GO Biological Process Annotations Dataset

Description curated annotations of genes with biological processes
Measurement association by literature curation
Association gene-biological process associations from curated gene annotations
Category structural or functional annotations
Resource Gene Ontology
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  1. 15717 genes
  2. 13212 biological processs
  3. 969303 gene-biological process associations

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biological process Gene Sets

13212 sets of genes participating in biological processes from the curated GO Biological Process Annotations dataset.

Gene Set Description
chromatin silencing at telomere Repression of transcription of telomeric DNA by altering the structure of chromatin.
striated muscle contraction A process in which force is generated within striated muscle tissue, resulting in the shortening of the muscle. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step that is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. Striated muscle is a type of muscle in which the repeating units (sarcomeres) of the contractile myofibrils are arranged in registry throughout the cell, resulting in transverse or oblique striations observable at the level of the light microscope.
pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of any one of a family of organic molecules consisting of a pyrimidine base covalently bonded to a sugar deoxyribose (a deoxyribonucleoside).
establishment of mitotic spindle localization The cell cycle process in which the directed movement of the mitotic spindle to a specific location in the cell occurs.
l-glutamate(1-) import into cell
sodium ion homeostasis Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of sodium ions within an organism or cell.
negative regulation of pre-mirna processing Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of pre-microRNA processing.
ferrous iron import The directed movement of ferrous iron (Fe(II) or Fe2+) ions across a membrane into a cell or organelle.
cellular alkene metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving an alkene, any acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbon having one carbon-carbon double bond and the general formula CnH2n, as carried out by individual cells.
positive regulation of lipopolysaccharide-mediated signaling pathway Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of signaling in response to detection of lipopolysaccharide.
smoothened signaling pathway involved in spinal cord motor neuron cell fate specification The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a ligand to the transmembrane receptor smoothened in a precursor cell in the spinal cord that contributes to the process of a precursor cell becoming capable of differentiating autonomously into a motor neuron in an environment that is neutral with respect to the developmental pathway.
sequestering of iron ion The process of binding or confining iron ions such that they are separated from other components of a biological system.
positive regulation of t-helper 17 cell lineage commitment Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of T-helper 17 cell lineage commitment.
midbrain-hindbrain boundary maturation during brain development A developmental process occurring after the brain has been specified along the neural axis that is required for the midbrain-hindbrain boundary to attain its fully functional state. The midbrain-hindbrain domain of the embryonic brain is comprised of the mesencephalic vesicle and the first rhombencephalic vesicle at early somitogenesis stages. An organizing center at the boundary patterns the midbrain and hindbrain primordia of the neural plate.
cardioblast migration to the midline involved in heart field formation The orderly movement of a cardioblast toward the midline to form the heart field. A cardioblast is a cardiac precursor cell. It is a cell that has been committed to a cardiac fate, but will undergo more cell division rather than terminally differentiating.
regulation of high voltage-gated calcium channel activity Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of high voltage-gated calcium channel activity.
neutrophil mediated killing of gram-positive bacterium The directed killing of a gram-positive bacterium by a neutrophil.
filtration diaphragm assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a filtration diaphragm, a specialized cell-cell junction found between the cells of the excretory system, which provides a barrier for filtration of blood or hemolymph.
blastocyst formation The initial formation of a blastocyst from a solid ball of cells known as a morula.
cellular response to glyoxal Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a glyoxal stimulus.
late endosome to vacuole transport The directed movement of substances from late endosomes to the vacuole. In yeast, after transport to the prevacuolar compartment, endocytic content is delivered to the late endosome and on to the vacuole. This pathway is analogous to endosome to lysosome transport.
neuromuscular process controlling posture Any process in which an organism voluntarily modulates its posture, the alignment of its anatomical parts.
regulation of canonical wnt signaling pathway involved in controlling type b pancreatic cell proliferation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of canonical Wnt signaling pathway modulating the rate or frequency of pancreatic B cell proliferation.
cellular response to cortisol stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a cortisol stimulus. Cortisol is the major natural glucocorticoid synthesized in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex; it affects the metabolism of glucose, protein, and fats and has appreciable mineralocorticoid activity. It also regulates the immune system and affects many other functions.
axon target recognition The process in which an axon recognizes and binds to a set of cells with which it may form stable connections.
positive regulation of deacetylase activity Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of deacetylase activity, the catalysis of the hydrolysis of an acetyl group or groups from a substrate molecule.
regulation of focal adhesion assembly Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of focal adhesion formation, the establishment and maturation of focal adhesions.
regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway involved in ureteric bud formation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway involved in ureteric bud formation.
negative regulation of molecular function Any process that stops or reduces the rate or extent of a molecular function, an elemental biological activity occurring at the molecular level, such as catalysis or binding.
pyrimidine deoxyribonucleoside metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving any one of a family of organic molecules consisting of a pyrimidine base covalently bonded to a sugar deoxyribose (a deoxyribonucleoside).
signal transduction in response to dna damage A cascade of processes induced by the detection of DNA damage within a cell.
positive regulation of dna-templated transcription, termination Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of DNA-templated transcription termination, the process in which transcription is completed; the formation of phosphodiester bonds ceases, the RNA-DNA hybrid dissociates, and RNA polymerase releases the DNA.
regulation of histone h3-k14 acetylation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of an acetyl group to histone H3 at position 14 of the histone.
negative regulation of cytoskeleton organization Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures.
autophagic vacuole maturation The process in which autophagic vacuoles (also called autophagosomes), double-membraned vacuoles containing cytoplasmic material, undergo a stepwise maturation. The process includes fusion with both endosomal and lysosomal vesicles providing an acidic environment and digestive function to the interior of the autophagic vacuole.
membrane depolarization during bundle of his cell action potential The process in which bundle of His cardiac muscle cell membrane potential changes in the depolarizing direction from the negative resting potential towards the positive membrane potential that will be the peak of the action potential.
positive regulation of mast cell cytokine production Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of mast cell cytokine production.
myoblast migration The orderly movement of a myoblast from one site to another, often during the development of a multicellular organism. A myoblast is a cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.
anaphase-promoting complex-dependent proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, with ubiquitin-protein ligation catalyzed by the anaphase-promoting complex, and mediated by the proteasome.
determination of bilateral symmetry The establishment of an organism's body plan or part of an organism with respect to a single longitudinal plane. The pattern can either be symmetric, such that the halves are mirror images, or asymmetric where the pattern deviates from this symmetry.
suppression by virus of host apoptotic process Any viral process that inhibits apoptosis of infected host cells, facilitating prolonged cell survival during viral replication.
cellular response to reactive nitrogen species Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a reactive nitrogen species stimulus.
vagina development The reproductive developmental process whose specific outcome is the progression of the vagina over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
regulation of hyaluranon cable assembly Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of hyaluranon cable assembly.
positive regulation of anterior head development Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of anterior head development.
negative regulation of rna export from nucleus Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of RNA from the nucleus into the cytoplasm.
mitochondrial respiratory chain complex ii biogenesis The biogenesis of a mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II, a protein complex located in the mitochondrial inner membrane that forms part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Includes the synthesis of constituent proteins and their aggregation, arrangement and bonding together.
regulation of superoxide dismutase activity Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of superoxide dismutase activity.
dephosphorylation The process of removing one or more phosphoric (ester or anhydride) residues from a molecule.
regulation of endocardial cushion to mesenchymal transition involved in heart valve formation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of endocardial cushion to mesenchymal transition involved in heart valve formation.
viral rna genome replication The replication of a viral RNA genome.
appendage morphogenesis The process in which the anatomical structures of appendages are generated and organized. An appendage is an organ or part that is attached to the trunk of an organism, such as a limb or a branch.
regulation of serotonin uptake Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin into a cell.
cochlear nucleus development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cochlear nucleus over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
negative regulation of cholesterol import Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of cholesterol import. Cholesterol import is the directed movement of cholesterol into a cell or organelle.
regulation of cholesterol transport Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of cholesterol into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
short-chain fatty acid metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving fatty acids with a chain length of less than C6.
negative regulation of catagen Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of catagen, the regression phase of the hair cycle.
positive regulation of neutrophil apoptotic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of neutrophil apoptotic process.
lymphocyte migration into lymph node The movement of a lymphocyte within the lymphatic system into a lymph node, and its subsequent positioning within defined functional compartments such as sites of cell activation by antigen.
regulation of death-inducing signaling complex assembly Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of death-inducing signaling complex assembly.
positive regulation of chromatin assembly or disassembly Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of chromatin assembly or disassembly.
optic nerve development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the optic nerve over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The sensory optic nerve originates from the bipolar cells of the retina and conducts visual information to the brainstem. The optic nerve exits the back of the eye in the orbit, enters the optic canal, and enters the central nervous system at the optic chiasm (crossing) where the nerve fibers become the optic tract just prior to entering the hindbrain.
histone h3-k14 acetylation The modification of histone H3 by the addition of an acetyl group to a lysine residue at position 14 of the histone.
negative regulation of early endosome to late endosome transport Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of early endosome to late endosome transport.
box h/aca snorna processing Any process involved in the conversion of a primary box H/ACA type small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) transcript into a mature box H/ACA snoRNA.
regulation of stomach neuroendocrine cell differentiation Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of the differentiation of a neuroendocrine cell in the stomach.
cell activation involved in immune response A change in the morphology or behavior of a cell resulting from exposure to an activating factor such as a cellular or soluble ligand, leading to the initiation or perpetuation of an immune response.
negative regulation of apoptotic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process.
molting cycle The periodic casting off and regeneration of an outer covering of cuticle, feathers, hair, horns, skin, etc.
renal cortex development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the renal cortex over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The renal cortex is the outer region of the kidney.
negative regulation of heart rate involved in baroreceptor response to increased systemic arterial blood pressure Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of heart contraction as a result of the baroreceptor response to increased blood pressure.
detoxification of cadmium ion Any process that reduces or removes the toxicity of cadmium ion. These may include transport of cadmium away from sensitive areas and to compartments or complexes whose purpose is sequestration of cadmium ion.
nucleotide-excision repair, dna incision, 3'-to lesion The endonucleolytic cleavage of the damaged strand of DNA 3' to the site of damage. The incision occurs at the junction of single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA that is formed when the DNA duplex is unwound. The incision precedes the incision formed 5' to the site of damage.
schwann cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a Schwann cell. Schwann cells are found in the peripheral nervous system, where they insulate neurons and axons, and regulate the environment in which neurons function.
glycerol-3-phosphate biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycerol-3-phosphate, a phosphoric monoester of glycerol.
aromatic compound biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of aromatic compounds, any substance containing an aromatic carbon ring.
negative regulation of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, the process in which cytochrome c is enabled to move from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol, which is an early step in apoptosis and leads to caspase activation.
positive regulation of fatty acid oxidation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of fatty acid oxidation.
udp-galactose transmembrane transport The directed movement of UDP-galactose across a membrane into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
endothelial cell chemotaxis to fibroblast growth factor The directed movement of an endothelial cell in response to the presence of fibroblast growth factor (FGF).
positive regulation of lipid storage Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of lipid storage. Lipid storage is the accumulation and maintenance in cells or tissues of lipids, compounds soluble in organic solvents but insoluble or sparingly soluble in aqueous solvents. Lipid reserves can be accumulated during early developmental stages for mobilization and utilization at later stages of development.
collagen-activated tyrosine kinase receptor signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of collagen to a receptor on the surface of the target cell where the receptor possesses tyrosine kinase activity. The pathway ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
golgi localization Any process in which the Golgi is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location within the cell.
membrane disruption in other organism The disruption of the membranes of another organism, leading to damage to its cells and possibly death of that organism.
regulation of neuron projection development Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of neuron projection development. Neuron projection development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neuron projection over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A neuron projection is any process extending from a neural cell, such as axons or dendrites (collectively called neurites).
positive regulation of neuron migration Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of neuron migration.
regulation of presynaptic membrane organization Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of presynaptic membrane organization.
renal phosphate ion absorption A renal system process in which phosphate ions are taken up from the collecting ducts and proximal and distal loops of the nephron. In non-mammalian species, absorption may occur in related structures.
mrna methylation The posttranscriptional addition of methyl groups to specific residues in an mRNA molecule.
toll-like receptor signaling pathway Any series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of binding to a toll-like receptor. Toll-like receptors directly bind pattern motifs from a variety of microbial sources to initiate innate immune response.
cerebellum development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cerebellum over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The cerebellum is the portion of the brain in the back of the head between the cerebrum and the pons. In mice, the cerebellum controls balance for walking and standing, modulates the force and range of movement and is involved in the learning of motor skills.
embryonic hindlimb morphogenesis The process, occurring in the embryo, by which the anatomical structures of the hindlimbs are generated and organized. The hindlimbs are the posterior limbs of an animal.
norepinephrine-epinephrine vasoconstriction involved in regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure A process that results in a decrease in the diameter of an artery during the norepinephrine-epinephrine response to decreased blood pressure.
cellular response to lipopolysaccharide Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lipopolysaccharide stimulus; lipopolysaccharide is a major component of the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria.
regulation of vitamin d receptor signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of vitamin D receptor signaling pathway activity.
protein localization to plasma membrane raft A process in which a protein is transported to, or maintained in, a location within a plasma membrane raft.
detection of gravity The series of events in which a gravitational stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.
microtubule anchoring at centrosome Any process in which a microtubule is maintained in a specific location in a cell by attachment to a centrosome.
dorsal aorta development The progression of the dorsal aorta over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The dorsal aorta is a blood vessel in a single-pass circulatory system that carries oxygenated blood from the gills to the rest of the body. In a single-pass circulatory system blood passes once through the heart to supply the body once.
smooth muscle adaptation Any process in which smooth muscle adapts, with consequent modifications to structural and/or functional phenotypes, in response to a stimulus. Stimuli include contractile activity, loading conditions, substrate supply, and environmental factors. These adaptive events occur in both muscle fibers and associated structures (motoneurons and capillaries), and they involve alterations in regulatory mechanisms, contractile properties and metabolic capacities.
killing by host of symbiont cells Any process mediated by an organism that results in the death of cells in the symbiont organism. The symbiont is defined as the smaller of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction.
dna integrity checkpoint A cell cycle process that controls cell cycle progression in response to changes in DNA structure by monitoring the integrity of the DNA. The DNA integrity checkpoint begins with detection of DNA damage, defects in DNA structure or DNA replication, and progresses through signal transduction and ends with cell cycle effector processes.
negative regulation of dendritic spine development Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of dendritic spine development, the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the dendritic spine over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
negative regulation of hair follicle maturation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of hair follicle maturation.
protein targeting to mitochondrion The process of directing proteins towards and into the mitochondrion, usually mediated by mitochondrial proteins that recognize signals contained within the imported protein.
regulation of glutamate receptor signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of glutamate receptor signaling pathway.
microtubule bundle formation A process that results in a parallel arrangement of microtubules.
regulation of ureter smooth muscle cell differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of ureter smooth muscle cell differentiation.
regulation of acid-sensing ion channel activity Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of acid-sensing ion channel activity.
traversing start control point of mitotic cell cycle A cell cycle process by which a cell commits to entering S phase via a positive feedback mechanism between the regulation of transcription and G1 CDK activity.
iodide transport The directed movement of iodide into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
pyruvate biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of pyruvate, 2-oxopropanoate.
cellular trivalent inorganic anion homeostasis Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of trivalent inorganic anions at the level of a cell.
startle response An action or movement due to the application of a sudden unexpected stimulus.
glomerular visceral epithelial cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a glomerular visceral epithelial cell. A glomerular visceral epithelial cell is a specialized epithelial cell that contains feet that interdigitate with the feet of other glomerular epithelial cells.
response to organic substance Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic substance stimulus.
response to sterol depletion Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating deprivation of sterols. Sterols are a group of steroids characterized by the presence of one or more hydroxyl groups and a hydrocarbon side-chain in the molecule.
i-kappab phosphorylation The process of introducing a phosphate group into an inhibitor of kappa B (I-kappaB) protein. Phosphorylation of I-kappaB targets I-kappaB for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, thus releasing bound NF-kappaB dimers, which can translocate to the nucleus to bind DNA and regulate transcription.
negative regulation of interleukin-6 production Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of interleukin-6 production.
cellular response to caffeine Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a caffeine stimulus. Caffeine is an alkaloid found in numerous plant species, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding upon them.
ganglioside catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of ganglioside, a ceramide oligosaccharide carrying, in addition to other sugar residues, one or more sialic residues.
regulation of exocytosis Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of exocytosis.
astrocyte development The process aimed at the progression of an astrocyte over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell. An astrocyte is the most abundant type of glial cell. Astrocytes provide support for neurons and regulate the environment in which they function.
regulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate selective glutamate receptor activity Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate selective glutamate receptor activity.
synaptic vesicle priming The formation of SNARE-containing complexes, bringing synaptic vesicle membrane and plasma membranes into close proximity and thereby facilitating membrane fusion.
g-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway A series of molecular signals that proceeds with an activated receptor promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha-subunit of an associated heterotrimeric G-protein complex. The GTP-bound activated alpha-G-protein then dissociates from the beta- and gamma-subunits to further transmit the signal within the cell. The pathway begins with receptor-ligand interaction, or for basal GPCR signaling the pathway begins with the receptor activating its G protein in the absence of an agonist, and ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
otic vesicle formation The process resulting in the transition of the otic placode into the otic vesicle, a transient embryonic structure formed during development of the vertebrate inner ear.
positive regulation of histone acetylation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of an acetyl group to a histone protein.
riboflavin transport The directed movement of riboflavin into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin, converted in the cell to FMN and FAD, cofactors required for the function of flavoproteins.
cellular protein complex localization A protein complex localization process that takes place at the cellular level; as a result, a protein complex is transported to, or maintained in, a specific location within a cell.
regulation of signal transduction by p53 class mediator Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction by p53 class mediator.
regulation of membrane repolarization during action potential Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of membrane repolarization during an action potential. Membrane repolarization is the process in which membrane potential changes in the repolarizing direction, towards the resting potential.
trachea development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a trachea over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The trachea is the portion of the airway that attaches to the bronchi as it branches.
positive regulation of corticosterone secretion Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of corticosterone secretion.
negative regulation of transcription by glucose Any process involving glucose that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of transcription. The presence of glucose in the growth medium inhibits the synthesis of certain enzymes in bacteria growing on the medium. For example, transcription of some catabolic operons is under negative control by specific repressors and glucose is an anti-inducer of xylose utilization and glycerol kinase.
sphingoid biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of sphingoids, any of a class of compounds comprising sphinganine and its homologues and stereoisomers, and derivatives of these compounds.
fibroblast apoptotic process Any apoptotic process in a fibroblast, a connective tissue cell which secretes an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
negative regulation of apoptotic process involved in outflow tract morphogenesis Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of apoptotic process involved in outflow tract morphogenesis.
response to gonadotropin Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a gonadotropin stimulus.
regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
lipid transport The directed movement of lipids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Lipids are compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent.
protein trans-autophosphorylation The phosphorylation by a protein of a residue on an identical protein. For example, phosphorylation by the other kinase within a homodimer.
chromatin-mediated maintenance of transcription Maintenance of transcription by remodelling of chromatin into an 'open configuration'. Once established, this regulation is mitotically stable and is maintained over many cell divisions. It is also heritable.
negative regulation of transcription factor import into nucleus Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the movement of a transcription factor from the cytoplasm to the nucleus.
purine nucleoside biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of any purine nucleoside, one of a family of organic molecules consisting of a purine base covalently bonded to a sugar ribose (a ribonucleoside) or deoxyribose (a deoxyribonucleoside).
positive regulation of systemic arterial blood pressure The process that increases the force with which blood travels through the systemic arterial circulatory system.
choline transport The directed movement of choline into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Choline (2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium) is an amino alcohol that occurs widely in living organisms as a constituent of certain types of phospholipids and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
regulation of myoblast fusion Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of myoblast fusion.
positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle phase transition Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mitotic cell cycle phase transition.
snare complex disassembly The disaggregation of the SNARE protein complex into its constituent components. The SNARE complex is a protein complex involved in membrane fusion; a stable ternary complex consisting of a four-helix bundle, usually formed from one R-SNARE and three Q-SNAREs with an ionic layer sandwiched between hydrophobic layers.
urate homeostasis Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of urate within an organism or cell.
negative regulation of lipoprotein oxidation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of lipoprotein oxidation.
deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate, a compound consisting of a nucleobase linked to a deoxyribose sugar esterified with triphosphate on the sugar.
body fluid secretion The controlled release of a fluid by a cell or tissue in an animal.
modulation by organism of apoptotic process in other organism involved in symbiotic interaction Any process in which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death by apoptosis in a second organism, where the two organisms are in a symbiotic interaction.
synapse maturation The process that organizes a synapse so that it attains its fully functional state. Synaptic maturation plays a critical role in the establishment of effective synaptic connections in early development.
tendon development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a tendon over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A tendon is a fibrous, strong, connective tissue that connects muscle to bone or integument and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons and muscles work together to exert a pulling force.
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is where an epithelial cell loses apical/basolateral polarity, severs intercellular adhesive junctions, degrades basement membrane components and becomes a migratory mesenchymal cell.
negative regulation of gene silencing Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of gene silencing, the transcriptional or post-transcriptional process carried out at the cellular level that results in long-term gene inactivation.
neuron recognition The process in which a neuronal cell in a multicellular organism interprets its surroundings.
phytol metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving phytol, (2E,7R,11R)-3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2-en-1-ol.
protein localization to m-band Any process in which a protein is transported to, and/or maintained in, the M band. The M band is the midline of aligned thick filaments in a sarcomere.
lactate transmembrane transport The directed movement of lactate across a membrane by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Lactate is 2-hydroxypropanoate, CH3-CHOH-COOH; L(+)-lactate is formed by anaerobic glycolysis in animal tissues, and DL-lactate is found in sour milk, molasses and certain fruit juices.
regulation of neuromuscular synaptic transmission Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of neuromuscular synaptic transmission.
regulation of cytokine secretion Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of cytokines from a cell.
l-lysine import into cell The directed movement of L-lysine into a cell.
necroptotic process A programmed necrotic cell death process which begins when a cell receives a signal (e.g. a ligand binding to a death receptor or to a Toll-like receptor), and proceeds through a series of biochemical events (signaling pathways), characterized by activation of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 and/or 3 (RIPK1/3, also called RIP1/3), and which typically lead to common morphological features of necrotic cell death. The process ends when the cell has died. The process is divided into a signaling phase, and an execution phase, which is triggered by the former.
dna synthesis involved in dna repair Synthesis of DNA that proceeds from the broken 3' single-strand DNA end uses the homologous intact duplex as the template.
aflatoxin b1 metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving aflatoxin B1, a potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by various species from the Aspergillus group of fungi.
adenylate cyclase-inhibiting opioid receptor signaling pathway The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of an opioid receptor binding to its physiological ligand, where the pathway proceeds with inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and a subsequent decrease in the concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
negative regulation of guanylate cyclase activity Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of guanylate cyclase activity.
leukocyte tethering or rolling Transient adhesive interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells lining blood vessels. Carbohydrates on circulating leukocytes bind selectins on the vessel wall causing the leukocytes to slow down and roll along the inner surface of the vessel wall. During this rolling motion, transitory bonds are formed and broken between selectins and their ligands. Typically the first step in cellular extravasation (the movement of leukocytes out of the circulatory system, towards the site of tissue damage or infection).
regulation of lamellipodium morphogenesis Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of lamellipodium morphogenesis.
regulation of metal ion transport Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of metal ion transport. Metal ion transport is the directed movement of metal ions, any metal ion with an electric charge, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
c4-dicarboxylate transport The directed movement of a C4-dicarboxylate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. A C4-dicarboxylate is the anion of a dicarboxylic acid that contains four carbon atoms.
regulation of microtubule polymerization Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule polymerization.
interkinetic nuclear migration The movement of the nucleus of the ventricular zone cell between the apical and the basal zone surfaces. Mitosis occurs when the nucleus is near the apical surface, that is, the lumen of the ventricle.
uroporphyrinogen iii metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving uroporphyrinogen III, a precursor for synthesis of vitamin B12, chlorophyll, and heme in organisms that produce these compounds.
planar cell polarity pathway involved in neural tube closure The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a receptor on the surface of the target cell where activated receptors signal via downstream effectors that modulates the establishment of planar polarity contributing to neural tube closure.
canonical wnt signaling pathway involved in positive regulation of apoptotic process The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell, followed by propagation of the signal via beta-catenin, and ending with a change in transcription of target genes involved in the positive regulation of apoptotic process.
embryonic body morphogenesis The process in which the anatomical structures of the embryonic soma are generated and organized.
neutrophil mediated cytotoxicity The directed killing of a target cell by a neutrophil.
rna stabilization Prevention of degradation of RNA molecules.
regulation of eye pigmentation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of establishment of a pattern of pigment in the eye of an organism.
positive regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving nitrogen or nitrogenous compounds.
golgi vesicle docking The initial attachment of a Golgi transport vesicle membrane to a target membrane, mediated by proteins protruding from the membrane of the Golgi vesicle and the target membrane.
transcription, dna-templated The cellular synthesis of RNA on a template of DNA.
forebrain ventricular zone progenitor cell division The mitotic division of a basal progenitor giving rise to two neurons.
