ENCODE Transcription Factor Targets Dataset

Description target genes of transcription factors from transcription factor binding site profiles
Measurement transcription factor DNA-binding by ChIP-seq
Association target gene-transcription factor associations by binding of transcription factor near transcription start site of gene
Category genomics
Resource Encyclopedia of DNA Elements
Citation(s)
Last Updated
Stats
  1. 22449 genes
  2. 181 transcription factors
  3. 1651393 gene-transcription factor associations

Data Access

API
Script

Visualizations

  • Attribute Similarity

  • Dataset

  • Gene Similarity

transcription factor Gene Sets

181 sets of target genes of transcription factors in ChIP-seq datasets from the ENCODE Transcription Factor Targets dataset.

Gene Set Description
ARID3A AT rich interactive domain 3A (BRIGHT-like)|This gene encodes a member of the ARID (AT-rich interaction domain) family of DNA binding proteins. It was found by homology to the Drosophila dead ringer gene, which is important for normal embryogenesis. Other ARID family members have roles in embryonic patterning, cell lineage gene regulation, cell cycle control, transcriptional regulation, and possibly in chromatin structure modification. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ATF1 activating transcription factor 1|This gene encodes an activating transcription factor, which belongs to the ATF subfamily and bZIP (basic-region leucine zipper) family. It influences cellular physiologic processes by regulating the expression of downstream target genes, which are related to growth, survival, and other cellular activities. This protein is phosphorylated at serine 63 in its kinase-inducible domain by serine/threonine kinases, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I/II, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase 3 (cdk-3). Its phosphorylation enhances its transactivation and transcriptional activities, and enhances cell transformation. Fusion of this gene and FUS on chromosome 16 or EWSR1 on chromosome 22 induced by translocation generates chimeric proteins in angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma and clear cell sarcoma. This gene has a pseudogene on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
ATF2 activating transcription factor 2|This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. The encoded protein has been identified as a moonlighting protein based on its ability to perform mechanistically distinct functions This protein binds to the cAMP-responsive element (CRE), an octameric palindrome. It forms a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun and stimulates CRE-dependent transcription. This protein is also a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that specifically acetylates histones H2B and H4 in vitro; thus it may represent a class of sequence-specific factors that activate transcription by direct effects on chromatin components. The encoded protein may also be involved in cell's DNA damage response independent of its role in transcriptional regulation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2014]
ATF3 activating transcription factor 3|This gene encodes a member of the mammalian activation transcription factor/cAMP responsive element-binding (CREB) protein family of transcription factors. This gene is induced by a variety of signals, including many of those encountered by cancer cells, and is involved in the complex process of cellular stress response. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. It is possible that alternative splicing of this gene may be physiologically important in the regulation of target genes. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
BACH1 BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 1|This gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the cap'n'collar type of basic region leucine zipper factor family (CNC-bZip). The encoded protein contains broad complex, tramtrack, bric-a-brac/poxvirus and zinc finger (BTB/POZ) domains, which is atypical of CNC-bZip family members. These BTB/POZ domains facilitate protein-protein interactions and formation of homo- and/or hetero-oligomers. When this encoded protein forms a heterodimer with MafK, it functions as a repressor of Maf recognition element (MARE) and transcription is repressed. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
BATF basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like|The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear basic leucine zipper protein that belongs to the AP-1/ATF superfamily of transcription factors. The leucine zipper of this protein mediates dimerization with members of the Jun family of proteins. This protein is thought to be a negative regulator of AP-1/ATF transcriptional events. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BCL11A B-cell CLL/lymphoma 11A (zinc finger protein)|This gene encodes a C2H2 type zinc-finger protein by its similarity to the mouse Bcl11a/Evi9 protein. The corresponding mouse gene is a common site of retroviral integration in myeloid leukemia, and may function as a leukemia disease gene, in part, through its interaction with BCL6. During hematopoietic cell differentiation, this gene is down-regulated. It is possibly involved in lymphoma pathogenesis since translocations associated with B-cell malignancies also deregulates its expression. Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BCL3 B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3|This gene is a proto-oncogene candidate. It is identified by its translocation into the immunoglobulin alpha-locus in some cases of B-cell leukemia. The protein encoded by this gene contains seven ankyrin repeats, which are most closely related to those found in I kappa B proteins. This protein functions as a transcriptional co-activator that activates through its association with NF-kappa B homodimers. The expression of this gene can be induced by NF-kappa B, which forms a part of the autoregulatory loop that controls the nuclear residence of p50 NF-kappa B. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BCLAF1 BCL2-associated transcription factor 1|This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that interacts with several members of the BCL2 family of proteins. Overexpression of this protein induces apoptosis, which can be suppressed by co-expression of BCL2 proteins. The protein localizes to dot-like structures throughout the nucleus, and redistributes to a zone near the nuclear envelope in cells undergoing apoptosis. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BDP1 B double prime 1, subunit of RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor IIIB|The product of this gene is a subunit of the TFIIIB transcription initiation complex, which recruits RNA polymerase III to target promoters in order to initiate transcription. The encoded protein localizes to concentrated aggregates in the nucleus, and is required for transcription from all three types of polymerase III promoters. It is phosphorylated by casein kinase II during mitosis, resulting in its release from chromatin and suppression of polymerase III transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
BHLHE40 basic helix-loop-helix family, member e40|This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein expressed in various tissues. The encoded protein can interact with ARNTL or compete for E-box binding sites in the promoter of PER1 and repress CLOCK/ARNTL's transactivation of PER1. This gene is believed to be involved in the control of circadian rhythm and cell differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
BRCA1 breast cancer 1, early onset|This gene encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in maintaining genomic stability, and it also acts as a tumor suppressor. The encoded protein combines with other tumor suppressors, DNA damage sensors, and signal transducers to form a large multi-subunit protein complex known as the BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex (BASC). This gene product associates with RNA polymerase II, and through the C-terminal domain, also interacts with histone deacetylase complexes. This protein thus plays a role in transcription, DNA repair of double-stranded breaks, and recombination. Mutations in this gene are responsible for approximately 40% of inherited breast cancers and more than 80% of inherited breast and ovarian cancers. Alternative splicing plays a role in modulating the subcellular localization and physiological function of this gene. Many alternatively spliced transcript variants, some of which are disease-associated mutations, have been described for this gene, but the full-length natures of only some of these variants has been described. A related pseudogene, which is also located on chromosome 17, has been identified. [provided by RefSeq, May 2009]
BRF1 BRF1, RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor 90 kDa subunit|This gene encodes one of the three subunits of the RNA polymerase III transcription factor complex. This complex plays a central role in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase III on genes encoding tRNA, 5S rRNA, and other small structural RNAs. The gene product belongs to the TF2B family. Several alternatively spliced variants encoding different isoforms, that function at different promoters transcribed by RNA polymerase III, have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
BRF2 BRF2, RNA polymerase III transcription initiation factor 50 kDa subunit|This gene encodes one of the multiple subunits of the RNA polymerase III transcription factor complex required for transcription of genes with promoter elements upstream of the initiation site. The product of this gene, a TFIIB-like factor, is directly recruited to the TATA-box of polymerase III small nuclear RNA gene promoters through its interaction with the TATA-binding protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CBX2 chromobox homolog 2|This gene encodes a component of the polycomb multiprotein complex, which is required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of many genes throughout development via chromatin remodeling and modification of histones. Disruption of this gene in mice results in male-to-female gonadal sex reversal. Mutations in this gene are also associated with gonadal dysgenesis in humans. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been noted for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
CBX3 chromobox homolog 3|At the nuclear envelope, the nuclear lamina and heterochromatin are adjacent to the inner nuclear membrane. The protein encoded by this gene binds DNA and is a component of heterochromatin. This protein also can bind lamin B receptor, an integral membrane protein found in the inner nuclear membrane. The dual binding functions of the encoded protein may explain the association of heterochromatin with the inner nuclear membrane. This protein binds histone H3 tails methylated at Lys-9 sites. This protein is also recruited to sites of ultraviolet-induced DNA damage and double-strand breaks. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein but differing in the 5' UTR, have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
CBX8 chromobox homolog 8|
CCNT2 cyclin T2|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highly conserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by a dramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle. Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns which contribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. This cyclin and its kinase partner CDK9 were found to be subunits of the transcription elongation factor p-TEFb. The p-TEFb complex containing this cyclin was reported to interact with, and act as a negative regulator of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 1. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2010]
CEBPB CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta|This intronless gene encodes a transcription factor that contains a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain. The encoded protein functions as a homodimer but can also form heterodimers with CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins alpha, delta, and gamma. Activity of this protein is important in the regulation of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses, among other processes. The use of alternative in-frame AUG start codons results in multiple protein isoforms, each with distinct biological functions. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]
