity and the full-length nature of these variants have not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
USF1 upstream transcription factor 1|This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and can function as a cellular transcription factor. The encoded protein can activate transcription through pyrimidine-rich initiator (Inr) elements and E-box motifs. This gene has been linked to familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been defined on chromosome 21. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]
USF2 upstream transcription factor 2, c-fos interacting|This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and can function as a cellular transcription factor. The encoded protein can activate transcription through pyrimidine-rich initiator (Inr) elements and E-box motifs. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
YY1 YY1 transcription factor|YY1 is a ubiquitously distributed transcription factor belonging to the GLI-Kruppel class of zinc finger proteins. The protein is involved in repressing and activating a diverse number of promoters. YY1 may direct histone deacetylases and histone acetyltransferases to a promoter in order to activate or repress the promoter, thus implicating histone modification in the function of YY1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZFX zinc finger protein, X-linked|This gene on the X chromosome is structurally similar to a related gene on the Y chromosome. It encodes a member of the krueppel C2H2-type zinc-finger protein family. The full-length protein contains an acidic transcriptional activation domain (AD), a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and a DNA binding domain (DBD) consisting of 13 C2H2-type zinc fingers. Studies in mouse embryonic and adult hematopoietic stem cells showed that this gene was required as a transcriptional regulator for self-renewal of both stem cell types, but it was dispensable for growth and differentiation of their progeny. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified, but the full-length nature of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
ZNF354C zinc finger protein 354C|