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of stat1 protein Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the introduction of a phosphate group to a tyrosine residue of a Stat1 protein.
negative regulation of trail-activated apoptotic signaling pathway Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of TRAIL-activated apoptotic signaling pathway.
dosage compensation Compensating for the two-fold variation in X:autosome chromosome ratios between sexes by a global activation or inactivation of all, or most of, genes on one or both of the X chromosomes.
succinate transport The directed movement of succinate, the dianion of ethane dicarboxylic acid, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
actomyosin contractile ring assembly The process of assembly of a ring composed of actin, myosin, and associated proteins that will function in cytokinesis.
embryonic heart tube anterior/posterior pattern specification The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of cell differentiation that results in the anterior/posterior subdivision of the embryonic heart tube. In Drosophila this results in subdivision of the dorsal vessel into to the posterior heart proper and the anterior aorta.
response to fluoride Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a fluoride stimulus.
oculomotor nerve formation The process that gives rise to the oculomotor nerve. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts. This motor nerve innervates all extraocular muscles except the superior oblique and the lateral rectus muscles. The superior division supplies the levator palpebrae superioris and superior rectus muscles. The inferior division supplies the medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. This nerve also innervates the striated muscles of the eyelid. Pupillary constriction and lens movement are mediated by this nerve for near vision. In the orbit the inferior division sends branches that enter the ciliary ganglion where they form functional contacts (synapses) with the ganglion cells. The ganglion cells send nerve fibers into the back of the eye where they travel to ultimately innervate the ciliary muscle and the constrictor pupillae muscle.
transcription elongation from rna polymerase iii promoter The extension of an RNA molecule after transcription initiation and promoter clearance at an RNA polymerase III promoter by the addition of ribonucleotides catalyzed by RNA polymerase III.
regulation of cellular component size A process that modulates the size of a cellular component.
meiotic cell cycle checkpoint A cell cycle checkpoint that ensures accurate chromosome replication and segregation by preventing progression through a meiotic cell cycle until conditions are suitable for the cell to proceed to the next stage.
scf-dependent proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, with ubiquitin-protein ligation catalyzed by an SCF (Skp1/Cul1/F-box protein) complex, and mediated by the proteasome.
cellular response to ammonium ion Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an ammonium ion stimulus.
modulation by symbiont of host apoptotic process Any process in which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death in the host, where programmed cell death proceeds by apoptosis. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction.
response to epidermal growth factor Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an epidermal growth factor stimulus.
chromosome separation The cell cycle process in which paired chromosomes are detached from each other. Chromosome separation begins with the release of cohesin complexes from chromosomes; in budding yeast, this includes the cleavage of cohesin complexes along the chromosome arms, followed by the separation of the centromeric regions. Chromosome separation also includes formation of chromatid axes mediated by condensins, and ends with the disentangling of inter-sister catenation catalyzed by topoisomerase II (topo II).
norepinephrine biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of norepinephrine, a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla, and a neurotransmitter in the sympathetic peripheral nervous system and in some tracts in the central nervous system. It is also the demethylated biosynthetic precursor of epinephrine.
positive regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic vesicle exocytosis.
regulation of mrna 3'-utr binding
cholesterol biosynthetic process via 24,25-dihydrolanosterol The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol, via the intermediate 24,25-dihydrolanosterol.
protein linear deubiquitination A protein deubiquitination process in which a linear polymer of ubiquitin, formed by the amino-terminal methionine (M1) of one ubiquitin molecule and by the carboxy-terminal glycine (G76) of the next, is removed from a protein.
cellular response to potassium ion starvation Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of deprivation of potassium ions.
positive regulation of mitochondrial calcium ion concentration Any process that increases the concentration of calcium ions in mitochondria.
negative regulation of cd40 signaling pathway Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of signaling via the CD40 signaling pathway.
t-helper 17 cell lineage commitment The process in which a CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell becomes committed to becoming a T-helper 17 cell, a CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell with the phenotype RORgamma-t-positive that produces IL-17.
response to increased oxygen levels Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus reflecting an increase in the level of oxygen.
negative regulation of necroptotic process Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of a necroptotic process, a necrotic cell death process that results from the activation of endogenous cellular processes, such as signaling involving death domain receptors or Toll-like receptors.
positive regulation of synaptic transmission Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse.
efferent axon development in a lateral line nerve The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an efferent axon in a lateral line nerve over time from its formation to the mature structure. This process includes axonogenesis and pathfinding of the efferent axons in any lateral line nerve.
hair follicle placode formation The developmental process in which a hair placode forms. An hair follicle placode is a thickening of the ectoderm that will give rise to the hair follicle bud.
regulation of mitochondrial depolarization Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the change in the membrane potential of the mitochondria from negative to positive.
gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion The regulated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid by a cell or a tissue. The gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain but is also found in several extraneural tissues.
negative regulation of mitochondrial depolarization Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the change in the membrane potential of the mitochondria from negative to positive.
positive regulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 signaling pathway Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (NOD1) pathway.
regulation of neutrophil mediated killing of symbiont cell Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of neutrophil mediated killing of a symbiont cell, the directed killing of a symbiont target cell by a neutrophil.
negative regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway involved in ureteric bud formation Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway involved in ureteric bud formation.
phenylalanyl-trna aminoacylation The process of coupling phenylalanine to phenylalanyl-tRNA, catalyzed by phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase. In tRNA aminoacylation, the amino acid is first activated by linkage to AMP and then transferred to either the 2'- or the 3'-hydroxyl group of the 3'-adenosine residue of the tRNA.
anterior/posterior axis specification, embryo The specification of the anterior/posterior axis of the embryo by the products of genes expressed maternally and genes expressed in the zygote.
cajal body organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of Cajal bodies, nuclear bodies that appear ultrastructurally as a tangle of coiled, electron-dense threads roughly 0.5 micrometers in diameter and are enriched in ribonucleoproteins, and certain general RNA polymerase II transcription factors.
t cell proliferation The expansion of a T cell population by cell division. Follows T cell activation.
olfactory lobe development The progression of the olfactory lobe over time from its initial formation until its mature state. The olfactory lobe is the area of the brain that process the neural inputs for the sense of smell.
behavioral response to pain Any process that results in a change in the behavior of an organism as a result of a pain stimulus. Pain stimuli cause activation of nociceptors, peripheral receptors for pain, include receptors which are sensitive to painful mechanical stimuli, extreme heat or cold, and chemical stimuli.
head development The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a head from an initial condition to its mature state. The head is the anterior-most division of the body.
glycerolipid biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycerolipids, any lipid with a glycerol backbone.
regulation of wound healing, spreading of epidermal cells Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of wound healing, spreading of epidermal cells.
protein palmitoleylation The covalent attachment of a palmitoleyl group to a protein.
peripheral nervous system axon regeneration The regrowth of axons outside the central nervous system (outside the brain and spinal cord) following an axonal injury.
regulation of platelet-derived growth factor production Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of the appearance of any platelet-derived growth factor due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels.
complement component c5a signaling pathway A series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a the C5a component of the complement pathway binding to a complement receptor, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process. C5a is a peptide derived from the C5 complement factor.
carnitine transport The directed movement of carnitine into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Carnitine is a compound that participates in the transfer of acyl groups across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
regulation of activated t cell proliferation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of activated T cell proliferation.
dna replication checkpoint A cell cycle checkpoint that prevents the initiation of nuclear division until DNA replication is complete, thereby ensuring that progeny inherit a full complement of the genome.
positive regulation of dna biosynthetic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of DNA biosynthetic process.
sulfur compound metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving the nonmetallic element sulfur or compounds that contain sulfur, such as the amino acids methionine and cysteine or the tripeptide glutathione.
signal transduction The cellular process in which a signal is conveyed to trigger a change in the activity or state of a cell. Signal transduction begins with reception of a signal (e.g. a ligand binding to a receptor or receptor activation by a stimulus such as light), or for signal transduction in the absence of ligand, signal-withdrawal or the activity of a constitutively active receptor. Signal transduction ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. regulation of transcription or regulation of a metabolic process. Signal transduction covers signaling from receptors located on the surface of the cell and signaling via molecules located within the cell. For signaling between cells, signal transduction is restricted to events at and within the receiving cell.
positive regulation of hydrogen peroxide catabolic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of hydrogen peroxide catabolic process.
positive regulation of interleukin-18 production Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of interleukin-18 production.
negative regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of the series of molecular events generated as a consequence of interferon-gamma binding to a cell surface receptor.
positive regulation of sequence-specific dna binding transcription factor activity Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of activity of a transcription factor, any factor involved in the initiation or regulation of transcription.
cytoskeleton organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures.
glucose-6-phosphate transport The directed movement of glucose-6-phosphate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Glucose-6-phosphate is a monophosphorylated derivative of glucose with the phosphate group attached to C-6.
regulation of cardiac muscle cell myoblast differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle cell myoblast differentiation.
response to camp Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a cAMP (cyclic AMP, adenosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate) stimulus.
tripeptide transport The directed movement of a tripeptide, a compound containing three amino acids linked together by peptide bonds, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
negative regulation of rna biosynthetic process Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of RNA biosynthetic process.
dna rewinding The process in which interchain hydrogen bonds between two single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) are reformed to regenerate double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). ssDNA is often bound and stabilized by proteins such as replication protein A (RPA) to form ssDNA bubbles. The bubbles can be rewound by ATP-dependent motors to reform base pairs between strands and thus dsDNA.
3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate, a naturally occurring mixed anhydride. It is an intermediate in the formation of a variety of sulfo compounds in biological systems.
gene conversion A DNA recombination process that results in the unidirectional transfer of genetic material from a donor sequence to a highly homologous acceptor.
ribonucleoside bisphosphate biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a ribonucleoside bisphosphate, a compound consisting of a nucleobase linked to a ribose sugar esterified with one phosphate group attached to each of two different hydroxyl groups on the sugar.
branched-chain amino acid metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving amino acids containing a branched carbon skeleton, comprising isoleucine, leucine and valine.
protein de-adp-ribosylation The process of removing one or more ADP-ribose residues from a protein.
centrosome-templated microtubule nucleation The 'de novo' formation of a microtubule, in which tubulin heterodimers form metastable oligomeric aggregates from the centrosome.
positive regulation of toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathway Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of toll-like receptor 3 signaling pathway.
xdp catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of XDP.
negative regulation of myoblast proliferation Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of myoblast proliferation.
regulation of alpha-beta t cell proliferation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of alpha-beta T cell proliferation.
positive regulation of cell cycle process Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of a cellular process that is involved in the progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events.
protein biotinylation The addition of biotin (vitamin B7 / vitamin H) to a protein amino acid.
negative regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in the apoptotic process.
regulation of small gtpase mediated signal transduction Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of small GTPase mediated signal transduction.
negative regulation of mast cell cytokine production Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of mast cell cytokine production.
embryonic eye morphogenesis The process occurring in the embryo by which the anatomical structures of the post-embryonic eye are generated and organized.
positive regulation of protein linear polyubiquitination Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein linear polyubiquitination.
endodermal cell fate determination The cell fate determination process in which a cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into an endoderm cell regardless of its environment; upon determination, the cell fate cannot be reversed.
interleukin-17 production The appearance of any member of the interleukin-17 family of cytokines due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels.
cytokine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving cytokines, any of a group of proteins or glycoproteins that function to control the survival, growth and differentiation of tissues and cells, and which have autocrine and paracrine activity.
signal transduction involved in dna damage checkpoint A signal transduction process that contributes to a DNA damage checkpoint.
regulation of cell-substrate junction assembly Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of cell-substrate junction assembly. Cell-substrate junction assembly is the aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a junction between a cell and its substrate.
centrosome duplication The replication of a centrosome, a structure comprised of a pair of centrioles and peri-centriolar material from which a microtubule spindle apparatus is organized.
postsynaptic density protein 95 clustering The clustering process in which postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) molecules are localized to distinct domains in the cell membrane. PSD-95 is mostly located in the post synaptic density of neurons, and is involved in anchoring synaptic proteins.
regulation of protein import into nucleus Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of movement of proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus.
regulation of arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of actin nucleation mediated by the Arp2/3 complex and interacting proteins.
protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane The process that results in the incorporation of a protein into a mitochondrial membrane.
starch metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving starch, the most important reserve polysaccharide in plants. It is a glucan consisting of two components, amylose and amylopectin, which are both glucose homopolymers. Starch is synthesized as a temporary storage form of carbon and can be catabolized to produce sucrose.
l-amino acid transport The directed movement of L-enantiomer amino acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
negative regulation of macrophage colony-stimulating factor signaling pathway Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of macrophage colony-stimulating factor signaling pathway.
regulation of glucosylceramide catabolic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of glucosylceramide catabolic process.
pml body organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of PML bodies, a class of nuclear body; they react against SP100 auto-antibodies (PML = promyelocytic leukemia).
mesodermal cell fate commitment The cell differentiation process that results in commitment of a cell to become part of the mesoderm.
response to fluoxetine Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a fluoxetine stimulus. Fluoxetine increases the extracellular level of the neurotransmitter serotonin by inhibiting its reuptake into the presynaptic cell, increasing the level of serotonin available to bind to the postsynaptic receptor.
regulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of endothelial cell chemotaxis.
rho protein signal transduction A series of molecular signals within the cell that are mediated by a member of the Rho family of proteins switching to a GTP-bound active state.
negative regulation of protein localization to ciliary membrane Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to ciliary membrane.
positive regulation of renal water transport Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of renal water transport.
positive regulation of neutrophil differentiation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of neutrophil differentiation.
ribonucleotide metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving a ribonucleotide, a compound consisting of ribonucleoside (a base linked to a ribose sugar) esterified with a phosphate group at either the 3' or 5'-hydroxyl group of the sugar.
putamen development The progression of the putamen over time from its initial formation until its mature state. The putamen is the lens-shaped basal ganglion involved with control of voluntary movement in the brain.
regulation of toll-like receptor 5 signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of toll-like receptor 5 signaling pathway.
positive regulation of mitochondrial fission Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of mitochondrial fission. Mitochondrial fission is the division of a mitochondrion within a cell to form two or more separate mitochondrial compartments.
phospholipase c-inhibiting g-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway A G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway which proceeds with inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC) activity and a subsequent decrease in the levels of cellular inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG).
tube formation Creation of the central hole of a tube in an anatomical structure through which gases and/or liquids flow.
actin filament-based process Any cellular process that depends upon or alters the actin cytoskeleton, that part of the cytoskeleton comprising actin filaments and their associated proteins.
eye photoreceptor cell fate commitment The process in which the developmental fate of a cell becomes restricted such that it will develop into an eye photoreceptor cell. A photoreceptor cell is a cell that responds to incident electromagnetic radiation. Different classes of photoreceptor have different spectral sensitivities and express different photosensitive pigments.
hypoxanthine salvage Any process that generates hypoxanthine, 6-hydroxy purine, from derivatives of it without de novo synthesis.
positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy in response to stress Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle hypertrophy in response to stress.
clathrin coat disassembly The disaggregation of a clathrin coat into its constituent components; results in stripping or removing the clathrin coat from clathrin-coated vesicles (CCV) before fusing with their targets. CVVs transport cargo from plasma membrane and trans-Golgi to the endosomal system.
regulation of programmed cell death Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death, cell death resulting from activation of endogenous cellular processes.
endocardial cushion to mesenchymal transition involved in heart valve formation A transition where an endocardial cushion cell loses apical/basolateral polarity, severs intercellular adhesive junctions, degrades basement membrane components and becomes a migratory mesenchymal cell that will contribute to the formation of a cardiac valve.
carbohydrate transmembrane transport The process in which a carbohydrate is transported from one side of a membrane to the other by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
multinuclear osteoclast differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized monocyte acquires the specialized features of a multinuclear osteoclast. An osteoclast is a specialized phagocytic cell associated with the absorption and removal of the mineralized matrix of bone tissue.
positive regulation of intracellular transport Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances within cells.
regulation of transmembrane transporter activity Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transmembrane transporter activity.
embryonic placenta development The embryonically driven process whose specific outcome is the progression of the placenta over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The placenta is an organ of metabolic interchange between fetus and mother, partly of embryonic origin and partly of maternal origin.
regulation of receptor catabolic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of receptor catabolic process.
positive regulation of synaptic vesicle uncoating Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic vesicle uncoating.
determination of affect Any process in which an emotional response is associated with a particular sensory stimulation.
regulation of inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of an inflammatory response to an antigenic stimulus.
regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion.
long-chain fatty acid catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of long-chain fatty acids, a fatty acid with a chain length between C13 and C22.
positive regulation of cardiac muscle adaptation Any process that increases the rate, extent or frequency of the process in which cardiac muscle adapts, with consequent modifications to structural and/or functional phenotypes, in response to a stimulus. Stimuli include contractile activity, loading conditions, substrate supply, and environmental factors.
carotene catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carotenes, hydrocarbon carotenoids.
rna biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of RNA, ribonucleic acid, one of the two main type of nucleic acid, consisting of a long, unbranched macromolecule formed from ribonucleotides joined in 3',5'-phosphodiester linkage. Includes polymerization of ribonucleotide monomers. Refers not only to transcription but also to e.g. viral RNA replication.
positive regulation of tooth mineralization Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of tooth mineralization, the deposition of calcium salts in tooth structures.
mitral valve formation The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of the mitral valve from unspecified parts. This process begins with the specific processes that contribute to the appearance of the discrete structure and ends when the structural rudiment is recognizable.
n-terminal protein palmitoylation The covalent attachment of a palmitoyl group to the N-terminal amino acid residue of a protein.
glucosamine-containing compound metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving glucosamine-containing compounds (glucosamines).
cold acclimation Any process that increases freezing tolerance of an organism in response to low, nonfreezing temperatures.
regulation of mammary gland involution Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of mammary gland involution.
dehydroascorbic acid transport The directed movement of dehydroascorbate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Dehydroascorbate, 5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)furan-2,3,4(5H)-trione, is an oxidized form of vitamin C.
regulation of synaptic vesicle endocytosis Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic vesicle endocytosis.
negative regulation of map kinase activity Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of MAP kinase activity.
pathway-restricted smad protein phosphorylation The process of introducing a phosphate group on to a pathway restricted SMAD protein. A pathway restricted SMAD protein is an effector protein that acts directly downstream of the transforming growth factor family receptor.
positive regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity by adrenergic receptor signaling pathway involved in positive regulation of cardiac muscle contraction An adrenergic receptor signaling pathway that contributes to an increase in frequency or rate of cardiac muscle contraction through phosphorylation and enhancement of the ryanodine receptor, a calcium-activated calcium-release channel found in the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. An adrenergic receptor-activated adenylate cyclase generates cAMP. cAMP then activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates the ryanodine receptor (RyR). PKA-phosphorylation of RyR enhances channel activity by sensitizing the channel to cytosolic calcium. Cytosolic calcium stimulates contractile proteins to promote muscle contraction.
gabaergic neuron differentiation in basal ganglia The process in which a neuroblast acquires the specialized structural and functional features of a GABAergic inhibitory neuron in the basal ganglia. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a neuroblast to a GABAergic neuron.
zinc ion transmembrane transport A process in which a zinc ion is transported from one side of a membrane to the other by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
meiotic metaphase i plate congression The alignment of chromosomes at the metaphase plate, a plane halfway between the poles of the meiotic spindle, during meiosis I.
positive regulation of chondrocyte differentiation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of chondrocyte differentiation.
retina development in camera-type eye The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the retina over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The retina is the innermost layer or coating at the back of the eyeball, which is sensitive to light and in which the optic nerve terminates.
regulation of vacuolar transport Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of vacuolar transport.
regulation of centriole elongation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of centriole elongation.
meiosis ii The second nuclear division of meiosis, in which the two chromatids in each chromosome are separated, resulting in four daughter nuclei from the two nuclei produced in meiosis II.
growth of symbiont involved in interaction with host The increase in size or mass of an organism, occurring in, on or near the exterior of its host organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction.
translocation of molecules into host The directed movement of a molecule(s) produced by an organism to a location inside its host organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction.
regulation of sprouting of injured axon Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of sprouting of an injured axon.
negative regulation of sperm motility Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of sperm motility.
histone h4-k16 acetylation The modification of histone H4 by the addition of an acetyl group to a lysine residue at position 16 of the histone.
regulation of atrial cardiac muscle cell membrane depolarization Any process that modulates the establishment or extent of a membrane potential in the depolarizing direction away from the resting potential in an atrial cardiomyocyte.
regulation of adrenergic receptor signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of an adrenergic receptor signaling pathway activity. An adrenergic receptor signaling pathway is the series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of an adrenergic receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands.
negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta1 production Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of production of transforming growth factor-beta1.
regulation of lamellipodium assembly Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of the formation of a lamellipodium, a thin sheetlike extension of the surface of a migrating cell.
negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta3 production Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of production of transforming growth factor-beta3.
purine deoxyribonucleoside monophosphate metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving purine deoxyribonucleoside monophosphate, a compound consisting of a purine base linked to a deoxyribose sugar esterified with phosphate on the sugar.
cellular response to glucagon stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a glucagon stimulus.
central nervous system interneuron axonogenesis Generation of a long process that carries efferent (outgoing) action potentials from the cell body towards target cells from a neuron located in the central nervous system whose axons remain within a single brain region.
negative regulation of bone remodeling Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of bone remodeling.
ferrous iron transport The directed movement of ferrous iron (Fe(II) or Fe2+) ions into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
positive regulation of adherens junction organization Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of adherens junction organization.
water-soluble vitamin biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of any of a diverse group of vitamins that are soluble in water.
establishment of synaptic specificity at neuromuscular junction The biological process in which a synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle is initially formed.
protein complex biogenesis A cellular process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, and arrangement of constituent parts of a protein complex. Includes the synthesis of the constituent protein molecules, and those protein modifications that are involved in synthesis or assembly of the complex.
otic vesicle development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the otic vesicle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The otic vesicle is a transient embryonic structure formed during development of the vertebrate inner ear.
regulation of interleukin-12 production Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of interleukin-12 production.
histone h3-t6 phosphorylation The modification of histone H3 by the addition of an phosphate group to a threonine residue at position 6 of the histone.
regulation of phosphatidylinositol dephosphorylation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reaction involving the removal of one or more phosphate groups from a phosphatidylinositol.
dendrite morphogenesis The process in which the anatomical structures of a dendrite are generated and organized. A dendrite is a freely branching protoplasmic process of a nerve cell.
specification of ureteric bud anterior/posterior symmetry The establishment of the ureteric bud such that there is a similar arrangement in form and relationship of parts along its anterior/posterior axis.
response to growth hormone Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a growth hormone stimulus. Growth hormone is a peptide hormone that binds to the growth hormone receptor and stimulates growth.
positive regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of endothelial cell apoptotic process.
long-chain fatty-acyl-coa biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a long-chain fatty-acyl-CoA any derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is in a thioester linkage with a long-chain fatty-acyl group. Long-chain fatty-acyl-CoAs have chain lengths of C13 or more.
intestine smooth muscle contraction A process in which force is generated within smooth muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. This process occurs in the intestine. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step that is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis. The intestine is the section of the alimentary canal from the stomach to the anal canal. It includes the large intestine and small intestine.
endothelial cell chemotaxis The directed movement of an endothelial cell guided by a specific chemical concentration gradient. Movement may be towards a higher concentration (positive chemotaxis) or towards a lower concentration (negative chemotaxis).
n-acetylglucosamine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving N-acetylglucosamine. The D isomer is a common structural unit of glycoproteins in plants, bacteria and animals; it is often the terminal sugar of an oligosaccharide group of a glycoprotein.
vegf-activated platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to a platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) on the surface of a cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
negative regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of receptor mediated endocytosis, the uptake of external materials by cells, utilizing receptors to ensure specificity of transport.
fatty-acyl-coa catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a fatty-acyl-CoA, any derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is in thiolester linkage with a fatty-acyl group.
nerve development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a nerve over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
negative regulation of cellular response to hypoxia Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to hypoxia.
lactate oxidation The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the conversion of lactate to other compounds, such as pyruvate, with concomitant loss of electrons.
cellular response to extracellular stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an extracellular stimulus.
n-terminal peptidyl-serine dimethylation The dimethylation of the N-terminal serine of proteins to form the derivative N,N-dimethylserine.
positive regulation of cell communication by electrical coupling Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell communication via electrical coupling. Cell communication via electrical coupling is the process that mediates signaling interactions between one cell and another cell by transfer of current between their adjacent cytoplasms via intercellular protein channels.
positive regulation of posttranscriptional gene silencing Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the inactivation of gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism.
positive regulation of non-canonical wnt signaling pathway via jnk cascade Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway via JNK cascade.
negative regulation of apoptotic process involved in metanephric nephron tubule development Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of apoptotic process involved in metanephric nephron tubule development.
cellular carbohydrate metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y, as carried out by individual cells.
negative regulation of transport Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances (such as macromolecules, small molecules, ions) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
positive regulation of sequestering of zinc ion Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of sequestering of zinc ion. Sequestering of zinc ion is the process of binding or confining zinc ions such that they are separated from other components of a biological system.
cellular response to hydrogen peroxide Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stimulus.
nitrogen catabolite regulation of transcription A transcription regulation process in which the presence of one nitrogen source leads to the modulation of the frequency, rate, or extent of transcription of specific genes involved in the metabolism of other nitrogen sources.
negative regulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in apoptotic signaling pathway.
valine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving valine, 2-amino-3-methylbutanoic acid.
histone-tyrosine phosphorylation The modification of histones by addition of a phosphate group to a tyrosine residue.
rhombomere 3 development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of rhombomere 3 over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Rhombomeres are transverse segments of the developing rhombencephalon. Rhombomeres are lineage restricted, express different genes from one another, and adopt different developmental fates. Rhombomeres are numbered in anterior to posterior order.
negative regulation of elastin biosynthetic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of elastin.
regulation of leukocyte differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of leukocyte differentiation.
regulation of transcription during meiosis Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription during meiosis.
negative regulation of phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic process Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic process.
carbon dioxide transmembrane transport A process in which carbon dioxide (CO2) is transported from one side of a membrane to the other by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
negative regulation of neurogenesis Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of neurogenesis, the origin and formation of neurons.
pentose-phosphate shunt, non-oxidative branch The branch of the pentose-phosphate shunt which does not involve oxidation reactions. It comprises a series of sugar phosphate interconversions, starting with ribulose 5-P and producing fructose 6-P and glyceraldehyde 3-P.
creatine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving creatine (N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N-methylglycine), a compound synthesized from the amino acids arginine, glycine, and methionine that occurs in muscle.
negative regulation of cell projection organization Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a process involved in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cell projections.
glomerular visceral epithelial cell development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a glomerular visceral epithelial cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A glomerular visceral epithelial cell is a specialized epithelial cell that contains feet that interdigitate with the feet of other glomerular epithelial cells.
positive regulation of fat cell proliferation Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of fat cell proliferation.
blood vessel endothelial cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a blood vessel endothelial cell, a thin flattened cell that lines the inside surfaces of blood vessels.
sister chromatid biorientation The cell cycle process in which sister chromatids establish stable attachments to microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles.
medium-chain fatty-acyl-coa catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of medium-chain fatty-acyl-CoAs, any derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is in a thioester linkage with a medium-chain fatty-acyl group. A medium-chain fatty acid is a fatty acid with a chain length of between C6 and C12.
external genitalia morphogenesis The process in which the anatomical structures of the external genitalia are generated and organized. The external genitalia are the outer sex organs, such as the penis or vulva in mammals.
embryonic organ morphogenesis Morphogenesis, during the embryonic phase, of a tissue or tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Morphogenesis is the process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.
positive regulation of protein import into mitochondrial outer membrane Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein import into mitochondrial outer membrane.
positive regulation of high-density lipoprotein particle assembly Any process that increases the frequency, rate, or extent of high-density lipoprotein particle assembly. High-density lipoprotein particle assembly is the aggregation and arrangement of proteins and lipids to form a high-density lipoprotein particle.
t-helper 17 cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized T cell acquires the specialized features of a T-helper 17 (Th17) cell. A Th17 cell is a CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell with the phenotype RORgamma-t-positive that produces IL-17.
positive regulation of lymphotoxin a biosynthetic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the cytokine lymphotoxin A.
neural crest cell fate commitment The process in which a cell becomes committed to become a neural crest cell.
response to bile acid Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a bile acid stimulus.
negative regulation of jak-stat cascade Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway activity.
regulation of transcription from rna polymerase ii promoter involved in heart development Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter that contributes to the development of the heart over time.
pre-replicative complex assembly involved in cell cycle dna replication Any pre-replicative complex assembly that is involved in cell cycle DNA replication.
dna damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator A cascade of processes induced by the cell cycle regulator phosphoprotein p53, or an equivalent protein, in response to the detection of DNA damage.
l-proline biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of L-proline, an L-enantiomer of a chiral, cyclic, nonessential alpha-amino acid found in peptide linkage in proteins.
positive regulation of hematopoietic stem cell migration Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of hematopoietic stem cell migration.
amygdala development The progression of the amygdala over time from its initial formation until its mature state. The amygdala is an almond-shaped set of neurons in the medial temporal lobe of the brain that play a key role in processing emotions such as fear and pleasure.
negative regulation of interleukin-1 secretion Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of interleukin-1 from a cell.
regulation of nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process Any cellular process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids.
negative regulation of rrna processing Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of rRNA processing.
negative regulation of g0 to g1 transition A cell cycle process that stops, prevents, or reduces the rate or extent of the transition from the G0 quiescent state to the G1 phase.
dopamine uptake The directed movement of dopamine into a cell.
pinocytosis An endocytosis process that results in the uptake of liquid material by cells from their external environment; literally 'cell drinking'. Liquid is enclosed in vesicles, called pinosomes, formed by invagination of the plasma membrane.
regulation of translational termination Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of translational termination.
histone mrna metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving an mRNA encoding a histone.
platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of a ligand to an alpha-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFalpha) on the surface of a signal-receiving cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
metanephric nephron tubule development The progression of a metanephric nephron tubule over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. A metanephric nephron tubule is an epithelial tube that is part of the metanephric nephron, the functional part of the metanephros.
positive regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of telomeric repeats by telomerase.
negative regulation of secretion of lysosomal enzymes Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of secretion of lysosomal enzymes, the controlled release of lysosomal enzymes by a cell.
positive regulation of cardiac muscle fiber development Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle fiber development.
apoptotic process involved in patterning of blood vessels Any apoptotic process that is involved in patterning of blood vessels.
asparagine catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of asparagine, 2-amino-3-carbamoylpropanoic acid.
methylglyoxal biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of methylglyoxal, CH3-CO-CHO, the aldehyde of pyruvic acid.
regulation of histone h3-k36 trimethylation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of histone H3-K36 trimethylation.