CEBPD CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), delta|The protein encoded by this intronless gene is a bZIP transcription factor which can bind as a homodimer to certain DNA regulatory regions. It can also form heterodimers with the related protein CEBP-alpha. The encoded protein is important in the regulation of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses, and may be involved in the regulation of genes associated with activation and/or differentiation of macrophages. The cytogenetic location of this locus has been reported as both 8p11 and 8q11. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
CEBPZ CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), zeta|
CHD1 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 1|The CHD family of proteins is characterized by the presence of chromo (chromatin organization modifier) domains and SNF2-related helicase/ATPase domains. CHD genes alter gene expression possibly by modification of chromatin structure thus altering access of the transcriptional apparatus to its chromosomal DNA template. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CHD2 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2|The CHD family of proteins is characterized by the presence of chromo (chromatin organization modifier) domains and SNF2-related helicase/ATPase domains. CHD genes alter gene expression possibly by modification of chromatin structure thus altering access of the transcriptional apparatus to its chromosomal DNA template. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CHD4 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 4|The product of this gene belongs to the SNF2/RAD54 helicase family. It represents the main component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase complex and plays an important role in epigenetic transcriptional repression. Patients with dermatomyositis develop antibodies against this protein. Somatic mutations in this gene are associated with serous endometrial tumors. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
CHD7 chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7|This gene encodes a protein that contains several helicase family domains. Mutations in this gene have been found in some patients with the CHARGE syndrome. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CREB1 cAMP responsive element binding protein 1|This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the leucine zipper family of DNA binding proteins. This protein binds as a homodimer to the cAMP-responsive element, an octameric palindrome. The protein is phosphorylated by several protein kinases, and induces transcription of genes in response to hormonal stimulation of the cAMP pathway. Alternate splicing of this gene results in two transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
CREBBP CREB binding protein|This gene is ubiquitously expressed and is involved in the transcriptional coactivation of many different transcription factors. First isolated as a nuclear protein that binds to cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), this gene is now known to play critical roles in embryonic development, growth control, and homeostasis by coupling chromatin remodeling to transcription factor recognition. The protein encoded by this gene has intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity and also acts as a scaffold to stabilize additional protein interactions with the transcription complex. This protein acetylates both histone and non-histone proteins. This protein shares regions of very high sequence similarity with protein p300 in its bromodomain, cysteine-histidine-rich regions, and histone acetyltransferase domain. Mutations in this gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). Chromosomal translocations involving this gene have been associated with acute myeloid leukemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
CTBP2 C-terminal binding protein 2|This gene produces alternative transcripts encoding two distinct proteins. One protein is a transcriptional repressor, while the other isoform is a major component of specialized synapses known as synaptic ribbons. Both proteins contain a NAD+ binding domain similar to NAD+-dependent 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases. A portion of the 3' untranslated region was used to map this gene to chromosome 21q21.3; however, it was noted that similar loci elsewhere in the genome are likely. Blast analysis shows that this gene is present on chromosome 10. Several transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014]
CTCF CCCTC-binding factor (zinc finger protein)|This gene is a member of the BORIS + CTCF gene family and encodes a transcriptional regulator protein with 11 highly conserved zinc finger (ZF) domains. This nuclear protein is able to use different combinations of the ZF domains to bind different DNA target sequences and proteins. Depending upon the context of the site, the protein can bind a histone acetyltransferase (HAT)-containing complex and function as a transcriptional activator or bind a histone deacetylase (HDAC)-containing complex and function as a transcriptional repressor. If the protein is bound to a transcriptional insulator element, it can block communication between enhancers and upstream promoters, thereby regulating imprinted expression. Mutations in this gene have been associated with invasive breast cancers, prostate cancers, and Wilms' tumors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
CTCFL CCCTC-binding factor (zinc finger protein)-like|CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), an 11-zinc-finger factor involved in gene regulation, utilizes different zinc fingers to bind varying DNA target sites. CTCF forms methylation-sensitive insulators that regulate X-chromosome inactivation. This gene is a paralog of CTCF and appears to be expressed primarily in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes, unlike CTCF which is expressed primarily in the nucleus of somatic cells. CTCF and the protein encoded by this gene are normally expressed in a mutually exclusive pattern that correlates with resetting of methylation marks during male germ cell differentiation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2012]
CUX1 cut-like homeobox 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the homeodomain family of DNA binding proteins. It may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation and it may also play a role in the cell cycle progession. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
E2F1 E2F transcription factor 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein and another 2 members, E2F2 and E2F3, have an additional cyclin binding domain. This protein binds preferentially to retinoblastoma protein pRB in a cell-cycle dependent manner. It can mediate both cell proliferation and p53-dependent/independent apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
E2F4 E2F transcription factor 4, p107/p130-binding|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the E2F family of transcription factors. The E2F family plays a crucial role in the control of cell cycle and action of tumor suppressor proteins and is also a target of the transforming proteins of small DNA tumor viruses. The E2F proteins contain several evolutionally conserved domains found in most members of the family. These domains include a DNA binding domain, a dimerization domain which determines interaction with the differentiation regulated transcription factor proteins (DP), a transactivation domain enriched in acidic amino acids, and a tumor suppressor protein association domain which is embedded within the transactivation domain. This protein binds to all three of the tumor suppressor proteins pRB, p107 and p130, but with higher affinity to the last two. It plays an important role in the suppression of proliferation-associated genes, and its gene mutation and increased expression may be associated with human cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
E2F6 E2F transcription factor 6|This gene encodes a member of a family of transcription factors that play a crucial role in the control of the cell cycle. The protein encoded by this gene lacks the transactivation and tumor suppressor protein association domains found in other family members, and contains a modular suppression domain that functions in the inhibition of transcription. It interacts in a complex with chromatin modifying factors. There are pseudogenes for this gene on chromosomes 22 and X. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
EBF1 early B-cell factor 1|
EGR1 early growth response 1|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the EGR family of C2H2-type zinc-finger proteins. It is a nuclear protein and functions as a transcriptional regulator. The products of target genes it activates are required for differentitation and mitogenesis. Studies suggest this is a cancer suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2014]
ELF1 E74-like factor 1 (ets domain transcription factor)|This gene encodes an E26 transformation-specific related transcription factor. The encoded protein is primarily expressed in lymphoid cells and acts as both an enhancer and a repressor to regulate transcription of various genes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
ELK1 ELK1, member of ETS oncogene family|This gene is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors and of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily. Proteins of the TCF subfamily form a ternary complex by binding to the the serum response factor and the serum response element in the promoter of the c-fos proto-oncogene. The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear target for the ras-raf-MAPK signaling cascade. This gene produces multiple isoforms by using alternative translational start codons and by alternative splicing. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 7 and 14. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
ELK4 ELK4, ETS-domain protein (SRF accessory protein 1)|This gene is a member of the Ets family of transcription factors and of the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily. Proteins of the TCF subfamily form a ternary complex by binding to the the serum response factor and the serum reponse element in the promoter of the c-fos proto-oncogene. The protein encoded by this gene is phosphorylated by the kinases, MAPK1 and MAPK8. Several transcript variants have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
EP300 E1A binding protein p300|This gene encodes the adenovirus E1A-associated cellular p300 transcriptional co-activator protein. It functions as histone acetyltransferase that regulates transcription via chromatin remodeling and is important in the processes of cell proliferation and differentiation. It mediates cAMP-gene regulation by binding specifically to phosphorylated CREB protein. This gene has also been identified as a co-activator of HIF1A (hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha), and thus plays a role in the stimulation of hypoxia-induced genes such as VEGF. Defects in this gene are a cause of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome and may also play a role in epithelial cancer. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ESR1 estrogen receptor 1|This gene encodes an estrogen receptor, a ligand-activated transcription factor composed of several domains important for hormone binding, DNA binding, and activation of transcription. The protein localizes to the nucleus where it may form a homodimer or a heterodimer with estrogen receptor 2. Estrogen and its receptors are essential for sexual development and reproductive function, but also play a role in other tissues such as bone. Estrogen receptors are also involved in pathological processes including breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and osteoporosis. Alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing result in dozens of transcript variants, but the full-length nature of many of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2014]