'de novo' protein folding The process of assisting in the folding of a nascent peptide chain into its correct tertiary structure.
regulation of cellular carbohydrate catabolic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of carbohydrates, carried out by individual cells.
limbic system development The progression of the limbic system over time from its initial formation until its mature state. The limbic system is a collection of structures in the brain involved in emotion, motivation and emotional aspects of memory.
positive regulation of snare complex assembly Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of assembly of the SNARE complex. The SNARE complex is a protein complex involved in membrane fusion; a stable ternary complex consisting of a four-helix bundle, usually formed from one R-SNARE and three Q-SNAREs with an ionic layer sandwiched between hydrophobic layers.
ossification involved in bone remodeling The formation or growth of bone or of a bony substance, or the conversion of fibrous tissue or of cartilage into bone, involved in response to injury or other physical, physiological or environmental stress stimuli.
epinephrine biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of epinephrine, a hormone produced by the medulla of the adrenal glands that increases heart activity, improves the power and prolongs the action of muscles, and increases the rate and depth of breathing. It is synthesized by the methylation of norepinephrine.
regulation of t cell anergy Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of T cell anergy.
mannose metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving mannose, the aldohexose manno-hexose, the C-2 epimer of glucose. The D-(+)-form is widely distributed in mannans and hemicelluloses and is of major importance in the core oligosaccharide of N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins.
response to interferon-gamma Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an interferon-gamma stimulus. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
negative regulation of response to extracellular stimulus Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a response to an extracellular stimulus.
fc receptor mediated inhibitory signaling pathway A series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of the binding of the Fc portion of an immunoglobulin by an Fc receptor capable of inhibiting an immune effector process contributing to an immune response. The Fc portion of an immunoglobulin is its C-terminal constant region.
specification of loop of henle identity The process in which the loop of Henle of the kidney nephron acquires its identity.
positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of progression through the mitotic cell cycle.
natural killer cell chemotaxis The directed movement of a natural killer cell guided by a specific chemical concentration gradient. Movement may be towards a higher concentration (positive chemotaxis) or towards a lower concentration (negative chemotaxis).
sodium ion transport The directed movement of sodium ions (Na+) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
positive regulation of ubiquitin-protein transferase activity Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of ubiquitin transferase activity.
chromatin organization involved in negative regulation of transcription Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of transcription by chromatin organization.
negative regulation of cell adhesion Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell adhesion.
isopentenyl diphosphate biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of isopentenyl diphosphate, an isomer of dimethylallyl diphosphate and the key precursor of all isoprenoids.
cellular response to hyperoxia Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating increased oxygen tension.
negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle, embryonic Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of progression through the embryonic mitotic cell cycle.
positive regulation of cortisol secretion Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of cortisol from a cell.
auditory receptor cell fate specification The process in which a cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into an auditory hair cell in an environment that is neutral with respect to the developmental pathway; upon specification, the cell fate can be reversed.
positive regulation of anion transport
mrna cleavage Any process in which a pre-mRNA or mRNA molecule is cleaved at specific sites or in a regulated manner.
negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of cell adhesion to another cell.
endoplasmic reticulum localization Any process in which endoplasmic reticulum is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location within the cell.
regulation of proteinase activated receptor activity Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of proteinase activated receptor activity.
positive regulation of programmed cell death Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death, cell death resulting from activation of endogenous cellular processes.
indolalkylamine biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of indolalkylamines, indole or indole derivatives containing a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine group.
positive regulation of response to stimulus Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of a response to a stimulus. Response to stimulus is a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus.
pancreatic juice secretion The regulated release of pancreatic juice by the exocrine pancreas into the upper part of the intestine. Pancreatic juice is slightly alkaline and contains numerous enzymes and inactive enzyme precursors including alpha-amylase, chymotrypsinogen, lipase, procarboxypeptidase, proelastase, prophospholipase A2, ribonuclease, and trypsinogen. Its high concentration of bicarbonate ions helps to neutralize the acid from the stomach.
catecholamine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.
slow endocytic recycling The directed movement of membrane-bounded vesicles from deep (non-peripheral) compartments endocytic compartments back to the plasma membrane where they are recycled for further rounds of transport.
response to defense-related nitric oxide production by other organism involved in symbiotic interaction Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of nitric oxide produced as a defense response by a second organism, where the two organisms are in a symbiotic interaction.
negative regulation of cellular carbohydrate metabolic process Any process that decreases the rate, extent or frequency of the chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y, as carried out by individual cells.
regulation of dna damage checkpoint Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a DNA damage checkpoint.
endocardial cushion cell development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an endocardial cushion cell over time, from its formation to the mature state.
endodermal cell fate specification The cell fate determination process that results in a cell becoming capable of differentiating autonomously into an endoderm cell in an environment that is neutral with respect to the developmental pathway; upon specification, the cell fate can be reversed.
direct ossification The formation of bone or of a bony substance, or the conversion of fibrous tissue or of cartilage into bone or a bony substance, that does not require the replacement of preexisting tissues.
regulation of relaxation of muscle Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of relaxation of muscle.
deadenylation-independent decapping of nuclear-transcribed mrna Cleavage of the 5'-cap of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA that is independent of poly(A) tail shortening.
cellular response to hypoxia Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating lowered oxygen tension. Hypoxia, defined as a decline in O2 levels below normoxic levels of 20.8 - 20.95%, results in metabolic adaptation at both the cellular and organismal level.
skeletal muscle tissue regeneration The regrowth of skeletal muscle tissue to repair injured or damaged muscle fibers in the postnatal stage.
embryonic ectodermal digestive tract development The process, occurring during the embryonic phase, whose specific outcome is the progression of the ectodermal gut over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
fatty acid omega-oxidation A fatty acid oxidation process in which the methyl group at the end of the fatty acid molecule (the omega carbon) is first oxidized to a hydroxyl group, then to an oxo group, and finally to a carboxyl group. The long chain dicarboxylates derived from omega-oxidation then enter the beta-oxidation pathway for further degradation.
removal of rna primer involved in mitotic dna replication Any DNA replication, removal of RNA primer that is involved in mitotic cell cycle DNA replication.
protein neddylation Covalent attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 (RUB1) to another protein.
cellular response to hepatocyte growth factor stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a hepatocyte growth factor stimulus.
negative regulation of platelet activation Any process that decreases the rate or frequency of platelet activation. Platelet activation is a series of progressive, overlapping events triggered by exposure of the platelets to subendothelial tissue.
polysaccharide metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving a polysaccharide, a polymer of many (typically more than 10) monosaccharide residues linked glycosidically.
negative regulation of histone deacetylation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the removal of acetyl groups from histones.
positive regulation of sphingolipid biosynthetic process Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of sphingolipid biosynthesis. Sphingolipid biosynthesis is the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of sphingolipids, any of a class of lipids containing the long-chain amine diol sphingosine or a closely related base (a sphingoid).
regulation of chronic inflammatory response to non-antigenic stimulus Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of a chronic inflammatory response to a non-antigenic stimulus.
skeletal muscle tissue development The developmental sequence of events leading to the formation of adult skeletal muscle tissue. The main events are: the fusion of myoblasts to form myotubes that increase in size by further fusion to them of myoblasts, the formation of myofibrils within their cytoplasm and the establishment of functional neuromuscular junctions with motor neurons. At this stage they can be regarded as mature muscle fibers.
positive regulation of ammonia assimilation cycle Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of ammonia assimilation cycle.
epithelial cell maturation The developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for an epithelial cell to attain its fully functional state. An epithelial cell is a cell usually found in a two-dimensional sheet with a free surface.
3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate transmembrane transport The directed movement of 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate across a membrane.
regulation of ovarian follicle development Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of ovarian follicle development.
negative regulation of oocyte maturation Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of oocyte maturation.
single-organism membrane organization A process which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a membrane, involving only one organism.
regulation of eosinophil extravasation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of eosinophil extravasation.
positive regulation of cilium assembly Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the formation of a cilium.
regulation of short-term neuronal synaptic plasticity A process that modulates short-term neuronal synaptic plasticity, the ability of neuronal synapses to change in the short-term as circumstances require. Short-term neuronal synaptic plasticity generally involves increasing or decreasing synaptic sensitivity.
regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Any process that modulates the activity of the enzyme 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.
mononuclear cell migration The movement of a mononuclear cell within or between different tissues and organs of the body.
l-aspartate transport The directed movement of L-aspartate, the L-enantiomer of the anion of (2R)-2-aminobutanedioic acid, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
nk t cell activation The change in morphology and behavior of a mature or immature natural killer T cell resulting from exposure to a mitogen, cytokine, chemokine, cellular ligand, or an antigen for which it is specific.
import across plasma membrane The directed movement of some substance from outside of a cell, across the plasma membrane and into the cytosol.
positive regulation of exosomal secretion Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of exosomal secretion.
positive regulation of protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway.
regulation of cytokine activity Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of the activity of a molecule that controls the survival, growth, differentiation and effector function of tissues and cells.
positive regulation of neurotrophin production Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of production of a neurotrophin.
negative regulation of planar cell polarity pathway involved in cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of planar cell polarity pathway involved in cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis.
establishment of protein localization to chromatin The directed movement of a protein to a part of a chromosome that is organized into chromatin.
regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.
positive regulation of apoptotic cell clearance Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of apoptotic cell clearance.
regulation of l-arginine import Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of L-arginine import. L-arginine import is the directed movement of L-arginine, the L-enantiomer of 2-amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid, into a cell or organelle.
regulation of monooxygenase activity Any process that modulates the activity of a monooxygenase.
negative regulation of skeletal muscle cell proliferation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle cell proliferation.
trna splicing, via endonucleolytic cleavage and ligation Splicing of tRNA substrates via recognition of the folded RNA structure that brings the 5' and 3' splice sites into proximity and cleavage of the RNA at both the 3' and 5' splice sites by an endonucleolytic mechanism, followed by ligation of the exons.
positive regulation of bone resorption Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of bone resorption.
positive regulation of t-helper 2 cell activation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of T-helper 2 cell activation.
negative regulation of intracellular transport Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances within cells.
regulation of secretion of lysosomal enzymes Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of secretion of lysosomal enzymes, the controlled release of lysosomal enzymes by a cell.
energy homeostasis Any process involved in the balance between food intake (energy input) and energy expenditure.
regulation of gamma-delta t cell differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gamma-delta T cell differentiation.
positive regulation of acrosomal vesicle exocytosis Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of acrosomal vesicle exocytosis.
negative regulation of udp-glucose catabolic process Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of UDP-glucose catabolism. UDP-glucose catabolic processes are the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of UDP-glucose, uridinediphosphoglucose, a substance composed of glucose in glycosidic linkage with uridine diphosphate.
cellular response to oxidative stress Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of oxidative stress, a state often resulting from exposure to high levels of reactive oxygen species, e.g. superoxide anions, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals.
epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation A transition where a cardiac epithelial cell loses apical/basolateral polarity, severs intercellular adhesive junctions, degrades basement membrane components and becomes a migratory mesenchymal cell that will contribute to the formation of the endocardial cushion.
negative regulation of oxidative phosphorylation Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP that accompanies the oxidation of a metabolite through the operation of the respiratory chain. Oxidation of compounds establishes a proton gradient across the membrane, providing the energy for ATP synthesis.
ventral trunk neural crest cell migration The movement of trunk neural crest cells from the neural tube, travelling ventrally through the anterior half of each sclerotome. Trunk neural crest cells that remain in the sclerotome form the dorsal root ganglia containing the sensory neurons. Trunk neural crest cells that continue more ventrally form the sympathetic ganglia, the adrenal medulla, and the nerve clusters surrounding the aorta.
cannabinoid signaling pathway The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a cannabinoid binding to a cell surface receptor. The pathway proceeds with the receptor transmitting the signal to a heterotrimeric G-protein complex and ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. Cannabinoids are a class of diverse chemical compounds that include the endocannabinoids and the phytocannabinoids.
regulation of cerebellar granule cell precursor proliferation The process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of granule cell precursor proliferation.
activation of protein kinase activity Any process that initiates the activity of an inactive protein kinase.
threonylcarbamoyladenosine biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of threonylcarbamoyladenosine, a modified nucleoside found in some tRNA molecules.
regulation of stem cell differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of stem cell differentiation.
detection of nodal flow The series of events by which an endogenous stimulus is received by a cilium on a cell and converted to a molecular signal contributing to left/right asymmetry.
regulation of interleukin-1 beta production Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of interleukin-1 beta production.
negative regulation of cell differentiation involved in embryonic placenta development Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of cell differentiation that contributes to the progression of the placenta over time, from its initial condition to its mature state.
regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway.
hair follicle development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the hair follicle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A hair follicle is a tube-like opening in the epidermis where the hair shaft develops and into which the sebaceous glands open.
photoreactive repair The repair of UV-induced T-T, C-T and C-C dimers by directly reversing the damage to restore the original pyrimidines.
polarized epithelial cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a polarized epithelial cell. The polarized epithelial cell can be any of the cells within an epithelium where the epithelial sheet is oriented with respect to the planar axis.
positive regulation of monooxygenase activity Any process that activates or increases the activity of a monooxygenase.
response to salt Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a salt stimulus.
eosinophil fate commitment The process in which the developmental fate of a cell becomes restricted such that it will develop into a eosinophil cell. A eosinophil is any of the immature or mature forms of a granular leukocyte with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by one or more slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and which can be stained by the dye eosin.
positive regulation of interleukin-1 production Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of interleukin-1 production.
intracellular cholesterol transport The directed movement of cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3-beta-ol, within cells.
metal ion homeostasis Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of metal ions within an organism or cell.
mrna metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving mRNA, messenger RNA, which is responsible for carrying the coded genetic 'message', transcribed from DNA, to sites of protein assembly at the ribosomes.
antigen processing and presentation, endogenous lipid antigen via mhc class ib The process in which an antigen-presenting cell expresses lipid antigen of endogenous origin in association with an MHC class Ib protein complex on its cell surface. Class Ib here refers to non-classical class I molecules, such as those of the CD1 family.
positive regulation of neuron maturation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of neuron maturation.
regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of activity of any TGF-beta receptor signaling pathway.
wound healing, spreading of epidermal cells The migration of an epidermal cell along or through a wound gap that contributes to the reestablishment of a continuous epidermis.
reactive oxygen species metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving a reactive oxygen species, any molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of phagocytes, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to biopolymers.
response to glucose Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a glucose stimulus.
negative regulation of transcription from rna polymerase ii promoter by glucose Any process involving glucose that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
negative regulation of lipase activity Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of lipase activity, the hydrolysis of a lipid or phospholipid.
dna methylation on cytosine The covalent transfer of a methyl group to C-5 or N-4 of cytosine in a DNA molecule.
hepatocyte differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a hepatocyte. A hepatocyte is specialized epithelial cell that is organized into interconnected plates called lobules, and is the main structural component of the liver.
developmental maturation A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for an anatomical structure, cell or cellular component to attain its fully functional state.
regulation of dna-templated transcription, initiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of DNA-templated transcription initiation.
nose morphogenesis The process in which the anatomical structures of the nose are generated and organized. The nose is the specialized structure of the face that serves as the organ of the sense of smell and as part of the respiratory system. Includes the nasi externus (external nose) and cavitas nasi (nasal cavity).
negative regulation of chloride transport Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of chloride transport.
calcium ion-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitter The release of a neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft, where the release step is dependent on the presence of calcium ions (Ca2+). The neurotransmitter is contained within a membrane-bounded vesicle, and is released by fusion of the vesicle with the presynaptic plasma membrane of a nerve cell.
canonical wnt signaling pathway involved in heart development The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell, followed by propagation of the signal via beta-catenin, and ending with a change in transcription of target genes that contributes to the progression of the heart over time. In this pathway, the activated receptor signals via downstream effectors that result in the inhibition of beta-catenin phosphorylation, thereby preventing degradation of beta-catenin. Stabilized beta-catenin can then accumulate and travel to the nucleus to trigger changes in transcription of target genes.
positive regulation of proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the breakdown of a protein or peptide by hydrolysis of its peptide bonds, initiated by the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, and mediated by the proteasome.
insecticide metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving insecticides, chemicals used to kill insects.
adaptation of rhodopsin mediated signaling The process in which a rhodopsin-mediated signaling pathway is adjusted to modulate the sensitivity and response of a visual system to light stimuli (that might vary over more than 6 magnitudes in intensity) without response saturation.
positive regulation of thymocyte apoptotic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of thymocyte death by apoptotic process.
positive regulation of b cell apoptotic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of B cell apoptotic process.
positive regulation of synapse structural plasticity Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic structural plasticity.
post-embryonic organ morphogenesis Morphogenesis, during the post-embryonic phase, of a tissue or tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Morphogenesis pertains to process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.
negative regulation of striated muscle contraction Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of striated muscle contraction.
platelet degranulation The regulated exocytosis of secretory granules containing preformed mediators such as histamine and serotonin by a platelet.
regulation of epithelial cell differentiation involved in kidney development Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial cell differentiation involved in kidney development.
protein carboxylation The addition of a carboxy group to a protein amino acid.
tetrahydrobiopterin metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving tetrahydrobiopterin, the reduced form of biopterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-pteridine). It functions as a hydroxylation coenzyme, e.g. in the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine.
specification of axis polarity The pattern specification process in which the polarity of a body or organ axis is established and maintained.
bronchus morphogenesis The process in which the bronchus is generated and organized. The bronchus is the portion of the airway that connects to the lungs.
detection of biotic stimulus The series of events in which a biotic stimulus, one caused or produced by a living organism, is received and converted into a molecular signal.
positive regulation of sodium-dependent phosphate transport Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of sodium-dependent phosphate transport.
cytoplasmic sequestering of protein The selective interaction of a protein with specific molecules in the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting its transport into other areas of the cell.
sulfur amino acid biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of amino acids containing sulfur, comprising cysteine, methionine and selenocysteine.
protein demalonylation The removal of a malonyl group (CO-CH2-CO), from an amino acid residue within a protein or peptide.
positive regulation of microtubule polymerization or depolymerization Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule polymerization or depolymerization.
positive regulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 signaling pathway Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) pathway.
regulation of rac protein signal transduction Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of Rac protein signal transduction.
negative regulation of g2/m transition of mitotic cell cycle Any cell cycle regulatory process that decreases the rate or extent of progression of a cell from G2 to M phase of the mitotic cell cycle.
peptidyl-tyrosine dephosphorylation involved in inactivation of protein kinase activity Any peptidyl-tyrosine dephosphorylation that is involved in inactivation of protein kinase activity.
cellular response to mycophenolic acid Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a mycophenolic acid stimulus.
cmp biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of CMP, cytidine monophosphate.
positive regulation of cell cycle Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of progression through the cell cycle.
amp biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of AMP, adenosine monophosphate.
dcdp metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving dCDP, deoxycytidine 5'-diphosphate.
central nervous system myelination The process in which neuronal axons and dendrites become coated with a segmented lipid-rich sheath (myelin) to enable faster and more energetically efficient conduction of electrical impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Adjacent myelin segments are separated by a non-myelinated stretch of axon called a node of Ranvier.
multicellular organism reproduction The biological process in which new individuals are produced by one or two multicellular organisms. The new individuals inherit some proportion of their genetic material from the parent or parents.
embryonic neurocranium morphogenesis The process in which the anatomical structures of the neurocranium are generated and organized during the embryonic phase. The neurocranium is the portion of the vertebrate skull surrounding the brain.
mitotic chromosome movement towards spindle pole The cell cycle process in which the directed movement of chromosomes from the center of the spindle towards the spindle poles occurs. This mediates by the shortening of microtubules attached to the chromosomes, during mitosis.
negative regulation of eye pigmentation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of establishment of a pattern of pigment in the eye of an organism.
negative regulation of cellular component organization Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a process involved in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cell structures, including the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope.
dendritic spine development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the dendritic spine over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A dendritic spine is a protrusion from a dendrite and a specialized subcellular compartment involved in synaptic transmission.
nad transport The directed movement of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore; transport may be of either the oxidized form, NAD, or the reduced form, NADH.
positive regulation of lipoprotein lipase activity Any process that activates or increases the activity of the enzyme lipoprotein lipase.
negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta2 production Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of production of transforming growth factor-beta2.
microvillus assembly Formation of a microvillus, a thin cylindrical membrane-covered projection on the surface of a cell.
regulation of necroptotic process Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of a necroptotic process, a necrotic cell death process that results from the activation of endogenous cellular processes, such as signaling involving death domain receptors or Toll-like receptors.
regulation of extracellular matrix assembly Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of extracellular matrix assembly.
cell development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cell development does not include the steps involved in committing a cell to a specific fate.
translational frameshifting A mechanism whereby different proteins may result from a single mRNA molecule, due to a change in the parsing of three nucleotides per codon relative to an initiating AUG codon.
postganglionic parasympathetic fiber development
axon choice point recognition The recognition of molecules at a choice point by an axon growth cone; at a choice point the growth cone determines the direction of its future growth.
lysosome localization Any process in which a lysosome is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location.
positive regulation of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase activity Any process that activates or increases the activity of 1-phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.
regulation of protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of protein insertion into mitochondrial membrane involved in apoptotic signaling pathway.
susceptibility to t cell mediated cytotoxicity The process of causing a cell to become susceptible to T cell mediated cytotoxicity.
multicellular organism growth The increase in size or mass of an entire multicellular organism, as opposed to cell growth.
ether lipid metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving ether lipids, lipids that contain (normally) one lipid alcohol in ether linkage to one of the carbon atoms (normally C-1) of glycerol.
threonine biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of threonine (2-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid), a polar, uncharged, essential amino acid found in peptide linkage in proteins.
chemokine (c-c motif) ligand 5 production The appearance of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels.
lateral mesoderm formation The process that gives rise to the lateral mesoderm. This process pertains to the initial formation of the structure from unspecified parts.
high-density lipoprotein particle clearance The process in which a high-density lipoprotein particle is removed from the blood via receptor-mediated endocytosis and its constituent parts degraded.
negative regulation of transcription regulatory region dna binding Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of transcription regulatory region DNA binding.
regulation of sphingomyelin catabolic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of sphingomyelin catabolic process.
indole-containing compound biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of compounds that contain an indole (2,3-benzopyrrole) skeleton.
insulin receptor internalization A receptor-mediated endocytosis process that results in the movement of an insulin receptor from the plasma membrane to the inside of the cell.
regulation of transporter activity Any process that modulates the activity of a transporter.
beta-amyloid clearance The process in which beta-amyloid is removed from the brain via receptors.
regulation of sensory perception Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of sensory perception, the series of events required for an organism to receive a sensory stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal.
calcium activated galactosylceramide scrambling The movement of a population of galactosylceramide molecules from one leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer to the opposite leaflet as a result of a calcium stimulus.
cardiac muscle cell action potential involved in contraction An action potential that occurs in a cardiac muscle cell and is involved in its contraction.
regulation of cell proliferation involved in mesonephros development Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell proliferation involved in mesonephros development.
srp-dependent cotranslational protein targeting to membrane The targeting of proteins to a membrane that occurs during translation and is dependent upon two key components, the signal-recognition particle (SRP) and the SRP receptor. SRP is a cytosolic particle that transiently binds to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) signal sequence in a nascent protein, to the large ribosomal unit, and to the SRP receptor in the ER membrane.
isoquinoline alkaloid metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving isoquinoline alkaloids, alkaloid compounds that contain bicyclic N-containing aromatic rings and are derived from a 3,4-dihydroxytyramine (dopamine) precursor that undergoes a Schiff base addition with aldehydes of different origin.
establishment of protein localization to peroxisome The directed movement of a protein to a specific location in a peroxisome.
positive regulation of lipid transport across blood brain barrier Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of lipid transport across blood brain barrier.
positive regulation of dopamine metabolic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving dopamine.
cardiolipin metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving cardiolipin, 1,3-bis(3-phosphatidyl)glycerol.
cell-substrate junction assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a junction between a cell and its substrate.
positive regulation of myd88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of MyD88-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway.
cell proliferation in hindbrain The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population in the hindbrain.
angiotensin maturation The process leading to the attainment of the full functional capacity of angiotensin by conversion of renin substrate into mature angiotensin in the blood.
vacuolar transport The directed movement of substances into, out of or within a vacuole.
d-ribose catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of D-ribose (ribo-pentose).
metal incorporation into metallo-sulfur cluster The formation of a cluster of several metal atoms, including iron, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, or copper, with one or more bridging (mu-bond) sulfur atoms; amino acids residues in proteins that may ligate the metal sulfur cluster are cysteine, histidine, aspartate, glutamate, serine and cysteine persulfide.
trna-type intron splice site recognition and cleavage RNA processing that begins when the tertiary structure of a tRNA type intron is recognized, and ends when the endonucleolytic cleavage of the RNA at both the 5' and 3' splice sites occurs.
protein k33-linked deubiquitination A protein deubiquitination process in which a K33-linked ubiquitin chain, i.e. a polymer of ubiquitin formed by linkages between lysine residues at position 33 of the ubiquitin monomers, is removed from a protein.
positive regulation of syncytium formation by plasma membrane fusion Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the formation of a syncytium, a mass of cytoplasm containing several nuclei enclosed within a single plasma membrane, by the fusion of the plasma membranes of two or more individual cells.
peptidyl-glycine modification The modification of peptidyl-glycine.
regulation of melanosome organization Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of melanosome organization.
regulation of oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation.
regulation of lipoprotein metabolic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving lipoproteins, any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein group consists of a lipid or lipids.
negative regulation of tor signaling Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of TOR signaling.
sensory perception of sweet taste The series of events required to receive a sweet taste stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. This is a neurological process.
negative regulation of release of sequestered calcium ion into cytosol Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the release into the cytosolic compartment of calcium ions sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria.
spermidine catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of spermidine, N-(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-diaminobutane.
diadenosine polyphosphate catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of diadenosine polyphosphate, a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine with phosphate groups attached.
pericardium development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pericardium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the aorta, vena cava and the pulmonary artery.
granulocyte colony-stimulating factor signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of the cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to a receptor on the surface of a cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. G-CSF binds to the receptor (CSF3R).
positive regulation of cardiac muscle tissue development Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle tissue development.
siderophore biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of siderophores, low molecular weight Fe(III)-chelating substances made by aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria, especially when growing under iron deficient conditions. The complexes of Fe(3+)-siderophores have very high stability constants and are taken up by specific transport systems by microorganisms; the subsequent release of iron requires enzymatic action.
regulation of blood coagulation, intrinsic pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of blood coagulation, intrinsic pathway.
protein retention in golgi apparatus The retention of proteins within the Golgi apparatus. Golgi-localized carbohydrate-modifying enzymes have a short N-terminal domain that faces the cytosol, a single transmembrane alpha helix, and a large C-terminal domain that faces the Golgi lumen and that contains the catalytic site. How the membrane-spanning alpha helix in a Golgi enzyme causes its localization and prevents its movement to the plasma membrane is not known.
posttranslational protein targeting to membrane, translocation The process in which a protein translocates through the ER membrane posttranslationally.
glutathione derivative biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glutathione derivative.
positive regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor production.
formaldehyde biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of formaldehyde (methanal, H2C=O), the simplest aldehyde.
mevalonate transport The directed movement of mevalonate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
positive regulation of cytokine production Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of production of a cytokine.
positive regulation of establishment of protein localization to plasma membrane Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a protein to a specific location in the plasma membrane.
protein lipoylation The addition of a lipoyl group to an amino acid residue in a protein.
regulation of behavioral fear response Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of behavioral fear response.
low-density lipoprotein receptor particle metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving low-density lipoprotein receptors.
negative regulation of ion transport Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of charged atoms or small charged molecules into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle dna replication Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of mitotic cell cycle DNA replication.
aldehyde catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of aldehydes, any organic compound with the formula R-CH=O.
negative regulation of root hair elongation Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of root hair elongation.
fatty acid catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a fatty acid, any of the aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that can be liberated by hydrolysis from naturally occurring fats and oils. Fatty acids are predominantly straight-chain acids of 4 to 24 carbon atoms, which may be saturated or unsaturated; branched fatty acids and hydroxy fatty acids also occur, and very long chain acids of over 30 carbons are found in waxes.
receptor recycling The process that results in the return of receptor molecules to an active state and an active cellular location after they have been stimulated by a ligand. An active state is when the receptor is ready to receive a signal.
t-helper 2 cell cytokine production Any process that contributes to cytokine production by a T-helper 2 cell.
cellular response to blue light Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a blue light stimulus. Blue light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of between 440 and 500nm.
negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors.
intestinal cholesterol absorption Uptake of cholesterol into the blood by absorption from the small intestine.
anterior neuropore closure The joining together of the neural folds of the rostral opening of the neural tube. The anterior neuropore appears before the process of neural tube closure is complete.
meiotic mismatch repair A system for the identification and correction of base-base mismatches, small insertion-deletion loops, and regions of heterology that are present in duplex DNA formed with strands from two recombining molecules. Correction of the mismatch can result in non-Mendelian segregation of alleles following meiosis.
chemical homeostasis within a tissue Any process involved in the maintenance of the internal steady state of the amount of a chemical at the level of the tissue.
chromatin assembly The assembly of DNA, histone proteins, other associated proteins, and sometimes RNA, into chromatin structure, beginning with the formation of the basic unit, the nucleosome, followed by organization of the nucleosomes into higher order structures, ultimately giving rise to a complex organization of specific domains within the nucleus.
positive regulation of cellular metabolic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways by which individual cells transform chemical substances.
gdp catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of GDP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate.
regulation of transcription from rna polymerase ii promoter involved in definitive endodermal cell fate specification Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter that ultimately results in a cell being specified to adopt a definitive endodermal cell fate.
superoxide metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving superoxide, the superoxide anion O2- (superoxide free radical), or any compound containing this species.
negative regulation of mitotic sister chromatid segregation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of sister chromatid segregation during mitosis.
cellular response to gamma radiation Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a gamma radiation stimulus. Gamma radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) or light emission of a specific frequency produced from sub-atomic particle interaction, such as electron-positron annihilation and radioactive decay. Gamma rays are generally characterized as EMR having the highest frequency and energy, and also the shortest wavelength, within the electromagnetic radiation spectrum.
defense response to tumor cell Reactions triggered in response to the presence of a tumor cell that act to protect the cell or organism.
positive regulation of glucocorticoid biosynthetic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glucocorticoids.
cellular copper ion homeostasis Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of copper ions at the level of a cell.
histone h4-r3 demethylation The modification of histone H4 by the removal of a methyl group from arginine at position 3 of the histone.
organic heteropentacyclic compound metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving organic heteropentacyclic compound.
negative regulation of protein activation cascade Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein activation cascade.
barbed-end actin filament uncapping The removal of capping protein from the barbed (or plus) end of actin filaments to free the ends for addition, exchange or removal of further actin subunits.
dendritic cell differentiation The process in which a precursor cell type acquires the specialized features of a dendritic cell. A dendritic cell is a leukocyte of dendritic lineage specialized in the uptake, processing, and transport of antigens to lymph nodes for the purpose of stimulating an immune response via T cell activation.
toll-like receptor 8 signaling pathway Any series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of binding to toll-like receptor 8.
negative regulation of sarcomere organization Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent myofibril assembly by organization of muscle actomyosin into sarcomeres. The sarcomere is the repeating unit of a myofibril in a muscle cell, composed of an array of overlapping thick and thin filaments between two adjacent Z discs.
positive regulation of myotome development Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of myotome development.
protein metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving a specific protein, rather than of proteins in general. Includes protein modification.
response to fructose Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a fructose stimulus.
positive regulation of oxygen metabolic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of oxygen metabolic process.
trna transcription from rna polymerase iii promoter The synthesis of transfer RNA (tRNA) from a DNA template by RNA Polymerase III (Pol III), originating at a Pol III promoter.
positive regulation of calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of calcium-independent cell-cell adhesion.
sulfide oxidation The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the conversion of sulfide to elemental sulfur in a higher oxidation state, or to sulfite or sulfate.
face development The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a face from an initial condition to its mature state. The face is the ventral division of the head.
antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via mhc class i The process in which an antigen-presenting cell expresses a peptide antigen of exogenous origin on its cell surface in association with an MHC class I protein complex. The peptide antigen is typically, but not always, processed from a whole protein. Class I here refers to classical class I molecules.
renal tubule development The progression of the renal tubule over time from its formation to the mature form. A renal tubule is a tube that filters, re-absorbs and secretes substances to rid an organism of waste and to play a role in fluid homeostasis.
positive regulation of macrophage fusion Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of macrophage fusion.
positive regulation of neuromuscular synaptic transmission Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of neuromuscular synaptic transmission.
regulation of cd8-positive, alpha-beta t cell activation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell activation.
cysteine catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of cysteine, 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid.
arachidonic acid metabolite production involved in inflammatory response The synthesis or release of products of arachidonic acid metabolism following a stimulus as part of an inflammatory response, resulting in an increase in their intracellular or extracellular levels.
rrna base methylation The addition of a methyl group to an atom in the nucleoside base portion of a nucleotide residue in an rRNA molecule.
macromolecule deacylation The removal of an acyl group, any group or radical of the form RCO- where R is an organic group, from a macromolecule.
aorta development The progression of the aorta over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. An aorta is an artery that carries blood from the heart to other parts of the body.
glycolipid transport The directed movement of glycolipids, compounds containing (usually) 1-4 linked monosaccharide residues joined by a glycosyl linkage to a lipid, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
cellular glucuronidation The modification of an organic chemical by the conjugation of glucuronic acid. The substances resulting from glucuronidation are known as glucuronosides (or glucuronides) and are often much more water-soluble than the non-glucuronic acid-containing precursor.
regulation of cell shape Any process that modulates the surface configuration of a cell.
positive regulation of interleukin-1 alpha production Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of interleukin-1 alpha production.
homotypic cell-cell adhesion The attachment of a cell to a second cell of the identical type via adhesion molecules.
negative regulation of fibrinolysis Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of fibrinolysis, an ongoing process that solubilizes fibrin, resulting in the removal of small blood clots.
external encapsulating structure organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of external structures that lie outside the plasma membrane and surround the entire cell.
somatostatin receptor signaling pathway The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a somatostatin receptor (SSTR) binding to one of its physiological ligands and transmitting the signal to a heterotrimeric G-protein complex. The pathway ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
bronchus development The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a bronchus from an initial condition to its mature state. This process begins with the formation of the bronchus and ends with the mature structure. The bronchus is the portion of the airway that connects to the lungs.
ubiquinone metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving ubiquinone, a lipid-soluble electron-transporting coenzyme.
inhibition of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity Any process that prevents the activation of an inactive cysteine-type endopeptidase.
negative regulation of double-strand break repair via homologous recombination Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of double-strand break repair via homologous recombination.
farnesol catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of the sesquiterpenoid alcohol farnesol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-2,6,10,dodecatrien-1-ol.
modulation of molecular function in other organism The process in which an organism effects a change in the function of proteins in a second organism.
nucleic acid phosphodiester bond hydrolysis The nucleic acid metabolic process in which the phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides are cleaved by hydrolysis.
regulation of rna polymerase ii transcriptional preinitiation complex assembly Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of RNA polymerase II transcriptional preinitiation complex assembly.
regulation of translation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of proteins by the translation of mRNA.
cellular response to caloric restriction Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a of caloric restriction, insufficient food energy intake.
regulation of interleukin-6-mediated signaling pathway Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of the series of molecular events generated as a consequence of interleukin-6-mediated binding to a cell surface receptor.
cellular response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulus.
neuron differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuron.
erythrophore differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an erythrophore cell. Erythrophores are pigment cells derived from the neural crest. They contain pteridine and/or carotenoid pigments in structures called pterinosomes or erythrosomes. This gives them an orange to red appearance.
common bile duct development The progression of the common bile duct over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The common bile duct is formed from the joining of the common hepatic duct running from the liver, and the cystic duct running from the gall bladder. The common bile duct transports bile from the liver and gall bladder to the intestine.
positive regulation of interleukin-6-mediated signaling pathway Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of the series of molecular events generated as a consequence of interleukin-6 binding to a cell surface receptor.
morphogenesis of an endothelium The process in which the anatomical structure of an endothelium is generated and organized. Endothelium refers to the layer of cells lining blood vessels, lymphatics, the heart, and serous cavities, and is derived from bone marrow or mesoderm. Corneal endothelium is a special case, derived from neural crest cells.
snrna transport The directed movement of snRNA, small nuclear ribonucleic acid, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
l-asparagine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving L-asparagine, (2S)-2-amino-3-carbamoylpropanoic acid.
establishment of localization The directed movement of a cell, substance or cellular entity, such as a protein complex or organelle, to a specific location.
riboflavin metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving riboflavin (vitamin B2), the precursor for the coenzymes flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).
cell differentiation involved in metanephros development The process in which relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells of the metanephros as it progresses from its formation to the mature state.
vegf-activated neuropilin signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to a neuropilin protein on the surface of a target cell, followed by transmission of the signal, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
positive regulation of cytokine secretion involved in immune response Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of cytokine secretion contributing to an immune response.
central nervous system vasculogenesis The differentiation of endothelial cells from progenitor cells during blood vessel development, and the de novo formation of blood vessels and tubes in the central nervous system. The capillary endothelial cells in the brain are specialized to form the blood-brain barrier.
synaptic transmission, cholinergic The process of communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse using the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
intracellular ph reduction Any process that reduces the internal pH of a cell, measured by the concentration of the hydrogen ion.
udp-glucose catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of UDP-glucose, uridinediphosphoglucose, a substance composed of glucose in glycosidic linkage with uridine diphosphate.
positive regulation of multicellular organismal metabolic process Any process that activates or increases frequency, rate or extent of chemical reactions and pathways in multicellular organisms that occur at the tissue, organ, or organismal level.
calcineurin-nfat signaling cascade Any intracellular signal transduction in which the signal is passed on within the by activation of a member of the NFAT protein family as a consequence of NFAT dephosphorylation by Ca(2+)-activated calcineurin. The cascade begins with calcium-dependent activation of the phosphatase calcineurin. Calcineurin dephosphorylates multiple phosphoserine residues on NFAT, resulting in the translocation of NFAT to the nucleus. The cascade ends with regulation of transcription by NFAT. The calcineurin-NFAT cascade lies downstream of many cell surface receptors, including G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) that signal to mobilize calcium ions (Ca2+).
organ induction The interaction of two or more cells or tissues that causes them to change their fates and specify the development of an organ.
regulation of glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway.
d-aspartate import The directed movement of D-aspartate, the L-enantiomer of the anion of 2-aminopentanedioic acid, into a cell or organelle.
histamine transport The directed movement of histamine into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Histamine is a physiologically active amine, found in plant and animal tissue and released from mast cells as part of an allergic reaction in humans.
negative regulation of serine-type peptidase activity Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of serine-type peptidase activity.
cellular macromolecule metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving macromolecules, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass, as carried out by individual cells.
canonical wnt signaling pathway involved in positive regulation of wound healing The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell, followed by propagation of the signal via beta-catenin, and ending with a change in transcription of target genes involved in positive regulation of wound healing.
detection of visible light The series of events in which a visible light stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. A visible light stimulus is electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived visually by an organism; for organisms lacking a visual system, this can be defined as light with a wavelength within the range 380 to 780 nm.
disruption by symbiont of host cell Any process in which an organism has a negative effect on the functioning of the host's cells. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction.
central nervous system myelin maintenance The process in which the structure and material content of mature central nervous system myelin is kept in a functional state.
vesicle fusion with golgi apparatus The joining of the lipid bilayer membrane around a vesicle to the lipid bilayer membrane around the Golgi.
cell adhesion The attachment of a cell, either to another cell or to an underlying substrate such as the extracellular matrix, via cell adhesion molecules.
positive regulation of non-canonical wnt signaling pathway Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of non-canonical Wnt-activated signaling pathway.
regulation of cell adhesion molecule production Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of cell adhesion molecule production. Cell adhesion molecule production is the appearance of a cell adhesion molecule as a result of its biosynthesis or a decrease in its catabolism.
cellular response to acid chemical Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus by the chemical structure of the anion portion of the dissociated acid (rather than the acid acting as a proton donor). The acid chemical may be in gaseous, liquid or solid form.
cellular response to osmotic stress Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating an increase or decrease in the concentration of solutes outside the organism or cell.
lipoprotein particle mediated signaling A series of molecular signals mediated by the detection of a lipoprotein particle.
negative regulation of branch elongation involved in ureteric bud branching Any process that reduces the frequency, rate or extent of branch elongation involved in ureteric bud branching, the growth of a branch of the ureteric bud along its axis.
positive regulation of endothelial cell chemotaxis by vegf-activated vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to a VEGFR on the surface of a cell, which activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of endothelial cell chemotaxis.
positive regulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of uterine smooth muscle contraction.
positive regulation of pigment cell differentiation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of pigment cell differentiation.
mullerian duct regression The process in which the Mullerian ducts, primordia of the oviducts, uterus and upper vagina, undergo regression in male embryos.
acetyl-coa transport The directed movement of acetyl-CoA into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Acetyl-CoA is a derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is acetylated; it is a metabolite derived from several pathways (e.g. glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, amino-acid catabolism) and is further metabolized by the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is a key intermediate in lipid and terpenoid biosynthesis.
positive regulation of synaptic vesicle transport Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic vesicle transport.
regulation of toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway.
negative regulation of transcription from rna polymerase ii promoter in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter as a result of an endoplasmic reticulum stress.
activation of jnkk activity The initiation of the activity of the inactive enzyme JUN kinase kinase (JNKK) activity. JNKKs are involved in a signaling pathway that is primarily activated by cytokines and exposure to environmental stress.
bud dilation involved in lung branching The process in which a bud in the lung increases radially.
7-methylguanosine cap hypermethylation Hypermethylation of the 7-(mono)methylguanosine (m(7)G) cap structure at the 2' position of the guanosine residue to convert a mono-methylated cap to a 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine cap structure. This type of cap modification occurs on small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and is dependent on prior guanine-N7 methylation.
histidine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving histidine, 2-amino-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid.
succinyl-coa pathway The chemical reactions that utilize succinyl-CoA in the synthesis of protoporphyrin IX.
regulation of mapk export from nucleus Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a MAP kinase from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
response to sorbitol Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a sorbitol stimulus.
negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the rate or extent of endothelial cell proliferation.
glycine biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycine, aminoethanoic acid.
methionine biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of methionine (2-amino-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid), a sulfur-containing, essential amino acid found in peptide linkage in proteins.
positive regulation of protein import into nucleus Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of movement of proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus.
regulation of termination of rna polymerase ii transcription, poly(a)-coupled Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of termination of RNA polymerase II transcription, poly(A)-coupled.
vitamin biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a vitamin, one of a number of unrelated organic substances that occur in many foods in small amounts and that are necessary in trace amounts for the normal metabolic functioning of the body.
regulation of dna recombination Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of DNA recombination, a DNA metabolic process in which a new genotype is formed by reassortment of genes resulting in gene combinations different from those that were present in the parents.
negative regulation of endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response.
corticospinal tract morphogenesis Generation of a long process of a pyramidal cell, that carries efferent (outgoing) action potentials from the cell body in cerebral cortex layer V towards target cells in the gray matter of the spinal cord. This axonal process is a member of those that make up the corticospinal tract.
cellular response to carbohydrate stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a carbohydrate stimulus.
regulation of chronic inflammatory response Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of a chronic inflammatory response.
positive regulation of actin filament depolymerization Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of actin depolymerization.
monosaccharide metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving monosaccharides, the simplest carbohydrates. They are polyhydric alcohols containing either an aldehyde or a keto group and between three to ten or more carbon atoms. They form the constitutional repeating units of oligo- and polysaccharides.
peptidyl-glutamine modification The modification of peptidyl-glutamine.
negative regulation of programmed cell death Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death, cell death resulting from activation of endogenous cellular processes.
negative regulation of aldosterone biosynthetic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of aldosterone.
interleukin-21 secretion The regulated release of interleukin-21 from a cell.
ribosomal large subunit biogenesis A cellular process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, and arrangement of constituent parts of a large ribosomal subunit; includes transport to the sites of protein synthesis.
fluid transport The directed movement of substances that are in liquid form in normal living conditions into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
transcription initiation from rna polymerase iii promoter Any process involved in the assembly of the RNA polymerase III preinitiation complex (PIC) at an RNA polymerase III promoter region of a DNA template, resulting in the subsequent synthesis of RNA from that promoter. The initiation phase includes PIC assembly and the formation of the first few bonds in the RNA chain, including abortive initiation, which occurs when the first few nucleotides are repeatedly synthesized and then released. Promoter clearance, or release, is the transition between the initiation and elongation phases of transcription.
negative regulation of amyloid precursor protein biosynthetic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the precursor of beta-amyloid.
regulation of synaptic growth at neuromuscular junction Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic growth at neuromuscular junctions.
mesenchymal cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a mesenchymal cell. A mesenchymal cell is a loosely associated cell that is part of the connective tissue in an organism. Mesenchymal cells give rise to more mature connective tissue cell types.
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate salvage Any process that generates pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the active form of vitamin B6, from derivatives of it without de novo synthesis.
regulation of t cell activation via t cell receptor contact with antigen bound to mhc molecule on antigen presenting cell Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of T cell activation via T cell receptor contact with antigen bound to MHC molecule on antigen presenting cell.
chemokine production The appearance of a chemokine due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels.
galactose catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of galactose, the aldohexose galacto-hexose.
negative regulation of branch elongation involved in ureteric bud branching by bmp signaling pathway A series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of any member of the BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) family binding to a cell surface receptor resulting in the reduction of the frequency, rate or extent of branch elongation involved in ureteric bud branching, the growth of a branch of the ureteric bud along its axis.
blood vessel endothelial cell fate commitment The commitment of a cell to a blood vessel endothelial cell fate and its capacity to differentiate into a blood vessel endothelial cell.
positive regulation of small gtpase mediated signal transduction Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of small GTPase mediated signal transduction.
positive regulation of interferon-gamma-mediated signaling pathway Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of the series of molecular events generated as a consequence of interferon-gamma binding to a cell surface receptor.
negative regulation of tooth mineralization Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of tooth mineralization, the deposition of calcium salts in tooth structures.
regulation of cell proliferation involved in embryonic placenta development Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of cell proliferation involved in embryonic placenta development.
regulation of gluconeogenesis Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of gluconeogenesis, the formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as pyruvate, amino acids and glycerol.
positive regulation of blood coagulation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of blood coagulation.
random inactivation of x chromosome Compensating for the two-fold variation in X-chromosome:autosome ratios between sexes by a global inactivation of all, or most of, the genes on either the paternal or maternal X-chromosome in the XX sex.
positive regulation of embryonic development Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of embryonic development.
negative regulation of cellular respiration Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cellular respiration.
regulation of protein homooligomerization Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of protein homooligomerization.
negative regulation of motor neuron apoptotic process Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of motor neuron apoptotic process.
negative regulation of potassium ion export Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of potassium ion export.
geranylgeranyl diphosphate metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving geranylgeranyl diphosphate, a polyprenol compound involved in the biosynthesis of a variety of terpenoids including chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols, plastoquinones, and the plant hormones gibberellins.
neutrophil degranulation The regulated exocytosis of secretory granules containing preformed mediators such as proteases, lipases, and inflammatory mediators by a neutrophil.
nitric oxide homeostasis A homeostatic process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of nitric oxide within an organism or cell.
negative regulation of fibroblast migration Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of fibroblast cell migration. Fibroblast cell migration is accomplished by extension and retraction of a pseudopodium.
regulation of histone h4-k20 methylation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the covalent addition of a methyl group to the lysine at position 20 of histone H4.
positive regulation of chemokine biosynthetic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of chemokines.
neuronal action potential An action potential that occurs in a neuron.
fatty acid derivative biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of fatty acid derivative.
catecholamine uptake The directed movement of catecholamine into a cell.
rna polymerase ii transcriptional preinitiation complex assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of proteins on an RNA polymerase II promoter DNA to form the transcriptional preinitiation complex (PIC), the formation of which is a prerequisite for transcription by RNA polymerase.
polyadenylation-dependent mrna catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, initiated by the enzymatic addition of a sequence of adenylyl residues (polyadenylation) at the 3' end the target mRNA.
snrna transcription from rna polymerase ii promoter The synthesis of small nuclear RNA (snRNA) from a DNA template by RNA Polymerase II (Pol II), originating at a Pol II promoter.
tetrahydrofolate interconversion The chemical reactions and pathways by which one-carbon (C1) units are transferred between tetrahydrofolate molecules, to synthesise other tetrahydrofolate molecules.
pancreatic epsilon cell differentiation The process in which relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and functional features of a pancreatic epsilon cell. A pancreatic epsilon cell is a cell in the pancreas that secretes ghrelin.
bmp signaling pathway involved in ureter morphogenesis A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of a member of the BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) family to a receptor on the surface of a target cell, which contributes to the shaping of the ureter. The ureter is a tube that extends from the kidney to the bladder.
negative regulation of oxidative stress-induced cell death Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of oxidative stress-induced cell death.
transcription factor tfiiib complex assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a transcription factor TFIIIB complex.
striated muscle cell development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a striated muscle cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Striated muscle cells contain fibers that are divided by transverse bands into striations, and cardiac and skeletal muscle are types of striated muscle.
gdp metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving GDP, guanosine 5'-diphosphate.
positive regulation by organism of defense response of other organism involved in symbiotic interaction Any process in which an organism activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the defense response of a second organism, where the two organisms are in a symbiotic interaction.
epidermal cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an epidermal cell, any of the cells making up the epidermis.
phosphatidic acid metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving phosphatidic acid, any derivative of glycerol phosphate in which both the remaining hydroxyl groups of the glycerol moiety are esterified with fatty acids.
post-chaperonin tubulin folding pathway Completion of folding of alpha- and beta-tubulin; takes place subsequent to chaperonin-mediated partial folding; mediated by a complex of folding cofactors.
regulation of telomere maintenance via semi-conservative replication Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the semi-conservative replication of telomeric DNA.
osteoclast development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a osteoclast from its formation to the mature structure. Cell development does not include the steps involved in committing a cell to a specific fate. An osteoclast is a specialized phagocytic cell associated with the absorption and removal of the mineralized matrix of bone tissue.
regulation of interleukin-12 biosynthetic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of interleukin-12.
axon extension involved in axon guidance The long distance growth of a single cell process, that is involved in the migration of an axon growth cone, where the migration is directed to a specific target site by a combination of attractive and repulsive cues.
regulation of chaperone-mediated protein folding Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of chaperone-mediated protein folding.
negative regulation of protein import into nucleus, translocation Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the vectorial transfer of a protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, across the nuclear membrane.
nuclear envelope reassembly The reformation of the nuclear envelope following its breakdown in the context of a normal process.
negative regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of luteinizing hormone.
peptidyl-arginine n-methylation The addition of a methyl group onto a nitrogen atom of an arginine residue in a protein.
protein localization to chromatin Any process in which a protein is transported to, or maintained at, a part of a chromosome that is organized into chromatin.
positive regulation of microtubule polymerization Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule polymerization.
trna dihydrouridine synthesis The process whereby a uridine in a transfer RNA is converted to dihydrouridine.
production of sirna involved in rna interference Cleavage of double-stranded RNA to form small interfering RNA molecules (siRNAs) of 21-23 nucleotides, in the context of RNA interference.
somatic diversification of immune receptors via germline recombination within a single locus The process in which immune receptor genes are diversified through recombination of the germline genetic elements within a single genetic locus.
regulation of synaptic vesicle fusion to presynaptic membrane Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic vesicle fusion to the presynaptic membrane.
response to leucine Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a leucine stimulus.