ESRRA estrogen-related receptor alpha|The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear receptor that is closely related to the estrogen receptor. This protein acts as a site-specific transcription regulator and has been also shown to interact with estrogen and the transcripton factor TFIIB by direct protein-protein contact. The binding and regulatory activities of this protein have been demonstrated in the regulation of a variety of genes including lactoferrin, osteopontin, medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) and thyroid hormone receptor genes. A processed pseudogene of ESRRA is located on chromosome 13q12.1. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2013]
ETS1 v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1|This gene encodes a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, which are defined by the presence of a conserved ETS DNA-binding domain that recognizes the core consensus DNA sequence GGAA/T in target genes. These proteins function either as transcriptional activators or repressors of numerous genes, and are involved in stem cell development, cell senescence and death, and tumorigenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
EZH2 enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit|This gene encodes a member of the Polycomb-group (PcG) family. PcG family members form multimeric protein complexes, which are involved in maintaining the transcriptional repressive state of genes over successive cell generations. This protein associates with the embryonic ectoderm development protein, the VAV1 oncoprotein, and the X-linked nuclear protein. This protein may play a role in the hematopoietic and central nervous systems. Multiple alternatively splcied transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
FLI1 Fli-1 proto-oncogene, ETS transcription factor|This gene encodes a transcription factor containing an ETS DNA-binding domain. The gene can undergo a t(11;22)(q24;q12) translocation with the Ewing sarcoma gene on chromosome 22, which results in a fusion gene that is present in the majority of Ewing sarcoma cases. An acute lymphoblastic leukemia-associated t(4;11)(q21;q23) translocation involving this gene has also been identified. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
FOS FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog|The Fos gene family consists of 4 members: FOS, FOSB, FOSL1, and FOSL2. These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. As such, the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. In some cases, expression of the FOS gene has also been associated with apoptotic cell death. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FOSL1 FOS-like antigen 1|The Fos gene family consists of 4 members: FOS, FOSB, FOSL1, and FOSL2. These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. As such, the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
FOSL2 FOS-like antigen 2|The Fos gene family consists of 4 members: FOS, FOSB, FOSL1, and FOSL2. These genes encode leucine zipper proteins that can dimerize with proteins of the JUN family, thereby forming the transcription factor complex AP-1. As such, the FOS proteins have been implicated as regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and transformation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2014]
FOXA1 forkhead box A1|This gene encodes a member of the forkhead class of DNA-binding proteins. These hepatocyte nuclear factors are transcriptional activators for liver-specific transcripts such as albumin and transthyretin, and they also interact with chromatin. Similar family members in mice have roles in the regulation of metabolism and in the differentiation of the pancreas and liver. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
FOXA2 forkhead box A2|This gene encodes a member of the forkhead class of DNA-binding proteins. These hepatocyte nuclear factors are transcriptional activators for liver-specific genes such as albumin and transthyretin, and they also interact with chromatin. Similar family members in mice have roles in the regulation of metabolism and in the differentiation of the pancreas and liver. This gene has been linked to sporadic cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2008]
FOXM1 forkhead box M1|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional activator involved in cell proliferation. The encoded protein is phosphorylated in M phase and regulates the expression of several cell cycle genes, such as cyclin B1 and cyclin D1. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
FOXP2 forkhead box P2|This gene encodes a member of the forkhead/winged-helix (FOX) family of transcription factors. It is expressed in fetal and adult brain as well as in several other organs such as the lung and gut. The protein product contains a FOX DNA-binding domain and a large polyglutamine tract and is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, which may bind directly to approximately 300 to 400 gene promoters in the human genome to regulate the expression of a variety of genes. This gene is required for proper development of speech and language regions of the brain during embryogenesis, and may be involved in a variety of biological pathways and cascades that may ultimately influence language development. Mutations in this gene cause speech-language disorder 1 (SPCH1), also known as autosomal dominant speech and language disorder with orofacial dyspraxia. Multiple alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been identified in this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
GABPA GA binding protein transcription factor, alpha subunit 60kDa|This gene encodes one of three GA-binding protein transcription factor subunits which functions as a DNA-binding subunit. Since this subunit shares identity with a subunit encoding the nuclear respiratory factor 2 gene, it is likely involved in activation of cytochrome oxidase expression and nuclear control of mitochondrial function. This subunit also shares identity with a subunit constituting the transcription factor E4TF1, responsible for expression of the adenovirus E4 gene. Because of its chromosomal localization and ability to form heterodimers with other polypeptides, this gene may play a role in the Down Syndrome phenotype. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
GATA1 GATA binding protein 1 (globin transcription factor 1)|This gene encodes a protein which belongs to the GATA family of transcription factors. The protein plays an important role in erythroid development by regulating the switch of fetal hemoglobin to adult hemoglobin. Mutations in this gene have been associated with X-linked dyserythropoietic anemia and thrombocytopenia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GATA2 GATA binding protein 2|This gene encodes a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger transcription factors that are named for the consensus nucleotide sequence they bind in the promoter regions of target genes. The encoded protein plays an essential role in regulating transcription of genes involved in the development and proliferation of hematopoietic and endocrine cell lineages. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
GATA3 GATA binding protein 3|This gene encodes a protein which belongs to the GATA family of transcription factors. The protein contains two GATA-type zinc fingers and is an important regulator of T-cell development and plays an important role in endothelial cell biology. Defects in this gene are the cause of hypoparathyroidism with sensorineural deafness and renal dysplasia. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
GTF2B general transcription factor IIB|This gene encodes the general transcription factor IIB, one of the ubiquitous factors required for transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II. The protein localizes to the nucleus where it forms a complex (the DAB complex) with transcription factors IID and IIA. Transcription factor IIB serves as a bridge between IID, the factor which initially recognizes the promoter sequence, and RNA polymerase II. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
GTF2F1 general transcription factor IIF, polypeptide 1, 74kDa|
GTF3C2 general transcription factor IIIC, polypeptide 2, beta 110kDa|
H2AFZ H2A histone family, member Z|Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are responsible for the nucleosome structure of the chromosomal fiber in eukaryotes. Nucleosomes consist of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer composed of pairs of each of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). The chromatin fiber is further compacted through the interaction of a linker histone, H1, with the DNA between the nucleosomes to form higher order chromatin structures. This gene encodes a replication-independent member of the histone H2A family that is distinct from other members of the family. Studies in mice have shown that this particular histone is required for embryonic development and indicate that lack of functional histone H2A leads to embryonic lethality. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HCFC1 host cell factor C1|This gene is a member of the host cell factor family and encodes a protein with five Kelch repeats, a fibronectin-like motif, and six HCF repeats, each of which contains a highly specific cleavage signal. This nuclear coactivator is proteolytically cleaved at one of the six possible sites, resulting in the creation of an N-terminal chain and the corresponding C-terminal chain. The final form of this protein consists of noncovalently bound N- and C-terminal chains. The protein is involved in control of the cell cycle and transcriptional regulation during herpes simplex virus infection. Alternatively spliced variants which encode different protein isoforms have been described; however, not all variants have been fully characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HDAC1 histone deacetylase 1|Histone acetylation and deacetylation, catalyzed by multisubunit complexes, play a key role in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family and is a component of the histone deacetylase complex. It also interacts with retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor protein and this complex is a key element in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Together with metastasis-associated protein-2, it deacetylates p53 and modulates its effect on cell growth and apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HDAC2 histone deacetylase 2|This gene product belongs to the histone deacetylase family. Histone deacetylases act via the formation of large multiprotein complexes, and are responsible for the deacetylation of lysine residues at the N-terminal regions of core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). This protein forms transcriptional repressor complexes by associating with many different proteins, including YY1, a mammalian zinc-finger transcription factor. Thus, it plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression and developmental events. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2010]
HDAC6 histone deacetylase 6|Histones play a critical role in transcriptional regulation, cell cycle progression, and developmental events. Histone acetylation/deacetylation alters chromosome structure and affects transcription factor access to DNA. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to class II of the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family. It contains an internal duplication of two catalytic domains which appear to function independently of each other. This protein possesses histone deacetylase activity and represses transcription. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
HMGN3 high mobility group nucleosomal binding domain 3|Thyroid hormone receptors are hormone-dependent transcription factors that regulate expression of a variety of specific target genes. The protein encoded by this gene binds thyroid hormone receptor beta, but only in the presence of thyroid hormone. The encoded protein, a member of the HMGN protein family, is thought to reduce the compactness of the chromatin fiber in nucleosomes, thereby enhancing transcription from chromatin templates. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2011]