90s preribosome assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of proteins and RNA molecules to form a 90S preribosome. The 90S preribosome represents the complex that forms on the primary rRNA transcript before it splits into the small subunit and large subunit portions.
negative regulation of ras protein signal transduction Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of Ras protein signal transduction.
micturition The regulation of body fluids process in which parasympathetic nerves stimulate the bladder wall muscle to contract and expel urine from the body.
adrenal gland development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the adrenal gland over time, from its formation to the mature structure. This gland can either be a discrete structure located bilaterally above each kidney, or a cluster of cells in the head kidney that perform the functions of the adrenal gland. In either case, this organ consists of two cells types, aminergic chromaffin cells and steroidogenic cortical cells.
positive regulation of protein deubiquitination Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein deubiquitination.
spinal cord patterning The regionalization process that regulates the coordinated growth and establishes the non-random spatial arrangement of the spinal cord.
negative regulation of arginine catabolic process Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of arginine catabolic process.
negative regulation of glomerular mesangial cell proliferation Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of glomerular mesangial cell proliferation.
organonitrogen compound metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving organonitrogen compound.
chromatin remodeling Dynamic structural changes to eukaryotic chromatin occurring throughout the cell division cycle. These changes range from the local changes necessary for transcriptional regulation to global changes necessary for chromosome segregation.
regulation of inhibitory postsynaptic membrane potential Any process that modulates the establishment or extent of the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) which is a temporary decrease in postsynaptic membrane potential due to the flow of negatively charged ions into the postsynaptic cell. The flow of ions that causes an IPSP is an inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) and makes it more difficult for the neuron to fire an action potential.
golgi to endosome transport The directed movement of substances from the Golgi to early sorting endosomes. Clathrin vesicles transport substances from the trans-Golgi to endosomes.
quaternary ammonium group transport The directed movement into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore of quaternary ammonium compounds, any compound that can be regarded as derived from ammonium hydroxide or an ammonium salt by replacement of all four hydrogen atoms of the NH4+ ion by organic groups.
negative regulation of low-density lipoprotein particle receptor catabolic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of low-density lipoprotein receptors.
regulation of multivesicular body size Any process that modulates the volume of a multivesicular body, a type of late endosome in which regions of the limiting endosomal membrane invaginate to form internal vesicles.
positive regulation of protein binding Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein binding.
negative regulation of dendritic cell apoptotic process Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of dendritic cell apoptotic process.
glycerol biosynthetic process from pyruvate The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycerol, 1,2,3-propanetriol, from other compounds, including pyruvate.
negative thymic t cell selection The process of elimination of immature T cells in the thymus which react strongly with self-antigens.
histone h2a k63-linked ubiquitination A histone ubiquitination process in which a polymer of ubiquitin, formed by linkages between lysine residues at position 63 of the ubiquitin monomers, is added to a lysine residue in histone H2A or the variant H2AX.
glial cell migration The orderly movement of a glial cell, non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system.
cytokine-mediated signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of a cytokine to a receptor on the surface of a cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
regulation of ral protein signal transduction Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of Ral protein signal transduction.
negative regulation of vasodilation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vasodilation.
glucose 6-phosphate metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving glucose 6-phosphate, a monophosphorylated derivative of glucose with the phosphate group attached to C-6.
epithelial fluid transport The directed movement of fluid across epithelia.
mitochondrial rna 3'-end processing Any process involved in forming the mature 3' end of an RNA molecule transcribed from a mitochondrial genome; occurs in the mitochondrion.
regulation of cell maturation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell maturation.
3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate transport The directed movement of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate, a naturally occurring mixed anhydride synthesized from adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
positive regulation of neutrophil mediated cytotoxicity Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed killing of a target cell by a neutrophil.
positive regulation of cgmp biosynthetic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of cGMP.
transcription-dependent tethering of rna polymerase ii gene dna at nuclear periphery The chromosome organization process in which the DNA sequence containing a gene transcribed by RNA polymerase II is maintained in a specific location at the nuclear periphery. In S. cerevisiae, this process involves cis-acting DNA sequences such as the TATA box and upstream activating sequence (UAS) elements, trans-acting transcriptional activators, and also the 3'-UTR of the transcript.
sexual reproduction A reproduction process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms. It occurs both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes: in multicellular eukaryotic organisms, an individual is created anew; in prokaryotes, the initial cell has additional or transformed genetic material. In a process called genetic recombination, genetic material (DNA) originating from two different individuals (parents) join up so that homologous sequences are aligned with each other, and this is followed by exchange of genetic information. After the new recombinant chromosome is formed, it is passed on to progeny.
positive regulation of centriole elongation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of centriole elongation.
trophoblast giant cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a trophoblast giant cell of the placenta. Trophoblast giant cells are the cell of the placenta that line the maternal decidua.
cellular response to leucine Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a leucine stimulus.
basal protein localization Any process in which a protein is transported to, or maintained in, basal regions of the cell.
white fat cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a white adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell involved in energy storage. White adipocytes have cytoplasmic lipids arranged in a unique vacuole.
response to acetate Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an acetate stimulus.
regulation of intracellular transport of viral material Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of egress of virus within host cell.
maturation of ssu-rrna Any process involved in the maturation of a precursor Small SubUnit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) molecule into a mature SSU-rRNA molecule.
immunoglobulin production in mucosal tissue The synthesis and release of immunoglobulin in the mucosal tissue.
induction of host immune response by virus The induction by a virus of an immune response in the host organism.
glandular epithelial cell maturation The developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for a glandular epithelial cell to attain its fully functional state. A glandular epithelial cell is a columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell is a cell found in a two dimensional sheet with a free surface exposed to the lumen of a gland.
lipid glycosylation Covalent attachment of a glycosyl residue to a lipid molecule.
proximal/distal pattern formation involved in nephron development The regionalization process in which specific areas of cell differentiation are determined along a proximal/distal axis of a nephron. The proximal/distal axis is defined by a line that runs from the center of the kidney (proximal end) outward (distal end).
generation of ovulation cycle rhythm The process which controls the timing of the type of sexual cycle seen in female mammals.
lens fiber cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a lens fiber cell, any of the elongated, tightly packed cells that make up the bulk of the mature lens in the camera-type eye. The cytoplasm of a lens fiber cell is devoid of most intracellular organelles including the cell nucleus, and contains primarily crystallins, a group of water-soluble proteins expressed in vary large quantities.
atp synthesis coupled proton transport The transport of protons across a membrane to generate an electrochemical gradient (proton-motive force) that powers ATP synthesis.
regulation of inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase activity Any process that modulates the rate or frequency of inositol-polyphosphate 5-phosphatase activity, the catalysis of the reactions: D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate + H2O = myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate + phosphate, and 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate + H2O = 1D-myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate + phosphate.
cardiac ventricle formation The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a cardiac ventricle from unspecified parts. A cardiac ventricle receives blood from a cardiac atrium and pumps it out of the heart.
purine nucleoside triphosphate catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of purine nucleoside triphosphate, a compound consisting of a purine base linked to a ribose or deoxyribose sugar esterified with triphosphate on the sugar.
cellular response to nitrogen compound Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a nitrogen compound stimulus.
histone methylation The modification of histones by addition of methyl groups.
isotype switching to igg isotypes The switching of activated B cells from IgM biosynthesis to biosynthesis of an IgG isotype, accomplished through a recombination process involving an intrachromosomal deletion between switch regions that reside 5' of the IgM and one of the IgG constant region gene segments in the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus.
positive regulation of metanephric glomerular visceral epithelial cell development Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of metanephric glomerular visceral epithelial cell development.
antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen The process in which an antigen-presenting cell expresses a peptide antigen of endogenous origin on its cell surface in association with an MHC protein complex. The peptide is typically a fragment of a larger endogenous protein which has been degraded within the cell.
xylulose biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of xylulose, the ketopentose threo-2-pentulose.
organelle localization Any process in which an organelle is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location.
regulation of cd4-positive, cd25-positive, alpha-beta regulatory t cell differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of differentiation of CD4-positive, CD25-positive, alpha-beta regulatory T cells.
5-methylcytosine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving 5-methylcytosine, a methylated base of DNA.
n-methyl-d-aspartate receptor clustering The receptor clustering process in which N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are localized to distinct domains in the cell membrane.
oculomotor nerve development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the oculomotor nerve over time, from its formation to the mature structure. This motor nerve innervates all extraocular muscles except the superior oblique and the lateral rectus muscles. The superior division supplies the levator palpebrae superioris and superior rectus muscles. The inferior division supplies the medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. This nerve also innervates the striated muscles of the eyelid. Pupillary constriction and lens movement are mediated by this nerve for near vision. In the orbit the inferior division sends branches that enter the ciliary ganglion where they form functional contacts (synapses) with the ganglion cells. The ganglion cells send nerve fibers into the back of the eye where they travel to ultimately innervate the ciliary muscle and the constrictor pupillae muscle.
positive regulation of cell adhesion Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell adhesion.
regulation of organic acid transport Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of organic acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
nucleobase-containing compound biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids.
cd8-positive, alpha-beta t cell differentiation involved in immune response The process in which an antigenically naive CD8-positive, alpha-beta T cell acquires the specialized features of an effector, regulatory, or memory T cell as part of an immune response. Effector T cells include cells which provide T cell help or exhibit cytotoxicity towards other cells.
death-inducing signaling complex assembly A process of protein complex assembly in which the arrangement and bonding together of the set of components that form the protein complex is mediated by a death domain (DD) interaction, as part of the extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway.
sphingosine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving sphingosine (sphing-4-enine), trans-D-erytho-2-amino-octadec-4-ene-1,3-diol, a long chain amino diol sphingoid base that occurs in most sphingolipids in animal tissues.
intracellular protein transmembrane transport The directed movement of proteins in a cell, from one side of a membrane to another by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
cellular response to nitric oxide Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a nitric oxide stimulus.
positive regulation of oocyte development Any process that increases the rate or extent of the process whose specific outcome is the progression of an oocyte over time, from initial commitment of the cell to its specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell.
positive regulation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic process Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthesis. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan biosynthetic processes are the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan, a glycosaminoglycan with repeat unit consisting of alternating alpha-(1->4)-linked hexuronic acid and glucosamine residues.
regulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor signaling pathway.
dsrna fragmentation Cleavage of double-stranded RNA molecules by an RNaseIII-family enzyme to produce small RNAs (generally 20-30 nucleotides, depending on species) with biological function.
specification of organ position The regionalization process in which information that determines the correct position at which organ primordia are formed is generated and perceived resulting in correct positioning of the new organ.
regulation of terminal button organization Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of terminal button organization.
cell proliferation in bone marrow The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population in the bone marrow.
phosphorylated carbohydrate dephosphorylation The process of removing a phosphate group from a phosphorylated carbohydrate, any organic compound based on the general formula Cx(H2O)y with a phosphate group attached to it.
meiotic chromosome segregation The process in which genetic material, in the form of chromosomes, is organized into specific structures and then physically separated and apportioned to two or more sets during M phase of the meiotic cell cycle.
negative regulation of neuron death Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of neuron death.
intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress A series of molecular signals in which an intracellular signal is conveyed to trigger the apoptotic death of a cell. The pathway is induced in response to a stimulus indicating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and ends when the execution phase of apoptosis is triggered. ER stress usually results from the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen.
vasodilation of artery involved in baroreceptor response to increased systemic arterial blood pressure An increase in the internal diameter of an artery, triggered by vasomotor suppression, during the chemoreceptor response to decreased blood pressure.
dorsal/ventral neural tube patterning The process in which the neural tube is regionalized in the dorsoventral axis.
mannose biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of mannose, the aldohexose manno-hexose, the C-2 epimer of glucose.
chromosome movement towards spindle pole The directed movement of chromosomes in the center of the spindle towards the spindle poles, mediated by the shortening of microtubules attached to the chromosomes.
response to water deprivation Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a water deprivation stimulus, prolonged deprivation of water.
synaptic transmission involved in micturition The process of communication from a neuron to a smooth muscle in the bladder that contributes to the expulsion of urine from the body.
regulation of protein import into mitochondrial outer membrane Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of protein import into mitochondrial outer membrane.
melanocyte proliferation The multiplication or reproduction of melanocytes, resulting in the expansion of a cell population. A melanocyte is a pigment cell derived from the neural crest. It contains melanin-filled pigment granules, which give a brown to black appearance.
positive regulation of calcium-mediated signaling Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of calcium-mediated signaling.
branched-chain amino acid transport The directed movement of branched-chain amino acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Branched-chain amino acids are amino acids with a branched carbon skeleton without rings.
regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of apoptotic signaling pathway.
regulation of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase activity Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase activity. Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase activity is the catalysis of the reaction: D-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate + H2O = D-fructose 6-phosphate + phosphate.
renal water homeostasis Renal process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of water in the body.
ornithine biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of ornithine, an amino acid only rarely found in proteins, but which is important in living organisms as an intermediate in the reactions of the urea cycle and in arginine biosynthesis.
water homeostasis Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of water within an organism or cell.
actin filament reorganization involved in cell cycle The cell cycle process in which rearrangement of the spatial distribution of actin filaments and associated proteins occurs.
negative regulation of granulocyte chemotaxis Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of granulocyte chemotaxis. Granulocyte chemotaxis is the movement of a granulocyte in response to an external stimulus.
very long-chain fatty-acyl-coa metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving very long-chain fatty-acyl-CoAs, any derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is in a thioester linkage with a medium-chain fatty-acyl group. A very long-chain fatty acid is a fatty acid which has a chain length greater than C22.
protein kinase d signaling A series of reactions, mediated by the intracellular serine/threonine kinase protein kinase D, which occurs as a result of a single trigger reaction or compound.
regulation of phospholipid metabolic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of phospholipid metabolic process.
negative regulation of keratinocyte differentiation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of keratinocyte differentiation.
negative regulation of muscle cell apoptotic process Any process that decreases the rate or frequency of muscle cell apoptotic process, a form of programmed cell death induced by external or internal signals that trigger the activity of proteolytic caspases whose actions dismantle a muscle cell and result in its death.
wound healing involved in inflammatory response The series of events that restore integrity to damaged tissue that contribute to an inflammatory response.
negative regulation of phosphatidylcholine catabolic process Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of phosphatidylcholine catabolism. Phosphatidylcholine catabolic processes are the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of phosphatidylcholines, any of a class of glycerophospholipids in which the phosphatidyl group is esterified to the hydroxyl group of choline.
protein octanoylation The modification of a protein amino acid by formation of an ester or amide with octanoic acid.
catecholamine uptake involved in synaptic transmission The uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters by neurons or glial cells. This process leads to inactivation and recycling of neurotransmitters.
embryonic heart tube formation The process that gives rise to the embryonic heart tube. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts. The embryonic heart tube is an epithelial tube that will give rise to the mature heart.
establishment or maintenance of monopolar cell polarity Any cellular process that results in the specification, formation or maintenance of monopolar intracellular organization or cell growth patterns. Monopolar cell organization is directional organization along an axis.
secretory granule organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a secretory granule. A secretory granule is a small subcellular vesicle, surrounded by a membrane, that is formed from the Golgi apparatus and contains a highly concentrated protein destined for secretion.
positive regulation of transporter activity Any process that activates or increases the activity of a transporter.
negative regulation of ruffle assembly Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of ruffle assembly.
renal system development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the renal system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The renal system maintains fluid balance and contributes to electrolyte balance, acid/base balance, and disposal of nitrogenous waste products. In humans, the renal system comprises a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, sphincter muscle and associated blood vessels.
establishment of spindle orientation Any process that set the alignment of spindle relative to other cellular structures.
epinephrine secretion The regulated release of epinephrine by a cell. Epinephrine is a catecholamine hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla and a neurotransmitter, released by certain neurons and active in the central nervous system.
cellular response to nitrogen dioxide Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a nitrogen dioxide (NO2) stimulus.
telomere maintenance Any process that contributes to the maintenance of proper telomeric length and structure by affecting and monitoring the activity of telomeric proteins and the length of telomeric DNA. These processes includes those that shorten and lengthen the telomeric DNA sequences.
dna-dependent dna replication A DNA replication process that uses parental DNA as a template for the DNA-dependent DNA polymerases that synthesize the new strands.
positive regulation of transcription via serum response element binding Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the specifically regulated synthesis of RNA from DNA encoding a specific set of genes as a result of a transcription factor interacting with a serum response element (SRE). A serum response element is a short sequence with dyad symmetry found in the promoters of some of the cellular immediate-early genes, regulated by serum.
regulation of calcium ion-dependent exocytosis Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of calcium ion-dependent exocytosis.
positive regulation of lipid transport Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of lipids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
negative regulation of ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel activity Any process that decreases the activity of a ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel. The ryanodine-sensitive calcium-release channel catalyzes the transmembrane transfer of a calcium ion by a channel that opens when a ryanodine class ligand has been bound by the channel complex or one of its constituent parts.
synaptic transmission, glycinergic The process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glycine.
hematopoietic stem cell migration The orderly movement of a hematopoietic stem cell from one site to another. A hematopoietic stem cell is a cell from which all cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages develop, including blood cells and cells of the immune system.
glutamine transport The directed movement of glutamine, 2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
regulation of establishment of protein localization to plasma membrane Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a protein to a specific location in the plasma membrane.
negative regulation of isotype switching to ige isotypes Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of isotype switching to IgE isotypes.
cholesterol storage The accumulation and maintenance in cells or tissues of cholesterol, cholest-5-en-3 beta-ol, the principal sterol of vertebrates and the precursor of many steroids, including bile acids and steroid hormones.
actin filament uncapping The removal of capping protein from the end of actin filaments to free the ends for addition, exchange or removal of further actin subunits.
zygotic specification of dorsal/ventral axis The specification of the dorsal/ventral axis of the embryo, through the products of genes expressed in the zygote.
embryonic morphogenesis The process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized during the embryonic phase. The embryonic phase begins with zygote formation. The end of the embryonic phase is organism-specific. For example, it would be at birth for mammals, larval hatching for insects and seed dormancy in plants.
cell differentiation in hindbrain The process in which relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the mature cells of the hindbrain. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate.
regulation of cardiac muscle cell action potential Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of action potential creation, propagation or termination in a cardiac muscle cell. This typically occurs via modulation of the activity or expression of voltage-gated ion channels.
negative regulation of endothelial cell migration Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the orderly movement of an endothelial cell into the extracellular matrix to form an endothelium.
negative regulation of fat cell proliferation Any process that stops or decreases the rate or extent of fat cell proliferation.
negative regulation of planar cell polarity pathway involved in pericardium morphogenesis Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of planar cell polarity pathway involved in pericardium morphogenesis.
dna packaging Any process in which DNA and associated proteins are formed into a compact, orderly structure.
negative regulation of t cell cytokine production Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of T cell cytokine production.
regulation of serotonin secretion Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of serotonin.
peptidyl-diphthamide metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving peptidyl-diphthamide, a modified histidine residue.
retrograde protein transport, er to cytosol The directed movement of unfolded or misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol through the translocon.
golgi to plasma membrane cftr protein transport The directed movement of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein from the Golgi to the plasma membrane.
cellular response to hormone stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a hormone stimulus.
positive regulation of cardiac conduction
antibiotic metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving an antibiotic, a substance produced by or derived from certain fungi, bacteria, and other organisms, that can destroy or inhibit the growth of other microorganisms.
acrosome assembly The formation of the acrosome from the spermatid Golgi.
cardiac chamber development The progression of a cardiac chamber over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A cardiac chamber is an enclosed cavity within the heart.
negative regulation of antigen processing and presentation of peptide or polysaccharide antigen via mhc class ii Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of antigen processing and presentation of antigen (peptide or polysaccharide) via MHC class II.
regulation of prostaglandin biosynthetic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of prostaglandin.
actin filament branching The formation of daughter actin filament branches at an angle on the sides of preexisting mother filaments.
protein repair The process of restoring a protein to its original state after damage by such things as oxidation or spontaneous decomposition of residues.
development of primary female sexual characteristics The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the primary female sexual characteristics over time, from their formation to the mature structure. The primary female sexual characteristics are the ovaries, and they develop in response to sex hormone secretion.
regulation of t cell antigen processing and presentation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of T cell antigen processing and presentation.
negative regulation of gene silencing by rna Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of gene silencing by RNA. Gene silencing by RNA is the process in which RNA molecules inactivate expression of target genes.
negative regulation of apoptotic process involved in metanephric collecting duct development Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of apoptotic process involved in metanephric collecting duct development.
amide transport The directed movement of an amide, any compound containing one, two, or three acyl groups attached to a nitrogen atom, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
negative regulation of protein ubiquitination involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein ubiquitination involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process.
nucleotide transport The directed movement of a nucleotide, any compound consisting of a nucleoside that is esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
circadian sleep/wake cycle, rem sleep A stage in the circadian sleep cycle during which dreams occur and the body undergoes marked changes including rapid eye movement, loss of reflexes, and increased pulse rate and brain activity.
regulation of cytokinesis Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell and its separation into two daughter cells.
rna interference The process in which double-stranded RNAs silence cognate genes. Involves posttranscriptional gene inactivation ('silencing') both of transgenes or dsRNA introduced into a germline, and of the host gene(s) homologous to the transgenes or dsRNA. This silencing is triggered by the introduction of transgenes or double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), and can occur through a specific decrease in the level of mRNA, or by negative regulation of translation, of both host genes and transgenes.
regulation of integrin-mediated signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of integrin-mediated signaling pathway.
regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved in prostate gland development Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of epithelial cell proliferation that contributes to the progression of the prostate gland over time.
progesterone metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving progesterone, a steroid hormone produced in the ovary which prepares and maintains the uterus for pregnancy. Also found in plants.
negative regulation of cardioblast cell fate specification Any process that restricts, stops or prevents a cell from specifying into a cardioblast. A cardioblast is a cardiac precursor cell. It is a cell that has been committed to a cardiac fate, but will undergo more cell division rather than terminally differentiating.
bleb assembly The assembly of a bleb, a cell extension characterized by rapid formation, rounded shape, and scarcity of organelles within the protrusions.
negative regulation of transcription from rna polymerase ii promoter Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
transformation of host cell by virus Any virus-induced change in the morphological, biochemical, or growth parameters of a cell.
positive regulation of macromolecule biosynthetic process Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a macromolecule, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.
positive regulation of protein kinase d signaling Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein kinase D signaling.
regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity.
trigeminal nerve development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the trigeminal nerve over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The trigeminal nerve is composed of three large branches. They are the ophthalmic (V1, sensory), maxillary (V2, sensory) and mandibular (V3, motor and sensory) branches. The sensory ophthalmic branch travels through the superior orbital fissure and passes through the orbit to reach the skin of the forehead and top of the head. The maxillary nerve contains sensory branches that reach the pterygopalatine fossa via the inferior orbital fissure (face, cheek and upper teeth) and pterygopalatine canal (soft and hard palate, nasal cavity and pharynx). The motor part of the mandibular branch is distributed to the muscles of mastication, the mylohyoid muscle and the anterior belly of the digastric. The mandibular nerve also innervates the tensor veli palatini and tensor tympani muscles. The sensory part of the mandibular nerve is composed of branches that carry general sensory information from the mucous membranes of the mouth and cheek, anterior two-thirds of the tongue, lower teeth, skin of the lower jaw, side of the head and scalp and meninges of the anterior and middle cranial fossae.
coagulation The process in which a fluid solution, or part of it, changes into a solid or semisolid mass.
monoubiquitinated protein deubiquitination The removal of the ubiquitin group from a monoubiquitinated protein.
mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization involved in programmed cell death The process by which the mitochondrial outer membrane becomes permeable to the passing of proteins and other molecules from the intermembrane space to the cytosol as part of a programmed cell death process.
peptidyl-glutamic acid carboxylation The gamma-carboxylation of peptidyl-glutamic acid; catalyzed by the vitamin K dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase.
bmp signaling pathway involved in heart induction A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of a member of the BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) family to a receptor on the surface of a target cell, which contributes to heart induction.
eye pigment granule organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of intracellular pigment storage granules in the eye.
positive regulation of lung goblet cell differentiation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of lung goblet cell differentiation.
cardiac septum development The progression of a cardiac septum over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure.
regulation of autophagic vacuole fusion Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of autophagic vacuole fusion.
pronephros development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pronephros over time, from its formation to the mature structure. In mammals, the pronephros is the first of the three embryonic kidneys to be established and exists only transiently. In lower vertebrates such as fish and amphibia, the pronephros is the fully functional embryonic kidney and is indispensable for larval life.
negative regulation of protein polyubiquitination Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein polyubiquitination.
cell cycle arrest A regulatory process that halts progression through the cell cycle during one of the normal phases (G1, S, G2, M).
regulation of interferon-gamma production Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of interferon-gamma production. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
polynucleotide 5' dephosphorylation The process of removing one or more phosphate groups from the 5' end of a polynucleotide.
synapse organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a synapse, the junction between a neuron and a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell).
response to dna damage checkpoint signaling A process that acts directly to delay or stop progression through the cell cycle in response to signals generated as a result of DNA damage checkpoint signaling; contributes to a DNA damage checkpoint.
relaxation of muscle A process in which the extent of muscle contraction is reduced. Muscle relaxation can involve a number of processes including the removal of calcium from the cytoplasm to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen through the action of Ca2+ ATPases. In some muscles, calcium-independent pathways also play a role in muscle relaxation by decreasing the phosphorylation state of myosin light chain.
mrna cleavage involved in gene silencing by sirna
negative regulation of cell proliferation involved in contact inhibition Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of cell proliferation in response to cell density.
follicular b cell differentiation The process in which a B cell in the spleen acquires the specialized features of a follicular B cell. Follicular B cells are major population of mature recirculating B cells in the spleen and are located in the B-cell follicle region.
positive regulation of pinocytosis Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of pinocytosis. Pinocytosis is the process in which cells take in liquid material from their external environment; literally 'cell drinking'. Liquid is enclosed in vesicles, formed by invagination of the plasma membrane. These vesicles then move into the cell and pass their contents to endosomes.
regulation of interleukin-3 biosynthetic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of interleukin-3.
positive regulation of toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of toll-like receptor 2 signaling pathway.
negative regulation of fat cell differentiation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of adipocyte differentiation.
notch receptor processing The series of successive proteolytic cleavages of the Notch protein, which result in an active form of the receptor.
regulation of glomerular mesangial cell proliferation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of glomerular mesangial cell proliferation.
selenocysteine incorporation The incorporation of selenocysteine into a peptide; uses a special tRNA that recognizes the UGA codon as selenocysteine, rather than as a termination codon. Selenocysteine is synthesized from serine before its incorporation; it is not a posttranslational modification of peptidyl-cysteine.
synaptic transmission, gabaergic The process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
intermediate filament cytoskeleton organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures comprising intermediate filaments and their associated proteins.
mitotic g2 dna damage checkpoint A mitotic cell cycle checkpoint that detects and negatively regulates progression through the G2/M transition of the cell cycle in response to DNA damage.
actomyosin structure organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures containing both actin and myosin or paramyosin. The myosin may be organized into filaments.
negative regulation of response to reactive oxygen species Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of response to reactive oxygen species.
negative regulation of cytokine production Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the rate of production of a cytokine.
response to temperature stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a temperature stimulus.
regulation of thymidylate synthase biosynthetic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of the enzyme thymidylate synthase.
regulation of root morphogenesis Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of root morphogenesis.
regulation of cell communication by chemical coupling Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell communication via chemical coupling. Cell communication by chemical coupling is the process that mediates signaling interactions between one cell and another cell by the transfer of small, water-soluble molecules or metabolites between their adjacent cytoplasms via intercellular protein channels.
diol biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a diol, any alcohol containing two hydroxyl groups attached to saturated carbon atoms.
cellular response to genistein Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a genistein stimulus.
organic substance biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of an organic substance, any molecular entity containing carbon.
negative regulation of cellular organohalogen metabolic process Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving organohalogen compounds, as carried out by individual cells.
potassium ion transport The directed movement of potassium ions (K+) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
neural plate morphogenesis The process in which the anatomical structures of the neural plate are generated and organized. The neural plate is a specialized region of columnar epithelial cells in the dorsal ectoderm that will give rise to nervous system tissue.
regulation of cellular senescence Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cellular senescence.
positive regulation of intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of any intracellular steroid hormone receptor signaling pathway.
negative regulation of cellular amine metabolic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving amines.
regulation of stat protein import into nucleus Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of STAT protein import into nucleus.
regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of an endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway.
maintenance of gastrointestinal epithelium Protection of epithelial surfaces of the gastrointestinal tract from proteolytic and caustic digestive agents.
ph reduction Any process that reduces the internal pH of an organism, part of an organism or a cell, measured by the concentration of the hydrogen ion.
negative regulation of binding of sperm to zona pellucida Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of binding of sperm to the zona pellucida.
female pregnancy The set of physiological processes that allow an embryo or foetus to develop within the body of a female animal. It covers the time from fertilization of a female ovum by a male spermatozoon until birth.
positive regulation of nuclear-transcribed mrna poly(a) tail shortening Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of poly(A) tail shortening of a nuclear-transcribed mRNA. Poly(A) tail shortening is the decrease in length of the poly(A) tail of an mRNA from full length to an oligo(A) length.
induction of negative chemotaxis Any process that initiates the directed movement of a motile cell or organism towards a lower concentration in a concentration gradient of a specific chemical.
peptidyl-cysteine s-trans-nitrosylation Transfer of a nitric oxide (NO) group from one cysteine residue to another.
positive regulation of sodium ion transmembrane transporter activity Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of sodium ion transmembrane transporter activity.
nuclear polyadenylation-dependent mrna catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways occurring in the nucleus and resulting in the breakdown of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, initiated by the enzymatic addition of a sequence of adenylyl residues (polyadenylation) at the 3' end the target mRNA.
establishment or maintenance of microtubule cytoskeleton polarity Any cellular process that results in the specification, formation or maintenance of polarized microtubule-based cytoskeletal structures.
nucleotide-sugar biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of nucleotide-sugars, any nucleotide in which the distal phosphoric residue of a nucleoside 5'-diphosphate is in glycosidic linkage with a monosaccharide or monosaccharide derivative.
adenine transport The directed movement of adenine, 6-aminopurine, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
chemokine (c-c motif) ligand 2 secretion The regulated release of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) from a cell.
nitrate transport The directed movement of nitrate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
cardiac muscle hypertrophy in response to stress The physiological enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of the heart muscle due to an increase in size (not length) of individual cardiac muscle fibers, without cell division, as a result of a disturbance in organismal or cellular homeostasis.
regulation of peptide transport Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of peptides, compounds of two or more amino acids where the alpha carboxyl group of one is bound to the alpha amino group of another, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
negative regulation of t cell receptor signaling pathway Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of signaling pathways initiated by the cross-linking of an antigen receptor on a T cell.
acylglycerol metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving acylglycerol, any mono-, di- or triester of glycerol with (one or more) fatty acids.
regulation of cardioblast differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cardioblast differentiation, the process in which a relatively unspecialized mesodermal cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardioblast. A cardioblast is a cardiac precursor cell. It is a cell that has been committed to a cardiac fate, but will undergo more cell division rather than terminally differentiating.
regulation of interleukin-15 production Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of interleukin-15 production.
regulation of lymphocyte chemotaxis Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of lymphocyte chemotaxis.
negative regulation of camp catabolic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of the nucleotide cAMP (cyclic AMP, adenosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate).
regulation of neurological system process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of a neurophysiological process, an organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of neurological system.
negative regulation of zinc ion transport Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of zinc ions (Zn2+) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
positive regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of interleukin-6.
positive regulation of myeloid leukocyte differentiation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of myeloid leukocyte differentiation.
ripoptosome assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a ripoptosome, a protein complex whose formation can induce an extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway or a necroptotic signaling pathway. The composition of this protein complex may depend on several factors including nature of the signal, cell type and more.
regulation of cellular extravasation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of cellular extravasation.
response to molecule of bacterial origin Any process that results in a change in state or activity of an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus by molecules of bacterial origin such as peptides derived from bacterial flagellin.
determination of left/right symmetry The establishment of an organism's body plan or part of an organism with respect to the left and right halves. The pattern can either be symmetric, such that the halves are mirror images, or asymmetric where the pattern deviates from this symmetry.
positive regulation by host of viral genome replication A process in which a host organism activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of viral genome replication.
positive regulation of histone modification Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the covalent alteration of a histone.
multicellular organismal reproductive process The process, occurring above the cellular level, that is pertinent to the reproductive function of a multicellular organism. This includes the integrated processes at the level of tissues and organs.
negative regulation of complement activation, lectin pathway Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the rate of complement activation by the lectin pathway.
positive regulation of plasminogen activation Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of plasminogen activation. Plasminogen activation is the process in which plasminogen is processed to plasmin.
regulation of root hair elongation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of root hair elongation.
microtubule anchoring Any process in which a microtubule is maintained in a specific location in a cell.
synaptic vesicle endocytosis An endocytosis process that results in the invagination of the axonal plasma membrane to create a membrane-bounded vesicle. This process takes up excess membrane that would otherwise accumulate at the presynaptic terminal due to fusion of vesicle membranes during neurotransmitter release. The vesicles created may subsequently be used for neurotransmitter storage and release.
regulation of dna recombination at telomere Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of DNA recombination within the telomere.
purine ribonucleoside triphosphate biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of purine ribonucleoside triphosphate, a compound consisting of a purine base linked to a ribose sugar esterified with triphosphate on the sugar.
regulation of ip-10 production Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of production of IP-10.
cellular response to estradiol stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of stimulus by estradiol, a C18 steroid hormone hydroxylated at C3 and C17 that acts as a potent estrogen.
neuropeptide signaling pathway The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a peptide neurotransmitter binding to a cell surface receptor.
response to defense-related host reactive oxygen species production Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of reactive oxygen species produced as part of the defense response of the host organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction.
multi-organism reproductive process A biological process that directly contributes to the process of producing new individuals, involving another organism.
histone h3-r26 methylation The modification of histone H3 by addition of a methyl group to arginine at position 26 of the histone.
integrin activation The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of an integrin, a heterodimeric adhesion receptor formed by the non-covalent association of particular alpha and beta subunits, that lead to the increased affinity of the integrin for its extracellular ligands.
t cell differentiation in thymus The process in which a precursor cell type acquires the specialized features of a T cell via a differentiation pathway dependent upon transit through the thymus.
deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a deoxyribonucleoside diphosphate, a compound consisting of a nucleobase linked to a deoxyribose sugar esterified with diphosphate on the sugar.
cerebral cortex tangential migration using cell-axon interactions The movement of cerebral cortex neuronal precursors tangentially through the cortex using interaction of the migrating cells with axons of other neurons.
positive regulation of cholesterol esterification Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of cholesterol esterification. Cholesterol esterification is the lipid modification process in which a sterol ester is formed by the combination of a carboxylic acid (often a fatty acid) and cholesterol. In the blood this process is associated with the conversion of free cholesterol into cholesteryl ester, which is then sequestered into the core of a lipoprotein particle.
positive regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of luteinizing hormone.
mitochondrial fission The division of a mitochondrion within a cell to form two or more separate mitochondrial compartments.
negative regulation of b cell activation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of B cell activation.
negative regulation of catenin import into nucleus Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of the directed movement of a catenin protein from the cytoplasm into the nucleus.
regulation of protein processing Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of protein processing, any protein maturation process achieved by the cleavage of a peptide bond or bonds within a protein.
drug transmembrane transport The process in which a drug is transported from one side of a membrane to the other by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
transcytosis The directed movement of endocytosed material through the cell and its exocytosis from the plasma membrane at the opposite side.
9-cis-retinoic acid biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of 9-cis-retinoic acid, a metabolically active vitamin A derivative.
histone-threonine phosphorylation The modification of histones by addition of a phosphate group to a threonine residue.
regulation of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of heterotypic cell-cell adhesion.
metanephric mesenchymal cell migration The orderly movement of undifferentiated metanephric mesenchymal cells (precursors to metanephric mesangial cells) from the mesenchyme into the cleft of the developing glomerulus, during development of the metanephros.
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic signaling pathway Any process that initiates the activity of an inactive cysteine-type endopeptidase involved in the apoptotic signaling pathway.
response to muscle stretch Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a myofibril being extended beyond its slack length.
thyroid hormone catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of any of the compounds secreted by the thyroid gland, largely thyroxine and triiodothyronine.
modulation by virus of host immune response The process in which a virus effects a change in the host immune response.
positive regulation of oxidative stress-induced neuron intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of oxidative stress-induced neuron intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway.
response to acid chemical Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus by the chemical structure of the anion portion of a dissociated acid (rather than the acid acting as a proton donor). The acid chemical may be in gaseous, liquid or solid form.
regulation of neutrophil extravasation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of neutrophil extravasation.
pyrimidine nucleotide transport The directed movement of a pyrimidine nucleotide, any compound consisting of a pyrimidine nucleoside esterified with (ortho)phosphate, into, out of or within a cell.
uterine epithelium development The progression of an epithelium of the uterus over time from its initial formation to the mature structure. An epithelium is a tissue that covers the internal or external surfaces of an anatomical structure.
dna dealkylation The removal of an alkyl group from one or more nucleotides within an DNA molecule.
negative regulation of telomere maintenance via telomerase Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of telomeric repeats by telomerase.
pyramidal neuron development The progression of a pyramidal neuron from its initial formation to its mature state.
negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase by cyclin degradation The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of cyclins, proteins whose levels in a cell varies markedly during the cell cycle, and which play key roles in regulating cell cycle phase transitions via the negative regulation of a cyclin-dependent kinase.
response to l-glutamate Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an L-glutamate stimulus.
neurological system process A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of neurological system.
limb joint morphogenesis The process in which the anatomical structures of a limb joint are generated and organized. A limb joint is a flexible region that separates the rigid sections of a limb to allow movement in a controlled manner.
negative regulation of dna catabolic process Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of DNA catabolic process.
regulation of synaptic vesicle recycling Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic vesicle recycling.
inositol biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-cyclohexanehexol, a growth factor for animals and microorganisms.
positive regulation of sodium ion transmembrane transport Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of sodium ion transmembrane transport.
positive regulation of inclusion body assembly Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of inclusion body assembly. Inclusion body assembly is the aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form an inclusion body.
acylglycerol homeostasis Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of acylglycerol within an organism or cell.
n-terminal peptidyl-glycine n-myristoylation The myristoylation of the N-terminal glycine of proteins to form the derivative N-myristoyl-glycine.
ump metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving UMP, uridine monophosphate.
post-embryonic eye morphogenesis The process, occurring after embryonic development, by which the anatomical structures of the eye are generated and organized. The eye is the organ of sight.
negative regulation of urine volume Any process that decreases the amount of urine excreted from the body over a unit of time.
positive regulation of progesterone secretion Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of progesterone secretion.
drug transport The directed movement of a drug, a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
interleukin-1 biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of interleukin-1, an interleukin produced mainly by activated macrophages. It is involved in the inflammatory response, and is identified as an endogenous pyrogen.
endosome to lysosome transport via multivesicular body sorting pathway The directed movement of substances from endosomes to lysosomes by a pathway in which molecules are sorted into multivesicular bodies, which then fuse with the lysosome.
negative regulation of neurological system process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a neurophysiological process.
regulation of transposition Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transposition. Transposition results in the movement of discrete segments of DNA between nonhomologous sites.
adrenal cortex formation The process that gives rise to the adrenal cortex. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts. The adrenogonadal primordium from which the adrenal cortex is formed derives from a condensation of coelomic epithelial cells (the urogenital ridge; the same structure from which gonads and kidney also originate).
nucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a nucleoside monophosphate, a compound consisting of a nucleobase linked to a deoxyribose or ribose sugar esterified with phosphate on the sugar.
retinol metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving retinol, one of the three compounds that makes up vitamin A.
negative regulation of dephosphorylation Any process the stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of removal of phosphate groups from a molecule.
negative regulation of centriole replication Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of centriole replication.
regulation of protein glycosylation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of protein glycosylation. Protein glycosylation is the addition of a carbohydrate or carbohydrate derivative unit to a protein amino acid, e.g. the addition of glycan chains to proteins.
transition metal ion homeostasis Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of transition metal ions within an organism or cell. A transition metal is an element whose atom has an incomplete d-subshell of extranuclear electrons, or which gives rise to a cation or cations with an incomplete d-subshell. Transition metals often have more than one valency state. Biologically relevant transition metals include vanadium, manganese, iron, copper, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum and silver.
vitamin a import The directed movement of vitamin A into a cell or organelle. Vitamin A is any of several retinoid derivatives of beta-carotene, primarily retinol, retinal, or retinoic acid.
prostate gland stromal morphogenesis The process in which the prostate gland stroma is generated and organized. The prostate gland stroma is made up of the mesenchymal or fibroblast cells of the prostate gland.
calcium activated phospholipid scrambling The movement of a population of phospholipid molecules from one leaflet of the plasma membrane bilayer to the opposite leaflet as a result of a calcium stimulus.
positive regulation of synapse maturation Any process that increases the extent of synapse maturation, the process that organizes a synapse so that it attains its fully functional state.
regulation of blood microparticle formation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of blood microparticle formation.
cell-cell junction assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a junction between cells.
positive regulation of chemokine (c-x-c motif) ligand 2 production Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 production.
microtubule severing The process in which a microtubule is broken down into smaller segments.
positive regulation of dopamine receptor signaling pathway Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the dopamine receptor protein signaling pathway. A dopamine receptor signaling pathway is the series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a dopamine receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands.
sperm entry An endocytosis process that results in penetration of the egg shell through the micropyle (a specialized anterior opening in the vitelline envelope) and entry of the entire sperm, including the surrounding plasma membrane and the sperm tail, into the egg cytoplasm. This step in fertilization is seen in Drosophila, where a plasma membrane fusion event between the sperm and the egg does not occur.
synaptic vesicle maturation Steps required to form an initiated synaptic vesicle into a fully formed and transmissible synaptic vesicle.
fertilization, exchange of chromosomal proteins Replacement of sperm-specific chromosomal proteins with somatic histones, to allow the paternal genome to acquire a nucleosomal chromatin organization compatible with nuclear activity.
cellular response to oleic acid Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an oleic acid stimulus.
reproductive system development The progression of the reproductive system over time from its formation to the mature structure. The reproductive system consists of the organs that function in reproduction.
mature ribosome assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of the large and small ribosomal subunits into a functional ribosome.
sialylation The covalent attachment of sialic acid to a substrate molecule.
hematopoietic stem cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a hematopoietic stem cell. A stem cell is a cell that retains the ability to divide and proliferate throughout life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
purine nucleoside bisphosphate catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a purine nucleoside bisphosphate, a compound consisting of a purine base linked to a deoxyribose or ribose sugar esterified with one phosphate group attached to each of two different hydroxyl groups on the sugar.
entry into cell of other organism involved in symbiotic interaction The invasion by an organism of a cell of a second organism, where the two organisms are in a symbiotic interaction.
positive regulation of heart rate by epinephrine The process in which the secretion of epinephrine into the bloodstream or released from nerve endings increases the rate of heart muscle contraction.
methyl-branched fatty acid metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving methyl-branched fatty acids, aliphatic monocarboxylic acids with methyl branches on the main chain.
viral penetration into host nucleus The crossing by the virus of the host nuclear membrane, either as naked viral genome or for small viruses as an intact capsid.
mature natural killer cell chemotaxis The directed movement of a mature natural killer cell guided by a specific chemical concentration gradient. Movement may be towards a higher concentration (positive chemotaxis) or towards a lower concentration (negative chemotaxis). A mature natural killer cell is a natural killer cell that is developmentally mature and expresses a variety of inhibitory and activating receptors that recognize MHC class and other stress related molecules.
leukocyte chemotaxis involved in inflammatory response The movement of an immune cell in response to an external stimulus contributing to an inflammatory response.
regulation of sodium ion transmembrane transport Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of sodium ion transmembrane transport.
negative regulation of transporter activity Any process that stops or reduces the activity of a transporter.
regulation of corticosterone secretion Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of corticosterone secretion.
small molecule catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of small molecules, any low molecular weight, monomeric, non-encoded molecule.
carbohydrate derivative transport The directed movement of a carbohydrate derivative into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
positive regulation of nodal signaling pathway involved in determination of lateral mesoderm left/right asymmetry Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of nodal signaling pathway involved in determination of lateral mesoderm left/right asymmetry.
b cell negative selection Any process leading to negative selection in B cells. Mechanisms of negative selection include anergy and deletion.
synaptonemal complex assembly The cell cycle process in which the synaptonemal complex is formed. This is a structure that holds paired chromosomes together during prophase I of meiosis and that promotes genetic recombination.
cerebellar cortex structural organization The process that contributes to the act of creating the structural organization of the cerebellar cortex. This process pertains to the physical shaping of a rudimentary structure. The cerebellar cortex is a thin mantle of gray matter that covers the surface of each cerebral hemisphere. It has a characteristic morphology with convolutions (gyri) and crevices (sulci) that have specific functions. Six layers of nerve cells and the nerve pathways that connect them comprise the cerebellar cortex. Together, these regions are responsible for the processes of conscious thought, perception, emotion and memory as well as advanced motor function.
regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process Any process that modulates the activity of a cysteine-type endopeptidase involved in apoptosis.
negative regulation of t-helper 1 cell differentiation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of T-helper 1 cell differentiation.
oocyte maturation A developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for an oocyte to attain its fully functional state. Oocyte maturation commences after reinitiation of meiosis commonly starting with germinal vesicle breakdown, and continues up to the second meiotic arrest prior to fertilization.
modulation by symbiont of host immune response Any process in which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the immune response of the host organism; the immune response is any immune system process that functions in the calibrated response of an organism to a potential internal or invasive threat. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction.
negative regulation of glycolytic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glycolysis.
negative regulation of cellular response to oxidative stress Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to oxidative stress.
pyrimidine ribonucleoside triphosphate metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving pyrimidine ribonucleoside triphosphate, a compound consisting of a pyrimidine base linked to a ribose sugar esterified with triphosphate on the sugar.
golgi to plasma membrane transport The directed movement of substances from the Golgi to the plasma membrane in transport vesicles that move from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane, where they fuse and release their contents by exocytosis.
cardiac cell fate determination The process involved in cardiac cell fate commitment. Once determination has taken place, a cell becomes committed to differentiate down a particular pathway regardless of its environment.
isoprenoid metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving isoprenoid compounds, isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3-diene) or compounds containing or derived from linked isoprene (3-methyl-2-butenylene) residues.
response to triacyl bacterial lipopeptide Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a triacylated bacterial lipopeptide stimulus.
udp-n-acetylglucosamine catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, a substance composed of N-acetylglucosamine, a common structural unit of oligosaccharides, in glycosidic linkage with uridine diphosphate.
positive regulation of dna recombination Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of DNA recombination.
cellular chemical homeostasis Any biological process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of a chemical at the level of the cell.
positive regulation of mitotic sister chromatid separation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mitotic sister chromatid separation.
endosome to pigment granule transport The directed movement of substances from endosomes to pigment granules.
positive regulation of endopeptidase activity Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of endopeptidase activity, the endohydrolysis of peptide bonds within proteins.
erbb2 signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a ligand to a member of the ERBB family of receptors on the surface of a cell, where the signal is transmitted by ERBB2. The pathway ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. ERBB2 receptors are themselves unable to bind to ligands, but act as a signal-amplifying tyrosine kinase within a heterodimeric pair.
regulation of mitotic nuclear division
hyaluronan catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of hyaluronan, the naturally occurring anionic form of hyaluronic acid, any member of a group of glycosaminoglycans, the repeat units of which consist of beta-1,4 linked D-glucuronyl-beta-(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.
nitric oxide metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving nitric oxide, nitrogen monoxide (NO), a colorless gas only slightly soluble in water.
ovulation cycle process A process involved in the sexual cycle seen in females, often with physiologic changes in the endometrium that recur at regular intervals during the reproductive years.
lysosome organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a lysosome. A lysosome is a cytoplasmic, membrane-bounded organelle that is found in most animal cells and that contains a variety of hydrolases.
regulation of t-helper 1 cell cytokine production Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of T-helper 1 cell cytokine production.
positive regulation of homocysteine metabolic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving homocysteine.
positive regulation of interferon-gamma production Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of interferon-gamma production. Interferon-gamma is also known as type II interferon.
cerebellar granular layer development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cerebellar granule layer over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The granular layer is the innermost layer of the cerebellar cortex. This layer contains densely packed small neurons, mostly granule cells. Some Golgi cells are found at the outer border. Granule neurons send parallel fibers to the upper molecular layer, where they synapse with Purkinje cell dendrites. Mossy fibers from the pontine nuclei in the white matter synapse with granule cell axons, Golgi cell axons and unipolar brush interneuron axons at cerebellar glomeruli in the granule cell layer.
regulation of very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling. Very-low-density lipoprotein particle remodeling is the acquisition, loss or modification of a protein or lipid within a very-low-density lipoprotein particle, including the hydrolysis of triglyceride by hepatic lipase or lipoprotein lipase and the subsequent loss of free fatty acid.
negative regulation of neurotransmitter transport Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a neurotransmitter into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
purine nucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of purine nucleoside monophosphate, a compound consisting of a purine base linked to a ribose or deoxyribose sugar esterified with phosphate on the sugar.
positive regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway.
endochondral ossification Replacement ossification wherein bone tissue replaces cartilage.
glutathione catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of glutathione, the tripeptide glutamylcysteinylglycine, which acts as a coenzyme for some enzymes and as an antioxidant in the protection of sulfhydryl groups in enzymes and other proteins.
positive regulation of transcription from rna polymerase ii promoter involved in smooth muscle cell differentiation Any positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter that is involved in smooth muscle cell differentiation.
regulation of maintenance of mitotic sister chromatid cohesion Any process that modulates the extent to which the association between sister chromatids of a replicated chromosome is maintained during a mitotic cell cycle.
cytokine production involved in immune response The appearance of a cytokine due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus contributing to an immune response, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels.