HNF4A hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha|The protein encoded by this gene is a nuclear transcription factor which binds DNA as a homodimer. The encoded protein controls the expression of several genes, including hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha, a transcription factor which regulates the expression of several hepatic genes. This gene may play a role in development of the liver, kidney, and intestines. Mutations in this gene have been associated with monogenic autosomal dominant non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type I. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2012]
HNF4G hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, gamma|
HSF1 heat shock transcription factor 1|The product of this gene is a heat-shock transcription factor. Transcription of heat-shock genes is rapidly induced after temperature stress. Hsp90, by itself and/or associated with multichaperone complexes, is a major repressor of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IKZF1 IKAROS family zinc finger 1 (Ikaros)|This gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the family of zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins associated with chromatin remodeling. The expression of this protein is restricted to the fetal and adult hemo-lymphopoietic system, and it functions as a regulator of lymphocyte differentiation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. Most isoforms share a common C-terminal domain, which contains two zinc finger motifs that are required for hetero- or homo-dimerization, and for interactions with other proteins. The isoforms, however, differ in the number of N-terminal zinc finger motifs that bind DNA and in nuclear localization signal presence, resulting in members with and without DNA-binding properties. Only a few isoforms contain the requisite three or more N-terminal zinc motifs that confer high affinity binding to a specific core DNA sequence element in the promoters of target genes. The non-DNA-binding isoforms are largely found in the cytoplasm, and are thought to function as dominant-negative factors. Overexpression of some dominant-negative isoforms have been associated with B-cell malignancies, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
IRF1 interferon regulatory factor 1|IRF1 encodes interferon regulatory factor 1, a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. IRF1 serves as an activator of interferons alpha and beta transcription, and in mouse it has been shown to be required for double-stranded RNA induction of these genes. IRF1 also functions as a transcription activator of genes induced by interferons alpha, beta, and gamma. Further, IRF1 has been shown to play roles in regulating apoptosis and tumor-suppressoion. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
IRF3 interferon regulatory factor 3|This gene encodes a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. The encoded protein is found in an inactive cytoplasmic form that upon serine/threonine phosphorylation forms a complex with CREBBP. This complex translocates to the nucleus and activates the transcription of interferons alpha and beta, as well as other interferon-induced genes. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2011]
IRF4 interferon regulatory factor 4|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the IRF (interferon regulatory factor) family of transcription factors, characterized by an unique tryptophan pentad repeat DNA-binding domain. The IRFs are important in the regulation of interferons in response to infection by virus, and in the regulation of interferon-inducible genes. This family member is lymphocyte specific and negatively regulates Toll-like-receptor (TLR) signaling that is central to the activation of innate and adaptive immune systems. A chromosomal translocation involving this gene and the IgH locus, t(6;14)(p25;q32), may be a cause of multiple myeloma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2010]
JUN jun proto-oncogene|This gene is the putative transforming gene of avian sarcoma virus 17. It encodes a protein which is highly similar to the viral protein, and which interacts directly with specific target DNA sequences to regulate gene expression. This gene is intronless and is mapped to 1p32-p31, a chromosomal region involved in both translocations and deletions in human malignancies. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
JUND jun D proto-oncogene|The protein encoded by this intronless gene is a member of the JUN family, and a functional component of the AP1 transcription factor complex. This protein has been proposed to protect cells from p53-dependent senescence and apoptosis. Alternative translation initiation site usage results in the production of different isoforms (PMID:12105216). [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2013]
KAT2A K(lysine) acetyltransferase 2A|KAT2A, or GCN5, is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that functions primarily as a transcriptional activator. It also functions as a repressor of NF-kappa-B (see MIM 164011) by promoting ubiquitination of the NF-kappa-B subunit RELA (MIM 164014) in a HAT-independent manner (Mao et al., 2009 [PubMed 19339690]).[supplied by OMIM, Sep 2009]
KAT2B K(lysine) acetyltransferase 2B|CBP and p300 are large nuclear proteins that bind to many sequence-specific factors involved in cell growth and/or differentiation, including c-jun and the adenoviral oncoprotein E1A. The protein encoded by this gene associates with p300/CBP. It has in vitro and in vivo binding activity with CBP and p300, and competes with E1A for binding sites in p300/CBP. It has histone acetyl transferase activity with core histones and nucleosome core particles, indicating that this protein plays a direct role in transcriptional regulation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
KDM1A lysine (K)-specific demethylase 1A|This gene encodes a nuclear protein containing a SWIRM domain, a FAD-binding motif, and an amine oxidase domain. This protein is a component of several histone deacetylase complexes, though it silences genes by functioning as a histone demethylase. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
KDM4A lysine (K)-specific demethylase 4A|This gene is a member of the Jumonji domain 2 (JMJD2) family and encodes a protein containing a JmjN domain, a JmjC domain, a JD2H domain, two TUDOR domains, and two PHD-type zinc fingers. This nuclear protein functions as a trimethylation-specific demethylase, converting specific trimethylated histone residues to the dimethylated form, and as a transcriptional repressor. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2009]
KDM5A lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5A|This gene encodes a member of the Jumonji, AT-rich interactive domain 1 (JARID1) histone demethylase protein family. The encoded protein plays a role in gene regulation through the histone code by specifically demethylating lysine 4 of histone H3. The encoded protein interacts with many other proteins, including retinoblastoma protein, and is implicated in the transcriptional regulation of Hox genes and cytokines. This gene may play a role in tumor progression. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
KDM5B lysine (K)-specific demethylase 5B|
MAFF v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog F|The protein encoded by this gene is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor that lacks a transactivation domain. It is known to bind the US-2 DNA element in the promoter of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) gene and most likely heterodimerizes with other leucine zipper-containing proteins to enhance expression of the OTR gene during term pregnancy. The encoded protein can also form homodimers, and since it lacks a transactivation domain, the homodimer may act as a repressor of transcription. This gene may also be involved in the cellular stress response. Multiple transcript variants encoding two different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]
MAFK v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog K|The developmentally regulated expression of the globin genes depends on upstream regulatory elements termed locus control regions (LCRs). LCRs are associated with powerful enhancer activity that is mediated by the transcription factor NFE2 (nuclear factor erythroid-2). NFE2 recognition sites are also present in the gene promoters of 2 heme biosynthetic enzymes, porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; MIM 609806) and ferrochelatase (FECH; MIM 612386). NFE2 DNA-binding activity consists of a heterodimer containing an 18-kD Maf protein (MafF, MafG (MIM 602020), or MafK) and p45 (MIM 601490). Both subunits are members of the activator protein-1 superfamily of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins (see MIM 165160). Maf homodimers suppress transcription at NFE2 sites.[supplied by OMIM, Nov 2008]
MAX MYC associated factor X|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLHZ) family of transcription factors. It is able to form homodimers and heterodimers with other family members, which include Mad, Mxi1 and Myc. Myc is an oncoprotein implicated in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The homodimers and heterodimers compete for a common DNA target site (the E box) and rearrangement among these dimer forms provides a complex system of transcriptional regulation. Mutations of this gene have been reported to be associated with hereditary pheochromocytoma. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
MAZ MYC-associated zinc finger protein (purine-binding transcription factor)|
MBD4 methyl-CpG binding domain protein 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of a family of nuclear proteins related by the presence of a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD). These proteins are capable of binding specifically to methylated DNA, and some members can also repress transcription from methylated gene promoters. This protein contains an MBD domain at the N-terminus that functions both in binding to methylated DNA and in protein interactions and a C-terminal mismatch-specific glycosylase domain that is involved in DNA repair. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2013]
MEF2A myocyte enhancer factor 2A|The protein encoded by this gene is a DNA-binding transcription factor that activates many muscle-specific, growth factor-induced, and stress-induced genes. The encoded protein can act as a homodimer or as a heterodimer and is involved in several cellular processes, including muscle development, neuronal differentiation, cell growth control, and apoptosis. Defects in this gene could be a cause of autosomal dominant coronary artery disease 1 with myocardial infarction (ADCAD1). Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
MEF2C myocyte enhancer factor 2C|This locus encodes a member of the MADS box transcription enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) family of proteins, which play a role in myogenesis. The encoded protein, MEF2 polypeptide C, has both trans-activating and DNA binding activities. This protein may play a role in maintaining the differentiated state of muscle cells. Mutations and deletions at this locus have been associated with severe mental retardation, stereotypic movements, epilepsy, and cerebral malformation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
MTA3 metastasis associated 1 family, member 3|
MXI1 MAX interactor 1, dimerization protein|Expression of the c-myc gene, which produces an oncogenic transcription factor, is tightly regulated in normal cells but is frequently deregulated in human cancers. The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional repressor thought to negatively regulate MYC function, and is therefore a potential tumor suppressor. This protein inhibits the transcriptional activity of MYC by competing for MAX, another basic helix-loop-helix protein that binds to MYC and is required for its function. Defects in this gene are frequently found in patients with prostate tumors. Three alternatively spliced transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. Additional alternatively spliced transcripts may exist but the products of these transcripts have not been verified experimentally. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MYB v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog|This gene encodes a transcription factor that is a member of the MYB family of transcription factor genes. The protein contains three domains, an N-terminal DNA-binding domain, a central transcriptional activation domain and a C-terminal domain involved in transcriptional repression. This protein plays an essential role in the regulation of hematopoiesis and may play a role in tumorigenesis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jun 2009]
MYBL2 v-myb avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 2|The protein encoded by this gene, a member of the MYB family of transcription factor genes, is a nuclear protein involved in cell cycle progression. The encoded protein is phosphorylated by cyclin A/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 during the S-phase of the cell cycle and possesses both activator and repressor activities. It has been shown to activate the cell division cycle 2, cyclin D1, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 genes. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
MYC v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog|The protein encoded by this gene is a multifunctional, nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. It functions as a transcription factor that regulates transcription of specific target genes. Mutations, overexpression, rearrangement and translocation of this gene have been associated with a variety of hematopoietic tumors, leukemias and lymphomas, including Burkitt lymphoma. There is evidence to show that alternative translation initiations from an upstream, in-frame non-AUG (CUG) and a downstream AUG start site result in the production of two isoforms with distinct N-termini. The synthesis of non-AUG initiated protein is suppressed in Burkitt's lymphomas, suggesting its importance in the normal function of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MYOD1 myogenic differentiation 1|This gene encodes a nuclear protein that belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors and the myogenic factors subfamily. It regulates muscle cell differentiation by inducing cell cycle arrest, a prerequisite for myogenic initiation. The protein is also involved in muscle regeneration. It activates its own transcription which may stabilize commitment to myogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
MYOG myogenin (myogenic factor 4)|Myogenin is a muscle-specific transcription factor that can induce myogenesis in a variety of cell types in tissue culture. It is a member of a large family of proteins related by sequence homology, the helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins. It is essential for the development of functional skeletal muscle. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NANOG Nanog homeobox|
NCOR1 nuclear receptor corepressor 1|This gene encodes a protein that mediates ligand-independent transcription repression of thyroid-hormone and retinoic-acid receptors by promoting chromatin condensation and preventing access of the transcription machinery. It is part of a complex which also includes histone deacetylases and transcriptional regulators similar to the yeast protein Sin3p. This gene is located between the Charcot-Marie-Tooth and Smith-Magenis syndrome critical regions on chromosome 17. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 17 and 20.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2010]
NELFE negative elongation factor complex member E|The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex termed negative elongation factor (NELF) which represses RNA polymerase II transcript elongation. This protein bears similarity to nuclear RNA-binding proteins; however, it has not been demonstrated that this protein binds RNA. The protein contains a tract of alternating basic and acidic residues, largely arginine (R) and aspartic acid (D). The gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NFATC1 nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1|The product of this gene is a component of the nuclear factor of activated T cells DNA-binding transcription complex. This complex consists of at least two components: a preexisting cytosolic component that translocates to the nucleus upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and an inducible nuclear component. Proteins belonging to this family of transcription factors play a central role in inducible gene transcription during immune response. The product of this gene is an inducible nuclear component. It functions as a major molecular target for the immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin A. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. Different isoforms of this protein may regulate inducible expression of different cytokine genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
NFE2 nuclear factor, erythroid 2|
NFIC nuclear factor I/C (CCAAT-binding transcription factor)|The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the CTF/NF-I family. These are dimeric DNA-binding proteins, and function as cellular transcription factors and as replication factors for adenovirus DNA replication. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
NFYA nuclear transcription factor Y, alpha|The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a trimeric complex, forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds to CCAAT motifs in the promoter regions in a variety of genes. Subunit A associates with a tight dimer composed of the B and C subunits, resulting in a trimer that binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. The sequence specific interactions of the complex are made by the A subunit, suggesting a role as the regulatory subunit. In addition, there is evidence of post-transcriptional regulation in this gene product, either by protein degradation or control of translation. Further regulation is represented by alternative splicing in the glutamine-rich activation domain, with clear tissue-specific preferences for the two isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NFYB nuclear transcription factor Y, beta|The protein encoded by this gene is one subunit of a trimeric complex, forming a highly conserved transcription factor that binds with high specificity to CCAAT motifs in the promoter regions in a variety of genes. This gene product, subunit B, forms a tight dimer with the C subunit, a prerequisite for subunit A association. The resulting trimer binds to DNA with high specificity and affinity. Subunits B and C each contain a histone-like motif. Observation of the histone nature of these subunits is supported by two types of evidence; protein sequence alignments and experiments with mutants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
NR2C2 nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group C, member 2|This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. Members of this family act as ligand-activated transcription factors and function in many biological processes such as development, cellular differentiation and homeostasis. The activated receptor/ligand complex is translocated to the nucleus where it binds to hormone response elements of target genes. The protein encoded by this gene plays a role in protecting cells from oxidative stress and damage induced by ionizing radiation. The lack of a similar gene in mouse results in growth retardation, severe spinal curvature, subfertility, premature aging, and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) development. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2014]
NR2F2 nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 2|This gene encodes a member of the steroid thyroid hormone superfamily of nuclear receptors. The encoded protein is a ligand inducible transcription factor that is involved in the regulation of many different genes. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
NR3C1 nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1 (glucocorticoid receptor)|This gene encodes glucocorticoid receptor, which can function both as a transcription factor that binds to glucocorticoid response elements in the promoters of glucocorticoid responsive genes to activate their transcription, and as a regulator of other transcription factors. This receptor is typically found in the cytoplasm, but upon ligand binding, is transported into the nucleus. It is involved in inflammatory responses, cellular proliferation, and differentiation in target tissues. Mutations in this gene are associated with generalized glucocorticoid resistance. Alternative splicing of this gene results in transcript variants encoding either the same or different isoforms. Additional isoforms resulting from the use of alternate in-frame translation initiation sites have also been described, and shown to be functional, displaying diverse cytoplasm-to-nucleus trafficking patterns and distinct transcriptional activities (PMID:15866175). [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2011]
NRF1 nuclear respiratory factor 1|This gene encodes a protein that homodimerizes and functions as a transcription factor which activates the expression of some key metabolic genes regulating cellular growth and nuclear genes required for respiration, heme biosynthesis, and mitochondrial DNA transcription and replication. The protein has also been associated with the regulation of neurite outgrowth. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Confusion has occurred in bibliographic databases due to the shared symbol of NRF1 for this gene and for "nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 1" which has an official symbol of NFE2L1. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
PAX5 paired box 5|This gene encodes a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. The central feature of this gene family is a novel, highly conserved DNA-binding motif, known as the paired box. Paired box transcription factors are important regulators in early development, and alterations in the expression of their genes are thought to contribute to neoplastic transformation. This gene encodes the B-cell lineage specific activator protein that is expressed at early, but not late stages of B-cell differentiation. Its expression has also been detected in developing CNS and testis and so the encoded protein may also play a role in neural development and spermatogenesis. This gene is located at 9p13, which is involved in t(9;14)(p13;q32) translocations recurring in small lymphocytic lymphomas of the plasmacytoid subtype, and in derived large-cell lymphomas. This translocation brings the potent E-mu enhancer of the IgH gene into close proximity of the PAX5 promoter, suggesting that the deregulation of transcription of this gene contributes to the pathogenesis of these lymphomas. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
PBX3 pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 3|
PHF8 PHD finger protein 8|The protein encoded by this gene is a histone lysine demethylase that preferentially acts on histones in the monomethyl or dimethyl states. The encoded protein requires Fe(2+) ion, 2-oxoglutarate, and oxygen for its catalytic activity. Defects in this gene are a cause of mental retardation syndromic X-linked Siderius type (MRXSSD). Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
PML promyelocytic leukemia|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2, and a coiled-coil region. This phosphoprotein localizes to nuclear bodies where it functions as a transcription factor and tumor suppressor. Its expression is cell-cycle related and it regulates the p53 response to oncogenic signals. The gene is often involved in the translocation with the retinoic acid receptor alpha gene associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Extensive alternative splicing of this gene results in several variations of the protein's central and C-terminal regions; all variants encode the same N-terminus. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
POLR2A polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A, 220kDa|This gene encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, the polymerase responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA in eukaryotes. The product of this gene contains a carboxy terminal domain composed of heptapeptide repeats that are essential for polymerase activity. These repeats contain serine and threonine residues that are phosphorylated in actively transcribing RNA polymerase. In addition, this subunit, in combination with several other polymerase subunits, forms the DNA binding domain of the polymerase, a groove in which the DNA template is transcribed into RNA. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
POLR3A polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide A, 155kDa|The protein encoded by this gene is the catalytic component of RNA polymerase III, which synthesizes small RNAs. The encoded protein also acts as a sensor to detect foreign DNA and trigger an innate immune response. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
POLR3G polymerase (RNA) III (DNA directed) polypeptide G (32kD)|
POU2F2 POU class 2 homeobox 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a homeobox-containing transcription factor of the POU domain family. The encoded protein binds the octamer sequence 5'-ATTTGCAT-3', a common transcription factor binding site in immunoglobulin gene promoters. Several transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2011]
POU5F1 POU class 5 homeobox 1|This gene encodes a transcription factor containing a POU homeodomain that plays a key role in embryonic development and stem cell pluripotency. Aberrant expression of this gene in adult tissues is associated with tumorigenesis. This gene can participate in a translocation with the Ewing's sarcoma gene on chromosome 21, which also leads to tumor formation. Alternative splicing, as well as usage of alternative AUG and non-AUG translation initiation codons, results in multiple isoforms. One of the AUG start codons is polymorphic in human populations. Related pseudogenes have been identified on chromosomes 1, 3, 8, 10, and 12. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]
PPARGC1A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism. This protein interacts with PPARgamma, which permits the interaction of this protein with multiple transcription factors. This protein can interact with, and regulate the activities of, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear respiratory factors (NRFs). It provides a direct link between external physiological stimuli and the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and is a major factor that regulates muscle fiber type determination. This protein may be also involved in controlling blood pressure, regulating cellular cholesterol homoeostasis, and the development of obesity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PRDM1 PR domain containing 1, with ZNF domain|This gene encodes a protein that acts as a repressor of beta-interferon gene expression. The protein binds specifically to the PRDI (positive regulatory domain I element) of the beta-IFN gene promoter. Transcription of this gene increases upon virus induction. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RAD21 RAD21 homolog (S. pombe)|The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to the gene product of Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad21, a gene involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, as well as in chromatid cohesion during mitosis. This protein is a nuclear phospho-protein, which becomes hyperphosphorylated in cell cycle M phase. The highly regulated association of this protein with mitotic chromatin specifically at the centromere region suggests its role in sister chromatid cohesion in mitotic cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RBBP5 retinoblastoma binding protein 5|This gene encodes a ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein which belongs to a highly conserved subfamily of WD-repeat proteins. The encoded protein binds directly to retinoblastoma protein, which regulates cell proliferation. It interacts preferentially with the underphosphorylated retinoblastoma protein via the E1A-binding pocket B. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
RCOR1 REST corepressor 1|This gene encodes a protein that is well-conserved, downregulated at birth, and with a specific role in determining neural cell differentiation. The encoded protein binds to the C-terminal domain of REST (repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor). [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
RELA v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A|NF-kappa-B is a ubiquitous transcription factor involved in several biological processes. It is held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state by specific inhibitors. Upon degradation of the inhibitor, NF-kappa-B moves to the nucleus and activates transcription of specific genes. NF-kappa-B is composed of NFKB1 or NFKB2 bound to either REL, RELA, or RELB. The most abundant form of NF-kappa-B is NFKB1 complexed with the product of this gene, RELA. Four transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
REST RE1-silencing transcription factor|This gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that represses neuronal genes in non-neuronal tissues. It is a member of the Kruppel-type zinc finger transcription factor family. It represses transcription by binding a DNA sequence element called the neuron-restrictive silencer element. The protein is also found in undifferentiated neuronal progenitor cells and it is thought that this repressor may act as a master negative regular of neurogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
RFX5 regulatory factor X, 5 (influences HLA class II expression)|A lack of MHC-II expression results in a severe immunodeficiency syndrome called MHC-II deficiency, or the bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS; MIM 209920). At least 4 complementation groups have been identified in B-cell lines established from patients with BLS. The molecular defects in complementation groups B, C, and D all lead to a deficiency in RFX, a nuclear protein complex that binds to the X box of MHC-II promoters. The lack of RFX binding activity in complementation group C results from mutations in the RFX5 gene encoding the 75-kD subunit of RFX (Steimle et al., 1995). RFX5 is the fifth member of the growing family of DNA-binding proteins sharing a novel and highly characteristic DNA-binding domain called the RFX motif. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found but the full-length natures of only two have been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RNF2 ring finger protein 2|Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins form the multiprotein complexes that are important for the transcription repression of various genes involved in development and cell proliferation. The protein encoded by this gene is one of the PcG proteins. It has been shown to interact with, and suppress the activity of, transcription factor CP2 (TFCP2/CP2). Studies of the mouse counterpart suggested the involvement of this gene in the specification of anterior-posterior axis, as well as in cell proliferation in early development. This protein was also found to interact with huntingtin interacting protein 2 (HIP2), an ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and possess ubiquitin ligase activity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RUNX3 runt-related transcription factor 3|This gene encodes a member of the runt domain-containing family of transcription factors. A heterodimer of this protein and a beta subunit forms a complex that binds to the core DNA sequence 5'-PYGPYGGT-3' found in a number of enhancers and promoters, and can either activate or suppress transcription. It also interacts with other transcription factors. It functions as a tumor suppressor, and the gene is frequently deleted or transcriptionally silenced in cancer. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
RXRA retinoid X receptor, alpha|Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are nuclear receptors that mediate the biological effects of retinoids by their involvement in retinoic acid-mediated gene activation. These receptors function as transcription factors by binding as homodimers or heterodimers to specific sequences in the promoters of target genes. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily of transcriptional regulators. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
SAP30 Sin3A-associated protein, 30kDa|Histone acetylation plays a key role in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by multisubunit complexes. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the histone deacetylase complex, which includes SIN3, SAP18, HDAC1, HDAC2, RbAp46, RbAp48, and other polypeptides. This complex is active in deacetylating core histone octamers, but inactive in deacetylating nucleosomal histones. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SETDB1 SET domain, bifurcated 1|This gene encodes a histone methyltransferase which regulates histone methylation, gene silencing, and transcriptional repression. This gene has been identified as a target for treatment in Huntington Disease, given that gene silencing and transcription dysfunction likely play a role in the disease pathogenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
SIN3A SIN3 transcription regulator family member A|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional regulatory protein. It contains paired amphipathic helix (PAH) domains, which are important for protein-protein interactions and may mediate repression by the Mad-Max complex. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SIRT6 sirtuin 6|This gene encodes a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, homologs to the yeast Sir2 protein. Members of the sirtuin family are characterized by a sirtuin core domain and grouped into four classes. The functions of human sirtuins have not yet been determined; however, yeast sirtuin proteins are known to regulate epigenetic gene silencing and suppress recombination of rDNA. Studies suggest that the human sirtuins may function as intracellular regulatory proteins with mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. The protein encoded by this gene is included in class IV of the sirtuin family. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
SIX5 SIX homeobox 5|The protein encoded by this gene is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that appears to function in the regulation of organogenesis. This gene is located downstream of the dystrophia myotonica-protein kinase gene. Mutations in this gene are a cause of branchiootorenal syndrome type 2. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
SMARCA4 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily a, member 4|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins and is similar to the brahma protein of Drosophila. Members of this family have helicase and ATPase activities and are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI, which is required for transcriptional activation of genes normally repressed by chromatin. In addition, this protein can bind BRCA1, as well as regulate the expression of the tumorigenic protein CD44. Mutations in this gene cause rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome type 2. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