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 signaling pathway Any series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of an extracellular ligand to a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) located on the surface of the receiving cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
regulation of leukocyte cell-cell adhesion Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of leukocyte cell-cell adhesion.
trna thio-modification The addition a sulfur atom to a nucleotide in a tRNA molecule.
regulation of hair cycle by canonical wnt signaling pathway The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell, followed by propagation of the signal via beta-catenin, and ending with a change in transcription of target genes that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of the hair cycle.
maintenance of lens transparency A homeostatic process in which the lens is maintained in a highly refractive, transparent state to allow for optimal focusing of light on the retina.
positive regulation of cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity, the catalysis of the reaction: nucleotide 3',5'-cyclic phosphate + H2O = nucleotide 5'-phosphate.
regulation of cytoplasmic transport Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cytoplasmic transport.
regulation of protein metabolic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving a protein.
siderophore transport The directed movement of siderophores, low molecular weight Fe(III)-chelating substances, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
regulation of dendrite morphogenesis Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of dendrite morphogenesis.
meiotic chromosome condensation Compaction of chromatin structure prior to meiosis in eukaryotic cells.
positive regulation of leukocyte chemotaxis Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of leukocyte chemotaxis.
renin secretion into blood stream The regulated release of renin into the blood stream by juxtoglomerular cells.
negative regulation of cgmp metabolic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving cGMP.
soft palate development The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of the soft palate from an initial condition to its mature state. This process begins with the formation of the structure and ends with the mature structure, whatever form that may be including its natural destruction. The soft palate is the posterior portion of the palate extending from the posterior edge of the hard palate.
threonine catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of threonine (2-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid), a polar, uncharged, essential amino acid found in peptide linkage in proteins.
retinoic acid metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving retinoic acid, one of the three components that makes up vitamin A.
response to host immune response Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of detecting the immune response of the host organism. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction.
branch elongation involved in ureteric bud branching The growth of a branch of the ureteric bud along its axis.
positive regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis, the process in which the branching structure of the ureteric bud is generated and organized. The ureteric bud is an epithelial tube that grows out from the metanephric duct. The bud elongates and branches to give rise to the ureter and kidney collecting tubules.
negative regulation of interferon-gamma biosynthetic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of interferon-gamma.
positive regulation of stem cell maintenance Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of stem cell maintenance.
positive regulation of epithelial cell migration Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial cell migration.
aldonic acid metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving aldonic acid, a monocarboxylic acid with a chain of three or more carbon atoms, derived from an aldose by oxidation of the aldehydic group.
cellular response to reactive oxygen species Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a reactive oxygen species stimulus. Reactive oxygen species include singlet oxygen, superoxide, and oxygen free radicals.
positive regulation of cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell morphogenesis contributing to cell differentiation. Cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation is the change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs when relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism's life history.
protein localization to tight junction A process in which a protein is transported to, or maintained in, a location within a tight junction.
carbohydrate biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.
establishment of blood-brain barrier Establishment of the barrier between the blood and the brain. The cells in the brain are packed tightly together preventing the passage of most molecules from the blood into the brain. Only lipid soluble molecules or those that are actively transported can pass through the blood-brain barrier.
regulation of lipid transport Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of lipids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
homocysteine biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of homocysteine, 2-amino-4-sulfanylbutanoic acid.
regulation of immune effector process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of an immune effector process.
telencephalon glial cell migration The orderly movement of glial cells through the telencephalon.
sphingomyelin metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving sphingomyelin, N-acyl-4-sphingenyl-1-O-phosphorylcholine, any of a class of phospholipids in which the amino group of sphingosine is in amide linkage with one of several fatty acids, while the terminal hydroxyl group of sphingosine is esterified to phosphorylcholine.
cellular metal ion homeostasis Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of metal ions at the level of a cell.
response to tumor necrosis factor Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a tumor necrosis factor stimulus.
positive regulation of endocytic recycling Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of endocytic recycling.
cellular response to temperature stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a temperature stimulus.
regulation of cellular glucuronidation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cellular glucuronidation.
actin rod assembly The assembly of actin rods, a cellular structure consisting of parallel, hexagonally arranged actin tubules.
sperm capacitation A process required for sperm to reach fertilization competence. Sperm undergo an incompletely understood series of morphological and molecular maturational processes, termed capacitation, involving, among other processes, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and increased intracellular calcium.
cellular response to jasmonic acid stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a jasmonic acid stimulus.
udp-glucosylation The covalent attachment of a UDP-glucose residue to a substrate molecule.
positive regulation of b cell proliferation Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of B cell proliferation.
positive regulation of superoxide dismutase activity Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of superoxide dismutase activity.
negative regulation of cyclase activity Any process that stops or reduces the activity of a cyclase.
cervix development The reproductive developmental process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cervix over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
contact inhibition The cellular process in which cells stop growing or dividing in response to increased cell density.
thiocyanate metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving thiocyanate, the anion of thiocyanic acid, a toxic cyanide derivative commonly formed as a by-product in the production of gas for fuel, coke, and substances for chemical industries.
negative regulation of bmp signaling pathway Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the BMP signaling pathway.
lipoprotein metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving any conjugated, water-soluble protein in which the nonprotein group consists of a lipid or lipids.
regulation of leukocyte apoptotic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of leukocyte apoptotic process.
cellular hyperosmotic salinity response Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of detection of, or exposure to, an increase in the concentration of salt (particularly but not exclusively sodium and chloride ions) in the environment.
positive regulation of synaptic growth at neuromuscular junction Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic growth at neuromuscular junction.
regulation of apolipoprotein binding Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of apolipoprotein binding.
respiratory tube development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the respiratory tube over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The respiratory tube is assumed to mean any tube in the respiratory tract.
endonucleolytic cleavage to generate mature 3'-end of ssu-rrna from (ssu-rrna, 5.8s rrna, lsu-rrna) Endonucleolytic cleavage at the 3'-end of the SSU-rRNA from an originally tricistronic rRNA transcript that contained the Small Subunit (SSU) rRNA, the 5.8S rRNA, and the Large Subunit (LSU) rRNA in that order from 5' to 3' along the primary transcript, to produce the mature end of the SSU-rRNA.
chondrocyte proliferation The multiplication or reproduction of chondrocytes by cell division, resulting in the expansion of their population. A chondrocyte is a polymorphic cell that forms cartilage.
establishment of meiotic spindle localization The cell cycle process in which the directed movement of the meiotic spindle to a specific location in the cell occurs.
canonical wnt signaling pathway involved in cardiac muscle cell fate commitment The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell, followed by propagation of the signal via beta-catenin, and ending with a change in transcription of target genes. In this pathway, the activated receptor signals via downstream effectors that result in the inhibition of beta-catenin phosphorylation, thereby preventing degradation of beta-catenin and contributing to cardiac muscle cell fate commitment. Stabilized beta-catenin can then accumulate and travel to the nucleus to trigger changes in transcription of target genes.
cellular amine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving any organic compound that is weakly basic in character and contains an amino or a substituted amino group, as carried out by individual cells. Amines are called primary, secondary, or tertiary according to whether one, two, or three carbon atoms are attached to the nitrogen atom.
misfolded or incompletely synthesized protein catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of misfolded or attenuated proteins.
eye photoreceptor cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a photoreceptor cell, as found in the eye, the primary visual organ of most organisms.
rna phosphodiester bond hydrolysis, endonucleolytic The chemical reactions and pathways involving the hydrolysis of internal 3',5'-phosphodiester bonds in one or two strands of ribonucleotides.
aminophospholipid transport The directed movement of aminophospholipids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Aminophospholipids contain phosphoric acid as a mono- or diester and an amino (NH2) group.
cofactor catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a cofactor, a substance that is required for the activity of an enzyme or other protein.
histamine-induced gastric acid secretion The regulated release of gastric acid induced by the interaction of histamine with H2 type receptor receptors with subsequent activation of adenylate cyclase and elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP.
amacrine cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an amacrine cell, an interneuron generated in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the vertebrate retina. Amacrine cells integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the retinal ganglion cells, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer. Amacrine cells lack large axons.
regulation of steroid metabolic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving steroids.
regulation of viral budding via host escrt complex
hematopoietic stem cell migration to bone marrow The orderly movement of a hematopoietic stem cell into the bone marrow, and its subsequent positioning within defined functional compartments in that microenvironment. A hematopoietic stem cell is a cell from which all cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages develop, including blood cells and cells of the immune system.
lateral inhibition Signaling between cells of equivalent developmental potential that results in these cells adopting different developmental fates. An example is the suppression by cells with a particular fate of the adoption of the same fate by surrounding cells.
positive regulation of vesicle fusion Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of vesicle fusion.
protein modification by small protein conjugation A protein modification process in which one or more groups of a small protein, such as ubiquitin or a ubiquitin-like protein, are covalently attached to a target protein.
somatic diversification of immunoglobulins involved in immune response The somatic process that results in the generation of sequence diversity of immunoglobulins after induction, and contributes to an immune response.
protein retention in er lumen The retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen of soluble resident proteins. Sorting receptors retrieve proteins with ER localization signals, such as KDEL and HDEL sequences or some transmembrane domains, that have escaped to the cis-Golgi network and return them to the ER. Abnormally folded proteins and unassembled subunits are also selectively retained in the ER.
pigment biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a pigment, any general or particular coloring matter in living organisms, e.g. melanin.
semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway involved in bone trabecula morphogenesis Any semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway that contributes to bone trabecula morphogenesis.
negative regulation of production of sirna involved in rna interference Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of production of siRNA involved in RNA interference.
cellular response to vitamin Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a vitamin stimulus.
igg immunoglobulin transcytosis in epithelial cells mediated by fcrn immunoglobulin receptor The process of transporting IgG immunoglobulin, via transcytosis using the FcRn (also known as the neonatal Fc receptor; gene name FCGRT), from apical surface of an epithelial cell to the basolateral surface or vice versa depending on the location. This process is used for uptake of IgG from the milk in the gut in rodents, for transplacental transport of IgG from mother to embryo in humans, and for maintenance of a steady-state distribution of IgG across epithelial boundaries in general in adult mammals.
cellular response to cytokine stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a cytokine stimulus.
rhombomere development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the rhombomere over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Rhombomeres are transverse segments of the developing rhombencephalon. Rhombomeres are lineage restricted, express different genes from one another, and adopt different developmental fates.
propionate catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of propionate, the anion derived from propionic acid.
regulation of anagen Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of anagen, the growth phase of the hair cycle.
regulation of deoxyribonuclease activity Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of deoxyribonuclease activity, the hydrolysis of ester linkages within deoxyribonucleic acid.
type i pneumocyte differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a Type I pneumocyte. A type I pneumocyte is a flattened cell with greatly attenuated cytoplasm and a paucity of organelles.
regulation of ruffle assembly Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of ruffle assembly.
outer mitochondrial membrane organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the mitochondrial outer membrane.
nucleoside metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving a nucleoside, a nucleobase linked to either beta-D-ribofuranose (a ribonucleoside) or 2-deoxy-beta-D-ribofuranose, (a deoxyribonucleoside), e.g. adenosine, guanosine, inosine, cytidine, uridine and deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine (= deoxythymidine).
regulation of n-methyl-d-aspartate selective glutamate receptor activity Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of N-methyl-D-aspartate selective glutamate receptor activity.
g1 to g0 transition A cell cycle arrest process that results in arrest during G1 phase, whereupon the cell enters a specialized resting state known as G0 or quiescence.
peptidyl-methionine modification The modification of peptidyl-methionine.
diadenosine polyphosphate biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of diadenosine polyphosphate, a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine with phosphate groups attached.
fad biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of FAD, the oxidized form of flavin-adenine dinucleotide.
positive regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of corticotropin-releasing hormone from a cell.
positive regulation of pancreatic stellate cell proliferation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of pancreatic stellate cell proliferation.
regulation of viral-induced cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a virus or viral RNA binding to a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) located in the cytoplasm.
negative regulation of osteoblast differentiation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of osteoblast differentiation.
mesonephric epithelium development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an epithelium in the mesonephros over time, from its formation to the mature structure. An epithelium is a tissue that covers the internal or external surfaces of an anatomical structure.
modulation of phagocytosis in other organism involved in symbiotic interaction Any process in which an organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of phagocytosis, the engulfing by phagocytes of external particulate material, in a second organism, where the two organisms are in a symbiotic interaction.
positive regulation of mesodermal cell fate specification Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mesoderm cell fate specification.
negative regulation of dna-templated transcription, initiation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of DNA-templated transcription initiation.
icosanoid transport The directed movement of icosanoids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Icosanoids are unsaturated C20 fatty acids and skeletally related compounds.
fucosylation The covalent attachment of a fucosyl group to an acceptor molecule.
metanephric s-shaped body morphogenesis The process in which the metanephric S-shaped body is generated and organized. The metanephric S-shaped body is the successor of the metanephric comma-shaped body that contributes to the morphogenesis of a nephron in the metanephros.
muscle structure development The progression of a muscle structure over time, from its formation to its mature state. Muscle structures are contractile cells, tissues or organs that are found in multicellular organisms.
pigment granule maturation Steps required to form a membrane-bounded organelle into a pigment granule containing pigment. Maturation is a developmental process, independent of morphogenetic (shape) change, that is required for a cell or structure to attain its fully functional state.
semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway A series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a semaphorin receptor (composed of a plexin and a neurophilin) binding to a semaphorin ligand.
negative regulation of purine nucleotide catabolic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of purine nucleotides.
2'-deoxyribonucleotide metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving a 2'-deoxyribonucleotide, a compound consisting of 2'-deoxyribonucleoside (a base linked to a 2'-deoxyribose sugar) esterified with a phosphate group at either the 3' or 5'-hydroxyl group of the sugar.
complement activation, classical pathway Any process involved in the activation of any of the steps of the classical pathway of the complement cascade which allows for the direct killing of microbes, the disposal of immune complexes, and the regulation of other immune processes.
positive regulation of tolerance induction dependent upon immune response Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of tolerance induction dependent upon immune response.
negative regulation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.
toll signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of an extracellular ligand to the receptor Toll on the surface of a target cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
spermatid nucleus differentiation The specialization of the spermatid nucleus during the development of a spermatid into a mature male gamete competent for fertilization.
hepoxilin metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving hepoxilins, a class of bioactive icosanoids with roles in the regulation of cell physiology.
trna nucleoside ribose methylation The process that results in the modification of the sugar of a nucleoside in tRNA at the 2'O position.
positive regulation of muscle organ development Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of muscle development.
vitamin d3 metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving vitamin D3, (3S,5Z,7E)-9,10-secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-trien-3-ol.
phosphatidylserine catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of phosphatidylserines, any of a class of glycerophospholipids in which the phosphatidyl group is esterified to the hydroxyl group of L-serine.
negative regulation of dna biosynthetic process Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of DNA biosynthetic process.
positive regulation of calcium ion-dependent exocytosis Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of calcium ion-dependent exocytosis.
positive regulation of developmental growth Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of developmental growth.
positive regulation of sarcomere organization Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent myofibril assembly by organization of muscle actomyosin into sarcomeres. The sarcomere is the repeating unit of a myofibril in a muscle cell, composed of an array of overlapping thick and thin filaments between two adjacent Z discs.
negative regulation of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity involved in g1/s transition of mitotic cell cycle Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cyclin-dependent protein serine/threonine kinase activity contributing to the G1/S transition of the cell cycle.
toll-like receptor tlr1:tlr2 signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of a heterodimeric TLR1:TLR2 complex to one of it's physiological ligands, followed by transmission of the signal by the activated receptor, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
sperm motility Any process involved in the controlled movement of a sperm cell.
testosterone biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of testosterone, an androgen having 17beta-hydroxy and 3-oxo groups, together with unsaturation at C-4 C-5.
positive regulation of nk t cell activation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of natural killer T cell activation.
negative regulation of intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the activity of an intracellular estrogen receptor signaling pathway.
luteinization The set of processes resulting in differentiation of theca and granulosa cells into luteal cells and in the formation of a corpus luteum after ovulation.
nuclear-transcribed mrna catabolic process, deadenylation-dependent decay A major pathway of degradation of nuclear-transcribed mRNAs that proceeds through a series of ordered steps that includes poly(A) tail shortening and that can regulate mRNA stability.
tnfsf11-mediated signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11 (TNFSF11) to a receptor on the surface of a cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
dna recombinase assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of strand exchange proteins (recombinases) into higher order oligomers on single-stranded DNA.
wnt signaling pathway, calcium modulating pathway The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a receptor on the surface of the target cell where activated receptors leads to an increase in intracellular calcium and activation of protein kinase C (PKC).
negative regulation of late endosome to lysosome transport Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of late endosome to lysosome transport.
regulation of nucleotide biosynthetic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of nucleotides.
negative regulation of phospholipid metabolic process Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of phospholipid metabolic process.
regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process involved in metanephric nephron morphogenesis Any process that modulates the occurrence or rate of mesenchymal stem cell death by apoptotic process that contributes to the shaping of the nephron in the metanephros.
regulation of interferon-beta biosynthetic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of interferon-beta.
regulation of long term synaptic depression Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of long term synaptic depression.
leucine import The directed movement of leucine into a cell or organelle.
regulation of lipid binding Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of lipid binding.
glutathione transport The directed movement of glutathione, the tripeptide glutamylcysteinylglycine, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
regulation of insulin secretion involved in cellular response to glucose stimulus Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of insulin that contributes to the response of a cell to glucose.
odontoblast differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell of neural crest origin acquires the specialized features of an odontoblast, a cell on the outer surface of the dental pulp whose biological function is the creation of dentin.
evasion or tolerance of host immune response Any process, either active or passive, by which an organism avoids the effects of the host organism's immune response. The host is defined as the larger of the organisms involved in a symbiotic interaction.
positive regulation of cholesterol transport Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of cholesterol into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
positive regulation of actin nucleation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of actin nucleation, the initial step in the formation of an actin filament in which actin monomers combine to form a new filament.
cellular response to molecule of bacterial origin Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus by molecules of bacterial origin such as peptides derived from bacterial flagellin.
regulation of wnt signaling pathway involved in dorsal/ventral axis specification Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of Wnt signaling pathway involved in dorsal/ventral axis specification.
protein-dna complex assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of proteins and DNA molecules to form a protein-DNA complex.
detection of light stimulus involved in sensory perception The series of events in which a light stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal as part of the sensory perception of light.
negative regulation of apoptotic process in bone marrow Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the occurrence or rate of cell death by apoptotic process in the bone marrow.
cellular response to unfolded protein Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an unfolded protein stimulus.
leukocyte mediated cytotoxicity The directed killing of a target cell by a leukocyte.
histone h3-k9 methylation The modification of histone H3 by addition of a methyl group to lysine at position 9 of the histone.
maintenance of organ identity The process in which the identity of an organ is maintained. Identity is considered to be the aggregate of characteristics by which a structure is recognized.
regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process.
dichotomous subdivision of terminal units involved in lung branching The process in which a lung bud bifurcates.
regulation of mitotic spindle checkpoint Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of mitotic spindle checkpoint.
regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of stat protein Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the introduction of a phosphate group to a tyrosine residue of a STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) protein.
secretion of lysosomal enzymes The controlled release of lysosomal enzymes by a cell.
phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, a phosphatidylinositol monophosphate carrying the phosphate group at the 3-position.
drug export The directed movement of a drug, a substance used in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a disease, out of a cell or organelle.
positive regulation of multi-organism process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of a multi-organism process, a process in which an organism has an effect on another organism of the same or different species.
regulation of cardiac muscle fiber development Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle fiber development.
positive regulation of type iv hypersensitivity Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of type IV hypersensitivity, a type of inflammatory response.
positive regulation of translational initiation in response to stress Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of translation initiation as a result of a stimulus indicating the organism is under stress.
methylation-dependent chromatin silencing Repression of transcription by methylation of DNA, leading to the formation of heterochromatin.
ammon gyrus development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the ammon gyrus over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The ammon gyrus, often subdivided into the CA1 and CA3 regions, is one of the two interlocking gyri of the hippocampus that is rich in large pyramidal neurons.
tyrosine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving tyrosine, an aromatic amino acid, 2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid.
malonyl-coa metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving malonyl-CoA, the S-malonyl derivative of coenzyme A.
glucosylceramide metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving glucosylceramides, any compound formed by the replacement of the glycosidic hydroxyl group of a cyclic form of glucose by a ceramide group. They are neutral glycolipids containing equimolar amounts of fatty acid, glucose, and sphingosine or a sphingosine derivative.
response to food Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a food stimulus; food is anything which, when taken into the body, serves to nourish or build up the tissues or to supply body heat.
negative regulation of transposon integration Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of transposon integration, a process in which a transposable element is incorporated into another DNA molecule.
cellular amino acid metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving amino acids, carboxylic acids containing one or more amino groups, as carried out by individual cells.
hypothalamus cell migration The directed movement of a cell into the hypothalamus region of the forebrain.
organophosphate biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the biosynthesis of deoxyribose phosphate, the phosphorylated sugar 2-deoxy-erythro-pentose.
sperm mitochondrion organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of sperm mitochondria; the process in which they take on their characteristic morphology; they are flattened, elongated, and arranged circumferentially into a tight helical coil around the tail-dense fibers of the mature sperm.
caudate nucleus development The progression of the caudate nucleus over time from its initial formation until its mature state. The caudate nucleus is the C-shaped structures of the striatum containing input neurons involved with control of voluntary movement in the brain.
regulation of retinal cell programmed cell death Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death that occurs in the retina.
regulation of growth hormone secretion Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of growth hormone from a cell.
regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of absorption of cholesterol into the blood, and the exclusion of other sterols from absorption.
macromolecular complex remodeling The acquisition, loss, or modification of macromolecules within a complex, resulting in the alteration of an existing complex.
regulation of camp-mediated signaling Any process which modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cAMP-mediated signaling, a series of molecular signals in which a cell uses cyclic AMP to convert an extracellular signal into a response.
thymidine catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of thymidine, deoxyribosylthymine thymine 2-deoxyriboside, a deoxynucleoside very widely distributed but occurring almost entirely as phosphoric esters in deoxynucleotides and deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA.
regulation of kidney smooth muscle cell differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of kidney smooth muscle cell differentiation.
calcium ion transport into cytosol The directed movement of calcium ions (Ca2+) into the cytosol.
mesenchymal cell development The process aimed at the progression of a mesenchymal cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to its specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell.
regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of smooth muscle cell differentiation.
box h/aca snorna 3'-end processing Any process involved in forming the mature 3' end of a box H/ACA snoRNA molecule.
rna splicing, via transesterification reactions Splicing of RNA via a series of two transesterification reactions.
apoptotic chromosome condensation The compaction of chromatin during apoptosis.
regulation of pre-mirna processing Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of pre-microRNA processing.
organic acid biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of organic acids, any acidic compound containing carbon in covalent linkage.
box c/d snornp assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of proteins and a box C/D snoRNA to form a box C/D small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) complex.
regulation of cellular response to growth factor stimulus Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a growth factor stimulus.
negative regulation of fibroblast growth factor production Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of the appearance of a fibroblast growth factor due to biosynthesis or secretion following a cellular stimulus, resulting in an increase in its intracellular or extracellular levels.
inclusion body assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form an inclusion body.
protein localization to golgi apparatus A process in which a protein is transported to, or maintained in, a location within the Golgi apparatus.
pyrimidine-containing compound transmembrane transport The directed movement of a pyrimidine-containing compound across a membrane. A pyrimidine-containing compound is any compound that contains pyrimidine or a formal derivative thereof.
nickel cation transmembrane transport The directed movement of nickel (Ni) cations across a membrane by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
anterior compartment pattern formation The process giving rise to specification of cell identity in the anterior compartments of the segmented embryo.
positive regulation of transcription from rna polymerase ii promoter by galactose Any process involving galactose that activates or increases the rate of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter.
negative regulation of ceramide biosynthetic process Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a ceramide biosynthetic process.
cellular response to leptin stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a leptin stimulus. Leptin is a hormone manufactured primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue, and the level of circulating leptin is directly proportional to the total amount of fat in the body. It plays a key role in regulating energy intake and energy expenditure, including appetite and metabolism.
sphingoid catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of sphingoids, any of a class of compounds comprising sphinganine and its homologues and stereoisomers, and derivatives of these compounds.
dorsal/ventral axon guidance The process in which the migration of an axon growth cone is directed to a specific target site along the dorsal-ventral body axis in response to a combination of attractive and repulsive cues. The dorsal/ventral axis is defined by a line that runs orthogonal to both the anterior/posterior and left/right axes. The dorsal end is defined by the upper or back side of an organism. The ventral end is defined by the lower or front side of an organism.
regulation of translational initiation in response to stress Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of translation initiation, as a result of a stimulus indicating the organism is under stress.
b cell receptor signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the cross-linking of an antigen receptor on a B cell.
mirna loading onto risc involved in gene silencing by mirna The transfer of a microRNA (miRNA) strand from a miRNA:miRNA duplex onto the RNA-initiated silencing complex (RISC).
l-asparagine biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of asparagine, (2S)-2-amino-3-carbamoylpropanoic acid.
pathogenesis The set of specific processes that generate the ability of an organism to cause disease in another.
negative regulation of viral entry into host cell Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the entry of viral entry into a host cell.
positive regulation of interleukin-5 biosynthetic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of interleukin-5.
organophosphate metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving organophosphates, any phosphate-containing organic compound.
proline transmembrane transport The directed movement of proline, pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid, across a membrane by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
positive regulation of calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion.
multivesicular body assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a multivesicular body, a type of late endosome in which regions of the limiting endosomal membrane invaginate to form internal vesicles; membrane proteins that enter the internal vesicles are sequestered from the cytoplasm.
negative regulation of metaphase/anaphase transition of cell cycle Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of metaphase/anaphase transition of cell cycle.
cysteine biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of cysteine, 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid.
regulation of cardiac vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation.
regulation of carbohydrate metabolic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrates.
detection of hormone stimulus The series of events in which a hormone stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.
immune response-regulating cell surface receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis An immune response-regulating cell surface receptor signaling pathway that contributes to the endocytic engulfment of external particulate material by phagocytes.
defense response to bacterium Reactions triggered in response to the presence of a bacterium that act to protect the cell or organism.
stromal-epithelial cell signaling involved in prostate gland development The process of transferring information from a stromal cell to an epithelial cell where it is received and interpreted, as part of prostate gland development.
polyphosphate metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving a polyphosphate, the anion or salt of polyphosphoric acid.
cornification A type of programmed cell death that occurs in the epidermis, morphologically and biochemically distinct from apoptosis. It leads to the formation of corneocytes, i.e. dead keratinocytes containing an amalgam of specific proteins (e.g., keratin, loricrin, SPR and involucrin) and lipids (e.g., fatty acids and ceramides), which are necessary for the function of the cornified skin layer (mechanical resistance, elasticity, water repellence and structural stability).
positive regulation of viral budding via host escrt complex
autophagy in response to er overload The process in which cells digest parts of their own cytoplasm in response to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
regulation of chromatin assembly or disassembly Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of chromatin assembly or disassembly.
response to extracellular stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an extracellular stimulus.
regulation of cell-substrate adhesion Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell-substrate adhesion. Cell-substrate adhesion is the attachment of a cell to the underlying substrate via adhesion molecules.
regulation of gene silencing by rna Any process that regulates the rate, frequency, or extent of gene silencing by RNA. Gene silencing by RNA is the process in which RNA molecules inactivate expression of target genes.
negative regulation of protein export from nucleus Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of proteins from the nucleus into the cytoplasm.
regulation of elastin catabolic process Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of elastin catabolism, the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of elastin.
positive regulation of type ii hypersensitivity Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of type II hypersensitivity.
regulation of immunoglobulin production in mucosal tissue Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of immunoglobulin production in mucosal tissue.