SMARCB1 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily b, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is part of a complex that relieves repressive chromatin structures, allowing the transcriptional machinery to access its targets more effectively. The encoded nuclear protein may also bind to and enhance the DNA joining activity of HIV-1 integrase. This gene has been found to be a tumor suppressor, and mutations in it have been associated with malignant rhabdoid tumors. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMARCC1 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 1|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and contains a predicted leucine zipper motif typical of many transcription factors. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMARCC2 SWI/SNF related, matrix associated, actin dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily c, member 2|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the SWI/SNF family of proteins, whose members display helicase and ATPase activities and which are thought to regulate transcription of certain genes by altering the chromatin structure around those genes. The encoded protein is part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SNF/SWI and contains a predicted leucine zipper motif typical of many transcription factors. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SMC3 structural maintenance of chromosomes 3|This gene belongs to the SMC3 subfamily of SMC proteins. The encoded protein occurs in certain cell types as either an intracellular, nuclear protein or a secreted protein. The nuclear form, known as structural maintenance of chromosomes 3, is a component of the multimeric cohesin complex that holds together sister chromatids during mitosis, enabling proper chromosome segregation. Post-translational modification of the encoded protein by the addition of chondroitin sulfate chains gives rise to the secreted proteoglycan bamacan, an abundant basement membrane protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SP1 Sp1 transcription factor|The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger transcription factor that binds to GC-rich motifs of many promoters. The encoded protein is involved in many cellular processes, including cell differentiation, cell growth, apoptosis, immune responses, response to DNA damage, and chromatin remodeling. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, glycosylation, and proteolytic processing significantly affect the activity of this protein, which can be an activator or a repressor. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Nov 2014]
SP2 Sp2 transcription factor|This gene encodes a member of the Sp subfamily of Sp/XKLF transcription factors. Sp family proteins are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins characterized by an amino-terminal trans-activation domain and three carboxy-terminal zinc finger motifs. This protein contains the least conserved DNA-binding domain within the Sp subfamily of proteins, and its DNA sequence specificity differs from the other Sp proteins. It localizes primarily within subnuclear foci associated with the nuclear matrix, and can activate or in some cases repress expression from different promoters. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SP4 Sp4 transcription factor|
SPI1 Spi-1 proto-oncogene|This gene encodes an ETS-domain transcription factor that activates gene expression during myeloid and B-lymphoid cell development. The nuclear protein binds to a purine-rich sequence known as the PU-box found near the promoters of target genes, and regulates their expression in coordination with other transcription factors and cofactors. The protein can also regulate alternative splicing of target genes. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SREBF1 sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1|This gene encodes a transcription factor that binds to the sterol regulatory element-1 (SRE1), which is a decamer flanking the low density lipoprotein receptor gene and some genes involved in sterol biosynthesis. The protein is synthesized as a precursor that is attached to the nuclear membrane and endoplasmic reticulum. Following cleavage, the mature protein translocates to the nucleus and activates transcription by binding to the SRE1. Sterols inhibit the cleavage of the precursor, and the mature nuclear form is rapidly catabolized, thereby reducing transcription. The protein is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factor family. This gene is located within the Smith-Magenis syndrome region on chromosome 17. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
SREBF2 sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2|This gene encodes a member of the a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor that controls cholesterol homeostasis by regulating transcription of sterol-regulated genes. The encoded protein contains a basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) domain and binds the sterol regulatory element 1 motif. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
SRF serum response factor (c-fos serum response element-binding transcription factor)|This gene encodes a ubiquitous nuclear protein that stimulates both cell proliferation and differentiation. It is a member of the MADS (MCM1, Agamous, Deficiens, and SRF) box superfamily of transcription factors. This protein binds to the serum response element (SRE) in the promoter region of target genes. This protein regulates the activity of many immediate-early genes, for example c-fos, and thereby participates in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, cell growth, and cell differentiation. This gene is the downstream target of many pathways; for example, the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (MAPK) that acts through the ternary complex factors (TCFs). Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
STAT1 signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, 91kDa|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. This protein can be activated by various ligands including interferon-alpha, interferon-gamma, EGF, PDGF and IL6. This protein mediates the expression of a variety of genes, which is thought to be important for cell viability in response to different cell stimuli and pathogens. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
STAT2 signal transducer and activator of transcription 2, 113kDa|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. In response to interferon (IFN), this protein forms a complex with STAT1 and IFN regulatory factor family protein p48 (ISGF3G), in which this protein acts as a transactivator, but lacks the ability to bind DNA directly. Transcription adaptor P300/CBP (EP300/CREBBP) has been shown to interact specifically with this protein, which is thought to be involved in the process of blocking IFN-alpha response by adenovirus. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
STAT3 signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor)|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT protein family. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. This protein is activated through phosphorylation in response to various cytokines and growth factors including IFNs, EGF, IL5, IL6, HGF, LIF and BMP2. This protein mediates the expression of a variety of genes in response to cell stimuli, and thus plays a key role in many cellular processes such as cell growth and apoptosis. The small GTPase Rac1 has been shown to bind and regulate the activity of this protein. PIAS3 protein is a specific inhibitor of this protein. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
STAT5A signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the STAT family of transcription factors. In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. This protein is activated by, and mediates the responses of many cell ligands, such as IL2, IL3, IL7 GM-CSF, erythropoietin, thrombopoietin, and different growth hormones. Activation of this protein in myeloma and lymphoma associated with a TEL/JAK2 gene fusion is independent of cell stimulus and has been shown to be essential for tumorigenesis. The mouse counterpart of this gene is found to induce the expression of BCL2L1/BCL-X(L), which suggests the antiapoptotic function of this gene in cells. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2013]
SUPT20H suppressor of Ty 20 homolog (S. cerevisiae)|
SUZ12 SUZ12 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit|This zinc finger gene has been identified at the breakpoints of a recurrent chromosomal translocation reported in endometrial stromal sarcoma. Recombination of these breakpoints results in the fusion of this gene and JAZF1. The protein encoded by this gene contains a zinc finger domain in the C terminus of the coding region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
TAF1 TAF1 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 250kDa|Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is the basal transcription factor TFIID, which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes the largest subunit of TFIID. This subunit binds to core promoter sequences encompassing the transcription start site. It also binds to activators and other transcriptional regulators, and these interactions affect the rate of transcription initiation. This subunit contains two independent protein kinase domains at the N- and C-terminals, but also possesses acetyltransferase activity and can act as a ubiquitin-activating/conjugating enzyme. Mutations in this gene result in Dystonia 3, torsion, X-linked, a dystonia-parkinsonism disorder. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. This gene is part of a complex transcription unit (TAF1/DYT3), wherein some transcript variants share exons with TAF1 as well as additional downstream DYT3 exons. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2013]
TAF7 TAF7 RNA polymerase II, TATA box binding protein (TBP)-associated factor, 55kDa|The intronless gene for this transcription coactivator is located between the protocadherin beta and gamma gene clusters on chromosome 5. The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the TFIID protein complex, a complex which binds to the TATA box in class II promoters and recruits RNA polymerase II and other factors. This particular subunit interacts with the largest TFIID subunit, as well as multiple transcription activators. The protein is required for transcription by promoters targeted by RNA polymerase II. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TAL1 T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia 1|
TBL1XR1 transducin (beta)-like 1 X-linked receptor 1|The protein encoded by this gene has sequence similarity with members of the WD40 repeat-containing protein family. The WD40 group is a large family of proteins, which appear to have a regulatory function. It is believed that the WD40 repeats mediate protein-protein interactions and members of the family are involved in signal transduction, RNA processing, gene regulation, vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal assembly and may play a role in the control of cytotypic differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TBP TATA box binding protein|Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides. The protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID (TFIID), which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, and acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors (GTFs) to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation. This gene encodes TBP, the TATA-binding protein. A distinctive feature of TBP is a long string of glutamines in the N-terminus. This region of the protein modulates the DNA binding activity of the C terminus, and modulation of DNA binding affects the rate of transcription complex formation and initiation of transcription. The number of CAG repeats encoding the polyglutamine tract is usually 32-39, and expansion of the number of repeats increases the length of the polyglutamine string and is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia 17, a neurodegenerative disorder classified as a polyglutamine disease. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2010]
TCF12 transcription factor 12|The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) E-protein family that recognizes the consensus binding site (E-box) CANNTG. This encoded protein is expressed in many tissues, among them skeletal muscle, thymus, B- and T-cells, and may participate in regulating lineage-specific gene expression through the formation of heterodimers with other bHLH E-proteins. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants of this gene have been described, but the full-length nature of some of these variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TCF3 transcription factor 3|This gene encodes a member of the E protein (class I) family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors. E proteins activate transcription by binding to regulatory E-box sequences on target genes as heterodimers or homodimers, and are inhibited by heterodimerization with inhibitor of DNA-binding (class IV) helix-loop-helix proteins. E proteins play a critical role in lymphopoiesis, and the encoded protein is required for B and T lymphocyte development. Deletion of this gene or diminished activity of the encoded protein may play a role in lymphoid malignancies. This gene is also involved in several chromosomal translocations that are associated with lymphoid malignancies including pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (t(1;19), with PBX1), childhood leukemia (t(19;19), with TFPT) and acute leukemia (t(12;19), with ZNF384). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 9. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
TCF7L2 transcription factor 7-like 2 (T-cell specific, HMG-box)|This gene encodes a high mobility group (HMG) box-containing transcription factor that plays a key role in the Wnt signaling pathway. The protein has been implicated in blood glucose homeostasis. Genetic variants of this gene are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Several transcript variants encoding multiple different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
TEAD4 TEA domain family member 4|This gene product is a member of the transcriptional enhancer factor (TEF) family of transcription factors, which contain the TEA/ATTS DNA-binding domain. It is preferentially expressed in the skeletal muscle, and binds to the M-CAT regulatory element found in promoters of muscle-specific genes to direct their gene expression. Alternatively spliced transcripts encoding distinct isoforms, some of which are translated through the use of a non-AUG (UUG) initiation codon, have been described for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TFAP2A transcription factor AP-2 alpha (activating enhancer binding protein 2 alpha)|The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that binds the consensus sequence 5'-GCCNNNGGC-3'. The encoded protein functions as either a homodimer or as a heterodimer with similar family members. This protein activates the transcription of some genes while inhibiting the transcription of others. Defects in this gene are a cause of branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS). Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
TFAP2C transcription factor AP-2 gamma (activating enhancer binding protein 2 gamma)|The protein encoded by this gene is a sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factor involved in the activation of several developmental genes. The encoded protein can act as either a homodimer or heterodimer with other family members and is induced during retinoic acid-mediated differentiation. It plays a role in the development of the eyes, face, body wall, limbs, and neural tube. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
THAP1 THAP domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1|The protein encoded by this gene contains a THAP domain, a conserved DNA-binding domain. This protein colocalizes with the apoptosis response protein PAWR/PAR-4 in promyelocytic leukemia (PML) nuclear bodies, and functions as a proapoptotic factor that links PAWR to PML nuclear bodies. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
TRIM28 tripartite motif containing 28|The protein encoded by this gene mediates transcriptional control by interaction with the Kruppel-associated box repression domain found in many transcription factors. The protein localizes to the nucleus and is thought to associate with specific chromatin regions. The protein is a member of the tripartite motif family. This tripartite motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2, and a coiled-coil region. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
UBTF upstream binding transcription factor, RNA polymerase I|This gene encodes a member of the HMG-box DNA-binding protein family. The encoded protein plays a critical role in ribosomal RNA transcription as a key component of the pre-initiation complex, mediating the recruitment of RNA polymerase I to rDNA promoter regions. The encoded protein may also play important roles in chromatin remodeling and pre-rRNA processing, and its activity is regulated by both phosphorylation and acetylation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. Pseudogenes of this gene are located on the short arm of chromosomes 3, 11 and X and the long arm of chromosome 11. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
USF1 upstream transcription factor 1|This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and can function as a cellular transcription factor. The encoded protein can activate transcription through pyrimidine-rich initiator (Inr) elements and E-box motifs. This gene has been linked to familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL). Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. A related pseudogene has been defined on chromosome 21. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013]
USF2 upstream transcription factor 2, c-fos interacting|This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family, and can function as a cellular transcription factor. The encoded protein can activate transcription through pyrimidine-rich initiator (Inr) elements and E-box motifs. Two transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
WHSC1 Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1|This gene encodes a protein that contains four domains present in other developmental proteins: a PWWP domain, an HMG box, a SET domain, and a PHD-type zinc finger. It is expressed ubiquitously in early development. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a malformation syndrome associated with a hemizygous deletion of the distal short arm of chromosome 4. This gene maps to the 165 kb WHS critical region and has also been involved in the chromosomal translocation t(4;14)(p16.3;q32.3) in multiple myelomas. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. Some transcript variants are nonsense-mediated mRNA (NMD) decay candidates, hence not represented as reference sequences. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
WRNIP1 Werner helicase interacting protein 1|Werner's syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by accelerated aging that is caused by defects in the Werner syndrome ATP-dependent helicase gene (WRN). The protein encoded by this gene interacts with the exonuclease-containing N-terminal portion of the Werner protein. This protein has a ubiquitin-binding zinc-finger domain in the N-terminus, an ATPase domain, and two leucine zipper motifs in the C-terminus. It has sequence similarity to replication factor C family proteins and is conserved from E. coli to human. This protein likely accumulates at sites of DNA damage by interacting with polyubiquinated proteins and also binds to DNA polymerase delta and increases the initiation frequency of DNA polymerase delta-mediated DNA synthesis. This protein also interacts with nucleoporins at nuclear pore complexes. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been isolated for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
XRCC4 X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 4|The protein encoded by this gene functions together with DNA ligase IV and the DNA-dependent protein kinase in the repair of DNA double-strand break by non-homologous end joining and the completion of V(D)J recombination events. The non-homologous end-joining pathway is required both for normal development and for suppression of tumors. This gene functionally complements XR-1 Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant, which is impaired in DNA double-strand breaks produced by ionizing radiation and restriction enzymes. Alternative transcription initiation and alternative splicing generates several transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2008]
YY1 YY1 transcription factor|YY1 is a ubiquitously distributed transcription factor belonging to the GLI-Kruppel class of zinc finger proteins. The protein is involved in repressing and activating a diverse number of promoters. YY1 may direct histone deacetylases and histone acetyltransferases to a promoter in order to activate or repress the promoter, thus implicating histone modification in the function of YY1. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZBTB33 zinc finger and BTB domain containing 33|This gene encodes a transcriptional regulator with bimodal DNA-binding specificity, which binds to methylated CGCG and also to the non-methylated consensus KAISO-binding site TCCTGCNA. The protein contains an N-terminal POZ/BTB domain and 3 C-terminal zinc finger motifs. It recruits the N-CoR repressor complex to promote histone deacetylation and the formation of repressive chromatin structures in target gene promoters. It may contribute to the repression of target genes of the Wnt signaling pathway, and may also activate transcription of a subset of target genes by the recruitment of catenin delta-2 (CTNND2). Its interaction with catenin delta-1 (CTNND1) inhibits binding to both methylated and non-methylated DNA. It also interacts directly with the nuclear import receptor Importin-α2 (also known as karyopherin alpha2 or RAG cohort 1), which may mediate nuclear import of this protein. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been identified.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
ZBTB7A zinc finger and BTB domain containing 7A|
ZC3H11A zinc finger CCCH-type containing 11A|
ZEB1 zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1|This gene encodes a zinc finger transcription factor. The encoded protein likely plays a role in transcriptional repression of interleukin 2. Mutations in this gene have been associated with posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy-3 and late-onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described.[provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
ZKSCAN1 zinc finger with KRAB and SCAN domains 1|The ZKSCAN1 gene encodes a transcriptional regulator of the KRAB (Kruppel-associated box) subfamily of zinc finger proteins, which contain repeated Cys2-His2 (C2H2) zinc finger domains that are connected by conserved sequences, called H/C links (summarized by Tommerup and Vissing, 1995 [PubMed 7557990]). Transcriptional regulatory proteins containing tandemly repeated zinc finger domains are thought to be involved in both normal and abnormal cellular proliferation and differentiation. See ZNF91 (MIM 603971) for general information on zinc finger proteins.[supplied by OMIM, Jul 2010]
ZMIZ1 zinc finger, MIZ-type containing 1|This gene encodes a member of the PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family of proteins. The encoded protein regulates the activity of various transcription factors, including the androgen receptor, Smad3/4, and p53. The encoded protein may also play a role in sumoylation. A translocation between this locus on chromosome 10 and the protein tyrosine kinase ABL1 locus on chromosome 9 has been associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
ZNF143 zinc finger protein 143|
ZNF217 zinc finger protein 217|
ZNF263 zinc finger protein 263|
ZNF274 zinc finger protein 274|This gene encodes a zinc finger protein containing five C2H2-type zinc finger domains, one or two Kruppel-associated box A (KRAB A) domains, and a leucine-rich domain. The encoded protein has been suggested to be a transcriptional repressor. It localizes predominantly to the nucleolus. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms exist. These variants utilize alternative polyadenylation signals. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
ZNF384 zinc finger protein 384|This gene encodes a C2H2-type zinc finger protein, which may function as a transcription factor. This gene also contains long CAG trinucleotide repeats that encode consecutive glutamine residues. The protein appears to bind and regulate the promoters of the extracellular matrix genes MMP1, MMP3, MMP7 and COL1A1. Studies in mouse suggest that nuclear matrix transcription factors (NP/NMP4) may be part of a general mechanical pathway that couples cell construction and function during extracellular matrix remodeling. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Recurrent rearrangements of this gene with the Ewing's sarcoma gene, EWSR1 on chromosome 22, or with the TAF15 gene on chromosome 17, or with the TCF3 (E2A) gene on chromosome 19, have been observed in acute leukemia. A related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 7. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2011]
ZZZ3 zinc finger, ZZ-type containing 3|