adult heart development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the adult heart over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
positive regulation of leukocyte activation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of leukocyte activation.
positive regulation of mesonephros development Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of mesonephros development. Mesonephros development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the mesonephros over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The mesonephros is an organ that filters the blood and excretes the end products of body metabolism in the form of urine.
activation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process Any process that initiates the activity of the inactive enzyme cysteine-type endopeptidase in the context of an apoptotic process.
regulation of peripheral tolerance induction Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of peripheral tolerance induction.
regulation of cell differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell differentiation, the process in which relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and functional features.
medium-chain fatty-acyl-coa metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving medium-chain fatty-acyl-CoAs, any derivative of coenzyme A in which the sulfhydryl group is in a thioester linkage with a long-chain fatty-acyl group. A medium-chain fatty acid is a fatty acid with a chain length of between C6 and C12.
positive regulation of glucagon secretion Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of glucagon.
l-serine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving L-serine, the L-enantiomer of serine, i.e. (2S)-2-amino-3-hydroxypropanoic acid.
chromosome organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level that results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of chromosomes, structures composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins that carries hereditary information. This term covers covalent modifications at the molecular level as well as spatial relationships among the major components of a chromosome.
interleukin-5-mediated signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of interleukin-5 to a receptor on the surface of a cell, and ending with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
microtubule organizing center organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a microtubule organizing center, a structure from which microtubules grow.
regulation of cell cycle g2/m phase transition Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of cell cycle G2/M phase transition.
regulation of cell size Any process that modulates the size of a cell.
glycerol catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of glycerol, 1,2,3-propanetriol, a sweet, hygroscopic, viscous liquid, widely distributed in nature as a constituent of many lipids.
protein import into mitochondrial intermembrane space The import of proteins into the space between the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes.
regulation of interleukin-1 beta biosynthetic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of interleukin-1 beta.
mammary gland epithelium development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the mammary gland epithelium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The mammary gland is a large compound sebaceous gland that in female mammals is modified to secrete milk.
bmp signaling pathway involved in heart development A series of molecular signals initiated by the binding of a member of the BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) family to a receptor on the surface of a target cell, which contributes to the progression of the heart over time.
positive regulation of tyrosine 3-monooxygenase activity Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of tyrosine 3-monooxygenase activity.
ion transport The directed movement of charged atoms or small charged molecules into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
calcium-independent cell-matrix adhesion The binding of a cell to the extracellular matrix via adhesion molecules that do not require the presence of calcium for the interaction.
negative regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of peptidyl-tyrosine autophosphorylation.
negative regulation of hemoglobin biosynthetic process Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of hemoglobin, an oxygen carrying, conjugated protein containing four heme groups and globin.
detection of hypoxia The series of events in which a stimulus indicating lowered oxygen tension is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. Hypoxia, defined as a decline in O2 levels below normoxic levels of 20.8 - 20.95%, results in metabolic adaptation at both the cellular and organismal level.
dopamine biosynthetic process from tyrosine The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of dopamine (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine) from L-tyrosine, via the metabolic precursor 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-dopa). Dopamine is a catecholamine neurotransmitter and a metabolic precursor of norepinephrine and epinephrine.
extracellular transport The transport of substances that occurs outside cells.
l-cysteine catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of L-cysteine, the L-enantiomer of 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid, i.e. (2R)-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid.
cargo loading into vesicle The formation of a protein complex between the coat proteins and proteins that are going to be transported by a vesicle.
lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lipopolysaccharides, any of a group of related, structurally complex components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
regulation of neutrophil migration Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of neutrophil migration.
mesoderm morphogenesis The process in which the anatomical structures of the mesoderm are generated and organized.
regulation of calcium ion transmembrane transporter activity Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of calcium ion transmembrane transporter activity.
semicircular canal morphogenesis The process in which the anatomical structures of the semicircular canals are generated and organized.
tube closure Creation of the central hole of a tube in an anatomical structure by sealing the edges of an epithelial fold.
morphogenesis of an epithelial fold The morphogenetic process in which an epithelial sheet bends along a linear axis.
trna wobble base modification The process in which the nucleotide at position 34 in the anticodon of a tRNA is post-transcriptionally modified.
axon development The progression of an axon over time. Covers axonogenesis (de novo generation of an axon) and axon regeneration (regrowth), as well as processes pertaining to the progression of the axon over time (fasciculation and defasciculation).
response to alkaline ph Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a pH stimulus with pH > 7. pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
oxidoreduction coenzyme metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving coenzymes that are required, in addition to an enzyme and a substrate, for an oxidoreductase reaction to proceed.
regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, wakefulness Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of the wakeful phase of the circadian sleep/wake cycle. The wakeful phase is the part of the circadian sleep/wake cycle where the organism is not asleep.
negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of any TGF-beta receptor signaling pathway.
negative regulation of activated t cell proliferation Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of activated T cell proliferation.
udp-n-acetylglucosamine transport The directed movement of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. N-acetylglucosamine is a substance composed of N-acetylglucosamine, a common structural unit of oligosaccharides, in glycosidic linkage with uridine diphosphate.
modulation by host of viral genome replication A process in which a host organism modulates the frequency, rate or extent of viral genome replication.
cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor signaling pathway in response to virus Any series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a virus or viral RNA binding to a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) located in the cytoplasm. Cytosolic PRRs such as RIG-I (DDX58) and MDA-5 (IFIH1) detect RNA synthesized during active viral replication and trigger a signaling pathway to protect the host against viral infection, for example by inducing the expression of antiviral cytokines.
protein heterooligomerization The process of creating protein oligomers, compounds composed of a small number, usually between three and ten, of component monomers that are not all identical. Oligomers may be formed by the polymerization of a number of monomers or the depolymerization of a large protein polymer.
negative regulation of transforming growth factor beta production Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of production of transforming growth factor-beta.
peptidyl-serine phosphorylation The phosphorylation of peptidyl-serine to form peptidyl-O-phospho-L-serine.
negative regulation of protein targeting to membrane Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the process of directing proteins towards a membrane, usually using signals contained within the protein.
response to atp Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) stimulus.
neutrophil activation involved in immune response The change in morphology and behavior of a neutrophil resulting from exposure to a cytokine, chemokine, cellular ligand, or soluble factor, leading to the initiation or perpetuation of an immune response.
nucleobase biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a nucleobase, a nitrogenous base that is a constituent of a nucleic acid.
camp catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of the nucleotide cAMP (cyclic AMP, adenosine 3',5'-cyclophosphate).
cdp-choline pathway The phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic process that begins with the phosphorylation of choline and ends with the combination of CDP-choline with diacylglycerol to form phosphatidylcholine.
negative regulation of striated muscle cell apoptotic process Any process that increases the rate or extent of striated muscle cell apoptotic process, a form of programmed cell death induced by external or internal signals that trigger the activity of proteolytic caspases whose actions dismantle a striated muscle cell and result in its death.
b cell differentiation The process in which a precursor cell type acquires the specialized features of a B cell. A B cell is a lymphocyte of B lineage with the phenotype CD19-positive and capable of B cell mediated immunity.
regulation of neutrophil degranulation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of neutrophil degranulation.
regulation of protein lipidation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of protein lipidation.
metanephric interstitial fibroblast development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a metanephric interstitial fibroblast over time, from its formation to the mature structure.
succinate transmembrane transport A process in which a succinate ion is transported from one side of a membrane to the other by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
detection of bacterium The series of events in which a stimulus from a bacterium is received and converted into a molecular signal.
kynurenine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving kynurenine, the amino acid 3-(2-aminobenzoyl)-alanine.
plasma membrane long-chain fatty acid transport The directed movement of long-chain fatty acids across the plasma membrane. A long-chain fatty acid is a fatty acid with a chain length between C13 and C22.
self proteolysis The hydrolysis of proteins into smaller polypeptides and/or amino acids by cleavage of their own peptide bonds.
negative regulation of lactation Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of lactation.
muscle system process A organ system process carried out at the level of a muscle. Muscle tissue is composed of contractile cells or fibers.
mesenchymal cell proliferation The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a mesenchymal cell population. A mesenchymal cell is a cell that normally gives rise to other cells that are organized as three-dimensional masses, rather than sheets.
thalamus development The process in which the thalamus changes over time, from its initial formation to its mature state.
positive regulation of cytokine biosynthetic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of cytokines.
regulation of synapse assembly Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of synapse assembly, the aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a synapse.
protein targeting to vacuole The process of directing proteins towards the vacuole, usually using signals contained within the protein.
pyrimidine dimer repair The repair of UV-induced T-T, C-T and C-C dimers.
response to muscle inactivity Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a muscle inactivity stimulus.
positive regulation of amyloid precursor protein catabolic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of amyloid precursor protein catabolic process.
heterotrimeric g-protein complex assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a heterotrimeric G-protein complex.
positive regulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the passage or uptake of molecules by the mitochondrial membrane.
learned vocalization behavior or vocal learning Vocalisation behavior that is the result of learning, or the process by which new vocalizations are learned.
negative regulation of oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation Any process that stops or decreases the rate or extent of oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation.
negative regulation of dna binding Any process that stops or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of DNA binding. DNA binding is any process in which a gene product interacts selectively with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
labyrinthine layer morphogenesis The process in which the labyrinthine layer of the placenta is generated and organized.
queuosine metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving queuosines, any of a series of nucleosides found in tRNA and having an additional pentenyl ring added via an NH group to the methyl group of 7-methylguanosine. The pentenyl ring may carry other substituents.
peptidyl-alanine modification The modification of peptidyl-alanine.
cellular response to insulin stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an insulin stimulus. Insulin is a polypeptide hormone produced by the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas in mammals, and by the homologous organs of other organisms.
muscle cell migration The orderly movement of a muscle cell from one site to another, often during the development of a multicellular organism.
insulin metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving insulin.
ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling pathway A series of molecular signals initiated by glutamate binding to a glutamate receptor on the surface of the target cell, followed by the movement of ions through a channel in the receptor complex. Ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription.
cellular response to magnetism Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a magnetic stimulus.
positive regulation by host of viral process A process in which a host organism activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the release of a process being mediated by a virus with which it is infected.
polyamine catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of polyamines, any organic compound containing two or more amino groups.
positive regulation of translational fidelity Any process that increases the ability of the translational apparatus to interpret the genetic code.
epithelial cell morphogenesis The change in form that occurs when an epithelial cell progresses from its initial formation to its mature state.
positive regulation of protein geranylgeranylation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein geranylgeranylation.
glycerol-3-phosphate catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of glycerol-3-phosphate, a phosphoric monoester of glycerol.
arginyl-trna aminoacylation The process of coupling arginine to arginyl-tRNA, catalyzed by arginyl-tRNA synthetase. In tRNA aminoacylation, the amino acid is first activated by linkage to AMP and then transferred to either the 2'- or the 3'-hydroxyl group of the 3'-adenosine residue of the tRNA.
regulation of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.
negative regulation of t-helper cell differentiation Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of T-helper cell differentiation.
interleukin-8 biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of interleukin-8.
protein deglutamylation The removal of a glutamate residue from a protein. Glutamate residues in proteins can be gene-encoded, or added as side chains during the protein modification process of polyglutamylation.
regulation of transcription involved in cell fate commitment Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of transcription from an RNA polymerase II promoter that contributes to the commitment of a cell to a specific fate.
regulation of protein targeting to mitochondrion Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of protein targeting to mitochondrion.
deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving a deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate, a compound consisting of a nucleobase linked to a deoxyribose sugar esterified with triphosphate on the sugar.
regulation of natural killer cell apoptotic process Any process that modulates the occurrence or rate of natural killer cell death by apoptotic process.
positive regulation of protein complex disassembly Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of protein complex disassembly, the disaggregation of a protein complex into its constituent components.
regulation of transforming growth factor beta3 production Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of production of transforming growth factor-beta3.
regulation of endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response.
antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen via mhc class i via er pathway The process in which an antigen-presenting cell expresses a peptide antigen of endogenous origin on its cell surface in association with an MHC class I protein complex following intracellular transport via an ER pathway. The peptide is typically a fragment of a larger endogenous protein which has been degraded within the cell and becomes associated with the MHC class I molecule in the ER. Class I here refers to classical class I molecules.
dna strand renaturation The identification and annealing of complementary base pairs in single-strand DNA.
translational initiation The process preceding formation of the peptide bond between the first two amino acids of a protein. This includes the formation of a complex of the ribosome, mRNA, and an initiation complex that contains the first aminoacyl-tRNA.
regulation of pro-t cell differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of pro-T cell differentiation.
deoxyribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a deoxyribonucleoside monophosphate, a compound consisting of a nucleobase linked to a deoxyribose sugar esterified with phosphate on the sugar.
regulation of nlrp3 inflammasome complex assembly Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of NLRP3 inflammasome complex assembly.
cellular response to cell-matrix adhesion Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of cell-matrix adhesion.
regulation of interleukin-1 production Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of interleukin-1 production.
regulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing (NOD) pathway.
negative regulation of locomotion Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of locomotion of a cell or organism.
action potential A process in which membrane potential cycles through a depolarizing spike, triggered in response to depolarization above some threshold, followed by repolarization. This cycle is driven by the flow of ions through various voltage gated channels with different thresholds and ion specificities.
enteric smooth muscle cell differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a smooth muscle cell of the intestine.
fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway involved in negative regulation of apoptotic process in bone marrow The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a fibroblast growth factor receptor binding to one of its physiological ligands, which stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the occurrence or rate of cell death by apoptotic process in the bone marrow.
respiratory burst A phase of elevated metabolic activity, during which oxygen consumption increases; this leads to the production, by an NADH dependent system, of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals.
killing of cells of other organism Any process in an organism that results in the killing of cells of another organism, including in some cases the death of the other organism. Killing here refers to the induction of death in one cell by another cell, not cell-autonomous death due to internal or other environmental conditions.
cellular response to corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulus Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulus. Corticotropin-releasing hormone is a peptide hormone involved in the stress response.
induction by virus of host cell-cell fusion The process of syncytia-forming cell-cell fusion, caused by a virus.
regulation of chemokine (c-c motif) ligand 5 production Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of production of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5.
regulation of mitotic cell cycle spindle assembly checkpoint Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of the mitotic cell cycle spindle assembly checkpoint, a cell cycle checkpoint that delays the metaphase/anaphase transition of a mitotic nuclear division until the spindle is correctly assembled and chromosomes are attached to the spindle.
regulation of antimicrobial humoral response Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of an antimicrobial humoral response.
positive regulation of fatty acid metabolic process Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving fatty acids.
regulation of peptidase activity Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of peptidase activity, the hydrolysis of peptide bonds within proteins.
histone acetylation The modification of a histone by the addition of an acetyl group.
protein targeting to golgi The process of directing proteins towards the Golgi; usually uses signals contained within the protein.
cardioblast anterior-lateral migration The orderly movement of a cardioblast toward the head and laterally to form the heart field. A cardioblast is a cardiac precursor cell. It is a cell that has been committed to a cardiac fate, but will undergo more cell division rather than terminally differentiating.
mesenchymal-epithelial cell signaling involved in lung development Any process that mediates the transfer of information from a mesenchymal cell to an epithelial cell and contributes to the development of the lung.
response to lead ion Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lead ion stimulus.
inner ear morphogenesis The process in which the anatomical structures of the inner ear are generated and organized. The inner ear is the structure in vertebrates that contains the organs of balance and hearing. It consists of soft hollow sensory structures (the membranous labyrinth) containing fluid (endolymph) surrounded by fluid (perilymph) and encased in a bony cavity (the bony labyrinth). It consists of two chambers, the sacculus and utriculus, from which arise the cochlea and semicircular canals respectively.
atrioventricular node development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the atrioventricular (AV) node over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The AV node is part of the cardiac conduction system that controls the timing of ventricle contraction by receiving electrical signals from the sinoatrial (SA) node and relaying them to the His-Purkinje system.
response to disaccharide Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a disaccharide stimulus.
somatic diversification of immunoglobulins The somatic process that results in the generation of sequence diversity of immunoglobulins.
negative regulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling pathway Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling.
response to cobalt ion Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a cobalt ion stimulus.
organic acid catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of organic acids, any acidic compound containing carbon in covalent linkage.
mitochondrial threonyl-trna aminoacylation The process of coupling threonine to threonyl-tRNA in a mitochondrion, catalyzed by threonyl-tRNA synthetase. In tRNA aminoacylation, the amino acid is first activated by linkage to AMP and then transferred to either the 2'- or the 3'-hydroxyl group of the 3'-adenosine residue of the tRNA.
gmp biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of GMP, guanosine monophosphate.
dichotomous subdivision of terminal units involved in mammary gland duct morphogenesis The process in which the terminal end of a mammary duct bifurcates.
epithelial cell migration The orderly movement of an epithelial cell from one site to another, often during the development of a multicellular organism.
regulation of nucleic acid-templated transcription Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of nucleic acid-templated transcription.
ribosomal small subunit biogenesis A cellular process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, and arrangement of constituent parts of a small ribosomal subunit; includes transport to the sites of protein synthesis.
regulation of cd40 signaling pathway Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of signaling via the CD40 signaling pathway.
substance p catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of the neuropeptide substance P.
cellular glucan metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving glucans, polysaccharides consisting only of glucose residues.
cardiac muscle contraction Muscle contraction of cardiac muscle tissue.
cellular response to cycloheximide Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a cycloheximide stimulus. Cycloheximide (actidione) is an antibiotic produced by some Streptomyces species which interferes with protein synthesis in eukaryotes.
blood vessel development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a blood vessel over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The blood vessel is the vasculature carrying blood.
replication fork processing The process in which a DNA replication fork that has stalled (due to DNA damage, DNA secondary structure, bound proteins, dNTP shortage, or other causes) is repaired and replication is restarted.
establishment of golgi localization The directed movement of the Golgi to a specific location.
membrane invagination The infolding of a membrane, resulting in formation of a vesicle.
alanine transport The directed movement of alanine, 2-aminopropanoic acid, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
amyloid precursor protein catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the precursor of beta-amyloid, a glycoprotein associated with Alzheimer's disease.
i-kappab kinase/nf-kappab signaling The process in which a signal is passed on to downstream components within the cell through the I-kappaB-kinase (IKK)-dependent activation of NF-kappaB. The cascade begins with activation of a trimeric IKK complex (consisting of catalytic kinase subunits IKKalpha and/or IKKbeta, and the regulatory scaffold protein NEMO) and ends with the regulation of transcription of target genes by NF-kappaB. In a resting state, NF-kappaB dimers are bound to I-kappaB proteins, sequestering NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm. Phosphorylation of I-kappaB targets I-kappaB for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, thus releasing the NF-kappaB dimers, which can translocate to the nucleus to bind DNA and regulate transcription.
regulation of pancreatic stellate cell proliferation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of pancreatic stellate cell proliferation.
regulation of glucagon secretion Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of glucagon.
regulation of lymphocyte differentiation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of lymphocyte differentiation.
cilium or flagellum-dependent cell motility Cell motility due to movement of eukaryotic cilia or bacterial-type flagella or archaeal-type flagella.
positive regulation of activation of membrane attack complex Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the activation of the membrane attack complex components of the complement cascade.
caveola assembly The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a caveola. A caveola is a plasma membrane raft that forms a small pit, depression, or invagination that communicates with the outside of a cell and extends inward, indenting the cytoplasm and the cell membrane.
intercellular bridge organization A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the intracellular bridge. An intracellular bridge is a direct link between the cytoplasms of sister cells that allows cells to communicate with one another.
dna double-strand break processing involved in repair via single-strand annealing The 5' to 3' exonucleolytic resection of the DNA at the site of the break to form a 3' single-strand DNA overhang that results in the repair of a double strand break via single-strand annealing.
lymphocyte aggregation The adhesion of one lymphocyte to one or more other lymphocytes via adhesion molecules.
cardiac right atrium morphogenesis The process in which the right cardiac atrium is generated and organized.
negative regulation of hydrogen peroxide-mediated programmed cell death Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of hydrogen peroxide-mediated programmed cell death.
diadenosine tetraphosphate metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving diadenosine tetraphosphate, a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine with four phosphate groups attached.
modification of morphology or physiology of other organism involved in symbiotic interaction The process in which an organism effects a change in the structure or processes of a second organism, where the two organisms are in a symbiotic interaction.
divalent inorganic anion homeostasis Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state of divalent inorganic anions within an organism or cell.
negative regulation of rna-directed rna polymerase activity Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of RNA-directed RNA polymerase activity.
glomerular capillary formation The process that gives rise to a glomerular capillary. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts.
glucoside transport The directed movement of glucosides into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Glucosides are glycosides in which the sugar group is a glucose residue.
protein localization to nuclear envelope A process in which a protein is transported to, or maintained at, a location within a nuclear envelope.
regulation of mitotic centrosome separation Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the separation of duplicated centrosome components at the beginning of mitosis.
nucleobase transport The directed movement of a nucleobase, any nitrogenous base that is a constituent of a nucleoside, nucleotide, or nucleic acid, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
positive regulation of sclerotome development Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of the progression of the sclerotome over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The sclerotome is the portion of the somite that will give rise to a vertebra.
positive regulation of termination of rna polymerase ii transcription, poly(a)-coupled Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of termination of RNA polymerase II transcription, poly(A)-coupled.
regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of stat5 protein Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of introducing a phosphate group to a tyrosine residue of a Stat5 protein.
positive regulation of semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway involved in outflow tract morphogenesis Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway involved in outflow tract morphogenesis.
response to fatty acid Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a fatty acid stimulus.
negative regulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 signaling pathway Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (NOD1) pathway.
negative regulation of hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling pathway Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling pathway.
atp synthesis coupled electron transport The transfer of electrons through a series of electron donors and acceptors, generating energy that is ultimately used for synthesis of ATP.
positive regulation of glutamate neurotransmitter secretion in response to membrane depolarization Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glutamate secretion in response to membrane depolarization, where glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter.
negative regulation of antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via mhc class i Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I.
primitive streak formation The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of the primitive streak from unspecified parts. The primitive streak is a ridge of cells running along the midline of the embryo where the mesoderm ingresses. It defines the anterior-posterior axis.
positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of stat protein Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the introduction of a phosphate group to a tyrosine residue of a STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) protein.
regulation of kidney development Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of kidney development. Kidney development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the kidney over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The kidney is an organ that filters the blood and excretes the end products of body metabolism in the form of urine.
regulation of calcium:sodium antiporter activity Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of calcium:sodium antiporter activity.
negative regulation of translational initiation in response to stress Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of translation initiation as a result of a stimulus indicating the organism is under stress.
cytoplasm-associated proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of misfolded proteins in the cytoplasm, which are targeted to cytoplasmic proteasomes for degradation.
negative regulation of endoribonuclease activity Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of the catalysis of the hydrolysis of ester linkages within ribonucleic acid by creating internal breaks.
positive regulation of oxidative stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of an oxidative stress-induced intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway.
urea transport The directed movement of urea into, out of or within the cell. Urea is the water-soluble compound H2N-CO-NH2.
myeloid cell activation involved in immune response A change in the morphology or behavior of a myeloid cell resulting from exposure to an activating factor such as a cellular or soluble ligand, leading to the initiation or perpetuation of an immune response.
negative regulation of growth of symbiont involved in interaction with host Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the increase in size or mass of an organism occurring in, on or near the exterior of its host organism.
dicarboxylic acid metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving dicarboxylic acids, any organic acid containing two carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).
paramesonephric duct development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the paramesonephric duct over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Mullerian ducts (or paramesonephric ducts) are paired ducts of the embryo that run down the lateral sides of the urogenital ridge and terminate at the mullerian eminence in the primitive urogenital sinus. In the female, they will develop to form the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and the upper portion of the vagina; in the male, they are lost. These ducts are made of tissue of mesodermal origin.
leukocyte migration The movement of a leukocyte within or between different tissues and organs of the body.
negative regulation of protein autophosphorylation Any process that stops, prevents or decreases the rate of the phosphorylation by a protein of one or more of its own residues.
cellular process regulating host cell cycle in response to virus Any cellular process that modulates the rate or extent of progression through the cell cycle in response to a virus.
melanin biosynthetic process The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of melanins, pigments largely of animal origin. High molecular weight polymers of indole quinone, they are irregular polymeric structures and are divided into three groups: allomelanins in the plant kingdom and eumelanins and phaeomelanins in the animal kingdom.
retinal bipolar neuron differentiation The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a bipolar cell, the last neuron to be generated in the retina.
regulation of rna stability Any process that modulates the propensity of RNA molecules to degradation. Includes processes that both stabilize and destabilize RNAs.
schwann cell development The process aimed at the progression of a Schwann cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell. Schwann cells are found in the peripheral nervous system, where they insulate neurons and axons, and regulate the environment in which neurons function.
regulation of membrane potential Any process that modulates the establishment or extent of a membrane potential, the electric potential existing across any membrane arising from charges in the membrane itself and from the charges present in the media on either side of the membrane.
regulation of growth plate cartilage chondrocyte proliferation Any process that modulates the rate, frequency, or extent of the multiplication or reproduction of chondrocytes in a growing endochondral bone, resulting in the expansion of a cell population.
macromolecule metabolic process The chemical reactions and pathways involving macromolecules, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.
positive regulation of cap-independent translational initiation Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cap-independent translational initiation.
threonine transport The directed movement of threonine, (2R*,3S*)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutanoic acid, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.
regulation of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis Any process that modulates the rate, frequency or extent of branching involved in ureteric bud morphogenesis, the process in which the branching structure of the ureteric bud is generated and organized. The ureteric bud is an epithelial tube that grows out from the metanephric duct. The bud elongates and branches to give rise to the ureter and kidney collecting tubules.
regulation of mast cell activation involved in immune response Any process that modulates the frequency, rate, or extent of mast cell activation as part of an immune response.
proximal convoluted tubule segment 2 development The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the S2 portion of the proximal convoluted tubule over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The S2 portion of the tubule is involved in reabsorption of water and sodium chloride.
negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin.
muscle cell fate specification The process in which a cell becomes capable of differentiating autonomously into a muscle cell in an environment that is neutral with respect to the developmental pathway; upon specification, the cell fate can be reversed.
negative regulation of lyase activity Any process that stops or reduces the rate of lyase activity, the catalysis of the cleavage of C-C, C-O, C-N and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation, or conversely adding a group to a double bond.
regulation of planar cell polarity pathway involved in cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of planar cell polarity pathway involved in cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis.
positive regulation of hippo signaling Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of hippo signaling.
regulation of interleukin-18 biosynthetic process Any process that modulates the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting